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Sample records for murine macrophage survival

  1. Survival of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Acidified Vacuoles of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Salomé; Paul, Simon; Moreira, Andre L.; Appelberg, Rui; Rabinovitch, Michel; Kaplan, Gilla

    1999-01-01

    Despite the antimicrobial mechanisms of vertebrate phagocytes, mycobacteria can survive within the phagosomes of these cells. These organisms use various strategies to evade destruction, including inhibition of acidification of the phagosome and inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion. In contrast to mycobacteria, Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, inhabits a spacious acidified intracellular vacuole which is prone to fusion with other vacuoles of the host cell, including phagosomes containing mycobacteria. The Coxiella-infected cell thus provides a unique model for investigating the survival of mycobacteria in an acidified phagosome-like compartment. In the present study, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with either Mycobacterium avium or Mycobacterium tuberculosis and then coinfected with C. burnetii. We observed that the majority of phagocytosed mycobacteria colocalized to the C. burnetii-containing vacuole, which maintained its acidic properties. In coinfected macrophages, the growth of M. avium was not impaired following fusion with the acidified vacuole. In contrast, the growth rate of M. tuberculosis was reduced in acidified vacuoles. These results suggest that although both species of mycobacteria inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion, they may be differentially susceptible to the toxic effects of the acidic environment in the mature phagolysosome. PMID:10377091

  2. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pan; Lu, Qiang; Cui, Guimei; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Changjiang; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-02-15

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. TREM-2 functions as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria as well as an inhibitor of Toll like receptors (TLR) induced inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM-2 in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. To investigate whether TREM-2 is involved in Brucella intracellular survival, we chose bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), in which TREM-2 is stably expressed, as cell model. Colony formation Units (CFUs) assay suggests that TREM-2 is involved in the internalization of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) by macrophages, while silencing of TREM-2 decreases intracellular survival of B. abortus. To further study the underlying mechanisms of TREM-2-mediated bacterial intracellular survival, we examined the activation of B. abortus-infected macrophages through determining the kinetics of activation of the three MAPKs, including ERK, JNK and p38, and measuring TNFα production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella (BrLPS) or B. abortus stimulation. Our data show that TREM-2 deficiency promotes activation of Brucella-infected macrophages. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that macrophage activation promotes killing of Brucella by enhancing nitric oxygen (NO), but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, macrophage apoptosis or cellular death. Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages.

  3. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection.

  4. Yersinia pestis can bypass protective antibodies to LcrV and activation with gamma interferon to survive and induce apoptosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Noel, Betty L; Lilo, Sarit; Capurso, Daniel; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B

    2009-10-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, uses a type III secretion injectisome to deliver Yop proteins into macrophages to counteract phagocytosis and induce apoptosis. Additionally, internalized Y. pestis can survive in the phagosomes of naïve or gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-activated macrophages by blocking vacuole acidification. The Y. pestis LcrV protein is a target of protective antibodies. The binding of antibodies to LcrV at the injectisome tip results in neutralization of the apoptosis of Y. pestis-infected macrophages and is used as an in vitro correlate of protective immunity. The cytokines IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha can cooperate with anti-LcrV to promote protection against lethal Y. pestis infection in mice. It is not known if these phagocyte-activating cytokines cooperate with anti-LcrV to increase the killing of the pathogen and decrease apoptosis in macrophages. We investigated how anti-LcrV and IFN-gamma impact bacterial survival and apoptosis in cultured murine macrophages infected with Y. pestis KIM5. Y. pestis KIM5 opsonized with polyclonal or monoclonal anti-LcrV was used to infect macrophages treated with or without IFN-gamma. The phagocytosis and survival of KIM5 and the apoptosis of macrophages were measured at different time points postinfection. The results show that anti-LcrV reduced apoptosis at an early time point (5 h) but not at a later time point (24 h). Polyclonal anti-LcrV was unable to inhibit apoptosis at either time point in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. Additionally, anti-LcrV was ineffective at promoting the killing of KIM5 in naïve or activated macrophages. We conclude that Y. pestis can bypass protective antibodies to LcrV and activation with IFN-gamma to survive and induce apoptosis in murine macrophages.

  5. Yersinia pestis Can Bypass Protective Antibodies to LcrV and Activation with Gamma Interferon To Survive and Induce Apoptosis in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Betty L.; Lilo, Sarit; Capurso, Daniel; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, uses a type III secretion injectisome to deliver Yop proteins into macrophages to counteract phagocytosis and induce apoptosis. Additionally, internalized Y. pestis can survive in the phagosomes of naïve or gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated macrophages by blocking vacuole acidification. The Y. pestis LcrV protein is a target of protective antibodies. The binding of antibodies to LcrV at the injectisome tip results in neutralization of the apoptosis of Y. pestis-infected macrophages and is used as an in vitro correlate of protective immunity. The cytokines IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha can cooperate with anti-LcrV to promote protection against lethal Y. pestis infection in mice. It is not known if these phagocyte-activating cytokines cooperate with anti-LcrV to increase the killing of the pathogen and decrease apoptosis in macrophages. We investigated how anti-LcrV and IFN-γ impact bacterial survival and apoptosis in cultured murine macrophages infected with Y. pestis KIM5. Y. pestis KIM5 opsonized with polyclonal or monoclonal anti-LcrV was used to infect macrophages treated with or without IFN-γ. The phagocytosis and survival of KIM5 and the apoptosis of macrophages were measured at different time points postinfection. The results show that anti-LcrV reduced apoptosis at an early time point (5 h) but not at a later time point (24 h). Polyclonal anti-LcrV was unable to inhibit apoptosis at either time point in IFN-γ-activated macrophages. Additionally, anti-LcrV was ineffective at promoting the killing of KIM5 in naïve or activated macrophages. We conclude that Y. pestis can bypass protective antibodies to LcrV and activation with IFN-γ to survive and induce apoptosis in murine macrophages. PMID:19710295

  6. A transcriptomic analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B infecting murine macrophages reveals new mechanisms of intracellular survival

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Zachary W.; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna Joy; House, Samantha E.; Tew, Karen E.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; Williams, Kelly Porter; Branda, Steven S.; Young, Glenn M.; Meagher, Robert J.

    2015-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocoliticabiovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.

  7. A transcriptomic analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B infecting murine macrophages reveals new mechanisms of intracellular survival

    DOE PAGES

    Bent, Zachary W.; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna Joy; House, Samantha E.; Tew, Karen E.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; Williams, Kelly Porter; et al

    2015-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocoliticabiovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish amore » baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.« less

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna J.; House, Samantha E.; Tew, Karen E.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; Williams, Kelly P.; Branda, Steven S.; Young, Glenn M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies. PMID:25895974

  9. Helicobacter pylori Mutants Defective in RuvC Holliday Junction Resolvase Display Reduced Macrophage Survival and Spontaneous Clearance from the Murine Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, Michael F.; Barnard, Faye M.; Jenkins, David; Sharples, Gary J.; Jenks, Peter J.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous recombination contributes to the extraordinary genetic diversity of Helicobacter pylori and may be critical for surface antigen expression and adaptation to environmental challenges within the stomach. We generated isogenic, nonpolar H. pylori ruvC mutants to investigate the function of RuvC, a Holliday junction endonuclease that resolves recombinant joints into nicked duplex products. Inactivation of ruvC reduced the frequency of homologous recombination of H. pylori between 17- and 45-fold and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and the antimicrobial agents levofloxacin and metronidazole. The H. pylori ruvC mutants were more susceptible to oxidative stress and exhibited reduced survival within macrophages. Experiments with the H. pylori SS1 mouse model revealed that the 50% infective dose of the ruvC mutant was approximately 100-fold higher than that of the wild-type SS1 strain. Although the ruvC mutant was able to establish colonization with bacterial loads that were initially similar to those of the parental SS1 strain, infection was spontaneously cleared from the murine gastric mucosa over periods that varied from 36 to 67 days. These results demonstrate that, in this infection model, RuvC is essential for continued survival of H. pylori in vivo and raises the possibility that inactivation of ruvC might be of value in an attenuated vaccine strain. PMID:12654822

  10. Isolation and culture of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Davies, John Q; Gordon, Siamon

    2005-01-01

    The two most convenient sources of primary murine macrophages are the bone marrow and the peritoneal cavity. Resident peritoneal macrophages can readily be harvested from mice and purified by adherence to tissue culture plastic. The injection of Bio-Gel polyacrylamide beads or thioglycollate broth into the peritoneal cavity produces an inflammatory response allowing the purification of large numbers of elicited macrophages. The production of an activated macrophage population can be achieved by using Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin as the inflammatory stimulus. Resident bone marrow macrophages can be isolated following enzymatic separation of cells from bone marrow plugs and enrichment on 30% fetal calf serum containing medium or Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Bone marrow-derived macrophages can be produced by differentiating nonadherent macrophage precursors with medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

  11. Intracellularly survived Staphylococcus aureus after phagocytosis are more virulent in inducing cytotoxicity in fresh murine peritoneal macrophages utilizing TLR-2 as a possible target.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Ajeya; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus with high virulence potential is contributing to a current public health crisis in both hospital and community settings. TLR-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by phagocytic cells is thought to be an important component of the host's immunity against S. aureus infection. However, response of S. aureus against modulation of host-derived ROS in absence of TLR-2 during acute staphylococcal infection is still remains unclear. Peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with either inhibitors of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase in presence or absence of anti TLR-2 antibody and were infected with S. aureus strain AG-789. Bacteria were recovered after time dependent phagocytosis; intracellular killing, level and expression of SOD and catalase were measured. Phagocytosed bacteria from respective groups were further used for infection to fresh peritoneal macrophages as well as for in vivo infection. Levels of ROS, cytokine, lysozyme, antioxidant enzymes activity and TLR-2 expression were measured. Results revealed that more bacteria were escaped killing in SOD and catalase inhibitor pretreated TLR-2 neutralized macrophages, found to express more catalase and are antibiotic resistant. Infection of fresh macrophages with S. aureus, recovered from SOD and catalase inhibited TLR-2 neutralized macrophages induced lower ROS, lysozyme and cytokine production and caused increased bacterial count. Furthermore, bacterial antioxidants by modulating host-derived ROS could regulate the cell surface TLR-2 expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. So, in the early phase of infection, TLR-2 participates in the innate immune response and targeting bacterial antioxidants might be useful in the alleviation of Staphylococcus aureus infection. PMID:27270212

  12. The Small Colony Variant of Listeria monocytogenes Is More Tolerant to Antibiotics and Has Altered Survival in RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas D.; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2016-01-01

    Small Colony Variant (SCV) cells of bacteria are a slow-growing phenotype that result from specific defects in the electron transport chain. They form pinpoint colonies on agar plates and have a variety of phenotypic characteristics, such as altered carbon metabolism, decreased toxin and lytic enzyme production, aminoglycoside resistance, and increased intracellular persistence. They are clinically relevant in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, serving as a reservoir for recurrent or prolonged infections. Here, we found that a SCV mutant in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (strain SCV E18), similar to the high persister mutant phenotype, survived significantly better than the wild type when exposed over a 48-h period to concentrations above Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for most tested antibiotics. SCV E18 survived more poorly than the wildtype in unactivated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, presumably because of its reduced listeriolysin O expression, however, it survived better in reactive oxygen species producing, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated macrophages. Although SCV E18 was sensitive to oxygen as it entered the stationary phase, it was significantly more tolerant to H2O2 than the wild type, which may result from a shift in metabolism, however, further investigation is needed to resolve this. SCV E18 is a spontaneous mutant with a point mutation in the hemA gene. A wild type copy of hemA was complemented on plasmid pSOG30222, which restored the wild type phenotype. The results reported here suggest that the SCV of L. monocytogenes could be of clinical importance and highlight a need for adequate clinical screening for this phenotype, as it could affect antibiotic treatment outcomes. PMID:27458449

  13. Survival and replication of Rhodococcus equi in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hondalus, M K; Mosser, D M

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages that can cause serious pneumonia in both young horses and immunocompromised people. Essential to understanding rhodococcus pathogenesis is a quantitative documentation of the intracellular events that follow macrophage phagocytosis of the organism. By using a bacterial immunofluorescence staining assay, we verified the intracellular survival and replicative potential of R. equi in both murine peritoneal macrophages and equine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Following an initial lag period of 6 to 12 h, the intracellular numbers of R. equi begin to rise, often reaching macrophage-compromising levels by 48 h. A quantitative determination of bacterial growth by a novel image analysis cytometry technique confirmed our fluorescence microscopic results. By 48 h postinfection, bacterial numbers had increased by more than fivefold, and the majority of infected macrophages in the monolayer contained 10 or more bacteria per cell. The intracellular organisms were viable, as evidenced by the ability to incorporate radiolabeled uracil. The use of these techniques has identified differences in the in vitro replicative capacities of a virulent strain and an avirulent strain of R. equi. A clinical isolate of R. equi expressing a 17-kDa virulence-associated plasmid-encoded antigen was able to survive and replicate within macrophages, whereas an avirulent, non-plasmid-containing strain replicated poorly. These results suggest that plasmid-encoded bacterial virulence factors may contribute to the ability of R. equi to replicate within its host cell, the macrophage. Images PMID:7927672

  14. Macrophage Polarization during Murine Lyme Borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Carrie E; Olson, Rachel M; Brown, Charles R

    2015-07-01

    Infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, reliably produces an infectious arthritis and carditis that peak around 3 weeks postinfection and then spontaneously resolve. Macrophage polarization has been suggested to drive inflammation, the clearance of bacteria, and tissue repair and resolution in a variety of infectious disease models. During Lyme disease it is clear that macrophages are capable of clearing Borrelia spirochetes and exhausted neutrophils; however, the role of macrophage phenotype in disease development or resolution has not been studied. Using classical (NOS2) and alternative (CD206) macrophage subset-specific markers, we determined the phenotype of F4/80(+) macrophages within the joints and heart throughout the infection time course. Within the joint, CD206(+) macrophages dominated throughout the course of infection, and NOS2(+) macrophage numbers became elevated only during the peak of inflammation. We also found dual NOS2(+) CD206(+) macrophages which increased during resolution. In contrast to findings for the ankle joints, numbers of NOS2(+) and CD206(+) macrophages in the heart were similar at the peak of inflammation. 5-Lipoxygenase-deficient (5-LOX(-/-)) mice, which display a failure of Lyme arthritis resolution, recruited fewer F4/80(+) cells to the infected joints and heart, but macrophage subset populations were unchanged. These results highlight differences in the inflammatory infiltrates during Lyme arthritis and carditis and demonstrate the coexistence of multiple macrophage subsets within a single inflammatory site.

  15. Murine macrophage-lymphocyte interactions: scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, R M; Hinsdill, R D; Sandok, P L; Horowitz, S D

    1978-01-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopic observations revealed murine macrophage-lymphocyte interactions involving the initial contact of peritoneal, spleen, or thymus lymphocytes with peritoneal macrophage processes or microprocesses followed by clustering of lymphocytes over the central nuclear area of the macrophages. Lymphocyte-lymphocyte clustering was not observed in the absence of macrophages. Attachment and subsequent clustering appeared not to require the presence of serum or antigen; the attachment of allogeneic or xenogeneic lymphocytes was comparable to that seen in the syngeneic system, but central clustering of these lymphocytes failed to occur. No attachment or clustering was observed when thymic lymphocytes were cultured with thymus derived fibroblasts rather than with peritoneal macrophages. Lymphocyte attachment to immune, antigen-activated, syngeneic macrophages occurred more rapidly than that to normal unstimulated syngeneic macrophages; however, lymphocytes attached to the "activated" macrophages appeared to be killed by a nonphagocytic mechanism. A similar increase in the rate of lymphocyte attachment to macrophages occurred in the presence of migration inhibitory factor. Subsequent lymphocyte clustering on macrophages was observed in the migration inhibitory factor-stimulated cultures. In addition, lymphocyte-macrophage interactions similar to those in vitro were observed to occur in vivo on intraperitoneally implanted cover slips. Images PMID:101458

  16. Activation of murine macrophages and lymphocytes by Ureaplasma diversum.

    PubMed Central

    Chelmonska-Soyta, A; Miller, R B; Ruhnke, L; Rosendal, S

    1994-01-01

    Ureaplasma diversum is a pathogen in the bovine reproductive tract. The objective of the research was to study interactions with macrophages and lymphocytes which might elucidate aspects of pathogenetic mechanisms of this organism. We studied the activation of murine macrophages of C3H/HeN (LPS-responder) and C3H/HeJ (LPS-low-responder) genotype for TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 and nitric oxide production and blastogenic response of C3H/HeJ splenocytes after Ureaplasma diversum stimulation. Live and heat-killed U. diversum induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 in peritoneal macrophage cultures of both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice in a dose dependent manner. Interferon-gamma modulated the cytokine production, by increasing the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide, but IL-1 secretion was only enhanced in C3H/HeJ macrophages stimulated by live ureaplasmas. Supernatant of U. diversum sonicate was mitogenic for murine spleen lymphocytes. The blastogenic response was dose dependent, and stimulation with both U. diversum and Concanavalin A seemed to have an additive effect. These results suggest that U. diversum, similar to other mycoplasmas, activates murine macrophages and lymphoid cells. The studies should be repeated with bovine cells in order to elucidate pathogenetic aspects of inflammation in cattle caused by U. diversum. PMID:7889459

  17. Effects of nanoparticles on murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallet, M.; Aude-Garcia, C.; Lelong, C.; Candéias, S.; Luche, S.; Collin-Faure, V.; Triboulet, S.; Diallo, D.; Diemer, H.; van Dorsselaer, A.; Rabilloud, T.

    2011-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are more and more widely used in an increasing number of applications. Consequently, they are more and more present in the environment, and the risk that they may represent for human health must be evaluated. This requires to increase our knowledge of the cellular responses to nanoparticles. In this context, macrophages appear as an attractive system. They play a major role in eliminating foreign matter, e.g. pathogens or infectious agents, by phagocytosis and inflammatory responses, and are thus highly likely to react to nanoparticles. We have decided to study their responses to nanoparticles by a combination of classical and wide-scope approaches such as proteomics. The long term goal of this study is the better understanding of the responses of macrophages to nanoparticles, and thus to help to assess their possible impact on human health. We chose as a model system bone marrow-derived macrophages and studied the effect of commonly used nanoparticles such as TiO2 and Cu. Classical responses of macrophage were characterized and proteomic approaches based on 2D gels of whole cell extracts were used. Preliminary proteomic data resulting from whole cell extracts showed different effects for TiO2-NPs and Cu-NPs. Modifications of the expression of several proteins involved in different pathways such as, for example, signal transduction, endosome-lysosome pathway, Krebs cycle, oxidative stress response have been underscored. These first results validate our proteomics approach and open a new wide field of investigation for NPs impact on macrophages.

  18. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  19. Visualisation of nitric oxide generated by activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leone, A M; Furst, V W; Foxwell, N A; Cellek, S; Moncada, S

    1996-04-01

    We have visualised the release and approximate diffusion profile of nitric oxide (NO) from activated murine macrophages using a high transmission microscope coupled to a high sensitivity photon counting camera. The images generated by NO were cell-associated and spread over an area of approximately 175 micrometers from the activated macrophage. The signals obtained were dependent on the presence of exogenous L-arginine in the medium and followed a time course similar to that previously described for the generation of NO by the inducible form of NO synthase. The light signal was attenuated by the inhibitor of NO synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Studies using superoxide-deficient macrophages further confirmed that the signals detected were generated by NO rather than reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:8660339

  20. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  1. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savion, N.; Disatnik, M.H.; Nevo, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10..mu..g/ml), arteparon (10..mu..g/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 ..mu..g/ml. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage haparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis.

  2. Effects of sodium fluoride on immune response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Beatriz; Vázquez, Marta; Rocha, René Antonio; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2016-08-01

    Excessive fluoride intake may be harmful for health, producing dental and skeletal fluorosis, and effects upon neurobehavioral development. Studies in animals have revealed effects upon the gastrointestinal, renal and reproductive systems. Some of the disorders may be a consequence of immune system alterations. In this study, an in vitro evaluation is made of fluoride immunotoxicity using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage line over a broad range of concentrations (2.5-75mg/L). The results show that the highest fluoride concentrations used (50-75mg/L) reduce the macrophage population in part as a consequence of the generation of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and consequent redox imbalance, which in turn is accompanied by lipid peroxidation. A decrease in the expression of the antiinflammatory cytokine Il10 is observed from the lowest concentrations (5mg/L). High concentrations (50mg/L) in turn produce a significant increase in the proinflammatory cytokines Il6 and Mip2 from 4h of exposure. In addition, cell phagocytic capacity is seen to decrease at concentrations of ≥20mg/L. These data indicate that fluoride, at high concentrations, may affect macrophages and thus immune system function - particularly with regard to the inflammation autoregulatory processes, in which macrophages play a key role. PMID:26965474

  3. A comparison of two distinct murine macrophage gene expression profiles in response to Leishmania amazonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The experimental murine model of leishmaniasis has been widely used to characterize the immune response against Leishmania. CBA mice develop severe lesions, while C57BL/6 present small chronic lesions under L. amazonensis infection. Employing a transcriptomic approach combined with biological network analysis, the gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after L. amazonensis infection in vitro, were compared. These strains were selected due to their different degrees of susceptibility to this parasite. Results The genes expressed by C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after infection, differ greatly, both with respect to absolute number as well as cell function. Uninfected C57BL/6 macrophages express genes involved in the deactivation pathway of macrophages at lower levels, while genes related to the activation of the host immune inflammatory response, including apoptosis and phagocytosis, have elevated expression levels. Several genes that participate in the apoptosis process were also observed to be up-regulated in C57BL/6 macrophages infected with L. amazonensis, which is very likely related to the capacity of these cells to control parasite infection. By contrast, genes involved in lipid metabolism were found to be up-regulated in CBA macrophages in response to infection, which supports the notion that L. amazonensis probably modulates parasitophorous vacuoles in order to survive and multiply in host cells. Conclusion The transcriptomic profiles of C57BL/6 macrophages, before and after infection, were shown to be involved in the macrophage pathway of activation, which may aid in the control of L. amazonensis infection, in contrast to the profiles of CBA cells. PMID:22321871

  4. Measles virus persistence in an immortalized murine macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M B; Buckthal, D J; Picciotto, S; O'Bryan, T A; Goldman, J N

    1995-02-20

    Persistent infection with the Edmonston strain of measles virus (MV) has been established in IC-21 cells, an immortalized murine macrophage cell line. Persistence was established immediately without syncytia formation or cytopathic effects. MV was expressed in the majority of the cells as evidenced by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, infectious centers assays, and limiting dilution analysis. Hemagglutinin (H) and phosphoprotein expressed in persistently infected IC-21 cells had retarded migration in SDS-PAGE gels when compared to these proteins expressed in Vero cells. H protein differences were also found between freshly infected IC-21 cells and persistently infected IC-21 cells passaged for over 2 years. Six sublines of IC-21 cells, infected at different times, have maintained these characteristics for 2 years of passage. During this time period the intensity of immunofluorescence and the number of infectious virus particles recoverable fluctuated in five of the six cell lines. In one cell line virus expression remained at a consistent high level. The ability to establish a persistent MV infection in murine macrophages allows studies using a cell important in disseminating the infection. It facilitates experiments on immunological aspects of viral immunity by enabling cell mixing experiments with histocompatible cell populations and by making available the wide array of cellular and humoral reagents in the mouse. PMID:7871720

  5. Rabies virus replication in primary murine bone marrow macrophages and in human and murine macrophage-like cell lines: implications for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Ray, N B; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether rabies viruses replicate in macrophage or macrophage-like cells, several human and murine macrophage-like cell lines, as well as primary cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages, were incubated with the Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) virus and several different street rabies viruses (SRV). ERA rabies virus replicated well in human monocytic U937 and THP-1 cells and murine macrophage IC-21 cells, as well as primary cultures of murine macrophages. Minimal replication was detected in murine monocytic WEHI-3BD- and PU5-1R cells, and ERA virus did not replicate in murine monocytic P388D1 or J774A.1 cells. A tissue culture-adapted SRV of bat origin also replicated in IC-21 and U937 cells. Non-tissue culture-adapted SRV isolated from different animal species, particularly bats, replicated minimally in U937, THP-1, IC-21 cells and primary murine bone marrow macrophages. To determine whether rabies virus replication is dependent upon the state of differentiation of the macrophage-like cell, human promyelocytic HL-60 cells were differentiated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ERA rabies virus replicated in the differentiated HL-60 cells but not in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Persistent infections were established in macrophage-like U937 cells with ERA rabies virus and SRV, and infectious SRV was isolated from adherent bone marrow cells of mice that had been infected 96 days previously. Virus harvested from persistently infected U937 cells and the adherent bone marrow cells had specifically adapted to each cell. This specificity was shown by the inability of the viruses to infect macrophages other than U937 cells and primary bone marrow macrophages, respectively. Virus titers of the persistently infected U937 cells fluctuated with extended cell passage. After 30 passages, virus released from the cells had lost virulence as shown by its inability to kill intracranially inoculated mice. However, the avirulent virus released from the

  6. The interaction of Naegleria fowleri amoebae with murine macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Stenger, K; Cabral, G A; Marciano-Cabral, F

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether murine macrophage cell lines exhibited in vitro amoebicidal activity comparable to that elicited by activated murine peritoneal macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages activated in vivo by bacillus Calmette-Guérin or Propionibacterium acnes demonstrated significant cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae. The macrophage cell line RAW264.7 also effected cytolysis of amoebae, but to a lesser extent than that elicited by activated peritoneal macrophages. However, the macrophage cell lines, J774A.1 and P388D1, did not exhibit amoebicidal activity. Macrophage conditioned medium prepared from RAW264.7 macrophages mediated cytolysis of L929 tumor cells but had no effect on N. fowleri amoebae. In addition, neither recombinant tumor necrosis factor nor recombinant interleukin-1 exhibited amoebicidal activity. Scanning electron microscopy of co-cultures revealed that N. fowleri bound to activated peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggest that RAW264.7 macrophages treated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide are similar to macrophages activated in vivo in that they effect contact-dependent cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae. The RAW264.7 macrophages are unlike primary macrophage cultures in that they either do not release soluble amoebicidal factors into the conditioned medium or they release insufficient quantities.

  7. Interferon-alpha inhibits murine macrophage transforming growth factor-beta mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, S; Huang, M; Wang, J; Dubinett, S M

    1994-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional polypeptide is produced by a wide variety of cells and regulates a broad array of physiological and pathological functions. TGF-beta appears to play a central role in pulmonary fibrosis and may contribute to tumor-associated immunosuppression. Alveolar macrophages are a rich source of TGF-beta and are intimately involved in lung inflammation. We therefore chose to study TGF-beta regulation in murine alveolar macrophages as well as an immortalized peritoneal macrophage cell line (IC-21). Murine macrophages were incubated with cytokines to evaluate their role in regulating TGF-beta mRNA expression. We conclude that IFN-alpha downregulates TGF-beta mRNA expression in murine macrophages. PMID:8088926

  8. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  9. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  10. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  11. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization.

  12. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization. PMID:26664149

  13. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72h functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  15. Hypoxia inhibits Moloney murine leukemia virus expression in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Maura; Bosco, Maria Carla; Federico, Maurizio; Pastorino, Sandra; Varesio, Luigi

    2007-02-01

    Hypoxia, a local decrease in oxygen tension, occurring in many pathological processes, modifies macrophage (Mphi) gene expression and function. Here, we provide the first evidence that hypoxia inhibits transgene expression driven by the Moloney murine leukemia virus-long terminal repeats (MoMLV-LTR) in IFN-gamma-activated Mphi. Hypoxia silenced the expression of several MoMLV-LTR-driven genes, including v-myc, enhanced green fluorescence protein, and env, and was effective in different mouse Mphi cell lines and on distinct MoMLV backbone-based viruses. Down-regulation of MoMLV mRNA occurred at the transcriptional level and was associated with decreased retrovirus production, as determined by titration experiments, suggesting that hypoxia may control MoMLV retroviral spread through the suppression of LTR activity. In contrast, genes driven by the CMV or the SV40 promoter were up-regulated or unchanged by hypoxia, indicating a selective inhibitory activity on the MoMLV promoter. It is interesting that hypoxia was ineffective in suppressing MoMLV-LTR-controlled gene expression in T or fibroblast cell lines, suggesting a Mphi lineage-selective action. Finally, we found that MoMLV-mediated gene expression in Mphi was also inhibited by picolinic acid, a tryptophan catabolite with hypoxia-like activity and Mphi-activating properties, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this molecule in viral resistance and its possible use as an antiviral agent.

  16. Novel Markers to Delineate Murine M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kyle A.; Amici, Stephanie A.; Webb, Lindsay M.; Ruiz-Rosado, Juan de Dios; Popovich, Phillip G.; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages exhibit distinct phenotypes and functions. It has been difficult to dissect macrophage phenotypes in vivo, where a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes exists, and also in vitro, where low or non-selective M2 marker protein expression is observed. To provide a foundation for the complexity of in vivo macrophage phenotypes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional signature of murine M0, M1 and M2 macrophages and identified genes common or exclusive to either subset. We validated by real-time PCR an M1-exclusive pattern of expression for CD38, G-protein coupled receptor 18 (Gpr18) and Formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) whereas Early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and c-Myc were M2-exclusive. We further confirmed these data by flow cytometry and show that M1 and M2 macrophages can be distinguished by their relative expression of CD38 and Egr2. Egr2 labeled more M2 macrophages (~70%) than the canonical M2 macrophage marker Arginase-1, which labels 24% of M2 macrophages. Conversely, CD38 labeled most (71%) in vitro M1 macrophages. In vivo, a similar CD38+ population greatly increased after LPS exposure. Overall, this work defines exclusive and common M1 and M2 signatures and provides novel and improved tools to distinguish M1 and M2 murine macrophages. PMID:26699615

  17. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Odegaard, Justin I.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium worm infection, afflicts millions of people with egg-triggered, fibrotic bladder granulomata. Despite the significant global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, the mechanisms of bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis are ill defined due to the prior lack of tractable animal models. We combined a mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis with macrophage-depleting liposomal clodronate (LC) to define how macrophages mediate bladder granulomogenesis and fibrosis. Mice were injected with eggs purified from infected hamsters or vehicle prepared from uninfected hamster tissues (xenoantigen and injection trauma control). Empty liposomes were controls for LC: 1) LC treatment resulted in fewer bladder egg granuloma-infiltrating macrophages, eosinophils, and T and B cells, lower bladder and serum levels of eotaxin, and higher bladder concentrations of IL-1α and chemokines (in a time-dependent fashion), confirming that macrophages orchestrate leukocyte infiltration of the egg-exposed bladder; 2) macrophage-depleted mice exhibited greater weight loss and bladder hemorrhage postegg injection; 3) early LC treatment postegg injection resulted in profound decreases in bladder fibrosis, suggesting differing roles for macrophages in fibrosis over time; and 4) LC treatment also led to egg dose-dependent mortality, indicating that macrophages prevent death from urogenital schistosomiasis. Thus, macrophages are a potential therapeutic target for preventing or treating the bladder sequelae of urogenital schistosomiasis.—Fu, C.-L., Odegaard, J. I., Hsieh, M. H. Macrophages are required for host survival in experimental urogenital schistosomiasis. PMID:25351984

  18. Substance P does not alter interleukin-1 expression by splenic or granuloma macrophages in murine schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Cook, G A; Blum, A M; Ballas, Z; Weinstock, J V

    1991-09-01

    Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide with neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory properties. In murine schistosomiasis, ova naturally induce liver and intestinal granulomas. These granulomas contain macrophages, and eosinophils that produce SP. A report showed that human blood monocytes isolated by adherence release interleukin-1 (IL-1) in response to SP (Lotz et al. (1989) Science 241, 1218). IL-1 is important for initiation of hypersensitivity granulomas. Therefore, it was determined whether SP modulates granuloma macrophage IL-1 production in murine schistosomiasis. Macrophages were obtained from lung and liver granulomas, and from spleens of infected mice. A thymocyte proliferation assay measured IL-1 activity in culture supernatants. Total RNA, extracted from macrophages, was assayed for IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA by Northern blotting using cDNA probes. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), splenic macrophages and macrophages from young lung granulomas released appreciable IL-1. Macrophages from liver granulomas, that were lesions older than the lung granulomas, were unresponsive to LPS with regard to IL-1 secretion. Yet, granuloma macrophages spontaneously expressed IL-1 alpha and beta mRNA. LPS enhanced IL-1 mRNA expression in both splenic and granuloma macrophages. Exposure of macrophages from all sources to SP did not alter IL-1 secretion or gene expression. Similarly, the responsiveness of macrophages to LPS was not affected by concomitant exposure to SP. It is concluded that, in the murine system, SP does not directly influence splenic or granuloma macrophage IL-1 secretion or gene expression. Also, it appears that macrophage secretion of IL-1 is rapidly down-regulated following granuloma elicitation.

  19. Control of murine macrophage H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism by amphotericin B

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.H.; Wolf, J.E.; Little, J.R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors investigated the ability of amphotericin B (AmB) to modulate H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism in murine macrophages (M theta). Following a single 0.5 mg intraperitoneal dose of AmB, AKR peritoneal M theta showed greater chemiluminescence (CL) after triggering with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than C57BL/6 M theta. The capacity for enhanced M theta CL was sustained for at least 2 weeks after AmB injection in AKR mice but less in C57BL/6 M theta. In other experiments, intracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism was evaluated by a fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assay described by Bass et al. A comparison of FACS histograms of peritoneal M theta from AmB treated and control AKR mice revealed 25-28% stimulation in the experimental group; M theta from AmB treated C57BL/6 mice showed a significant reduction of the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism compared with resident M theta. These results are in accord with the effects of AmB on survival from experimental infection with Listeria monocytogenes. AmB enhanced survival in AKR mice while it reduced the survival of C57BL/6 mice infected with this facultative intracellular bacterium. Thus, AmB-induced resistance to infection correlates with stimulation of the M theta respiratory burst.

  20. TNF-alpha and IL-10 modulate the induction of apoptosis by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Olivier, M; Gros, P; Barrera, L F; García, L F

    1999-05-15

    The Bcg/Nramp1 gene controls early resistance and susceptibility of macrophages to mycobacterial infections. We previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected (Mtb) B10R (Bcgr) and B10S (Bcgs) macrophages differentially produce nitric oxide (NO-), leading to macrophage apoptosis. Since TNF-alpha and IL-10 have opposite effects on many macrophage functions, we determined the number of cells producing TNF-alpha and IL-10 in Mtb-infected or purified protein derivative-stimulated B10R and B10S macrophages lines, and Nramp1+/+ and Nramp1-/- peritoneal macrophages and correlated them with Mtb-mediated apoptosis. Mtb infection and purified protein derivative treatment induced more TNF-alpha+Nramp1+/+ and B10R, and more IL-10+Nramp1-/- and B10S cells. Treatment with mannosylated lipoarabinomannan, which rescues macrophages from Mtb-induced apoptosis, augmented the number of IL-10 B10R+ cells. Anti-TNF-alpha inhibited apoptosis, diminished NO- production, p53, and caspase 1 activation and increased Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, anti-IL-10 increased caspase 1 activation, p53 expression, and apoptosis, although there was no increment in NO- production. Murine rTNF-alpha induced apoptosis in noninfected B10R and B10S macrophages that was reversed by murine rIL-10 in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of NO- production and caspase 1 activation. NO- and caspase 1 seem to be independently activated in that aminoguanidine did not affect caspase 1 activation and the inhibitor of caspase 1, Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-acylooxymethylketone, did not block NO- production; however, both treatments inhibited apoptosis. These results show that Mtb activates TNF-alpha- and IL-10-dependent opposite signals in the induction of macrophage apoptosis and suggest that the TNF-alpha-IL-10 ratio is controlled by the Nramp1 background of resistance/susceptibility and may account for the balance between apoptosis and macrophage survival.

  1. Solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2.

    PubMed

    Shao, W; Jerva, L F; West, J; Lolis, E; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-06-01

    The solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a heparin-binding chemokine that is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli, has been determined using two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Structure calculations were carried out by means of torsion-angle molecular dynamics using the program X-PLOR. The structure is based on a total of 2390 experimental restraints, comprising 2246 NOE-derived distance restraints, 44 distance restraints for 22 hydrogen bonds, and 100 torsion angle restraints. The structure is well-defined, with the backbone (N, Calpha, C) and heavy atom atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinates for residues 9-69 of the dimer being 0.57 +/- 0.16 A and 0.96 +/- 0.12 A, respectively. The N- and C-terminal residues (1-8 and 70-73, respectively) are disordered. The overall structure of the MIP-2 dimer is similar to that reported previously for the NMR structures of MGSA and IL-8 and consists of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residue 25-29, 39-44, and 48-52) packed against two C-terminal antiparallel alpha-helices. A best fit superposition of the NMR structure of MIP-2 on the structures of MGSA, NAP-2, and the NMR and X-ray structures of IL-8 are 1.11, 1.02, 1.27, and 1.19 A, respectively, for the monomers, and 1.28, 1.10, 1.55, and 1.36 A, respectively, for the dimers (IL-8 residues 7-14 and 16-67, NAP-2 residues 25-84). At the tertiary level, the main differences between the MIP-2 solution structure and the IL-8, MGSA, and NAP-2 structures involve the N-terminal loop between residues 9-23 and the loops formed by residues 30-38 and residues 53-58. At the quaternary level, the difference between MIP-2 and IL-8, MGSA, or NAP-2 results from differing interhelical angles and separations.

  2. Solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2.

    PubMed

    Shao, W; Jerva, L F; West, J; Lolis, E; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-06-01

    The solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a heparin-binding chemokine that is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli, has been determined using two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Structure calculations were carried out by means of torsion-angle molecular dynamics using the program X-PLOR. The structure is based on a total of 2390 experimental restraints, comprising 2246 NOE-derived distance restraints, 44 distance restraints for 22 hydrogen bonds, and 100 torsion angle restraints. The structure is well-defined, with the backbone (N, Calpha, C) and heavy atom atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinates for residues 9-69 of the dimer being 0.57 +/- 0.16 A and 0.96 +/- 0.12 A, respectively. The N- and C-terminal residues (1-8 and 70-73, respectively) are disordered. The overall structure of the MIP-2 dimer is similar to that reported previously for the NMR structures of MGSA and IL-8 and consists of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residue 25-29, 39-44, and 48-52) packed against two C-terminal antiparallel alpha-helices. A best fit superposition of the NMR structure of MIP-2 on the structures of MGSA, NAP-2, and the NMR and X-ray structures of IL-8 are 1.11, 1.02, 1.27, and 1.19 A, respectively, for the monomers, and 1.28, 1.10, 1.55, and 1.36 A, respectively, for the dimers (IL-8 residues 7-14 and 16-67, NAP-2 residues 25-84). At the tertiary level, the main differences between the MIP-2 solution structure and the IL-8, MGSA, and NAP-2 structures involve the N-terminal loop between residues 9-23 and the loops formed by residues 30-38 and residues 53-58. At the quaternary level, the difference between MIP-2 and IL-8, MGSA, or NAP-2 results from differing interhelical angles and separations. PMID:9622482

  3. In vitro inhibition of murine macrophage migration by Bordetella pertussis lymphocytosis-promoting factor.

    PubMed Central

    Meade, B D; Kind, P D; Ewell, J B; McGrath, P P; Manclark, C R

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF) of Bordetella pertussis is a protein toxin which may have a role in the pathogenesis of pertussis. Since macrophages have an important role in the control of respiratory infections, the in vitro effects of LPF on macrophages from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice and on a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW264, were examined. LPF inhibited random migration of resident peritoneal macrophages as well as the chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and the cell line. Fifty percent inhibition of chemotaxis occurred at 0.2 to 0.3 ng of LPF per ml for the macrophages and at 1 to 2 ng of LPF per ml for the cell line. When LPF was either heated at 80 degrees C for 5 min or premixed with specific antibodies, it failed to inhibit migration. At 20 ng/ml, LPF inhibited chemotaxis by more than 80% and also decreased Fc-mediated phagocytosis by 25 to 35%. At this dose, LPF was not a chemoattractant for murine macrophages and did not reduce macrophage viability, adherence, or opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide release. When LPF-treated macrophages were added to tissue culture dishes and then examined microscopically after 4 h, the LPF-treated cells adhered but failed to spread and elongate as well as control macrophages. These data indicate that LPF specifically inhibits macrophage migration in vitro and suggest that a possible role for LPF in pathogenesis is to inhibit migration of macrophages to the site of B. pertussis infection. Images PMID:6088394

  4. Phenotypic non-equivalence of murine (monocyte-) macrophage cells in biomaterial and inflammatory models.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Lisa M; Godek, Marisha L; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W

    2009-03-15

    Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system including monocytes and macrophages (e.g., pooled human monocytes, bone marrow-derived macrophages, etc.) are often employed for in vitro assessment of novel biomaterials and to assay anti-inflammatory drug activity. In this context, numerous macrophage cells are treated interchangeably in the literature despite a lack of demonstrated equivalence among immortalized cell lines and further, between cell lines and primary-derived macrophages of different species. Three murine (monocyte-) macrophage cell lines (IC-21, J774A.1, and RAW 264.7), commonly utilizedin biomaterial and pharmaceutical screening research, have been compared with primary-derived murine bone marrow macrophages. Significant differences were discovered in the expression of cell surface proteins requisite for cell adhesion and activation among cell lines and primary-derived cells as well as between the different cell lines. Results demonstrate activation but with reduced cytokine expression to chemical stimulus (lipopolysaccharide) by cell lines compared with that of primary-derived macrophages. Limited correlation between cultured primary and immortalized cells in cytokine production, phenotype and intrinsic activation states has relevance to fidelity for in vitro testing. These differences warrant justification for selection of various cell lines for specific assay purposes, and merit caution if comparisons to primary cell types (i.e., for biocompatibility) are required. PMID:18357567

  5. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  6. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  7. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP. PMID:26529190

  8. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP.

  9. T-independent macrophage changes in murine malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Lelchuk, R; Dockrell, H M; Playfair, J H

    1983-01-01

    A study to investigate the participation of T cells in macrophage-mediated responses during malaria was performed in nude (nu/nu) and littermate (nu/+) mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (PB). We found that in both groups of mice spleen cells suppressed the mitogenic response to LPS. Both nu/+ and nu/nu infected mice also showed liver macrophage activation, reflected by increased plasminogen activator release. These findings suggest that at least some of the macrophage changes during malaria infection are T-independent. PMID:6342882

  10. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects.

  11. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. PMID:26629697

  12. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanomaterials in Murine Macrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanomaterials are increasingly used as antimicrobial agents in a variety of products. Although there is considerable potential for human exposure to these nanomaterials, little is known about the health risks associated with their use. Macrophages are prominent immune cell...

  13. Metabolic fate of L-arginine in relation to microbiostatic capability of murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Perfect, J R; Durack, D T

    1990-01-01

    L-arginine is required for the fungistatic action of murine macrophages in vitro. To further investigate this requirement, L-arginine metabolism by macrophages was measured under conditions where fungistasis either succeeded or failed. Macrophage fungistasis correlated with metabolism of L-arginine to citrulline, nitrite, and nitrate. The metabolic rate was dependent on extracellular L-arginine concentration, reaching a maximum of 67 nmol nitrite/h per mg protein. It accounted for one-third of arginine consumed by fungistatic macrophages. Equimolar amounts of citrulline and total nitrite plus nitrate accumulated in medium. This was consistent with the hypothesis that one of the equivalent guanidino nitrogens of L-arginine was oxidized to both nitrite and nitrate leaving L-citrulline as the amino acid reaction product. The analogue, NG-mono-methyl-L-arginine, selectively inhibited nitrogen oxidation and it was shown previously that it inhibited fungistatic capability. Resident macrophages were not fungistatic and their nitrogen oxidation was low. Once macrophages began producing nitrite/nitrate, protein synthesis was not required during the next 8 h for either fungistasis or nitrogen oxidation. Two-thirds of L-arginine consumption was due to macrophage arginase yielding L-ornithine and urea, which accumulated in medium. This activity was dissociated from macrophage fungistasis. Nitrogen oxidation metabolism by macrophages is linked to a mechanism that inhibits proliferation of fungi. This may involve synthesis of an intermediate compound(s) that has antimicrobial properties. PMID:2404026

  14. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  15. Divalent cation-independent macrophage adhesion inhibited by monoclonal antibody to murine scavenger receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Iain; Hughes, Derralynn; Gordon, Siamon

    1993-07-01

    MACROPHAGES interact with other cells and components of the extracellular environment by means of adhesion receptors1,2. Adhesion to artificial substrata in vitro facilitates isolation of macrophages3, and has been used to generate antibodies that inhibit their migration in vivo4,5. Unlike other cell types, macrophages attach to tissue culture plastic in the absence of divalent cations. Here we use an adhesion assay exploiting this property to isolate a rat monoclonal antibody, 2F8, which totally inhibits divalent cation-independent adhesion of murine macrophages to tissue culture plastic in the presence of fetal calf serum. Immunoprecipitation from macrophages and stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that the antigen recognized by monoclonal 2F8 is identical to murine macrophage scavenger receptor6,7. We propose a novel function for this molecule, previously described as an endocytic receptor, thus providing a mechanism for mononuclear phagocyte recruitment to and retention in ligand-rich tissues such as in atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. [Differential growth inhibition of mycobacteria by interferon-gamma-or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-treated murine peritoneal macrophages].

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Tomioka, H; Saito, H

    1996-11-01

    Growth inhibition of the intracellular mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. kansasii, M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. fortuitum, and M. chelonae subsp. abscessus by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-treated murine peritoneal macrophages elicited by proteose peptone was studied in vitro. Macrophages were infected with slowly growing mycobacteria and the extracellular mycobacteria were washed out. Then, macrophages were treated with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha at a concentration of 10 to 1000 U/ml for 2 days. In another experiment, macrophages were pretreated with these cytokines for 1 day then infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria as before. Macrophages were cultured with or without IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha for additional day. Mycobacterial growth was assessed by determination of colony-forming units on 7H11 agar plates after destruction of the macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with IFN-gamma reduced the growth of mycobacteria. However, except for M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, growth was not inhibited by macrophages treated with TNF-alpha. IFN-gamma seems to be an important cytokine for the activation of mycobactericidal mechanisms in murine macrophages. Stimulation with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha and subsequent phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis or M. intracellulare increased O2- production, which was assayed by the method of cytochrome C reduction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Phorbol myristate acetate-triggered-O2- production was also elevated by the cytokine pretreatment of the macrophages, suggesting that mycobacterial growth inhibition did not parallel the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in TNF alpha-activated murine peritoneal macrophages. These data suggest that bactericidal mechanisms of murine macrophages against nontuberculous mycobacteria may not depend on reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:8958673

  17. Synthesis of angiotensins by cultured granuloma macrophages in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstock, J.V.; Blum, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    Components of the angiotensin system are present in granulomas of murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Angiotensins may have immunoregulatory function. Granuloma macrophages cultured for up to 3 days generated substantial angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) which appeared in the culture supernatants. Macrophage monolayers were incubated with (/sup 3/H) amino acids, and culture supernatants were extracted with acetone and analyzed by HPLC. Radiolabeled products eluded at times corresponding to those of authentic angiotensins. Immunoadsorption of angiotensins with angiotensin antisera removed reputed radiolabeled angiotensins from the supernatants. Treatment of the elution fraction corresponding to that of authentic AI with angiotensin converting enzyme resulted in the generation of radiolabeled polypeptides which co-eluted with authentic AII and His-Leu. Similar experiments conducted with nonadherent granuloma cells devoid of macrophages failed to demonstrate angiotensin production. These results suggest that granuloma macrophages can synthesize angiotensin.

  18. Replication of Murine Cytomegalovirus in Differentiated Macrophages as a Determinant of Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura K.; Slater, Jacquelyn S.; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Virgin, Herbert W.; Biron, Christine A.; Ruzek, Melanie C.; van Rooijen, Nico; Ciavarra, Richard P.; Stenberg, Richard M.; Campbell, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    Blood monocytes or tissue macrophages play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, providing functions beneficial to both the virus and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that differentiated macrophages support MCMV replication, are target cells for MCMV infection within tissues, and harbor latent MCMV DNA. However, this cell type presumably initiates early, antiviral immune responses as well. In addressing this paradoxical role of macrophages, we provide evidence that the proficiency of MCMV replication in macrophages positively correlates with virulence in vivo. An MCMV mutant from which the open reading frames M139, M140, and M141 had been deleted (RV10) was defective in its ability to replicate in macrophages in vitro and was highly attenuated for growth in vivo. However, depletion of splenic macrophages significantly enhanced, rather than deterred, replication of both wild-type (WT) virus and RV10 in the spleen. The ability of RV10 to replicate in intact or macrophage-depleted spleens was independent of cytokine production, as this mutant virus was a poor inducer of cytokines compared to WT virus in both intact organs and macrophage-depleted organs. Macrophages were, however, a major contributor to the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon in response to WT virus infection. Thus, the data indicate that tissue macrophages serve a net protective role and may function as “filters” in protecting other highly permissive cell types from MCMV infection. The magnitude of virus replication in tissue macrophages may dictate the amount of virus accessible to the other cells. Concomitantly, infection of this cell type initiates the production of antiviral immune responses to guarantee efficient clearance of acute MCMV infection. PMID:10364349

  19. Immunomodulatory effect of Glossogyne tenuifolia in murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Choi-Lan; Weng, Ching-Yi; Wang, Lisu; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-08-11

    Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., a medicinal plant native to Taiwan, is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory remedy. Oleanolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside have been previously identified as active components of Glossogyne tenuifolia in the murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7. Current study investigates the effect and mechanism of the ethanol extract of Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) and its major constituents on the release of inflammatory mediators in activated elicited murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes. Our results showed that GT (up to 0.15 mg/ml) inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in LPS-activated macrophages, and IFN-gamma in PHA-activated splenocytes. GT also inhibited LPS-activated murine iNOS and COX-2 promoter activities in transiently transfected RAW264.7 cells. The major constituents, oleanolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside, as well as its aglycone, luteolin, inhibited the release of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in activated peritoneal macrophages. However, only luteolin-7-glucoside and luteolin were able to reduce IFN-gamma release in PHA-stimulated splenocytes. To further investigate the possible mechanisms that interfere with LPS- and PHA-signaling, this study focused on nuclear factor-kappaB activation signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate that GT (0.075-0.15 mg/ml) treatment reduces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Collectively, the results suggest that GT inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in activated murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes, in part through NF-kappaB-dependent pathways.

  20. Immunomodulatory effect of Glossogyne tenuifolia in murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Choi-Lan; Weng, Ching-Yi; Wang, Lisu; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2006-08-11

    Glossogyne tenuifolia Cass., a medicinal plant native to Taiwan, is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory remedy. Oleanolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside have been previously identified as active components of Glossogyne tenuifolia in the murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7. Current study investigates the effect and mechanism of the ethanol extract of Glossogyne tenuifolia (GT) and its major constituents on the release of inflammatory mediators in activated elicited murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes. Our results showed that GT (up to 0.15 mg/ml) inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in LPS-activated macrophages, and IFN-gamma in PHA-activated splenocytes. GT also inhibited LPS-activated murine iNOS and COX-2 promoter activities in transiently transfected RAW264.7 cells. The major constituents, oleanolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside, as well as its aglycone, luteolin, inhibited the release of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in activated peritoneal macrophages. However, only luteolin-7-glucoside and luteolin were able to reduce IFN-gamma release in PHA-stimulated splenocytes. To further investigate the possible mechanisms that interfere with LPS- and PHA-signaling, this study focused on nuclear factor-kappaB activation signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate that GT (0.075-0.15 mg/ml) treatment reduces nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity, as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Collectively, the results suggest that GT inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in activated murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes, in part through NF-kappaB-dependent pathways. PMID:16584857

  1. Characterization of the murine macrophage receptor for group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Sloan, A R; Pistole, T G

    1993-06-01

    The macrophage has been shown to bind potentially pathogenic bacteria in the absence of serum components or opsonins but the mechanism is poorly understood. The rich array of sugars on the surface of group B streptococci plus the presence of membrane-associated lectin receptors on the macrophage suggests that this is a likely means for bacterial recognition by these host defense cells. Inhibition studies with free sugars and neoglycoconjugates of bovine serum albumin, however, failed to confirm this hypothesis. Furthermore, neuraminidase-treatment to expose galactose residues and the use of isogenic bacterial strains having no capsule or no capsular sialic acid yielded no confirmation of lectin-mediated recognition. The trypsin-sensitive receptor exhibited temperature dependence and a requirement for divalent cations distinct from that reported for the lectin-like galactose receptor. The activity of this streptococcal binding receptor was inhibited by 2-deoxy-D-glucose but not by neutrophil elastase. Pre-exposure of macrophages to bound fibronectin and treatment with phorbol ester each enhanced bacterial binding. These data fail to support a role for the galactose lectin and provide preliminary evidence for involvement of the leukocyte integrins in macrophage recognition of group B streptococci.

  2. Purified murine granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells express a high-affinity receptor for recombinant murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.E.; Bicknell, D.C.; Park, L.S.; Straneva, J.E.; Cooper, S.; Broxmeyer, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Purified recombinant murine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was labeled with /sup 125/I and used to examine the GM-CSF receptor on unfractionated normal murine bone marrow cells, casein-induced peritoneal exudate cells, and highly purified murine granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM). CFU-GM were isolated from cyclophosphamide-treated mice by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation followed by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. The resulting population had a cloning efficiency of 62-99% in cultures containing conditioned medium from pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen cells and 55-86% in the presence of a plateau concentration of purified recombinant murine GM-CSF. Equilibrium binding studies with /sup 125/I-labeled GM-CSF showed that normal bone marrow cells, casein-induced peritoneal exudate cells, and purified CFU-GM had a single class of high-affinity receptor. Affinity crosslinking studies demonstrated that /sup 125/I-labeled GM-CSF bound specifically to two species of M/sub r/ 180,000 and 70,000 on CFU-GM, normal bone marrow cells, and peritoneal exudate cells. The M/sub r/ 70,000 species is thought to be a proteolytic fragment of the intact M/sub r/ 180,000 receptor. The present studies indicate that the GM-CSF receptor expressed on CFU-GM and mature myeloid cells are structurally similar. In addition, the number of GM-CSF receptors on CFU-GM is twice the average number of receptors on casein-induced mature myeloid cells, suggesting that receptor number may decrease as CFU-GM mature.

  3. Passive transfer of leishmania lipopolysaccharide confers parasite survival in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.

    1986-12-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro.

  4. Klebsiella pneumoniae survives within macrophages by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Cano, Victoria; March, Catalina; Insua, Jose Luis; Aguiló, Nacho; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Regueiro, Verónica; Brennan, Gerard P; Millán-Lou, Maria Isabel; Martín, Carlos; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that Klebsiella might be able to persist intracellularly within a vacuolar compartment. This study was designed to investigate the interaction between Klebsiella and macrophages. Engulfment of K. pneumoniae was dependent on host cytoskeleton, cell plasma membrane lipid rafts and the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Microscopy studies revealed that K. pneumoniae resides within a vacuolar compartment, the Klebsiella-containing vacuole (KCV), which traffics within vacuoles associated with the endocytic pathway. In contrast to UV-killed bacteria, the majority of live bacteria did not co-localize with markers of the lysosomal compartment. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae triggers a programmed cell death in macrophages displaying features of apoptosis. Our efforts to identify the mechanism(s) whereby K. pneumoniae prevents the fusion of the lysosomes to the KCV uncovered the central role of the PI3K-Akt-Rab14 axis to control the phagosome maturation. Our data revealed that the capsule is dispensable for Klebsiella intracellular survival if bacteria were not opsonized. Furthermore, the environment found by Klebsiella within the KCV triggered the down-regulation of the expression of cps. Altogether, this study proves evidence that K. pneumoniae survives killing by macrophages by manipulating phagosome maturation that may contribute to Klebsiella pathogenesis.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Qin; Mao, Yulong; Cui, Zhiwen; Li, Yali; Huang, Yi; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured alone or with B subtilis (natto) B4 spores at 37°C for 12 hrs, then both cells and culture supernatants were collected for analyses. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores had no significant effects on macrophage viability and amounts of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it remarkably increased the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cells and the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores are harmless to murine macrophages and can stimulate their activation through up-regulation of ACP and LDH activities and enhance their immune function by increasing iNOS activity and stimulating NO and cytokine production. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores have immunomodulatory effects on macrophages.

  6. A quantitative method for measuring the adherence of group B streptococci to murine peritoneal exudate macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sloan, A R; Pistole, T G

    1992-10-01

    We have developed a solid phase, direct binding, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect and quantify the adherence of group B streptococci to murine macrophages. The assay correlated well with direct microscopic quantification of adherence. As few as 3.8 x 10(4) bacteria/assay well or less than one bacterium per macrophage could be detected. This assay is both quantitative and selective, and is readily adaptable for multiple sample analysis. It provides a valuable alternative to visual detection of bacterial adherence.

  7. Interaction of murine macrophage-membrane proteins with components of the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M L; Duarte-Escalante, E; Reyes-Montes, M R; Elizondo, N; Maldonado, G; Zenteno, E

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin, a crude antigen of the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, was studied using murine peritoneal macrophages. Membrane proteins were purified via membrane attachment to polycationic beads and solubilized in Tris–HCl/SDS/DTT/glycerol for protein extraction; afterwards they were adsorbed or not with H. capsulatum yeast or lectin binding-enriched by affinity chromatography. Membrane proteins and histoplasmin interactions were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting assays using anti-H. capsulatum human or mouse serum and biotinylated goat anti-human or anti-mouse IgG/streptavidin-peroxidase system to reveal the interaction. Results indicate that macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin components interact in a dose-dependent reaction, and adsorption of macrophage-membrane proteins by yeast cells induces a critical decrease in the interaction. Macrophage-membrane glycoproteins with terminal d-galactosyl residues, purified by chromatography with Abrus precatorius lectin, bound to histoplasmin; and two bands of 68 kD and 180 kD of transferred membrane protein samples interacted with histoplasmin components, as revealed by immunoblot assays. Specificity for β-galactoside residues on the macrophage-membrane was confirmed by galactose inhibition of the interaction between macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin components, in competitive ELISA using sugars, as well as by enzymatic cleavage of the galactoside residues. PMID:9737672

  8. Effect of dietary linseed oil on tumoricidal activity and eicosanoid production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, N E; Chapkin, R S; Erickson, K L

    1994-09-01

    Diets that contain high levels of n-3 fatty acids from fish oil have been shown to significantly effect macrophage cytolytic capacity, tumor necrosis factor alpha production and eicosanoid production. The present study was undertaken to determine whether n-3 fatty acids from vegetable origin [linseed oil (LIN)] would have the same effects on murine macrophage tumoricidal capacity and eicosanoid production as would fish oil. Mice were fed for three weeks diets that contained 10% (wt/wt) of either LIN, which is high in linolenic acid (18:3n-3), menhaden fish oil (MFO), which is high in eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acids, or safflower oil (SAF), which is high in linoleic acid (18:2n-6). In vivo- or in vitro-activated macrophages were assessed for select functions. As expected, macrophages from mice fed LIN and MFO produced significantly lower levels of both prostaglandins and leukotriene C4 when compared with macrophages from mice fed SAF. In addition, LIN and MFO macrophages were able to synthesize leuko-triene C5, which could not be produced by macrophages from mice fed SAF. The effects of LIN, however, were not as pronounced as those of MFO. With respect to specific functions, macrophages from mice fed LIN did not have altered cytolytic capacity when compared with macrophages from mice fed SAF and activated in vitro with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone for 24 h or with LPS plus interferon gamma (IFN gamma) for 5 h. Diet did not significantly alter tumoricidal capacity of macrophages activated completely in vivo either.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Rickettsia australis Activates Inflammasome in Human and Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Claire; Bechelli, Jeremy; Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Saito, Tais; Azar, Sasha R.; Ismail, Nahed; Walker, David H.; Fang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiae actively escape from vacuoles and replicate free in the cytoplasm of host cells, where inflammasomes survey the invading pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of Rickettsia australis with the inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages. R. australis induced a significant level of IL-1β secretion by human macrophages, which was significantly reduced upon treatment with an inhibitor of caspase-1 compared to untreated controls, suggesting caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation. Rickettsia induced significant secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro by infected mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) as early as 8–12 h post infection (p.i.) in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of these cytokines was accompanied by cleavage of caspase-1 and was completely abrogated in BMMs deficient in caspase-1/caspase-11 or apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), suggesting that R. australis activate the ASC-dependent inflammasome. Interestingly, in response to the same quantity of rickettsiae, NLRP3-/- BMMs significantly reduced the secretion level of IL-1β compared to wild type (WT) controls, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to cytosolic recognition of R. australis in vitro. Rickettsial load in spleen, but not liver and lung, of R. australis-infected NLRP3-/- mice was significantly greater compared to WT mice. These data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in host control of bacteria in vivo in a tissue-specific manner. Taken together, our data, for the first time, illustrate the activation of ASC-dependent inflammasome by R. australis in macrophages in which NLRP3 is involved. PMID:27362650

  10. Modulation of murine lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation by parenteral zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, M J; Wilson, F D; Fisher, G L; Erickson, K L

    1983-01-01

    The effects of a single i.p. injection of zinc (0.7, 1.3, 4.0 or 12.0 mg/kg), 24 h prior to sacrifice, on lymphocyte blastogenesis as well as lymphocyte and macrophage progenitor cell proliferation were examined using cells from adult BALB/c mice. Splenic lymphocyte blastogenesis in response to T cell mitogens decreased for mice receiving the highest zinc dosage while responses to B cell mitogens were initially depressed, subsequently increased, and finally declined sharply as the LD50 was approached. Splenic B cell colony formation decreased linearly in relation to zinc dosage with a 50% suppression of colony formation observed at approximately 8.0 mg/kg. In contrast, bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colonies were enhanced at higher dosages (greater than or equal to 2.5 mg/kg) of zinc. These results indicate that zinc exposure at dosages less than the LD50 can influence lymphocyte blastogenesis and clonal expansion of both B cell and macrophage progenitors. PMID:6616965

  11. Effect of liposomal amphotericin B on murine macrophages and lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, R T; Mehta, K; Lopez-Berestein, G; Juliano, R L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of liposome-encapsulated amphotericin B on mouse macrophages and on T- and B-lymphocyte functions in vitro was compared with that of free amphotericin B. Liposomal amphotericin B was generally less toxic than the free form of the drug. Low concentrations of free amphotericin B completely inhibited the serum-dependent induction of transglutaminase, a marker for macrophage differentiation, and production of superoxide anion by macrophages, whereas encapsulation of the drug within liposomes protected the cells from these adverse effects. Liposomal amphotericin B did not affect the blastogenic response of T cells compared with the free drug, which was inhibitory at high concentrations. Antibody production in vivo was inhibited partially by both free and liposomal amphotericin B. These results thus suggest that encapsulation of amphotericin B in liposomes reduces the immunosuppressive effects exerted by free amphotericin B. This provides further justification for therapeutic use of liposomal amphotericin B in systemic fungal infections (G. Lopez-Berestein, R. Mehta, R. L. Hopfer, K. Mills, L. Kasi, K. Mehta, V. Fainstein, M. Luna, E. M. Hersh, and R. L. Juliano, J. Infect. Dis. 147:939-945, 1983). PMID:2578433

  12. Alternatively activated macrophages determine repair of the infarcted adult murine heart

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Manabu; Shintani, Yasunori; Shintani, Yusuke; Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Yashiro, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (also known as M2) macrophages are involved in the repair of various types of organs. However, the contribution of M2 macrophages to cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) remains to be fully characterized. Here, we identified CD206+F4/80+CD11b+ M2-like macrophages in the murine heart and demonstrated that this cell population predominantly increases in the infarct area and exhibits strengthened reparative abilities after MI. We evaluated mice lacking the kinase TRIB1 (Trib1–/–), which exhibit a selective depletion of M2 macrophages after MI. Compared with control animals, Trib1–/– mice had a catastrophic prognosis, with frequent cardiac rupture, as the result of markedly reduced collagen fibril formation in the infarct area due to impaired fibroblast activation. The decreased tissue repair observed in Trib1–/– mice was entirely rescued by an external supply of M2-like macrophages. Furthermore, IL-1α and osteopontin were suggested to be mediators of M2-like macrophage–induced fibroblast activation. In addition, IL-4 administration achieved a targeted increase in the number of M2-like macrophages and enhanced the post-MI prognosis of WT mice, corresponding with amplified fibroblast activation and formation of more supportive fibrous tissues in the infarcts. Together, these data demonstrate that M2-like macrophages critically determine the repair of infarcted adult murine heart by regulating fibroblast activation and suggest that IL-4 is a potential biological drug for treating MI. PMID:27140396

  13. Role of Cathepsins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pires, David; Marques, Joana; Pombo, João Palma; Carmo, Nuno; Bettencourt, Paulo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes that function in the endocytic pathway, especially in lysosomes, where they contribute directly to pathogen killing or indirectly, by their involvement in the antigen presentation pathways. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives inside the macrophage phagosomes by inhibiting their maturation to phagolysosomes and thus avoiding a low pH and protease-rich environment. We previously showed that mycobacterial inhibition of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired delivery of lysosomal enzymes to phagosomes and reduced pathogen killing. Here, we elucidate how MTB also controls cathepsins and their inhibitors, cystatins, at the level of gene expression and proteolytic activity. MTB induced a general down-regulation of cathepsin expression in infected cells, and inhibited IFNγ-mediated increase of cathepsin mRNA. We further show that a decrease in cathepsins B, S and L favours bacterial survival within human primary macrophages. A siRNA knockdown screen of a large set of cathepsins revealed that almost half of these enzymes have a role in pathogen killing, while only cathepsin F coincided with MTB resilience. Overall, we show that cathepsins are important for the control of MTB infection, and as a response, it manipulates their expression and activity to favour its intracellular survival. PMID:27572605

  14. Role of Cathepsins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pires, David; Marques, Joana; Pombo, João Palma; Carmo, Nuno; Bettencourt, Paulo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes that function in the endocytic pathway, especially in lysosomes, where they contribute directly to pathogen killing or indirectly, by their involvement in the antigen presentation pathways. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives inside the macrophage phagosomes by inhibiting their maturation to phagolysosomes and thus avoiding a low pH and protease-rich environment. We previously showed that mycobacterial inhibition of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired delivery of lysosomal enzymes to phagosomes and reduced pathogen killing. Here, we elucidate how MTB also controls cathepsins and their inhibitors, cystatins, at the level of gene expression and proteolytic activity. MTB induced a general down-regulation of cathepsin expression in infected cells, and inhibited IFNγ-mediated increase of cathepsin mRNA. We further show that a decrease in cathepsins B, S and L favours bacterial survival within human primary macrophages. A siRNA knockdown screen of a large set of cathepsins revealed that almost half of these enzymes have a role in pathogen killing, while only cathepsin F coincided with MTB resilience. Overall, we show that cathepsins are important for the control of MTB infection, and as a response, it manipulates their expression and activity to favour its intracellular survival. PMID:27572605

  15. Uptake of pathogenic intracellular bacteria into human and murine macrophages downregulates the eukaryotic 26S protease complex ATPase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, W R; Kopecko, D J

    1997-01-01

    A differential PCR technique detected the transcriptional downregulation of the mss1 (mammalian suppressor of svg1) gene in murine J774A.1 macrophages following uptake of Salmonella typhimurium. This downregulation was also noted after entry of virulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri, two other facultative intracellular bacterial species. In contrast, uptake of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli HB101, an aroA mutant of S. typhimurium, an invasion plasmid antigen B (ipaB) mutant of S. flexneri, hemolysin (hly) and positive-regulatory factor (prfA) mutants of L. monocytogenes, or latex beads produced mss1 expression levels similar to that of uninfected macrophages. Transcriptional downregulation of mss1 was also shown to occur in S. typhimurium-infected human U937 cells, albeit to an extent less than that in murine J774A.1 cells. In addition to a lower abundance of mss1 transcripts, we also demonstrate for the first time that less MSS1 protein was detected in intracellular-bacterium-infected cells (beginning about 1 h after entry of the pathogenic intracellular bacteria) than in noninfected cells. Some strains with specific mutations in characterized genes, such as an ipaB mutant strain of S. flexneri and an hly mutant strain of L. monocytogenes, did not elicit this lower level of expression of MSS1 protein. The decrease in MSS1 within infected macrophages resulted in an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, substrates for MSS1. Since MSS1 comprises the ATPase part of the 26S protease that degrades ubiquitinated proteins, we hypothesize that downregulation of the mss1 gene by intracellular bacterial entry may help subvert the host cell's normal defensive response to internalized bacteria, allowing the intracellular bacteria to survive. PMID:9353061

  16. Murine macrophage behavior on peptide-grafted polyethyleneglycol-containing networks.

    PubMed

    Kao, W J; Hubbell, J A

    1998-07-01

    Polyethyleneglycol-based networks were employed as substrates to graft bioactive peptides to study macrophage interactions with materials. Our overall objective was to utilize biologically active factors to stimulate certain macrophage function on materials suitable for implantation in connective tissues. In this study, we sought to explore the bioactivity of several peptides derived from extracellular matrix adhesion proteins and macrophage-active proteins that are normally soluble. The candidate peptides examined corresponded to residues 63 to 77 of complement component C3a (C3a(63-77)), residues 178 to 207 of interleukin-1 beta (IL1beta(178-207)), residues 1615 to 1624 of fibronectin (FN(1615-1624)), endothelial-macrophage activating polypeptide II, complement component C5a inhibitory sequence, macrophage inhibitory peptide, and YRGDG; materials lacking peptides were used as negative controls. An established murine cell-line IC-21 was employed as a macrophage model, and human dermal fibroblasts were used for comparison. Our results showed that the substrates without grafted peptides were free from artifactual cell adhesion associated with the adsorption of serum or cellularly secreted proteins for long duration of culture. Of all grafted samples, IL1beta(178-207)- and C3a(63-77)-grafted surfaces supported higher adherent macrophage densities. C3a(63-77)- and FN(1615-1624)-grafted surfaces supported higher adherent fibroblast densities. From competitive inhibition studies, cell adhesion was determined to occur in a receptor-peptide specific manner. The presence of grafted YRGDG in addition to IL1beta(178-207), C3a(63-77), or FN(1615-1624) synergistically increased macrophage and fibroblast adhesion. Materials grafted with IL1beta(178-207) or C3a(63-77) co-grafted with or without YRGDG did not support the formation of multinucleated giant cells from the fusion of adherent macrophages in vitro. PMID:10099308

  17. Impairment of survival signaling and efferocytosis in TRPC3-deficient macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Smedlund, Kathryn; Lee, Robert; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the role of TRPC3 channel in macrophage survival, apoptosis and efferocytic properties. {yields} TRPC3-deficient macrophages exhibit impaired survival signaling, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. {yields} These findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3 is an essential component for macrophage survival and clearance of apoptotic cells. -- Abstract: We have recently shown that in macrophages proper operation of the survival pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) has an obligatory requirement for constitutive, non-regulated Ca{sup 2+} influx. In the present work we examined if Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3), a member of the TRPC family of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, contributes to the constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx that supports macrophage survival. We used bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TRPC3{sup -/-} mice to determine the activation status of survival signaling pathways, apoptosis and their efferocytic properties. Treatment of TRPC3{sup +/+} macrophages with the pro-apoptotic cytokine TNF{alpha} induced time-dependent phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, AKT and BAD, and this was drastically reduced in TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages. Compared to TRPC3{sup +/+} cells TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages exhibited reduced constitutive cation influx, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. The present findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3, presumably through its constitutive function, contributes to survival signaling and efferocytic properties.

  18. Enhancing effect of oxygen radical scavengers on murine macrophage anticryptococcal activity through production of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    TOHYAMA, M.; KAWAKAMI, K.; FUTENMA, M.; SAITO, A.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the roles of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced cryptococcostatic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a competitive inhibitor of RNI synthesis, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, oxygen radical scavengers. IFN-γ-activated macrophages produced nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by increased nitrite concentration in the culture supernatant. IFN-γ also enhanced the suppressive effect on cryptococcal growth in a similar dose-dependent manner. The induction of killing activity and NO production by an optimal dose of IFN-γ (100 U/ml) was virtually suppressed by 500 μM L-NMMA. These results confirmed the importance of the RNI-mediated effector mechanism in anticryptococcal activity of macrophages. SOD and catalase significantly enhanced the cryptococcostatic activity of macrophages induced by a suboptimal dose of IFN-γ (20 U/ml). The augmenting effect of these reagents was mediated by NO, since they potentiated the production of NO by macrophages and their effects were totally blocked by L-NMMA. Our results indicate that the IFN-γ-induced anticryptococcal activity of macrophages is dependent mostly on RNI, and suggest that the ROI system down-regulates the effector mechanism for cryptococcostasis by suppressing the RNI system. PMID:8608643

  19. Phorbal esters and calcium ionophore can prime murine peritoneal macrophages for tumor cell destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, S.D.; Weiel, J.E.; Hamilton, T.A.; Adams, D.O.

    1986-06-01

    Murine macrophages from sites of inflammation develop toward tumoricidal competence by exposure to a macrophage-activating factor such as interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..). To explore the biochemical transductional events initiated by IFN-..gamma.., peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice elicited by various sterile irritants were treated in vitro with two pharmacologic agents that mimic the action of certain second messengers. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the ionophore A23187 cooperatively reproduced the ability of IFN-..gamma.. to prime macrophages for tumoricidal function. Neither agent alone was able to prime macrophages. The two agents acted on the macrophages, and target susceptibility to kill was not altered by PMA and A23187. Only active phorbol esters, which are known to bind and stimulate protein kinase C, were able to cooperate with A23187 to induce priming. A cell-permeable synthetic diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol) could also prime for cytolysis. In the presence of PMA, A23187, and EGTA, addition of Ca/sup + +/ was sufficient for priming, whereas the addition of Mg/sup + +/ was much less efficient. Priming by IFN-..gamma.., however, was not blocked by EGTA. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from preloaded cells was significantly increased by A23187 and by IFN-..gamma... Quin-2/AM, an intracellular chelator of Ca/sup + +/, blocked priming by IFN-..gamma...

  20. A real time chemotaxis assay unveils unique migratory profiles amongst different primary murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif J; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Christou, Ivy; White, Gemma E; McNeill, Eileen; Kenyon, Amy; Taylor, Lewis; Kapellos, Theodore S; Fisher, Edward A; Channon, Keith M; Greaves, David R

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for Gαi signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and cytochalasin D inhibition. We also studied the chemotaxis of CD14(+) human monocytes and demonstrate distinct chemotactic profiles amongst different monocyte donors to CCL2. This real-time chemotaxis assay will allow a detailed analysis of factors that regulate macrophage responses to chemoattractant cytokines and inflammatory mediators.

  1. Dimethyl sulfoxide modulates NF-kappa B and cytokine activation in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, K A; Hill, M R; Youkhana, K; Wanker, F; Gimble, J M

    1994-01-01

    Antioxidants are protective against septic shock in animal models. Recently, free radical scavengers have been found to inhibit the activation of the NF-kappa B protein in a number of cell lines. This transcriptional regulatory protein binds to the promoters of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and the macrophage inflammatory proteins. The current work examined lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappa B activation in the J774 macrophage-like cell line and primary peritoneal macrophages from lipopolysaccharide-responsive (C3HeB/Fej) and -nonresponsive (C3H/HeJ) murine strains. The DNA-binding activity of the NF-kappa B protein directly correlated with mRNA expression for the genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines and the free radical scavenging enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Both the p50 and p65 NF-kappa B subunits were detected on gel supershift assays. Minimal NF-kappa B activity was observed following exposure of C3H/HeJ macrophages to lipopolysaccharide. The antioxidant dimethyl sulfoxide decreased the level of NF-kappa B activation in the J774 cells. This correlated with decreased expression of cytokine mRNAs and tumor necrosis factor bioactivity. These results suggest that modulation of NF-kappa B activation may provide a mechanism through which antioxidants protect against endotoxemia in murine models. Images PMID:8039880

  2. Asc-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Contribute to Restriction of Legionella Pneumophila Infection in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Dalia H. A.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Kotrange, Sheetal; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Hassan, Zeinab A.; El-Sharkawi, Fathia Z.; Bedi, Simranjit S.; Ladner, Katherine; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Doseff, Andrea I.; Mostafa, Mahmoud; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Guttridge, Dennis; Marsh, Clay B.; Wewers, Mark D.; Amer, Amal O.

    2010-01-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (Asc) is an adaptor molecule that mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaire's pneumonia. L. pneumophila is able to cause pneumonia in immuno-compromised humans but not in most inbred mice. Murine macrophages that lack the ability to activate caspase-1, such as caspase-1−/− and Nlrc4−/− allow L. pneumophila infection. This permissiveness is attributed mainly to the lack of active caspase-1 and the absence of its down stream substrates such as caspase-7. However, the role of Asc in control of L. pneumophila infection in mice is unclear. Here we show that caspase-1 is moderately activated in Asc−/− macrophages and that this limited activation is required and sufficient to restrict L. pneumophila growth. Moreover, Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 requires bacterial flagellin and is mainly detected in cellular extracts but not in culture supernatants. We also demonstrate that the depletion of Asc from permissive macrophages enhances bacterial growth by promoting L. pneumophila-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway and decreasing caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that L. pneumophila infection in murine macrophages is controlled by several mechanisms: Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 and Asc-dependent regulation of NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. PMID:21713115

  3. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80 μg or normal saline 0.4 mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator.

  4. Clostridium difficile Spore-Macrophage Interactions: Spore Survival

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Cofre-Araneda, Glenda; Brito-Silva, Christian; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial infections including antibiotic associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. During the course of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), C. difficile undergoes sporulation and releases spores to the colonic environment. The elevated relapse rates of CDI suggest that C. difficile spores has a mechanism(s) to efficiently persist in the host colonic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we provide evidence that C. difficile spores are well suited to survive the host’s innate immune system. Electron microscopy results show that C. difficile spores are recognized by discrete patchy regions on the surface of macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, and phagocytosis was actin polymerization dependent. Fluorescence microscopy results show that >80% of Raw 264.7 cells had at least one C. difficile spore adhered, and that ∼60% of C. difficile spores were phagocytosed by Raw 264.7 cells. Strikingly, presence of complement decreased Raw 264.7 cells’ ability to phagocytose C. difficile spores. Due to the ability of C. difficile spores to remain dormant inside Raw 264.7 cells, they were able to survive up to 72 h of macrophage infection. Interestingly, transmission electron micrographs showed interactions between the surface proteins of C. difficile spores and the phagosome membrane of Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, infection of Raw 264.7 cells with C. difficile spores for 48 h produced significant Raw 264.7 cell death as demonstrated by trypan blue assay, and nuclei staining by ethidium homodimer-1. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that despite efficient recognition and phagocytosis of C. difficile spores by Raw 264.7 cells, spores remain dormant and are able to survive and produce cytotoxic effects on Raw 264.7 cells. PMID:22952726

  5. Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

    2014-01-01

    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

  6. Isolation of murine peritoneal macrophages to carry out gene expression analysis upon Toll-like receptors stimulation.

    PubMed

    Layoun, Antonio; Samba, Macha; Santos, Manuela M

    2015-01-01

    During infection and inflammation, circulating monocytes leave the bloodstream and migrate into tissues, where they differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages express surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize molecular patterns conserved through evolution in a wide range of microorganisms. TLRs play a central role in macrophage activation which is usually associated with gene expression alteration. Macrophages are critical in many diseases and have emerged as attractive targets for therapy. In the following protocol, we describe a procedure to isolate murine peritoneal macrophages using Brewer's thioglycollate medium. The latter will boost monocyte migration into the peritoneum, accordingly this will raise macrophage yield by 10-fold. Several studies have been carried out using bone marrow, spleen or peritoneal derived macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages were shown to be more mature upon isolation and are more stable in their functionality and phenotype. Thus, macrophages isolated from murine peritoneal cavity present an important cell population that can serve in different immunological and metabolic studies. Once isolated, macrophages were stimulated with different TLR ligands and consequently gene expression was evaluated.

  7. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Annabelle . E-mail: arodrig5@jhmi.edu; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-05-27

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 {mu}g protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.04). Cytotoxicity, as measured by the cellular release of [{sup 14}C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1.

  8. Effective Inhibition of Kb- and Db-Restricted Antigen Presentation in Primary Macrophages by Murine Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    LoPiccolo, Diane M.; Gold, Marielle C.; Kavanagh, Daniel G.; Wagner, Markus; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Hill, Ann B.

    2003-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in vivo, both in disseminating infection and in harboring latent virus. MCMV encodes three immune evasion genes (m4, m6, and m152) that interfere with the ability of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) to detect virus-infected fibroblasts, but the efficacy of immune evasion in macrophages has been controversial. Here we show that MCMV immune evasion genes function in H-2b primary bone marrow macrophages (BMMφ) in the same way that they do in fibroblasts. Metabolic labeling experiments showed that class I is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by MCMV infection and associates with m4/gp34 to a similar extent in fibroblasts and BMMφ. We tested a series of Kb- and Db-restricted CTL clones specific for MCMV early genes against a panel of MCMV wild-type virus and mutants lacking m152, m4, or m6. MCMV immune evasion genes effectively inhibited antigen presentation. m152 appeared sufficient to abolish Db-restricted presentation in infected macrophages, as has been previously observed in infected fibroblasts. However, for inhibition of recognition of infected macrophages by Kb-restricted CTL, m4, m6, and m152 were all required. The contribution of m4 to inhibition of recognition appeared much more important in macrophages than in fibroblasts. Thus, MCMV immune evasion genes function effectively in primary macrophages to prevent CTL recognition of early antigens and show the same pattern of major histocompatibility complex class I allele discrimination as is seen in fibroblasts. Furthermore, for inhibition of Kb-restricted presentation, a strong synergistic effect was noted among m152, m4, and m6. PMID:12477835

  9. Interferon-γ promotes phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans but not Cryptococcus gattii by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Dantsuji, Yurika; Ohno, Hideaki; Tanabe, Koichi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ueno, Keigo; Nagi, Minoru; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Kinjo, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2015-12-01

    Among invasive fungal infections, cryptococcosis caused by inhalation of Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii is particularly dangerous because it can disseminate to the central nervous system and cause life-threatening meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous reports described significant differences in the histopathological features of C. neoformans and C. gattii infection, such as greater pathogen proliferation and a limited macrophage response in mouse lung infected by C. gattii. To elucidate the difference in pathogenicity of these two Cryptococcus species, we investigated the interaction of C. neoformans and C. gattii with murine macrophages, the first line of host defense, by confocal laser microscopy. Only thin-capsulated, and not thick-capsulated C. neoformans and C. gattii were phagocytosed by macrophages. Preactivation with interferon-γ increased the phagocytic rate of thin-capsulated C. neoformans up to two-fold, but did not promote phagocytosis of thin-capsulated C. gattii. Lipopolysaccharide preactivation or Aspergillus fumigatus conidia co-incubation had no effect on internalization of thin-capsulated C. neoformans or C. gattii by macrophages. Phagocytosis of live thin-capsulated C. neoformans, but not that of live thin-capsulated C. gattii, induced interleukin-12 release from macrophages. However, phagocytosis of heat-killed or paraformaldehyde-fixed thin-capsulated C. neoformans did not increase IL-12 release, showing that the internalization of live yeast is important for initiating the immune response during C. neoformans-macrophage interactions. Our data suggest that macrophage response to C. gattii is limited compared with that to C. neoformans and that these results may partially explain the limited immune response and the greater pathogenicity of C. gattii.

  10. Anti-inflammatory action of γ-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-12-01

    This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (γ)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). γ-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 μM than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 μM showed that γ-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), γ-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by γ irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, γ-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

  11. Effects of Bacillus subtilis B10 spores on viability and biological functions of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin; Xu, Xin; Mao, Yu-long; Huang, Yi; Rajput, Imran R; Li, Wei-fen

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis B10 spores on the viability and biological functions of murine macrophage. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated both with and without B. subtilis B10 spores for 12 h. Then cell viability was determined to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of B. subtilis B10 spores to the cells, and the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines were measured to analyze the functions of macrophages. The results showed that B. subtilis B10 spores were not harmful to RAW 264.7 cells and they also strongly enhanced the activities of ACP and LDH (P < 0.01), remarkably increased NO and iNOS production (P < 0.01), and significantly stimulated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 (P < 0.01) while they reduced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.01). The outcomes suggest that B. subtilis B10 spores are not only safe for murine macrophages, but also can activate these cells and enhance their immune function. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis B10 spores are potentially probiotic.

  12. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  13. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S.; Basco, Maria D. S.; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L.; Hart, Mark E.; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together. PMID:26658916

  14. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together. PMID:26658916

  15. Dysregulated macrophages are present in bleomycin-induced murine laryngotracheal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hillel, Alexander T.; Samad, Idris; Ma, Garret; Ding, Dacheng; Sadler, Kaitlyn; Powell, Jonathan D.; Lane, Andrew P.; Horton, Maureen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the inflammatory cell infiltrate preceding fibrosis in a laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) murine model. Study Design Prospective controlled murine study. Setting Tertiary care hospital in a research university. Subjects and Methods Chemomechanical injury mice (n=44) sustained bleomycin-coated wire-brush injury to the laryngotracheal complex while mechanical injury controls (n=42) underwent PBS-coated wire-brush injury. Mock surgery controls (n=34) underwent anterior transcervical tracheal exposure only. Inflammatory and fibrosis protein and gene expression was assessed in each condition. Immunohistochemistry served as a secondary outcome. Results In chemomechanical injury mice, there was an up-regulation of: Collagen I (p<0.0001, p<0.0001), Tgf-β (p=0.0023, p=0.0008), and elastin (p<0.0001, p<0.0001) on Day 7, acute inflammatory gene: Il1β (p=0.0027, p=0.0008) on Day 1, and macrophage gene: CD11b (p=0.0026, p=0.0033) on Day 1 versus mechanical and mock controls respectively. M1 marker iNOS expression decreased (p=0.0014) while M2 marker arg1 (p=0.0002) increased on Day 7 compared to mechanical controls. Flow cytometry demonstrated increased macrophages (p=0.0058, day 4) and M1 macrophages (p=0.0148, day 4, p=0.0343, day 7, p=0.0229, day 10) compared to mock controls. There were similarities between chemomechanical and mechanical injury mice with an increase in M2 macrophages at day 10 (p=0.0196). Conclusions The mouse model demonstrated increased macrophages involved with the development of LTS. Macrophage immunophenotype suggested that dysregulated M2 macrophages have a role in abnormal laryngotracheal wound healing in both species. These results support this animal model as a representation for human disease. Furthermore, this data delineates inflammatory cells and signaling pathways in LTS that may potentially be modulated to lessen fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. PMID:26084828

  16. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  17. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  18. Murine Alveolar Macrophages Are Highly Susceptible to Replication of Coxiella burnetii Phase II In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Talita D; Cunha, Larissa D; Ribeiro, Juliana M; Massis, Liliana M; Lima-Junior, Djalma S; Newton, Hayley J; Zamboni, Dario S

    2016-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Q fever in humans. Q fever is an atypical pneumonia transmitted through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In mammalian lungs, C. burnetii infects and replicates in several cell types, including alveolar macrophages (AMs). The innate immunity and signaling pathways operating during infection are still poorly understood, in part because of the lack of relevant host cell models for infection in vitro In the study described here, we investigated and characterized the infection of primary murine AMs by C. burnetii phase II in vitro Our data reveal that AMs show a pronounced M2 polarization and are highly permissive to C. burnetii multiplication in vitro Murine AMs present an increased susceptibility to infection in comparison to primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. AMs support more than 2 logs of bacterial replication during 12 days of infection in culture, similar to highly susceptible host cells, such as Vero and THP-1 cells. As a proof of principle that AMs are useful for investigation of C. burnetii replication, we performed experiments with AMs from Nos2(-/-) or Ifng(-/-) mice. In the absence of gamma interferon and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), AMs were significantly more permissive than wild-type cells. In contrast, AMs from Il4(-/-) mice were more restrictive to C. burnetii replication, supporting the importance of M2 polarization for the permissiveness of AMs to C. burnetii replication. Collectively, our data account for understanding the high susceptibility of alveolar macrophages to bacterial replication and support the use of AMs as a relevant model of C. burnetii growth in primary macrophages. PMID:27297388

  19. Stimulation of the ceramide pathway partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, S A; Detore, G; McNally, R; Vogel, S N

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that lipolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates cells by mimicking the second-messenger function of ceramide, a lipid generated in the cell by the action of sphingomyelinase (SMase). To examine this possibility further, we compared the abilities of LPS, SMase, and/or ceramide analogs to induce cytokine secretion, modulate gene expression, and induce endotoxin tolerance in macrophages. SMase and LPS induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to comparable degrees; however, unlike LPS, SMase failed to stimulate detectable interferon activity. Cell-permeable analogs of ceramide induced the expression of many LPS-inducible genes; however, the expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) mRNAs was significantly lower than that induced by LPS. Both SMase-induced TNF-alpha secretion and LPS-induced TNF-alpha secretion were inhibited by pretreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A. Macrophages preexposed in vitro to LPS to induce a well-characterized state of endotoxin tolerance secreted little or no TNF-alpha upon secondary challenge with either LPS or SMase, whereas macrophages preexposed to SMase secreted high levels of TNF-alpha upon secondary stimulation with LPS or SMase. Collectively, these results suggest that ceramide activates a subset of LPS-induced signaling pathways in murine peritoneal exudate macrophages. PMID:8757882

  20. Stimulation of Mesothelial Cell Proliferation by Exudate Macrophages Enhances Serosal Wound Healing in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Mutsaers, Steven E.; Whitaker, Darrel; Papadimitriou, John M.

    2002-01-01

    Examination of thermally induced serosal lesions in mice displayed collections of inflammatory cells, predominantly macrophages, on and surrounding the wound within 48 hours of injury. Furthermore, by 2 days a large number of uninjured mesothelial cells adjacent to the wound were synthesizing DNA. From these findings, it was hypothesized that macrophages play a major role in serosal repair by stimulating mesothelial cell proliferation. Again, using a murine model of mesothelial regeneration, depletion of circulating monocytes significantly delayed serosal healing whereas addition of peritoneal exudate cells to the wound site 36 hours before injury increased the healing rate. In vivo assessment of mesothelial cell proliferation using tritiated thymidine incorporation and autoradiography demonstrated that peritoneal exudate cells stimulated mesothelial cell proliferation (12.44 ± 1.63% labeling index, compared with controls in which medium only was used 4.48 ± 0.71%). The mesothelial proliferation was predominantly because of macrophage-secreted products with molecular weights of 36 to 53 kd or 67 to 100 kd. These data support the hypothesis that macrophages play an important role in serosal healing by stimulating mesothelial cell proliferation. PMID:11839589

  1. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  2. Murine Macrophages Secrete Interferon γ upon Combined Stimulation with Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18: A Novel Pathway of Autocrine Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Munder, Markus; Mallo, Moisés; Eichmann, Klaus; Modolell, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ, a key immunoregulatory cytokine, has been thought to be produced solely by activated T cells and natural killer cells. In this study, we show that murine bone marrow– derived macrophages (BMMΦ) secrete large amounts of IFN-γ upon appropriate stimulation. Although interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 alone induce low levels of IFN-γ mRNA transcripts, the combined stimulation of BMMΦ with both cytokines leads to the efficient production of IFN-γ protein. The macrophage-derived IFN-γ is biologically active as shown by induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as upregulation of CD40 in macrophages. Our findings uncover a novel pathway of autocrine macrophage activation by demonstrating that the macrophage is not only a key cell type responding to IFN-γ but also a potent IFN-γ–producing cell. PMID:9625771

  3. Depletion of alveolar macrophages prolongs survival in response to acute pneumovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rigaux, Peter; Killoran, Kristin E.; Qiu, Zhijun; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are immunoregulatory effector cells that interact directly with respiratory virus pathogens in vivo. We examined the role of alveolar macrophages in acute infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a rodent pneumovirus that replicates the clinical sequelae of severe human respiratory syncytial virus disease. We show that PVM replicates in primary mouse macrophage culture, releasing infectious virions and proinflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages isolated from PVM-infected mice express activation markers Clec43 and CD86, cytokines TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, and numerous CC and CXC chemokines. Alveolar macrophage depletion prior to PVM infection results in small but statistically significant increases in virus recovery but paradoxically prolonged survival. In parallel, macrophage depleted PVM-infected mice exhibit enhanced NK cell recruitment and increased production of IFNγ by NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest a protective, immunomodulatory role for IFNγ, as overproduction secondary to macrophage depletion may promote survival despite increased virus recovery. PMID:22129848

  4. A potential target gene for the host-directed therapy of mycobacterial infection in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhang; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Pei; Lu, Shan; Chen, Xing; Yao, Yake; Jin, Xiaozheng; Sun, Yilan; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), one of the major bacterial pathogens for lethal infectious diseases, is capable of surviving within the phagosomes of host alveolar macrophages; therefore, host genetic variations may alter the susceptibility to MTB. In this study, to identify host genes exploited by MTB during infection, genes were non-selectively inactivated using lentivirus-based antisense RNA methods in Raw264.7 macrophages, and the cells that survived virulent MTB infection were then screened. Following DNA sequencing of the surviving cell clones, 26 host genes affecting susceptibility to MTB were identified and their pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. In total, 9 of these genes were confirmed as positive regulators of collagen α-5(IV) chain (Col4a5) expression, a gene encoding a type IV collagen subunit present on the cell surface. The knockdown of Col4a5 consistently suppressed intracellular mycobacterial viability, promoting the survival of Raw264.7 macrophages following mycobacterial infection. Furthermore, Col4a5 deficiency lowered the pH levels of intracellular vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes and phagosomes in the Raw264.7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of Col4a5 post-translationally increased microsomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to the acidification of intracellular vesicles. Our findings reveal a novel role for Col4a5 in the regulation of macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection and identify Col4a5 as a potential target for the host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapy. PMID:27432120

  5. A potential target gene for the host-directed therapy of mycobacterial infection in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhang; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Pei; Lu, Shan; Chen, Xing; Yao, Yake; Jin, Xiaozheng; Sun, Yilan; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), one of the major bacterial pathogens for lethal infectious diseases, is capable of surviving within the phagosomes of host alveolar macrophages; therefore, host genetic variations may alter the susceptibility to MTB. In this study, to identify host genes exploited by MTB during infection, genes were non-selectively inactivated using lentivirus-based antisense RNA methods in RAW264.7 macrophages, and the cells that survived virulent MTB infection were then screened. Following DNA sequencing of the surviving cell clones, 26 host genes affecting susceptibility to MTB were identified and their pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. In total, 9 of these genes were confirmed as positive regulators of collagen α-5(IV) chain (Col4a5) expression, a gene encoding a type IV collagen subunit present on the cell surface. The knockdown of Col4a5 consistently suppressed intracellular mycobacterial viability, promoting the survival of RAW264.7 macrophages following mycobacterial infection. Furthermore, Col4a5 deficiency lowered the pH levels of intracellular vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes and phagosomes in the RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of Col4a5 post-translationally increased microsomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to the acidification of intracellular vesicles. Our findings reveal a novel role for Col4a5 in the regulation of macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection and identify Col4a5 as a potential target for the host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapy. PMID:27432120

  6. Triggering Dectin-1-Pathway Alone Is Not Sufficient to Induce Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walachowski, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    β-glucans (BG) are abundant polysaccharides of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (Sc CW), an industry byproduct. They have immuno-stimulatory properties upon engagement of dectin-1 (Clec7a), their main receptor on particular immune cells, and they actually become of great interest because of their preventive or therapeutic potentials. Zymosan, a crude extract of Sc CW was studied as a prototypic BG, despite its miscellaneous PAMPs content. Here, we examined the response of murine wild type or Clec7a-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to products with increasing BG content (15, 65 or 75%) and compared their effects with those of other dectin-1 ligands. The enrichment process removed TLR ligands while preserving dectin-1 activity. The most enriched extracts have very low NFκB activity and triggered low amounts of cytokine production in contrast with crude products like zymosan and BG15. Furthermore, MyD88-/- BMDM did not produce TNFα in response to crude Sc CW extracts, whereas their response to BG-enriched extracts was unaffected, suggesting that BG alone are not able to initiate cytokine secretion. Although Sc CW-derived BG stimulated the late and strong expression of Csf2 in a dectin-1-dependent manner, they remain poor inducers of chemokine and cytokine production in murine macrophages. PMID:26840954

  7. Low-dose cyclophosphamide improves survival in a murine treatment model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian; Bellevue, Oliver; Shawo, Alexandra; Woldesemayat, Hiwot; Lyo, Victoria; Rayikanti, Benjamin; Lee, Michelle; Uzosike, Ezechinyerem D; Kasravi, Shiva; Harris, Hobart W

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex medical condition characterized by a systemic inflammatory response in the setting of infection. We hypothesized that combining antibiotics plus an immunosuppressant would protect against the morbidity and mortality of polymicrobial sepsis in mice better than would antibiotics alone. We used a murine cecal-ligation-and-puncture model in which mice were treated either with imipenem plus cyclophosphamide or imipenem alone. Titration to a low cyclophosphamide dose revealed that combination therapy increased survival by 20% compared with imipenem alone (56% vs. 36%, P < 0.001). To investigate the mechanism by which combination therapy did this, we reviewed quantitative and qualitative markers of the systemic immune response, end-organ damage, and the local immune response at the site of injury. Cyclophosphamide treatment was not associated with depletion of peripheral leukocytes or differences in pulmonary damage. However, mice that received combination therapy had higher plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels than did those treated with antibiotics alone. In addition, mice treated with cyclophosphamide had higher levels of bacterial colonization in intestinal Peyer's patch lymph nodes at 72 h after the septic insult. Intraperitoneal macrophage phenotypes and phagocytosis activity did not differ between groups. We conclude that the inflammatory response plays a significant role in the mortality of polymicrobial sepsis and that the regulation of this element is both feasible and beneficial in this disease model.

  8. The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Romano, B; Borrelli, F; Fasolino, I; Capasso, R; Piscitelli, F; Cascio, MG; Pertwee, RG; Coppola, D; Vassallo, L; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V; Izzo, AA

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabichromene is known to activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin-type1 (TRPA1) and to inhibit endocannabinoid inactivation, both of which are involved in inflammatory processes. We examined here the effects of this phytocannabinoid on peritoneal macrophages and its efficacy in an experimental model of colitis. Experimental Approach Murine peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by LPS. Nitrite levels were measured using a fluorescent assay; inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors were analysed by RT-PCR (and/or Western blot analysis); colitis was induced by dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS). Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Colonic inflammation was assessed by evaluating the myeloperoxidase activity as well as by histology and immunohistochemistry. Key Results LPS caused a significant production of nitrites, associated to up-regulation of anandamide, iNOS, COX-2, CB1 receptors and down-regulation of CB2 receptors mRNA expression. Cannabichromene significantly reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite levels, and its effect was mimicked by cannabinoid receptor and TRPA1 agonists (carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde) and enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists. LPS-induced anandamide, iNOS, COX-2 and cannabinoid receptor changes were not significantly modified by cannabichromene, which, however, increased oleoylethanolamide levels. In vivo, cannabichromene ameliorated DNBS-induced colonic inflammation, as revealed by histology, immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion and Implications Cannabichromene exerts anti-inflammatory actions in activated macrophages – with tonic CB1 cannabinoid signalling being negatively coupled to this effect – and ameliorates experimental murine colitis. PMID:23373571

  9. Myeloperoxidase-Oxidized LDLs Enhance an Anti-Inflammatory M2 and Antioxidant Phenotype in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Aude; Van Steenbrugge, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and oxidized LDLs play a key role in atherogenesis but their heterogeneity has been neglected up to now. Macrophages are prone to polarization and subsets of polarized macrophages have been described in atheromas. LDLs can be oxidized not only chemically by copper (Ox-LDLs) but also enzymatically by myeloperoxidase (MpOx-LDLs) resulting in oxidized LDLs poor in lipid peroxides. The effects of physiologically relevant myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDLs on macrophage polarization or on polarized macrophages remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of LDLs on macrophage polarization were investigated by monitoring the expression of M1 and M2 genes following stimulation with native LDLs, Ox-LDLs, or MpOx-LDLs in RAW 264.7 cells. Except for MRC1, which is induced only by Ox-LDLs, MpOx-LDLs induced an overexpression of most of the selected marker genes at the mRNA level. MpOx-LDLs also modulate marker gene expression in polarized macrophages favoring notably anti-inflammatory Arg1 expression in M2 cells and also in the other phenotypes. Noteworthy, MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate lipids intracellularly in (un)polarized macrophages whatever the phenotype. These data were largely confirmed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate within cells and to enhance an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phenotype in M2 cells and also in the other macrophage phenotypes.

  10. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T.; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells

  11. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  12. Cytotoxicity characterization of catanionic vesicles in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jung-Hua Steven; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Chiu, Hsuan-Wen; Li, Cih-Ta

    2005-03-25

    In comparison with cationic liposomes, catanionic vesicles possess more attractive properties such as stability and lower cost, and these characteristics may make them suitable as a non-viral vehicle and for other biomedical applications such as vaccine adjuvants. However, very little is known about their possible cytotoxic mechanisms in cellular system. Also, this information is vital for the future development of safe biomedical systems. In the current study, the cytotoxic effect of catanionic vesicles, consisting of anionic surfactant (SDS), cationic surfactant (HTMAB), and cholesterol, in cultured RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells was determined. The treatment of catanionic vesicles produced a dose-dependent effect on macrophage cells. RAW 264.7 cells exposed to catanionic vesicles exhibited morphological features of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation. Typical apoptotic ladders were observed in DNA extracted from RAW 264.7 cells treated by catanionic vesicles. Analysis from flow cytometry demonstrated an increase of hypodiploid DNA population (sub-G1) and a simultaneous decrease of diploid DNA content, indicating that DNA cleavage occurred after exposure of the cells with catanionic vesicles. In addition, it was shown that pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with the general caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) did not prevent apoptosis induced by catanionic vesicles, suggesting that apoptosis in macrophage cells followed a caspase-independent pathway induced by catanionic vesicles. These data provide novel insight into the effect of catanionic vesicles on the mechanisms of cell death induced by catanionic vesicles. PMID:15737546

  13. Mannose receptor contribution to Candida albicans phagocytosis by murine E-clone J774 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, Isabelle; Vidal, Michel; Jouvert, Sylvie; Stahl, Philip D; Giaimis, Jean

    2003-08-01

    Mannoproteins, as the main constituents of the outer layer of yeast cell walls, are able to interact with phagocytic cells in an opsonin-independent manner through the mannose receptor (MR) and to induce yeast ingestion by the professional phagocytes. Moreover, the MR also mediates endocytosis of soluble ligands through clathrin-coated pits. Here, we studied some aspects of the interaction between the MR and Candida albicans using murine E-clone macrophages and the consequences on MR trafficking. Using a pull-down assay involving mixture E-clone macrophage detergent lysate with mannosylated Sepharose beads and glutaraldehyde-fixed, heat-killed (HK) C. albicans, we found that binding of solubilized MR to mannosylated particles occurred with characteristics similar to the receptor's cell-surface mannose-binding activity. We then demonstrated that MR expressed on E-clone macrophages contributed to phagocytosis of unopsonized, HK C. albicans and that yeast phagocytosis induced a decrease in MR endocytic activity without concomitant degradation of the receptor in the time lapse studied. PMID:12885937

  14. MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

  15. Monocytes/macrophages isolated from the mouse central nervous system contain infectious Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV).

    PubMed

    Clatch, R J; Miller, S D; Metzner, R; Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1990-05-01

    Knowledge of the cells in which Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) persists is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease; however, it is still uncertain whether oligodendrocytes or macrophages are the primary target for persistence. In this study, mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated directly from central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory infiltrates of TMEV-infected mice on discontinuous Percoll gradients were found to contain infectious TMEV. Macrophages appeared to be the principal MNC infected as determined by two-color immunofluorescence. Infectious center assay and double immunostaining together indicated the presence and possible synthesis of TMEV in approximately 1 in 225 to 1 in 1000 CNS macrophages, with 1 to 7 PFU produced per macrophage. On the basis of these findings, limited replication in macrophages is consistent with the total CNS virus content detected at any time during the persistent phase of the infection as well as the slow pace of the infection.

  16. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  17. Role of Murine Cytomegalovirus US22 Gene Family Members in Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, Carine; Wagner, Markus; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Holak, Karina; Brune, Wolfram; Campbell, Ann E.; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2003-01-01

    The large cytomegalovirus (CMV) US22 gene family, found in all betaherpesviruses, comprises 12 members in both human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Conserved sequence motifs suggested a common ancestry and related functions for these gene products. Two members of this family, m140 and m141, were recently shown to affect MCMV replication on macrophages. To test the role of all US22 members in cell tropism, we analyzed the growth properties in different cell types of MCMV mutants carrying transposon insertions in all 12 US22 gene family members. When necessary, additional targeted mutants with gene deletions, ATG deletions, and ectopic gene revertants were constructed. Mutants with disruption of genes M23, M24, m25.1, m25.2, and m128 (ie2) showed no obvious growth phenotype, whereas growth of M43 mutants was reduced in a number of cell lines. Genes m142 and m143 were shown to be essential for virus replication. Growth of mutants with insertions into genes M36, m139, m140, and m141 in macrophages was severely affected. The common phenotype of the m139, m140, and m141 mutants was explained by an interaction at the protein level. The M36-dependent macrophage growth phenotype could be explained by the antiapoptotic function of the gene that was required for growth on macrophages but not for growth on other cell types. Together, the comprehensive set of mutants of the US22 gene family suggests that individual family members have diverged through evolution to serve a variety of functions for the virus. PMID:12719548

  18. Streptococcal Histone Induces Murine Macrophages To Produce Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Ignatowski, Tracey A.; Spengler, Robert N.; Noble, Bernice; Stinson, Murray W.

    1999-01-01

    The histone-like protein (HlpA) is highly conserved among streptococci. After lysis of streptococci in infected tissues, HlpA can enter the bloodstream and bind to proteoglycans in the glomerular capillaries of kidneys, where it can react with antibodies or stimulate host cell receptors. Deposits of streptococcal antigens in tissues have been associated with localized acute inflammation. In this study, we measured the ability of purified HlpA (5 to 100 μg/ml), from Streptococcus mitis, to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by cultured, murine peritoneal macrophages. The release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) was time and concentration dependent and was not diminished by the presence of polymyxin B. Exposure of macrophages to a mixture of HlpA and lipoteichoic acid resulted in a synergistic response in the production of both TNF-α and IL-1. Stimulation with a mixture of HlpA and heparin resulted in reduced cytokine production (50% less IL-1 and 76% less TNF-α) compared to that by cells incubated with HlpA alone. The inclusion of antibodies specific to HlpA in macrophage cultures during stimulation with HlpA did not affect the quantity of TNF-α or IL-1 produced. These observations suggest that streptococcal histone may contribute to tissue injury at infection sites by promoting monocytes/macrophages to synthesize and release cytokines that initiate and exacerbate inflammation. Streptococcus pyogenes, which can infect tissues in enormous numbers, may release sufficient amounts of HlpA to reach the kidneys and cause acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. PMID:10569765

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Persistence in Murine Macrophages Impairs IFN-β Response but Not Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Torres-González, Laura; Gómez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Type-I interferon (IFN-I) production is an early response to viral infection and pathogenic viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade this cellular defense. Some viruses can establish and maintain persistent infections by altering the IFN-I signaling pathway. Here, we studied IFN-I synthesis and response in an in vitro model of persistent infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a murine macrophage-like cell line. In this model, interferon regulatory factor 3 was constitutively active and located at nuclei of persistently infected cells, inducing expression of IFN-beta mRNA and protein. However, persistently infected macrophages did not respond in an autocrine manner to the secreted-IFN-beta or to recombinant-IFN-beta, since phosphorylated-STAT1 was not detected by western blot and transcription of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) Mx1 and ISG56 was not induced. Treatment of non-infected macrophages with supernatants from persistently infected cells induced STAT1 phosphorylation and ISGs expression, mediated by the IFN-I present in the supernatants, because blocking the IFN-I receptor inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation. Results suggest that the lack of autocrine response to IFN-I by the host cell may be one mechanism for maintenance of RSV persistence. Furthermore, STAT1 phosphorylation and ISGs expression induced in non-infected cells by supernatants from persistently infected macrophages suggest that RSV persistence may trigger a proinflammatory phenotype in non-infected cells as part of the pathogenesis of RSV infection. PMID:26501312

  20. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  1. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeanette V; Mejia, J Santiago; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Tabachnick, Walter J; Titus, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  2. Macrophage lineage switching of murine early pre-B lymphoid cells expressing transduced fms genes.

    PubMed Central

    Borzillo, G V; Ashmun, R A; Sherr, C J

    1990-01-01

    fms genes encoding either wild-type or constitutively activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptors (CSF-1R) were introduced by retroviral infection into long-term mouse lymphoid cultures. Four early pre-B-cell lines transformed by the feline v-fms oncogene underwent spontaneous and irreversible differentiation to macrophages when transferred from RPMI 1640 to Iscove modified Dulbecco medium. Expression of wild-type human CSF-1R in early pre-B cells conferred no proliferative advantage unless human CSF-1 was added to the culture medium. A clonal, factor-dependent early pre-B-cell line (D1F9), selected for continuous growth on NIH 3T3 cell feeder layers producing human CSF-1, could be maintained in RPMI 1640 medium containing interleukin-7 (IL-7) but also differentiated to macrophages when grown in Iscove modified Dulbecco medium containing human CSF-1. The macrophages retained parental immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and proviral insertions, lost B-cell antigens, expressed butyrate esterase and MAC-1, were actively phagocytic, and no longer survived in IL-7. Unlike factor-independent v-fms transformants, the irreversible commitment of D1F9 cells to differentiate in the macrophage lineage could be suppressed by IL-7, depended on human (but not mouse) CSF-1, and was inhibited by an antibody to human CSF-1R. Signals mediated by transduced CSF-1R can therefore play a deterministic role in cell differentiation. Images PMID:2160584

  3. Requirement for non-regulated, constitutive calcium influx in macrophage survival signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the role of constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx in macrophage survival. {yields} Survival signaling exhibits a mandatory requirement for constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx. {yields} CAM/CAMKII couples constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx to survival signaling. -- Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis and the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) pathway play critical roles in macrophage survival. In cells other than macrophages proper operation of those two pathways requires Ca{sup 2+} influx into the cell, but if that is the case in macrophages remains unexplored. In the present work we used THP-1-derived macrophages and a pharmacological approach to examine for the first time the role of constitutive, non-regulated Ca{sup 2+} influx in PI3K/AKT and NF{kappa}B signaling. Blocking constitutive function of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channels with the organic channel blocker SKF96365 completely prevented phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, AKT and its downstream target BAD in TNF{alpha}-treated macrophages. A similar effect was observed upon treating macrophages with the calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor W-7 or the calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor KN-62. In addition, pre-treating macrophages with SKF96365 significantly enhanced TNF{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that in THP-1-derived macrophages survival signaling depends, to a significant extent, on constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx presumably through a mechanism that involves the CAM/CAMKII axis as a coupling component between constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx and activation of survival signaling.

  4. Staphylococcal exotoxins stimulate nitric oxide-dependent murine macrophage tumoricidal activity.

    PubMed Central

    Fast, D J; Shannon, B J; Herriott, M J; Kennedy, M J; Rummage, J A; Leu, R W

    1991-01-01

    The staphylococcal exotoxins toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and enterotoxin B were tested for their ability to stimulate murine peritoneal macrophages (PM) for tumoricidal activity. Both toxins were found to stimulate oil-elicited, gamma interferon-primed PM monolayers to kill nonadherent P815 tumor targets. The mechanism of killing of toxin-stimulated tumoricidal activity involved the production of nitric oxide, as nitrite could be demonstrated in culture fluids, and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide production, abrogated toxin-stimulated tumoricidal activity. TSST-1 stimulated the secretion of tumor necrosis factor by PM monolayers in the presence and absence of gamma interferon. The mechanism of toxin-stimulated tumoricidal activity was also determined to be independent of the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in that TSST-1 failed to stimulate H2O2 production by PM. These results demonstrate that the staphylococcal exotoxins are capable of stimulating macrophage production of nitric oxide for tumor cytotoxicity and suggest that the nitric oxide thus produced may subsequently play a role in the pathogenesis of the diseases caused by these toxins. PMID:1908828

  5. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, Susan L.; Klimko, Christopher P.; Kern, Steven J.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Bozue, Joel A.; Bernhards, Robert C.; Trevino, Sylvia R.; Waag, David M.; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  6. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  7. Peptide nucleic acids inhibit growth of Brucella suis in pure culture and in infected murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Alexander, Jeffry C.; Seleem, Mohamed N.; Jain, Neeta; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Wattam, Alice R.; Setubal, João C.; Boyle, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are single-stranded, synthetic nucleic acid analogues containing a pseudopeptide backbone in place of the phosphodiester sugar–phosphate. When PNAs are covalently linked to cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) they readily penetrate the bacterial cell envelope, inhibit expression of targeted genes and cause growth inhibition both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of PNAs against Brucella, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, was unknown. The susceptibility of a virulent Brucella suis strain to a variety of PNAs was assessed in pure culture as well as in murine macrophages. The studies showed that some of the PNAs targeted to Brucella genes involved in DNA (polA, dnaG, gyrA), RNA (rpoB), cell envelope (asd), fatty acid (kdtA, acpP) and protein (tsf) synthesis inhibit the growth of B. suis in culture and in macrophages after 24 h of treatment. PNA treatment inhibited Brucella growth by interfering with gene expression in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner at micromolar concentrations. The most effective PNA in broth culture was that targeting polA at ca. 12 μM. In contrast, in B. suis-infected macrophages, the most effective PNAs were those targeting asd and dnaG at 30 μM; both of these PNAs had little inhibitory effect on Brucella in broth culture. The polA PNA that inhibits wild-type B. suis also inhibits the growth of wild-type Brucella melitensis 16M and Brucella abortus 2308 in culture. This study reveals the potential usefulness of antisense PNA constructs as novel therapeutic agents against intracellular Brucella. PMID:23305655

  8. p47 GTPases Regulate Toxoplasma gondii Survival in Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Barbara A.; Greene, Robert I.; Henry, Stanley C.; Annecharico, Kimberly L.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Denkers, Eric Y.; Sher, Alan; Taylor, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is critical for resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. IFN-γ strongly activates macrophages and nonphagocytic host cells to limit intracellular growth of T. gondii; however, the cellular factors that are required for this effect are largely unknown. We have shown previously that IGTP and LRG-47, members of the IFN-γ-regulated family of p47 GTPases, are required for resistance to acute T. gondii infections in vivo. In contrast, IRG-47, another member of this family, is not required. In the present work, we addressed whether these GTPases are required for IFN-γ-induced suppression of T. gondii growth in macrophages in vitro. Bone marrow macrophages that lacked IGTP or LRG-47 displayed greatly attenuated IFN-γ-induced inhibition of T. gondii growth, while macrophages that lacked IRG-47 displayed normal inhibition. Thus, the ability of the p47 GTPases to limit acute infection in vivo correlated with their ability to suppress intracellular growth in macrophages in vitro. Using confocal microscopy and sucrose density fractionation, we demonstrated that IGTP largely colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum markers, while LRG-47 was mainly restricted to the Golgi. Although both IGTP and LRG-47 localized to vacuoles containing latex beads, neither protein localized to vacuoles containing live T. gondii. These results suggest that IGTP and LRG-47 are able to regulate host resistance to acute T. gondii infections through their ability to inhibit parasite growth within the macrophage. PMID:15908352

  9. Alpha-D-galactosylation of surface fucoglycoconjugate(s) upon stimulation/activation of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Petryniak, J

    1992-04-01

    Murine resident macrophages express, on their surface, carbohydrate epitopes which undergo changes during their stimulation/activation as monitored by binding of 125I labelled Evonymus europaea and Griffonia simplicifolia I-B4 lectins. Treatment of the stimulated macrophages with coffee bean alpha-galactosidase abolished binding of the GS I-B4 isolectin and changed the binding pattern of the Evonymus lectin. The affinity (Ka) of Evonymus lectin for alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages decreased approximately 23-fold, from 1.25 x 10(8) M-1 to 5.5 x 10(6) M-1. Subsequent digestion of alpha-galactosidase-treated macrophages with alpha-L-fucosidase from Trichomonas foetus, further reduced binding of Evonymus lectin. Resident macrophages showed the same pattern of Evonymus lectin binding, with the same affinity, as alpha-galactosidase-treated, stimulated macrophages. These results, together with a consideration of the carbohydrate binding specificity of the Evonymus lectin which, in the absence of alpha-D-galactosyl groups, requires alpha-L-fucosyl groups for binding, indicate the presence, on resident macrophages, of glycoconjugates with terminal alpha-L-fucosyl residues. It is also concluded that during macrophage stimulation/activation alpha-D-galactosyl residues are added to this glycoconjugate and that they form part of the receptor for Evonymus lectin. The same glycoconjugate(s) is/are also expressed on the activated macrophage IC-21 cell line which exhibits the same characteristics as that of stimulated peritoneal macrophages, i.e., it contains alpha-D-galactosyl end groups and is resistant to the action of trypsin. Both lectins were also specifically bound to Corynaebacterium parvum activated macrophages. PMID:1344714

  10. Effect of macrophage classical (M1) activation on implant-adherent macrophage interactions with Staphylococcus epidermidis: A murine in vitro model system.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung R; Bryers, James D

    2012-08-01

    A model in vitro system was developed for eliciting classical (M1) activation of surface-adherent murine macrophages, which was then used to study the interaction of the M1 macrophages with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Glass substrata were first covalently grafted with a mixture of methoxy- and biotin-terminated silanated polyethylene glycol. Interferon (IFN)-γ and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ligands known to induce the highly microbicidal M1 activation state in macrophages, were biotinylated and immobilized by way of a streptavidin intermediate to the biotin-PEG base substratum. Assessment of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) interleukin (IL)-12(p40) and nitric oxide response to the fabricated surfaces confirmed that the model system achieved activation of adherent macrophage: IFN-γ-presenting surfaces primed cells for M1 activation, LPS-presenting surfaces elicited innate activation, and surface presenting a combination of IFN-γ and LPS induced M1 activation. The phagocytic and microbicidal capacity of activated, surface-adherent BMDM was evaluated using S. epidermidis, a bacterial species prevalent in implant-associated infections. Results indicate that M1 activation of implant-adherent macrophages trends towards diminishing their phagocytic capacity, but enhances their microbicidal capacity for S. epidermidis.

  11. Effects of β-endorphin on the production of reactive oxygen species, IL-1β, Tnf-Α, and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gein, S V; Baeva, T A; Nebogatikov, V O

    2016-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that β-endorphin stimulates the zymosan-induced secretion of reactive oxygen species and suppresses the spontaneous production of IL-1β and IL-10 by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo. PMID:27595832

  12. Scavenger receptor of human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and murine macrophages for nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Horiuchi, S; Araki, N; Shiga, M; Saitoh, M; Morino, Y

    1989-11-17

    Long-term incubation of proteins with glucose undergo a series of nonenzymatic reactions to form advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) with fluorescence and brown color. The receptor for AGE-proteins was demonstrated in murine macrophages (Vlassara et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82. 5588). Our recent study with rat macrophages revealed that the receptor also recognized proteins modified with aliphatic aldehydes such as formaldehyde or glycolaldehyde, indicating its close identity to a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins (Takata, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263. 14819). This notion was tested in the present study with human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells), human monocyte macrophages and murine peritoneal macrophages. Endocytic uptake of AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins was inhibited in a cross-competitive fashion. The receptor activities of THP-1 cells for AGE-albumin and aldehyde-modified proteins were induced synchronously by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Furthermore, upon reduction by NaBH4 of the Schiff base formed between proteins and glucose or aldehydes, no ligand activity was generated. However, once the ligand activity was generated, NaBH4 was no longer effective for the ligand activity. Thus, a structure in common between AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins may be crucial for recognition by the human macrophage receptor.

  13. Transfer to in vitro conditions influences expression and intracellular distribution of galectin-3 in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dumić, J; Lauc, G; Hadzija, M; Flögel, M

    2000-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin that has been implicated in numerous physiological processes, including mRNA splicing, cell differentiation, tumor metastasis and the stress response. We have studied effects of transfer of resident murine peritoneal macrophages to in vitro conditions on galectin-3 in different cell compartments. Galectin-3 was purified by immunoprecipitation with rat monoclonal antibody M3/38, and analyzed by immunoblotting using the same antibody. Transfer to in vitro conditions nearly doubled the total amount of galectin-3 in cells, and caused significant alterations in its intracellular distribution, indicating that galectin-3 is involved in the adaptation of peritoneal macrophages to in vitro conditions.

  14. Myeloperoxidase-Oxidized LDLs Enhance an Anti-Inflammatory M2 and Antioxidant Phenotype in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Aude; Van Steenbrugge, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and oxidized LDLs play a key role in atherogenesis but their heterogeneity has been neglected up to now. Macrophages are prone to polarization and subsets of polarized macrophages have been described in atheromas. LDLs can be oxidized not only chemically by copper (Ox-LDLs) but also enzymatically by myeloperoxidase (MpOx-LDLs) resulting in oxidized LDLs poor in lipid peroxides. The effects of physiologically relevant myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDLs on macrophage polarization or on polarized macrophages remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of LDLs on macrophage polarization were investigated by monitoring the expression of M1 and M2 genes following stimulation with native LDLs, Ox-LDLs, or MpOx-LDLs in RAW 264.7 cells. Except for MRC1, which is induced only by Ox-LDLs, MpOx-LDLs induced an overexpression of most of the selected marker genes at the mRNA level. MpOx-LDLs also modulate marker gene expression in polarized macrophages favoring notably anti-inflammatory Arg1 expression in M2 cells and also in the other phenotypes. Noteworthy, MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate lipids intracellularly in (un)polarized macrophages whatever the phenotype. These data were largely confirmed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate within cells and to enhance an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phenotype in M2 cells and also in the other macrophage phenotypes. PMID:27656049

  15. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.L. )

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereas the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.

  16. Treatment of murine macrophages with murine interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha enhances uptake and intracellular killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, S S; Sonnenfeld, G

    1993-01-01

    Murine interferon-gamma (MuIFN-gamma) and murine tumour necrosis-alpha (MuTNF-alpha) are known to be potent immunomodulators of several aspects of the immune response, and they have been shown to exert profound effects on macrophages and monocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of MuIFN-gamma and MuTNF-alpha on the phagocytosis (uptake and intracellular killing) of opsonized Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Unstimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from CBA/c mice were exposed to different concentrations of recombinant forms of the cytokines (rMuIFN-gamma and rMuTNF-alpha) for different periods of time. Phagocytosis was assayed using different concentrations of opsonized Ps. aeruginosa. In all cases the pretreatment of the cells with the cytokines increased significantly the uptake and the intracellular killing of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. rMuTNF-alpha was effective only at 1000 U/ml. Combined treatment with the cytokines showed a less than additive effect with rMuIFN-gamma and rMuTNF-alpha at concentrations of 10 U/ml and 100 U/ml. In the in vivo experiments, peritoneal macrophages obtained from rMuIFN-gamma- or rMuTNF-alpha-treated mice showed enhancement of the intracellular killing of opsonized bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:8348741

  17. Enhanced resection and improved survival in murine neuroblastoma (C1300-NB) after preoperative immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, C L; Brooks, S P; Squire, R; Rich, G A; Rossman, J E; Finegold, M J; Allen, J E; Cooney, D R

    1991-04-01

    Advanced neuroblastoma treated with standard chemotherapy has a poor prognosis. Combination immunotherapy for murine neuroblastoma with retinyl palmitate, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and interleukin-2 resulted in increased survival, impaired tumor growth, easier surgical resection, and increased class I expression or tumor cells. Preoperative immunotherapy may be useful in treatment of advanced human neuroblastoma.

  18. The effects of Phyllanthus niruri aqueous extract on the activation of murine lymphocytes and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nworu, C S; Akah, P A; Okoye, F B C; Proksch, P; Esimone, C O

    2010-01-01

    Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is acclaimed world-wide for its versatile ethnomedicinal uses. It features in recipes used by some herbalists to manage different diseases, including claims of efficacy against many life-threatening infections, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. In order to understand the mechanisms and the involvement of the immune system in mediating these activities, the effects of the aqueous extract of P. niruri on the activation of murine lymphocytes and macrophages were investigated. The study showed that the extract of P. niruri is a potent murine lymphocytes mitogen, inducing significant (p < 0.01) increases in the expression of surface activation maker (CD69) and proliferation of B and T lymphocytes. The production of interferon-gamma (IFN- gamma) and interleukine-4 (IL-4) by P. niruri extract-stimulated naïve splenocytes cultures was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Various indices of activation and functions murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced by pre-treatment with the extract, including phagocytosis, lysosomal enzymes activity, and TNF-alpha release. Phyllanthus niruri extract was also shown to modulate nitric oxide release by macrophages. These activities suggest that stimulation of the immune system by the extracts of P. niruri could be partly responsible for the ethnomedicinal applications in the management of infectious diseases. PMID:20380522

  19. Cholera toxin B induced activation of murine macrophages exposed to a fixed bacterial immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Wiedinger, Kari; Romlein, Heather; Bitsaktsis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal administration of inactivated (fixed) Francisella tularensis (iFt) live vaccine strain (LVS) in conjunction with the mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin B (CTB), provides full protection against subsequent lethal challenge with Ft LVS and partial protection against the more virulent Ft SchuS4 strain. Understanding the mechanisms of CTB-induced immune stimulation that confer protection against Ft will be valuable to the development of an effective vaccine against this highly virulent fatal pathogen. In this study, an in vitro system was utilized to further elucidate the immunologic adjuvant effect of CTB when administered with the fixed bacterial immunogen iFt. Methods: The murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) was treated with combinations of iFt and CTB. The treated RAW264.7 cells and their supernatants were collected and assessed for cell surface marker expression and cytokine secretion. In addition, the ability of RAW264.7 cells to present bacterial antigens (iFt or LVS) to an Ft-specific T-cell hybridoma cell line, following exposure to CTB, was analyzed. Results: We found that RAW264.7 cells responded to treatment with iFt + CTB by an increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α and upregulation of the surface expression of toll-like receptor 4 and the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Furthermore, the experimental vaccine treatment iFt + CTB enhanced the ability of macrophages to present iFt antigens to an FT-specific T-cell hybridoma cell line, although they failed to do so with LVS. Conclusion: The adjuvant CTB administered in conjunction with iFt showed evidence of enhancing an antigen-specific proinflammatory response in vitro. These observations allow us to define, in part, the mechanisms of immune activation conferred by mucosal administration of iFt + CTB against lethal F. tularensis challenge. PMID:26668753

  20. Thiram modulates pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kurpios-Piec, Dagmara; Woźniak, Katarzyna; Kowalewski, Cezary; Gajewska, Beata; Rahden-Staroń, Iwonna

    2015-02-01

    Thiram (TMTD) is a widely used dithiocarbamate pesticide and fungicide and is one of potent contact allergens. In the light of known properties, thiram is also considered to be used as an inhibitor of inflammation. To investigate whether known pro-oxidative properties of thiram might be involved in immunogenic mechanisms, we carried out an in vitro study aimed at analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of NF-κB, expression of iNOS and COX-2, production of NO, PGE2 and IL-1β in murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). The cells were treated by thiram alone (0.5 µg/mL; 2 μM and 2 µg/mL; 8 μM) or concomitantly with bacterial endotoxin (LPS; 1 μg/mL). LPS was used as an endotoxin that triggers changes characteristic for inflammatory state of the cell. TMTD increased ROS production, level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and activated NF-κB. The consequence of NF-κB activation was the increase of IL-1β and NO production characteristic for inflammation. However, we did not observe changes in PGE2 concentration. We observed expression of iNOS, COX-2 proteins and NO and PGE2 production in macrophages treated with thiram concomitantly with LPS lower than those in cells stimulated with LPS alone. Thiram (2 µg/mL) decreased NF-κB activation and production of LPS-induced IL-1β. In conclusion, we demonstrated changes induced by TMTD characteristic for inflammation. Hence, it can be supposed that they may participate in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis induced by thiram. However, when TMTD acts concomitantly with LPS, it decreases the intensity of inflammation state in RAW 264.7.

  1. Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Majumdar, Subrata; Bag, Braja Gopal; Roy, Somenath

    2009-11-25

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of eugenol against in vitro nicotine-induced toxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages, compared with N-acetylcysteine. Eugenol was isolated from Ocimum gratissimum and characterized by HPLC, FTIR, (1)H NMR. To establish most effective protective support, we used five different concentrations of eugenol (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20microg/ml) and N-acetylcysteine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0microg/ml) against 10mM nicotine in mice peritoneal macrophages. A dose-dependent protective effect was observed with all doses of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine, as evidenced by decreased level of superoxide anion generation and malondialdehyde, and also increased level of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, maximum protection was observed at the concentration of 15.0microg/ml eugenol (0.09nM) and 1.0microg/ml N-acetylcysteine (0.006nM). Further, eugenol (15.0microg/ml) and N-acetylcysteine (1.0microg/ml) were tested against nicotine (10mM) toxicity by analyzing the radical generation, lipid, protein, DNA damage, and endogenous antioxidant status. There was a significant increase in the level of radical generation, NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity, lipid, protein, DNA damage and oxidized glutathione level in nicotine-treated group, which were significantly reduced by eugenol and N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Antioxidant status was significantly depleted in the nicotine-treated group, which was effectively restored by eugenol and N-acetylcysteine supplementation. The protection by eugenol against nicotine toxicity was merely equal effective to that of N-acetylcysteine. These findings suggest the potential use and benefit of eugenol isolated from O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced cellular damage and it may be used as an immunomodulatory drug against nicotine toxicity.

  2. Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Majumdar, Subrata; Bag, Braja Gopal; Roy, Somenath

    2009-11-25

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of eugenol against in vitro nicotine-induced toxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages, compared with N-acetylcysteine. Eugenol was isolated from Ocimum gratissimum and characterized by HPLC, FTIR, (1)H NMR. To establish most effective protective support, we used five different concentrations of eugenol (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20microg/ml) and N-acetylcysteine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0microg/ml) against 10mM nicotine in mice peritoneal macrophages. A dose-dependent protective effect was observed with all doses of eugenol and N-acetylcysteine, as evidenced by decreased level of superoxide anion generation and malondialdehyde, and also increased level of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, maximum protection was observed at the concentration of 15.0microg/ml eugenol (0.09nM) and 1.0microg/ml N-acetylcysteine (0.006nM). Further, eugenol (15.0microg/ml) and N-acetylcysteine (1.0microg/ml) were tested against nicotine (10mM) toxicity by analyzing the radical generation, lipid, protein, DNA damage, and endogenous antioxidant status. There was a significant increase in the level of radical generation, NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity, lipid, protein, DNA damage and oxidized glutathione level in nicotine-treated group, which were significantly reduced by eugenol and N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Antioxidant status was significantly depleted in the nicotine-treated group, which was effectively restored by eugenol and N-acetylcysteine supplementation. The protection by eugenol against nicotine toxicity was merely equal effective to that of N-acetylcysteine. These findings suggest the potential use and benefit of eugenol isolated from O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced cellular damage and it may be used as an immunomodulatory drug against nicotine toxicity. PMID:19769960

  3. C/EBPβ is a transcriptional key regulator of IL-36α in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Andreas; Ruangkiattikul, Nanthapon; Laarmann, Kristin; Janze, Nina; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36α - one of the novel members of the IL-1 family of cytokines - is a potent regulator of dendritic and T cells and plays an important role in inflammatory processes like experimental skin inflammation in mice and in mouse models for human psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that C/EBPβ, a transcription factor required for the selective expression of inflammatory genes, is a key activator of the Il36A gene in murine macrophages. RNAi-mediated suppression of C/EBPβ expression in macrophages (C/EBPβ(low) cells) significantly impaired Il36A gene induction following challenge with LPS. Despite the presence of five predicted C/EBP binding sites, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that C/EBPβ confers responsiveness to LPS primarily through a half-CRE•C/EBP element in the proximal Il36A promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that C/EBPβ but not CREB proteins interact with this critical half-CRE•C/EBP element. In addition, overexpression of C/EBPβ in C/EBPβ(low) cells enhanced the expression of Il36A whereas CREB-1 had no effect. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that C/EBPβ but neither CREB-1, ATF-2 nor ATF4 is directly recruited to the proximal promoter region of the Il36A gene. Together, these findings demonstrate an essential role of C/EBPβ in the regulation of the Il36A gene via the proximal half-CRE•C/EBP element in response to inflammatory stimuli.

  4. Intracellular Survival of Leishmania major Depends on Uptake and Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Naderer, Thomas; Heng, Joanne; Saunders, Eleanor C; Kloehn, Joachim; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W; Brown, Tracey J; McConville, Malcolm J

    2015-09-01

    Leishmania parasites replicate within the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. Although Leishmania depend on sugars as a major carbon source during infections, the nutrient composition of the phagolysosome remains poorly described. To determine the origin of the sugar carbon source in macrophage phagolysosomes, we have generated a N-acetylglucosamine acetyltransferase (GNAT) deficient Leishmania major mutant (∆gnat) that is auxotrophic for the amino sugar, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). This mutant was unable to grow or survive in ex vivo infected macrophages even when macrophages were cultivated in presence of exogenous GlcNAc. In contrast, the L. major ∆gnat mutant induced normal skin lesions in mice, suggesting that these parasites have access to GlcNAc in tissue macrophages. Intracellular growth of the mutant in ex vivo infected macrophages was restored by supplementation of the macrophage medium with hyaluronan, a GlcNAc-rich extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan. Hyaluronan is present and constitutively turned-over in Leishmania-induced skin lesions and is efficiently internalized into Leishmania containing phagolysosomes. These findings suggest that the constitutive internalization and degradation of host glycosaminoglycans by macrophages provides Leishmania with essential carbon sources, creating a uniquely favorable niche for these parasites.

  5. Intracellular Survival of Leishmania major Depends on Uptake and Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Eleanor C.; Kloehn, Joachim; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W.; Brown, Tracey J.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leishmania parasites replicate within the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. Although Leishmania depend on sugars as a major carbon source during infections, the nutrient composition of the phagolysosome remains poorly described. To determine the origin of the sugar carbon source in macrophage phagolysosomes, we have generated a N-acetylglucosamine acetyltransferase (GNAT) deficient Leishmania major mutant (∆gnat) that is auxotrophic for the amino sugar, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). This mutant was unable to grow or survive in ex vivo infected macrophages even when macrophages were cultivated in presence of exogenous GlcNAc. In contrast, the L. major ∆gnat mutant induced normal skin lesions in mice, suggesting that these parasites have access to GlcNAc in tissue macrophages. Intracellular growth of the mutant in ex vivo infected macrophages was restored by supplementation of the macrophage medium with hyaluronan, a GlcNAc-rich extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan. Hyaluronan is present and constitutively turned-over in Leishmania-induced skin lesions and is efficiently internalized into Leishmania containing phagolysosomes. These findings suggest that the constitutive internalization and degradation of host glycosaminoglycans by macrophages provides Leishmania with essential carbon sources, creating a uniquely favorable niche for these parasites. PMID:26334531

  6. SIGNR1 ligation on murine peritoneal macrophages induces IL-12 production through NFkappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Chiaki; Kojima, Naoya

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that murine resident peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) are activated in response to uptake of oligomannose-coated liposomes (OMLs), leading to production of interleukin (IL)-12. To understand the mechanism of activation of PEMs by OMLs, in the present study we investigated the role of a mannose-binding C-type lectin receptor, SIGNR1, in production of proinflammatory cytokines by PEMs, in which SIGNR1 acts as a physiological receptor for OMLs. Engagement of SIGNR1 on PEMs with an anti-SIGNR1-specific rat IgM antibody, ERTR9, induced production of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha from PEMs, while secretion of IL-6 and IL-1beta was not detected with the same treatment. The level of phosphorylated IkappaB kinase in PEMs also increased in response to ERTR9 treatment of the cells. Treatment of PEMs with a specific nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, reduced ERTR9-dependent IL-12 production. Intraperitoneal treatment with BAY11-7082 also led to reduction of subsequent OML-induced IL-12 production from PEMs. These results indicate that SIGNR1-mediated intercellular signaling may induce production of cytokines such as IL-12 through NFkappaB activation.

  7. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chae E.; Lee, Seung J.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Bae, Jin U.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-05-15

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB{sub 4} production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB{sub 4}. Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB{sub 4}, subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  8. Blockade of CCR2 reduces macrophage influx and development of chronic renal damage in murine renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Sonu; Warner, Gina M; Hartono, Stella P; Boyilla, Rajendra; Knudsen, Bruce E; Zubair, Adeel S; Lien, Karen; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a common cause of both cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. In renal artery stenosis (RAS), atrophy in the stenotic kidney is associated with an influx of macrophages and other mononuclear cells. We tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibition would reduce chronic renal injury by reducing macrophage influx in the stenotic kidney of mice with RAS. We employed a well-established murine model of RVH to define the relationship between macrophage infiltration and development of renal atrophy in the stenotic kidney. To determine the role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/CCR2 signaling in the development of renal atrophy, mice were treated with the CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 at the time of RAS surgery and followed for 4 wk. Renal tubular epithelial cells expressed CCL2 by 3 days following surgery, a time at which no significant light microscopic alterations, including interstitial inflammation, were identified. Macrophage influx increased with time following surgery. At 4 wk, the development of severe renal atrophy was accompanied by an influx of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ and CD206+ macrophages that coexpressed F4/80, with a modest increase in macrophages coexpressing arginase 1 and F4/80. The CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 attenuated renal atrophy and significantly reduced the number of dual-stained F4/80+ iNOS+ and F4/80+ CD206+ but not F4/80+ arginase 1+ macrophages. CCR2 inhibition reduces iNOS+ and CD206+ macrophage accumulation that coexpress F4/80 and renal atrophy in experimental renal artery stenosis. CCR2 blockade may provide a novel therapeutic approach to humans with RVH. PMID:26661648

  9. Blockade of CCR2 reduces macrophage influx and development of chronic renal damage in murine renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Sonu; Warner, Gina M; Hartono, Stella P; Boyilla, Rajendra; Knudsen, Bruce E; Zubair, Adeel S; Lien, Karen; Nath, Karl A; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O; Grande, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a common cause of both cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. In renal artery stenosis (RAS), atrophy in the stenotic kidney is associated with an influx of macrophages and other mononuclear cells. We tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibition would reduce chronic renal injury by reducing macrophage influx in the stenotic kidney of mice with RAS. We employed a well-established murine model of RVH to define the relationship between macrophage infiltration and development of renal atrophy in the stenotic kidney. To determine the role of chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/CCR2 signaling in the development of renal atrophy, mice were treated with the CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 at the time of RAS surgery and followed for 4 wk. Renal tubular epithelial cells expressed CCL2 by 3 days following surgery, a time at which no significant light microscopic alterations, including interstitial inflammation, were identified. Macrophage influx increased with time following surgery. At 4 wk, the development of severe renal atrophy was accompanied by an influx of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+ and CD206+ macrophages that coexpressed F4/80, with a modest increase in macrophages coexpressing arginase 1 and F4/80. The CCR2 inhibitor RS-102895 attenuated renal atrophy and significantly reduced the number of dual-stained F4/80+ iNOS+ and F4/80+ CD206+ but not F4/80+ arginase 1+ macrophages. CCR2 inhibition reduces iNOS+ and CD206+ macrophage accumulation that coexpress F4/80 and renal atrophy in experimental renal artery stenosis. CCR2 blockade may provide a novel therapeutic approach to humans with RVH.

  10. Macrophage Delivery of Therapeutic Nanozymes in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brynskikh, Anna M.; Zhao, Yuling; Mosley, R. Lee; Li, Shu; Boska, Michael D.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Batrakova, Elena V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with profound nigrostriatal degeneration. Regrettably, no therapies are currently available that can attenuate disease progression. To this end, we developed a cell-based nanoformulation delivery system using the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, to attenuate neuroinflammatory processes linked to neuronal death. Methods Nanoformulated catalase was obtained by coupling catalase to a synthetic polyelectrolyte of opposite charge leading to the formation of a polyion complex micelle. The nanozyme was loaded into bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and its transport to the substantia nigra pars compacts evaluated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice. Results Therapeutic efficacy of BMM loaded with nanozyme was confirmed by two -fold reductions in micro- gliosis as measured by CD11b expression. A two-fold increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic neurons was detected in nanozyme-treated compared to untreated MPTP-intoxicated mice. Neuronal survival was confirmed by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. BMM loaded catalase showed sustained release of the enzyme in plasma. Conclusion These data support the importance of macrophage-based nanozyme carriage for PD therapies. PMID:20394532

  11. Functional and receptor binding characterization of recombinant murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2: sequence analysis and mutagenesis identify receptor binding epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Jerva, L. F.; Sullivan, G.; Lolis, E.

    1997-01-01

    Murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a member of the alpha-chemokine family, is one of several proteins secreted by cells in response to lipopolysaccharide. Many of the alpha-chemokines, such as interleukin-8, gro-alpha/MGSA, and neutrophil activating peptide-2 (NAP-2), are associated with neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. We describe the expression, purification, and characterization of murine MIP-2 from Pichia pastoris. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that MIP-2 exhibits a highly ordered secondary structure consistent with the alpha/beta structures of other chemokines. Recombinant MIP-2 is chemotactic for human and murine neutrophils and up-regulates cell surface expression of Mac-1. MIP-2 binds to human and murine neutrophils with dissociation constants of 6.4 nM and 2.9 nM, respectively. We further characterize the binding of MIP-2 to the human types A and B IL-8 receptors and the murine homologue of the IL-8 receptor. MIP-2 displays low-affinity binding to the type A IL-8 receptor (Kd > 120 nM) and high-affinity binding to the type B IL-8 receptor (Kd 5.7 nM) and the murine receptor (Kd 6.8 nM). The three-dimensional structure of IL-8 and sequence analysis of six chemokines (IL-8, gro-alpha, NAP-2, ENA-78, KC, and MIP-2) that display high-affinity binding to the IL-8 type B receptor are used to identify an extended N-terminal surface that interacts with this receptor. Two mutants of MIP-2 establish that this region is also involved in binding and activating the murine homologue of the IL-8 receptor. Differences in the sequence between IL-8 and related chemokines identify a unique hydrophobic/aromatic region surrounded by charged residues that is likely to impart specificity to IL-8 for binding to the type A receptor. PMID:9260277

  12. Monocytes and Macrophages Regulate Immunity through Dynamic Networks of Survival and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Arti; Eubank, Timothy D.; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2010-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are central cells of the innate immune system, responsible for defending against diverse pathogens. While they originate from a common myeloid precursor and share functions in innate immunity, each has a very distinct life span finely tuned by the apoptotic caspases. Normally, circulating monocytes are short-lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis on a daily basis. Macrophages, however, have a longer life span. In chronic inflammatory diseases and, as recently recognized, in the tumor microenvironment, the inhibition of the apoptotic program promotes monocyte survival contributing to the accumulation of macrophages and the persistence of an inflammatory milieu. A complex network of differentiation factors and inflammatory stimuli determine monocyte/macrophage life span by blocking the apoptotic pathway and activating a myriad of survival pathways. Our understanding of apoptosis has flourished over the last decade, and its relevance in the regulation of the immune system is now indisputable. Nevertheless, how the complicated networks of survival and apoptotic regulators are integrated to determine cellular life span remains elusive. This review summarizes the contribution of the caspases and their regulators in monocyte/macrophage cell fate and discusses how these molecules orchestrate the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation. More provocatively, we discuss possible strategies to control inflammation by manipulating leukocyte life span. PMID:20375558

  13. M2 Polarization of Human Macrophages Favors Survival of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Buchacher, Tanja; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes; Fischer, Michael B; Weber, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens have developed various strategies to escape immunity to enable their survival in host cells, and many bacterial pathogens preferentially reside inside macrophages, using diverse mechanisms to penetrate their defenses and to exploit their high degree of metabolic diversity and plasticity. Here, we characterized the interactions of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with polarized human macrophages. Primary human monocytes were pre-differentiated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days to yield M1-like and M2-like macrophages, which were further treated with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide or with interleukin-4 for 48 h to obtain fully polarized M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells exhibited distinct morphology with round or spindle-shaped appearance for M1 and M2, respectively, distinct surface marker profiles, as well as different cytokine and chemokine secretion. Macrophage polarization did not influence uptake of C. pneumoniae, since comparable copy numbers of chlamydial DNA were detected in M1 and M2 at 6 h post infection, but an increase in chlamydial DNA over time indicating proliferation was only observed in M2. Accordingly, 72±5% of M2 vs. 48±7% of M1 stained positive for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, with large perinuclear inclusions in M2 and less clearly bordered inclusions for M1. Viable C. pneumoniae was present in lysates from M2, but not from M1 macrophages. The ability of M1 to restrict chlamydial replication was not observed in M1-like macrophages, since chlamydial load showed an equal increase over time for M1-like and M2-like macrophages. Our findings support the importance of macrophage polarization for the control of intracellular infection, and show that M2 are the preferred survival niche for C. pneumoniae. M1 did not allow for chlamydial proliferation, but failed to completely eliminate chlamydial infection, giving further evidence

  14. The Tec Kinase-Regulated Phosphoproteome Reveals a Mechanism for the Regulation of Inhibitory Signals in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tampella, Giacomo; Kerns, Hannah M; Niu, Deqiang; Singh, Swati; Khim, Socheath; Bosch, Katherine A; Garrett, Meghan E; Moguche, Albanus; Evans, Erica; Browning, Beth; Jahan, Tahmina A; Nacht, Mariana; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Plebani, Alessandro; Hamerman, Jessica A; Rawlings, David J; James, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has shown conflicting roles for Tec family kinases in regulation of TLR-dependent signaling in myeloid cells. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the role of the Tec kinases Btk and Tec kinases in regulating TLR signaling in several types of primary murine macrophages. We demonstrate that primary resident peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete less proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation than do wild-type cells. In contrast, we found that bone marrow-derived and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete more proinflammatory cytokines than do wild-type cells. We then compared the phosphoproteome regulated by Tec kinases and LPS in primary peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages. From this analysis we determined that Tec kinases regulate different signaling programs in these cell types. In additional studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that Tec and Btk promote phosphorylation events necessary for immunoreceptor-mediated inhibition of TLR signaling. Taken together, our results are consistent with a model where Tec kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx) are required for TLR-dependent signaling in many types of myeloid cells. However, our data also support a cell type-specific TLR inhibitory role for Btk and Tec that is mediated by immunoreceptor activation and signaling via PI3K. PMID:26026062

  15. The Tec kinase-regulated phosphoproteome reveals a mechanism for the regulation of inhibitory signals in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tampella, Giacomo; Kerns, Hannah M.; Niu, Deqiang; Singh, Swati; Khim, Socheath; Bosch, Katherine A.; Garrett, Meghan E.; Moguche, Albanus; Evans, Erica; Browning, Beth; Jahan, Tahmina A.; Nacht, Mariana; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Plebani, Alessandro; Hamerman, Jessica A.; Rawlings, David J.; James, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown conflicting roles for Tec family kinases in regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signalling in myeloid cells. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the role of Btk and Tec kinases in regulating TLR signalling in several types of primary murine macrophages. We demonstrate that primary resident peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete less pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation than wild type cells. In contrast, we found that bone marrow-derived and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete more pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild type cells. We then compared the phosphoproteome regulated by Tec kinases and lipopolysaccharide in primary peritoneal and bone marrow derived macrophages. From this analysis we determined that Tec kinases regulate different signalling programs in these cell types. In additional studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we find that Tec and Btk promote phosphorylation events necessary for immunoreceptor-mediated inhibition of TLR signalling. Taken together, our results are consistent with a model where Tec kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx) are required for TLR-dependent signalling in many types of myeloid cells. However, our data also support a cell type-specific TLR-inhibitory role for Btk and Tec that is mediated by immunoreceptor activation and signalling via PI3K. PMID:26026062

  16. Shaping the Murine Macrophage Phenotype: IL-4 and cAMP Synergistically Activate the Arginase I Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Kathryn E.; Shandilya, Harish; Kepka-Lenhart, Diane; Poljakovic, Mirjana; Ghosh, Arundhati; Morris, Sidney M.

    2013-01-01

    Arginase I is a marker of murine M2 macrophages and is highly expressed in many inflammatory diseases. The basis for high arginase I expression in macrophages in vivo is incompletely understood but likely reflects integrated responses to combinations of stimuli. Our objective was to elucidate mechanisms involved in modulating arginase I induction by IL-4, the prototypical activator of M2 macrophages. IL-4 and 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) individually induce arginase I, but together they rapidly and synergistically induce arginase I mRNA, protein, and promoter activity in murine macrophage cells. Arginase I induction by IL-4 requires binding of the transcription factors STAT6 and C/EBPβ to the IL-4 response element of the arginase I gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that the synergistic response involves binding of both transcription factors to the IL-4 response element at levels significantly greater than in response to IL-4 alone. The results suggest that C/EBPβ is a limiting factor for the level of STAT6 bound to the IL-4 response element. The enhanced binding in the synergistic response was not due to increased expression of either STAT6 or C/EBPβ but correlated primarily with increased nuclear abundance of C/EBPβ. Our findings also suggest that induction of arginase I expression is stochastic; i.e., differences in induction reflect differences in probability of transcriptional activation and not simply differences in rate of transcription. Results of the present study also may be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying regulated expression of other genes in macrophages and other myeloid-derived cells in health and disease. PMID:23913966

  17. Involvement of Nitric Oxide on Bothropoides insularis Venom Biological Effects on Murine Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Menezes, Ramon R. P. P. B.; Mello, Clarissa P.; Lima, Dânya B.; Tessarolo, Louise D.; Sampaio, Tiago Lima; Paes, Lívia C. F.; Alves, Natacha T. Q.; Assis Junior, Eudmar M.; Lima Junior, Roberto C. P.; Toyama, Marcos H.; Martins, Alice M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Viperidae venom has several local and systemic effects, such as pain, edema, inflammation, kidney failure and coagulopathy. Additionally, bothropic venom and its isolated components directly interfere on cellular metabolism, causing alterations such as cell death and proliferation. Inflammatory cells are particularly involved in pathological envenomation mechanisms due to their capacity of releasing many mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO). NO has many effects on cell viability and it is associated to the development of inflammation and tissue damage caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides venom. Bothropoides insularis is a snake found only in Queimada Grande Island, which has markedly toxic venom. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the biological effects of Bothropoides insularis venom (BiV) on RAW 264.7 cells and assess NO involvement. The venom was submitted to colorimetric assays to identify the presence of some enzymatic components. We observed that BiV induced H2O2 production and showed proteolytic and phospholipasic activities. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were incubated with different concentrations of BiV and then cell viability was assessed by MTT reduction assay after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours of incubation. A time- and concentration-dependent effect was observed, with a tendency to cell proliferation at lower BiV concentrations and cell death at higher concentrations. The cytotoxic effect was confirmed after lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement in the supernatant from the experimental groups. Flow cytometry analyses revealed that necrosis is the main cell death pathway caused by BiV. Also, BiV induced NO release. The inhibition of both proliferative and cytotoxic effects with L-NAME were demonstrated, indicating that NO is important for these effects. Finally, BiV induced an increase in iNOS expression. Altogether, these results demonstrate that B. insularis venom have proliferative and cytotoxic effects on macrophages, with necrosis participation

  18. Mutation of the Theiler’s virus leader protein zinc-finger domain impairs apoptotic activity in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo; Lipton, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    The Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leader (L) protein zinc-finger domain was mutated to study its role in cell death in infection of the murine macrophage cell line M1-D, revealing that an intact zinc-finger domain is required for full apoptotic activity. A functional L zinc-finger domain was also required for activation of p38 MAPK that results in phosphorylation and activation of p53, and in turn, alteration of the conformation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Puma and Mcl-1, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic Bax and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. TMEV infection also inhibits host protein synthesis, a stress shown by others to induce apoptosis. Since inhibition of host protein synthesis follows rather than precedes activation of MKK3/6 and p38, it seems less likely that it triggers of apoptosis in infected cells. Finally, we showed that the levels of reactive oxygen species following infection were consistent with apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. Thus, these experiments support an important role for the TMEV L protein zinc-finger domain in apoptosis in an infected murine macrophage line. PMID:24036175

  19. Mutation of the Theiler's virus leader protein zinc-finger domain impairs apoptotic activity in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyung-No; Liang, Zhiguo; Lipton, Howard L

    2013-11-01

    The Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) leader (L) protein zinc-finger domain was mutated to study its role in cell death in infection of the murine macrophage cell line M1-D, revealing that an intact zinc-finger domain is required for full apoptotic activity. A functional L zinc-finger domain was also required for activation of p38 MAPK that results in phosphorylation and activation of p53, and in turn, alteration of the conformation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Puma and Mcl-1, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic Bax and apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. TMEV infection also inhibits host protein synthesis, a stress shown by others to induce apoptosis. Since inhibition of host protein synthesis follows rather than precedes activation of MKK3/6 and p38, it seems less likely that it triggers apoptosis in infected cells. Finally, we showed that the levels of reactive oxygen species following infection were consistent with apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. Thus, these experiments support an important role for the TMEV L protein zinc-finger domain in apoptosis in an infected murine macrophage line.

  20. Immunohistochemical markers for tumor associated macrophages and survival in advanced classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Espiridión, Beatriz; Martin-Moreno, Ana M.; Montalbán, Carlos; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Vega, Francisco; Younes, Anas; Piris, Miguel A.; Garcia, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of patients with advanced classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma is refractory to standard therapies. Therefore, it is relevant to identify new biologically-based prognostic markers. Recently, tumor associated macrophages have been proposed as a factor that predicts survival, although contradictory results have also been reported. Here we analyzed four macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, LYZ, and STAT1) using immunohistochemistry and automated quantification, in two independent series of advanced classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n=266 and 103 patients, respectively). Our results did not confirm that specific macrophage immunohistochemical markers could be used as surrogates for gene expression profiling studies. Survival analyses did not show correlation between CD163, LYZ or STAT1 and either failure-free or disease-specific survival. There was an association between CD68 and disease-specific survival, but it was not consistent in both series. In conclusion, individual tumor associated macrophage markers cannot be used to predict outcome before technical standardization and prospective validation in independent series of patients with comparable stages and treatments. PMID:22315492

  1. Stromal CCR6 drives tumor growth in a murine transplantable colon cancer through recruitment of tumor-promoting macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Bisweswar; Shapiro, Mia; Samur, Mehmet K; Pai, Christine; Frank, Natasha Y; Yoon, Charles; Prabhala, Rao H; Munshi, Nikhil C; Gold, Jason S

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been implicated in promoting colon cancer; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that deficiency of CCR6 is associated with decreased tumor macrophage accumulation in a model of sporadic intestinal tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of stromal CCR6 expression in a murine syngeneic transplantable colon cancer model. We show that deficiency of host CCR6 is associated with decreased growth of syngeneic CCR6-expressing colon cancers. Colon cancers adoptively transplanted into CCR6-deficient mice have decreased tumor-associated macrophages without alterations in the number of monocytes in blood or bone marrow. CCL20, the unique ligand for CCR6, promotes migration of monocytes in vitro and promotes accumulation of macrophages in vivo. Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages decreases the growth of tumors in the transplantable tumor model. Macrophages infiltrating the colon cancers in this model secrete the inflammatory mediators CCL2, IL-1α, IL-6 and TNFα. Ccl2, Il1α and Il6 are consequently downregulated in tumors from CCR6-deficient mice. CCL2, IL-1α and IL-6 also promote proliferation of colon cancer cells, linking the decreased macrophage migration into tumors mediated by CCL20-CCR6 interactions to the delay in tumor growth in CCR6-deficient hosts. The relevance of these findings in human colon cancer is demonstrated through correlation of CCR6 expression with that of the macrophage marker CD163 as well as that of CCL2, IL1α and TNFα. Our findings support the exploration of targeting the CCL20-CCR6 pathway for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27622061

  2. Spliced XBP1 promotes macrophage survival and autophagy by interacting with Beclin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ping-Ge; Jiang, Zhi-Xin; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Qing-Hua

    2015-08-07

    Macrophage autophagy plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanism mediating this process is unclear. The potential role of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a crucial transduction factor that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy is unknown. This study mainly explores the roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy. The present study shows that the transient overexpression of spliced XBP1 via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer induces autophagy and promotes proliferation in bone marrow-derived macrophages via the down-regulation of Beclin-1, but that the sustained overexpression of spliced XBP1 leads to apoptosis. When XBP1 is down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using siRNA, rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation is ablated. Furthermore, we have detected the overexpression of XBP1 in areas of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of ApoE−/− mice. These results demonstrate that XBP1 mRNA splicing plays an important role in maintaining the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages and provide new insight into the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • XBP1 was up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE−/− mice. • Transient spliced XBP1 overexpression induced macrophages autophagy via Beclin-1. • Sustained spliced XBP1 overexpression triggered macrophages apoptosis. • Spliced XBP1 plays a key role in maintaining the macrophages survival.

  3. Macrophages as effector cells of protective immunity in murine schistosomiasis: macrophage activation in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae.

    PubMed Central

    James, S L; Natovitz, P C; Farrar, W L; Leonard, E J

    1984-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune responses contributing to macrophage activation were compared in mice that demonstrated partial resistance to challenge Schistosoma mansoni infection as a result of vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae or of ongoing low-grade primary infection. Vaccinated mice developed significant delayed hypersensitivity reactions to soluble schistosome antigens in vivo. Splenocytes from vaccinated animals responded to in vitro culture with various specific antigens (soluble adult worm extract, living or disrupted schistosomula) by proliferation and production of macrophage-activating lymphokines as did lymphocytes from S. mansoni-infected animals. Macrophage-activating factors produced by spleen cells from vaccinated mice upon specific antigen stimulation eluted as a single peak on Sephadex G-100 with a molecular weight of approximately 50,000 and contained gamma interferon activity. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages with larvicidal and tumoricidal activity were recovered from vaccinated mice after intraperitoneal challenge with soluble schistosome antigens, a procedure also observed to elicit activated macrophages in S. mansoni-infected animals. These observations demonstrate that vaccination with irradiated cercariae stimulates many of the same cellular responses observed after primary S. mansoni infection, and suggest that lymphokine-activated macrophages may participate in the effector mechanism of vaccine-induced and concomitant immunity to challenge schistosome infection. This is the first demonstration of a potential immune effector mechanism in the irradiated vaccine model. PMID:6609885

  4. Single-cell analysis reveals new subset markers of murine peritoneal macrophages and highlights macrophage dynamics upon Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Accarias, Solène; Genthon, Clémence; Rengel, David; Boullier, Séverine; Foucras, Gilles; Tabouret, Guillaume

    2016-07-01

    Resident macrophages play a central role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance. Here, we used single cell-based qPCR coupled with flow cytometry analysis to further define the phenotypes of large and small resident peritoneal macrophages (LPMs and SPMs, respectively) in mice. We demonstrated that the expression of Cxcl13, IfngR1, Fizz-1 and Mrc-1 clearly distinguished between LPMs and SPMs subsets. Using these markers, the dynamics of peritoneal macrophages in a Staphylococcus aureus-induced peritonitis model were analyzed. We found that S. aureus infection triggers a massive macrophage disappearance reaction in both subsets. Thereafter, inflammatory monocytes rapidly infiltrated the cavity and differentiated to replenish the SPMs. Although phenotypically indistinguishable from resident SPMs by flow cytometry, newly recruited SPMs had a different pattern of gene expression dominated by M2 markers combined with M1 associated features (inos expression). Interestingly, S. aureus elicited SPMs showed a robust expression of Cxcl13, suggesting that these cells may endorse the role of depleted LPMs and contribute to restoring peritoneal homeostasis. These data provide information on both resident and recruited macrophages dynamics upon S. aureus infection and demonstrate that single-cell phenotyping is a promising and highly valuable approach to unraveling macrophage diversity and plasticity. PMID:27220602

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  6. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  7. Fisetin antagonizes cell fusion, cytoskeletal organization and bone resorption in RANKL-differentiated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Sin-Hye; Han, Seon-Young; Kang, Soon Ah; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is comprised of several stage s including progenitor survival, differentiation to mononuclear preosteoclasts, cell fusion to multinuclear mature osteoclasts, and activation to osteoclasts with bone resorbing activity. Botanical antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects on bone. This study investigated that fisetin, a flavonol found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, suppressed osteoclastogenesis by disturbing receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling pathway and demoting osteoclastogenic protein induction. Nontoxic fisetin at ≤10 μM inhibited the induction of RANK, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and the activation of NF-κB in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In RANKL-differentiated osteoclasts cell fusion protein of E-cadherin was induced, which was dampened by fisetin. The formation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts was suppressed by adding fisetin to RANKL-exposed macrophages. It was also found that fisetin reduced actin ring formation and gelsolin induction of osteclasts enhanced by RANKL through disturbing c-Src-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling. Fisetin deterred preosteoclasts from the cell-cell fusion and the organization of the cytoskeleton to seal the resorbing area and to secret protons for bone resorption. Consistently, the 5 day-treatment of fisetin diminished RANKL-induced cellular expression of carbonic anhydrase II and integrin β3 concurrently with a reduction of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity. Therefore, fisetin was a natural therapeutic agent retarding osteoclast fusion and cytoskeletal organization such as actin rings and ruffled boarder, which is a property of mature osteoclasts and is required for osteoclasts to resorb bone.

  8. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS- induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  9. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, J; McMahon, M; DeFranco, A L

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS-induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  10. The Janus kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib reduces HIV replication in human macrophages and ameliorates HIV encephalitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Haile, Woldeab B; Gavegnano, Christina; Tao, Sijia; Jiang, Yong; Schinazi, Raymond F; Tyor, William R

    2016-08-01

    A hallmark of persistent HIV-1 infection in the central nervous system is increased activation of mononuclear phagocytes and surrounding astrogliosis, conferring persistent HIV-induced inflammation. This inflammation is believed to result in neuronal dysfunction and the clinical manifestations of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The Jak/STAT pathway is activated in macrophages/myeloid cells upon HIV-1 infection, modulating many pro-inflammatory pathways that result in HAND, thereby representing an attractive cellular target. Thus, the impact of ruxolitinib, a Janus Kinase (Jak) 1/2 inhibitor that is FDA approved for myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera, was assessed for its potential to inhibit HIV-1 replication in macrophages and HIV-induced activation in monocytes/macrophages in culture. In addition, a murine model of HIV encephalitis (HIVE) was used to assess the impact of ruxolitinib on histopathological features of HIVE, brain viral load, as well as its ability to penetrate the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Ruxolitinib was found to inhibit HIV-1 replication in macrophages, HIV-induced activation of monocytes (CD14/CD16) and macrophages (HLA-DR, CCR5, and CD163) without apparent toxicity. In vivo, systemically administered ruxolitinib was detected in the brain during HIVE in SCID mice and markedly inhibited astrogliosis. Together, these data indicate that ruxolitinib reduces HIV-induced activation and infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in vitro, reduces the replication of HIV in vitro, penetrates the BBB when systemically administered in mice and reduces astrogliosis in the brains of mice with HIVE. These data suggest that ruxolitinib will be useful as a novel therapeutic to treat humans with HAND. PMID:26851503

  11. Intermittent hypoxia induces murine macrophage foam cell formation by IKK-β-dependent NF-κB pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Toshihiro; Poulsen, Orit; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH). Clinical studies have previously shown that OSA is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Atherogenicity in OSA patients has been assumed to be associated with the NF-κB pathways. Although foam cells are considered to be a hallmark of atherosclerosis, how IH as in OSA affects their development has not been fully understood. Therefore, we hypothesized that IH induces macrophage foam cell formation through NF-κB pathway activation. To test this hypothesis, peritoneal macrophages collected from myeloid-restricted IKK-β-deleted mice were incubated with native LDL and exposed to either IH or normoxia. After exposure, NF-κB pathway activity and intracellular cholesterol were measured. In control macrophages, IH significantly increased NF-κB pathway activity by 93% compared with normoxia (P < 0.05). However, such response to IH was diminished by IKK-β deletion (increased by +31% compared with normoxia; P = 0.64), suggesting that IKK-β is critical for IH-induced NF-κB pathway activation. Likewise, in control macrophages, total cholesterol was increased in IH compared with normoxia (65.7 ± 3.8 μg/mg cellular protein and 53.2 ± 1.2, respectively; P < 0.05). However, this IH-induced foam cell formation was disappeared when IKK-β was deleted (52.2 ± 1.2 μg/mg cellular protein for IH and 46.3 ± 1.7 for normoxia; P = 0.55). This IH-mediated effect still existed in macrophages without LDL receptor. Taken together, our findings show that IH activates the IKK-β-dependent NF-κB pathway and that this, in turn, induces foam cell formation in murine macrophages.

  12. N-Alkyl-Substituted Isatins Enhance P2X7 Receptor-Induced Interleukin-1β Release from Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) activates the P2X7 receptor channel to induce the rapid release of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, from macrophages. Microtubule rearrangements are thought to be involved in this process. Some isatin derivatives alter microtubules and display anticancer activities. The current study investigated the effect of isatin and seven structurally diverse isatin derivatives on P2X7-mediated IL-1β release from murine J774 macrophages. ATP-induced IL-1β and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed by specific colorimetric assays. P2X7 activity was determined by flow cytometric measurements of ATP-induced cation dye uptake. Cytotoxicity of isatin derivatives was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. ATP caused rapid IL-1β release in a concentration-dependent manner, and this process was completely impaired by the P2X7 antagonist, AZ10606120. In contrast, 5,7-dibromo-N-(p-methoxybenzyl)isatin (NAI) and 3-{4-[5,7-dibromo-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenamino]phenyl}propanoic acid (NAI-imine) enhanced P2X7-induced IL-1β release by twofold compared to that of isatin and the parent molecule, 5,7-dibromoisatin. NAI and NAI-imine had minimal effect on P2X7-induced dye uptake and LDH release. In contrast, 24-hour incubation with NAI and NAI-imine (in the absence of exogenous ATP) induced macrophage death in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that N-alkyl-substituted isatins enhance P2X7 receptor-induced IL-1β release from murine macrophages. Thus, in addition to direct anticancer effects, these compounds may also impact inflammatory and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27524862

  13. Macrophages and galectin 3 play critical roles in CVB3-induced murine acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Ure, Agustín E; Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Schattner, Mirta; Gomez, Ricardo M

    2015-08-01

    Macrophage influx and galectin 3 production have been suggested as major players driving acute inflammation and chronic fibrosis in many diseases. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and subsequent cardiomyopathy are unknown. Our aim was to characterise the role of macrophages and galectin 3 on survival, clinical course, viral burden, acute pathology, and chronic fibrosis in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. Our results showed that C3H/HeJ mice infected with CVB3 and depleted of macrophages by liposome-encapsulated clodronate treatment compared with infected untreated mice presented higher viral titres but reduced acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis, compared with untreated infected mice. Increased galectin 3 transcriptional and translational expression levels correlated with CVB3 infection in macrophages and in non-depleted mice. Disruption of the galectin 3 gene did not affect viral titres but reduced acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis compared with C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Similar results were observed after pharmacological inhibition of galectin 3 with N-acetyl-d-lactosamine in C3H/HeJ mice. Our results showed a critical role of macrophages and their galectin 3 in controlling acute viral-induced cardiac injury and the subsequent fibrosis. Moreover, the fact that pharmacological inhibition of galectin 3 induced similar results to macrophage depletion regarding the degree of acute cardiac inflammation and chronic fibrosis opens up the possibility of new pharmacological strategies for viral myocarditis.

  14. Survival of smooth, rough and transposon mutant strains of Brucella abortus in bovine mammary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Price, R E; Templeton, J W; Adams, L G

    1990-12-01

    Transposon mutants offer a unique way to evaluate the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by producing a theoretical single-gene difference between the original strain and the transposon mutant strain. Comparative survival of Brucella abortus smooth strain 2308, rough RB51, smooth strain 19, and two transposon mutant strains (rough strain 2308::Tn5 Lac Z [m106] and rough strain 19::Tn5 Lac Z [m3], was tested in restrictive bovine mammary macrophages that were able to effectively reduce the percentage of intracellular bacterial survival and permissive bovine mammary macrophages that were unable to control the intracellular replication of B. abortus. The theoretical single-gene difference between strain 19 and strain 19::Tn5 lac Z [m3] and between smooth virulent strain 2308 and rough transposon mutant 2308::Tn5 lacZ [m106] is likely related to differences in LPS content or structure. Significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in the survival of rough strain 19::Tn5 Lac Z [m3] with no significant reduction in the rough transposon mutant strain 2308::Tn5 lacZ [m106] indicated that at least one factor other than LPS contributes to the intracellular survival of B. abortus in bovine macrophages.

  15. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  16. CXCL10-Mediates Macrophage, but not Other Innate Immune Cells-Associated Inflammation in Murine Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Kyoko; Freeman, Brittany L.; Bronk, Steven F.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; White, Thomas A.; Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory lipotoxic disorder, but how inflammatory cells are recruited and activated within the liver is still unclear. We previously reported that lipotoxic hepatocytes release CXCL10-enriched extracellular vesicles, which are potently chemotactic for cells of the innate immune system. In the present study, we sought to determine the innate immune cell involved in the inflammatory response in murine NASH and the extent to which inhibition of the chemotactic ligand CXCL10 and its cognate receptor CXCR3 could attenuate liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. C57BL/6J CXCL10−/−, CXCR3−/− and wild type (WT) mice were fed chow or high saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC) diet. FFC-fed CXCL10−/− and WT mice displayed similar weight gain, metabolic profile, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In contrast, compared to the WT mice, FFC-fed CXCL10−/− mice had significantly attenuated liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. Genetic deletion of CXCL10 reduced FFC-induced proinflammatory hepatic macrophage infiltration, while natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, neutrophils and dendritic cells hepatic infiltration were not significantly affected. Our results suggest that CXCL10−/− mice are protected against diet-induced NASH, in an obesity-independent manner. Macrophage-associated inflammation appears to be the key player in the CXCL10-mediated sterile inflammatory response in murine NASH. PMID:27349927

  17. The effect of anti-inflammatory properties of ferritin light chain on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yumei; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Linlin; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Caizhi; Zhang, Yongze; You, Linhao; Fu, Yujian; Shi, Zhenhua; Yin, Zhimin; Luo, Lan; Chang, Yanzhong; Duan, Xianglin

    2014-11-01

    Ferritin light chain (FTL) reduces the free iron concentration by forming ferritin complexes with ferritin heavy chain (FTH). Thus, FTL competes with the Fenton reaction by acting as an antioxidant. In the present study, we determined that FTL influences the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response. FTL protein expression was regulated by LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 cells. To investigate the role of FTL in LPS-activated murine macrophages, we established stable FTL-expressing cells and used shRNA to silence FTL expression in RAW264.7 cells. Overexpression of FTL significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Additionally, overexpression of FTL decreased the LPS-induced increase of the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, FTL overexpression suppressed the LPS-induced activation of MAPKs and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In contrast, knockdown of FTL by shRNA showed the reverse effects. Therefore, our results indicate that FTL plays an anti-inflammatory role in response to LPS in murine macrophages and may have therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory diseases.

  18. CXCL10-Mediates Macrophage, but not Other Innate Immune Cells-Associated Inflammation in Murine Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Kyoko; Freeman, Brittany L; Bronk, Steven F; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; White, Thomas A; Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory lipotoxic disorder, but how inflammatory cells are recruited and activated within the liver is still unclear. We previously reported that lipotoxic hepatocytes release CXCL10-enriched extracellular vesicles, which are potently chemotactic for cells of the innate immune system. In the present study, we sought to determine the innate immune cell involved in the inflammatory response in murine NASH and the extent to which inhibition of the chemotactic ligand CXCL10 and its cognate receptor CXCR3 could attenuate liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. C57BL/6J CXCL10(-/-), CXCR3(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were fed chow or high saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC) diet. FFC-fed CXCL10(-/-) and WT mice displayed similar weight gain, metabolic profile, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In contrast, compared to the WT mice, FFC-fed CXCL10(-/-) mice had significantly attenuated liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. Genetic deletion of CXCL10 reduced FFC-induced proinflammatory hepatic macrophage infiltration, while natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, neutrophils and dendritic cells hepatic infiltration were not significantly affected. Our results suggest that CXCL10(-/-) mice are protected against diet-induced NASH, in an obesity-independent manner. Macrophage-associated inflammation appears to be the key player in the CXCL10-mediated sterile inflammatory response in murine NASH.

  19. Antimicrobial peptides and endotoxin inhibit cytokine and nitric oxide release but amplify respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Shafer, William M.; Stephens, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in addition to their antibacterial properties, are also chemotactic and signalling molecules that connect the innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of AMP [α defensins, LL-37, a cathepsin G-derived peptide (CG117-136), protegrins (PG-1), polymyxin B (PMX) and LLP1] in modulating the respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages in the presence of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS)] was investigated. AMP were found to neutralize endotoxin induction of nitric oxide and TNFα release in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, macrophages primed overnight with AMP and LOS or LPS significantly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release compared with cells primed with endotoxin or AMP alone, while no responses were seen in unprimed cells. This enhanced ROS release by macrophages was seen in all cell lines including those obtained from C3H/HeJ (TLR4−/−) mice. Similar effects were also seen when AMP and endotoxin were added directly with zymosan to trigger phagocytosis and the respiratory burst in unprimed RAW 264.7 and C3H/HeJ macrophages. Amplification of ROS release was also demonstrated in a cell-free system of xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Although AMP inhibited cytokine and nitric oxide induction by endotoxin in a TLR4-dependent manner, AMP and endotoxin amplified ROS release in a TLR4-independent manner possibly by exerting a prolonged catalytic effect on the ROS generating enzymes such as the NADPH-oxidase complex. PMID:16098213

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG decreases TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophages by a contact-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jeremy Andrew; Versalovic, James

    2003-04-01

    Animal studies and human clinical trials have shown that Lactobacillus can prevent or ameliorate inflammation in chronic colitis. However, molecular mechanisms for this effect have not been clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that lactobacilli are capable of downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine responses induced by the enteric microbiota. We investigated whether lactobacilli diminish production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by the murine macrophage line, RAW 264.7 gamma (NO-), and alter the TNF-alpha/interleukin-10 (IL-10) balance, in vitro. When media conditioned by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) are co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA), TNF-alpha production is significantly inhibited compared to controls, whereas IL-10 synthesis is unaffected. Interestingly, LGG-conditioned media also decreases TNF-alpha production of Helicobacter-conditioned media-activated peritoneal macrophages. Lactobacillus species may be capable of producing soluble molecules that inhibit TNF-alpha production in activated macrophages. As overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-alpha, is implicated in pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation, enteric Lactobacillus-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and alteration of cytokine profiles may highlight an important immunomodulatory role for commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Reprogramming of Murine Macrophages through TLR2 Confers Viral Resistance via TRAF3-Mediated, Enhanced Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Darren J.; Polumuri, Swamy K.; Pennini, Meghan E.; Lai, Wendy; Xie, Ping; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2013-01-01

    The cell surface/endosomal Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are instrumental in initiating immune responses to both bacteria and viruses. With the exception of TLR2, all TLRs and cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) with known virus-derived ligands induce type I interferons (IFNs) in macrophages or dendritic cells. Herein, we report that prior ligation of TLR2, an event previously shown to induce “homo” or “hetero” tolerance, strongly “primes” macrophages for increased Type I IFN production in response to subsequent TLR/RLR signaling. This occurs by increasing activation of the transcription factor, IFN Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF-3) that, in turn, leads to enhanced induction of IFN-β, while expression of other pro-inflammatory genes are suppressed (tolerized). In vitro or in vivo “priming” of murine macrophages with TLR2 ligands increase virus-mediated IFN induction and resistance to infection. This priming effect of TLR2 is mediated by the selective upregulation of the K63 ubiquitin ligase, TRAF3. Thus, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed antiviral actions of MyD88-dependent TLR2 and further define the role of TRAF3 in viral innate immunity. PMID:23853595

  2. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia. PMID:25782915

  3. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia.

  4. Macrophage depletion reduces postsurgical tumor recurrence and metastatic growth in a spontaneous murine model of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Muly; Khoo, Karen; Yeo, Kim Pin; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Amelle; Angeli, Veronique; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of tumors is often followed by regrowth at the primary site and metastases may emerge rapidly following removal of the primary tumor. Macrophages are important drivers of tumor growth, and here we investigated their involvement in postoperative relapse as well as explore macrophage depletion as an adjuvant to surgical resection. RETAAD mice develop spontaneous metastatic melanoma that begins in the eye. Removal of the eyes as early as 1 week of age did not prevent the development of metastases; rather, surgery led to increased proliferation of tumor cells locally and in distant metastases. Surgery-induced increase in tumor cell proliferation correlated with increased macrophage density within the tumor. Moreover, macrophages stimulate tumor sphere formation from tumor cells of post-surgical but not control mice. Macrophage depletion with a diet containing the CSF-1R specific kinase inhibitor Ki20227 following surgery significantly reduced postoperative tumor recurrence and abrogated enhanced metastatic outgrowth. Our results confirm that tumor cells disseminate early, and show that macrophages contribute both to post-surgical tumor relapse and growth of metastases, likely through stimulating a population of tumor-initiating cells. Thus macrophage depletion warrants exploration as an adjuvant to surgical resection. PMID:25762633

  5. Early Interactions of Murine Macrophages with Francisella tularensis Map to Mouse Chromosome 19

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Avner; Hassan, Musa A.; Okan, Nihal A.; Sheffer, Michal; Camejo, Ana; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differences among individuals in susceptibility to infectious diseases can be modulated by host genetics. Much of the research in this field has aimed to identify loci within the host genome that are associated with these differences. In mice, A/J (AJ) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice show differential susceptibilities to various pathogens, including the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Because macrophages are the main initial target during F. tularensis infection, we explored early interactions of macrophages from these two mouse strains with F. tularensis as well as the genetic factors underlying these interactions. Our results indicate that bacterial interactions with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) during early stages of infection are different in the AJ and B6 strains. During these early stages, bacteria are more numerous in B6 than in AJ macrophages and display differences in trafficking and early transcriptional response within these macrophages. To determine the genetic basis for these differences, we infected BMDMs isolated from recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from reciprocal crosses between AJ and B6, and we followed early bacterial counts within these macrophages. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed a locus on chromosome 19 that is associated with early differences in bacterial counts in AJ versus B6 macrophages. QTL analysis of published data that measured the differential susceptibilities of the same RI mice to an in vivo challenge with F. tularensis confirmed the F. tularensis susceptibility QTL on chromosome 19. Overall, our results show that early interactions of macrophages with F. tularensis are dependent on the macrophage genetic background. PMID:26980837

  6. The Type VI Secretion System Encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 19 Is Required for Salmonella enterica Serotype Gallinarum Survival within Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Carlos J.; Jiménez, Juan C.; Leiva, Lorenzo E.; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Pinto, Bernardo I.; Contreras, Francisca; Pezoa, David; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality that causes major economic losses in poultry production. We have reported that S. Gallinarum harbors a type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 (SPI-19) that is required for efficient colonization of chicks. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the SPI-19 T6SS functionality and to investigate the mechanisms behind the phenotypes previously observed in vivo. Expression analyses revealed that SPI-19 T6SS core components are expressed and produced under in vitro bacterial growth conditions. However, secretion of the structural/secreted components Hcp1, Hcp2, and VgrG to the culture medium could not be determined, suggesting that additional signals are required for T6SS-dependent secretion of these proteins. In vitro bacterial competition assays failed to demonstrate a role for SPI-19 T6SS in interbacterial killing. In contrast, cell culture experiments with murine and avian macrophages (RAW264.7 and HD11, respectively) revealed production of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of VgrG soon after Salmonella uptake. Furthermore, infection of RAW264.7 and HD11 macrophages with deletion mutants of SPI-19 or strains with genes encoding specific T6SS core components (clpV and vgrG) revealed that SPI-19 T6SS contributes to S. Gallinarum survival within macrophages at 20 h postuptake. SPI-19 T6SS function was not linked to Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity or cell death of infected macrophages, as has been described for other T6SS. Our data indicate that SPI-19 T6SS corresponds to a novel tool used by Salmonella to survive within host cells. PMID:23357385

  7. The type VI secretion system encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 is required for Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum survival within infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Blondel, Carlos J; Jiménez, Juan C; Leiva, Lorenzo E; Alvarez, Sergio A; Pinto, Bernardo I; Contreras, Francisca; Pezoa, David; Santiviago, Carlos A; Contreras, Inés

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality that causes major economic losses in poultry production. We have reported that S. Gallinarum harbors a type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 (SPI-19) that is required for efficient colonization of chicks. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the SPI-19 T6SS functionality and to investigate the mechanisms behind the phenotypes previously observed in vivo. Expression analyses revealed that SPI-19 T6SS core components are expressed and produced under in vitro bacterial growth conditions. However, secretion of the structural/secreted components Hcp1, Hcp2, and VgrG to the culture medium could not be determined, suggesting that additional signals are required for T6SS-dependent secretion of these proteins. In vitro bacterial competition assays failed to demonstrate a role for SPI-19 T6SS in interbacterial killing. In contrast, cell culture experiments with murine and avian macrophages (RAW264.7 and HD11, respectively) revealed production of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of VgrG soon after Salmonella uptake. Furthermore, infection of RAW264.7 and HD11 macrophages with deletion mutants of SPI-19 or strains with genes encoding specific T6SS core components (clpV and vgrG) revealed that SPI-19 T6SS contributes to S. Gallinarum survival within macrophages at 20 h postuptake. SPI-19 T6SS function was not linked to Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity or cell death of infected macrophages, as has been described for other T6SS. Our data indicate that SPI-19 T6SS corresponds to a novel tool used by Salmonella to survive within host cells.

  8. Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response decreases mycobacterial survival in mouse MSCs by augmenting NO production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Yongjian; Xie, Heping; Li, Miao; Ming, Siqi; Li, Liyan; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Gong, Sitang; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular microbe, which escapes host immune attack during latent infection. Recent studies reveal that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a protective niche for MTB to maintain latency. However, the regulation of mycobacterial residency in MSCs in the infectious microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we found that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during MTB infection facilitated the clearance of bacilli residing in mouse MSCs. Higher inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in mouse MSCs under macrophage-mediated inflammatory circumstance. Blocking NO production in MSCs increased the survival of intracellular mycobacteria, indicating NO-mediated antimycobacterial activity. Moreover, both nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were involved in iNOS expression and NO production in inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β could trigger NO production in MSCs and exert anti-mycobacterial activity via NF-κB signaling pathway. Neutralization of interleukin-1β in macrophage-mediated inflammatory microenvironment dampened the ability of mouse MSCs to produce NO. Together, our findings demonstrated that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during mycobacterial infection promotes the clearance of bacilli in mouse MSCs by increasing NO production, which may provide a better understanding of latent MTB infection. PMID:27251437

  9. Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response decreases mycobacterial survival in mouse MSCs by augmenting NO production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Yongjian; Xie, Heping; Li, Miao; Ming, Siqi; Li, Liyan; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Gong, Sitang; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular microbe, which escapes host immune attack during latent infection. Recent studies reveal that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a protective niche for MTB to maintain latency. However, the regulation of mycobacterial residency in MSCs in the infectious microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we found that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during MTB infection facilitated the clearance of bacilli residing in mouse MSCs. Higher inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in mouse MSCs under macrophage-mediated inflammatory circumstance. Blocking NO production in MSCs increased the survival of intracellular mycobacteria, indicating NO-mediated antimycobacterial activity. Moreover, both nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were involved in iNOS expression and NO production in inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β could trigger NO production in MSCs and exert anti-mycobacterial activity via NF-κB signaling pathway. Neutralization of interleukin-1β in macrophage-mediated inflammatory microenvironment dampened the ability of mouse MSCs to produce NO. Together, our findings demonstrated that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during mycobacterial infection promotes the clearance of bacilli in mouse MSCs by increasing NO production, which may provide a better understanding of latent MTB infection.

  10. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity.

  11. Leptin augments protective immune responses in murine macrophages and enhances potential of miltefosine against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Shivahare, Rahul; Ali, Wahid; Vishwakarma, Preeti; Natu, S M; Puri, Sunil K; Gupta, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Adverse side effects and drug resistance issues are the two most important drawbacks which influence the widespread use of existing antileishmanial drugs. Use of immune stimulating agent with standard antileishmanial might be helpful to minimize the toxic effect of drug, shorten the dose regimen and delay the emergence of resistance. In the present study, we explored the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of an immunomodulator, leptin with lower concentration of standard drug, miltefosine. The level of Th1/Th2 cytokines, production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species and phagocytic activity was assessed by ELISA, Griess reaction and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Leptin at a concentration of 15μg/mL showed heightened level of Th1 cytokines and nitric oxide generation from murine macrophages (J-774A.1 cells). Leptin (15μg/mL) also reduces the effective concentration of miltefosine by 2-folds from 7.5μM to 3.7μM. When given in conjunction with lower concentration of miltefosine (4μM), leptin (15μg/mL) significantly (***p<0.001) elevated the level of IL-12 (7.7 fold), TNF-α (8.1 fold) and nitric oxide (6.6 fold) along with markedly (***p<0.001) suppressed level of IL-10 and TGF-β when compared with untreated infected macrophages. Leptin plus miltefosine also induces the phagocytic ability (**p<0.01) of macrophages in comparison to leptin alone and miltefosine alone treated groups. These finding illustrate that leptin activates host macrophages to generate protective immune response for the successful elimination of Leishmania parasite at lower concentration of miltefosine and has potential for further exploration in experimental animal model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL).

  12. Uptake of neutrophil-derived Ym1 protein distinguishes wound macrophages in the absence of interleukin-4 signaling in murine wound healing.

    PubMed

    Goren, Itamar; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    The determination of regenerative wound-healing macrophages as alternatively activated macrophages is currently questioned by the absence of IL-4 in wound tissue. Yet, murine wound tissue expressed high levels of Ym1 (chitinase 3-like 3), an established marker of the IL-4-induced alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Ym1 was expressed in wound neutrophils but not in macrophages. Initially, Ym1-free wound-healing macrophages, invading from the wound margins, became gradually positive for the protein in the absence of IL-4 signaling and Stat6 activation, as they entered the neutrophil-populated wound regions. IL-4 failed to induce Ym1 protein in ex vivo-cultured wound tissue explants containing wound-healing macrophages. Recombinant Ym1 protein was selectively taken up by macrophages but not by keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Cultured macrophages lost the ability to take up the recombinant protein when four highly conserved residues and the 70-amino acid small α+β domain essential for Ym1 function were removed. The data suggest that the IL-4/Stat6-independent presence of Ym1 protein in wound-healing macrophages is of exogenous origin, with Ym1 taken up from wound neutrophils as the cellular source. The data suggest that in situ determination of wound-healing macrophages, often defined by Ym1, might not essentially describe an IL-4-dependent macrophage phenotype. Consequently, wound-healing macrophages should not be classified by the established categories of the well-accepted but simplified paradigm of M1/M2 macrophage activation.

  13. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Esseili, Malak A; Saif, Linda J; Farkas, Tibor; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  14. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Esseili, Malak A.; Saif, Linda J.; Farkas, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  15. Metformin Inhibits Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages Partly through AMPK Activation and RAGE/NFκB Pathway Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong'e; Tang, Yong; Chen, Chengjun; Lu, Yi; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major inflammatory mediators in diabetes, affecting atherosclerosis progression via macrophages. Metformin slows diabetic atherosclerosis progression through mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study of murine bone marrow derived macrophages showed that (1) AGEs enhanced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) mRNA expression, RAGE expression, and NFκB activation; (2) metformin pretreatment inhibited AGEs effects and AGEs-induced cluster designation 86 (CD86) (M1 marker) expression, while promoting CD206 (M2 marker) surface expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) mRNA expression; and (3) the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, attenuated metformin effects. In conclusion, metformin inhibits AGEs-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages partly through AMPK activation and RAGE/NFκB pathway suppression. PMID:27761470

  16. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  17. Mycobacterium avium subspecies induce differential expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in a murine macrophage model: evidence for enhanced pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Geffers, Robert; Weiss, Siegfried; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies (ssp.) paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic, non-treatable granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. MAP is the only mycobacterium affecting the intestinal tract, which is of interest since it is presently the most favoured pathogen linked to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans due to its frequent detection in CD tissues. MAP is genetically closely related to other M. avium ssp. such as M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) and M. avium ssp. hominissuis (MAH) which can cause mycobacteriosis in animals and immunocompromised humans. We have recently shown that murine macrophage cell lines represent suitable systems to analyse M. avium ssp. patho-mechanisms and could show that MAP, but not MAA, specifically inhibited the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity for CD4(+) T-cells. In the present study, we compared gene expression profiles of murine RAW264.7 macrophages in response to infections with MAP or MAA using murine high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarrays. A comparison of MAP and MAA infection revealed 17 differentially expressed genes. They were expressed at a much lower level in MAP-infected macrophages than in MAA-infected macrophages. Among these were the genes for IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, CXCL2, PTGS2 (COX2), lipocalin (LCN2) and TNF, which are important pro-inflammatory factors. The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and, by protein array analyses and ELISA. Similar to MAA, infection with MAH also showed robust induction of IL-1beta, CXCL2, COX2, LCN2 and TNF. Taken together, our results from M. avium ssp.-infected murine macrophages provide evidence that MAP in contrast to MAA and MAH specifically suppresses the pro-inflammatory defence mechanisms of infected macrophages.

  18. Transcription of innate immunity genes and cytokine secretion by canine macrophages resistant or susceptible to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; da Costa, Luciana Fachini; Romão, Everton de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2015-01-15

    In this study we assessed the basal transcription of genes associated with innate immunity (i.e. Nramp1, NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, and TLR9) in canine monocyte-derived macrophages from Leishmania-free dogs. Additionally, secretion of cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and nitric oxide in culture supernatants of macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum was also measured. Constitutive transcription of TLR9 and NOD2 were negligible; NOD1, TLR1, and TLR7 had low levels of transcription, whereas Nramp1 and TLR2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 had higher levels of constitutive transcription in canine monocyte-derived macrophages. There were no significant differences in transcription between macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of L. infantum. Secretion of TNF-α was higher in more resistant macrophages (designated as resistant) at 24h after infection when compared to less resistant macrophages (designated as susceptible), as well as the secretion of IFN-γ at 72 h post infection. Secretion of IL-10 was lower in resistant macrophages at 24h after infection. No detectable production of nitric oxide was observed. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between NOD2 transcript levels and intracellular survival of L. infantum in resistant macrophages. This study demonstrated that decreased intracellular survival of L. infantum in canine macrophages was associated with increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased production of IL-10; and that constitutive transcription of Nramp1, TLR and NLR does not interfere in intracellular survival of L. infantum.

  19. Response of three murine macrophage populations to particulate debris: bone resorption in organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Glant, T T; Jacobs, J J

    1994-09-01

    Particulate wear debris from bone cement or prosthetic components can stimulate macrophages to cause bone resorption. We compared the effect of particle composition (titanium and polymethylmethacrylate as inherent components of prosthetic materials or bone cement and polystyrene as a reference material) on the secretion of interleukin-1 and prostaglandin E2 by peritoneal macrophages and monocyte/macrophage cell lines (P388D1 and IC-21) and on the bone-resorbing activity of conditioned medium harvested from these particle-challenged macrophages. Titanium particles (1-3 microns) in peritoneal macrophage cultures exhibited significantly enhanced bone-resorbing activity measured as 45Ca release, whereas polymethylmethacrylate and polystyrene exhibited this effect to a greater extent in the P388D1 and IC-21 monocyte/macrophage cultures. Although exogenous prostaglandin E2 and recombinant human interleukin-1 could significantly increase the 45Ca release and indomethacin significantly reduced both the spontaneous calcium efflux and active 45Ca release from calvarial bones labeled in vivo, the levels of interleukin-1 and prostaglandin E2, alone or together, did not always correlate with the bone-resorbing activity of conditioned media. Thus, the actual levels of potent bone-resorbing agents (prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1) measured in conditioned tissue culture media did not necessarily reflect the bone-resorbing capability. An important result of this study is that different macrophage populations may respond differently to the same microenvironmental signal, which in our investigation was particulate wear debris of differing composition and size. PMID:7931789

  20. Macrophage Phenotype in the Ocular Surface of Experimental Murine Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    You, In-Cheon; Coursey, Terry G; Bian, Fang; Barbosa, Flavia L; de Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the phenotype of macrophages in the cornea and conjunctiva of C57BL/6 mice with induced experimental dry eye. C57BL/6 mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS) were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 days and C57BL/6 mice maintained in non-stressed environment were used as controls. Whole eyes and adnexa were excised for histology or used for gene expression analysis. Location and phenotype of macrophages infiltrating the cornea and conjunctiva was evaluated by immunofluorescence analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction evaluated macrophage markers and T cell-related and inflammatory cytokine expression in cornea and conjunctiva. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that macrophages reside in the conjunctiva of control and dry eye mice and their number did not change with DS. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that the level of M1 macrophage marker, iNOS, increased prominently in the conjunctiva at DS 10 days. In contrast, there was a non-significant decrease of the M2 marker Arg1 with DS. The levels of inflammatory cytokine, IL-12a mRNA transcript in the conjunctiva increased significantly at DS1 and decreased at DS5, while levels of IL-18 were significantly increased at DS 10. Macrophages reside in the ocular surface tissues of C57BL/6 mice. Although the number of macrophages in the conjunctiva does not change, evidence of inflammatory M1 activation after desiccating stress was observed. Better understanding of phagocyte diversity and activation in dry eye disease provide a basis for the development of phagocyte-targeted therapeutic strategies.

  1. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9051584

  2. Effect of acidic solutions on the microhardness of dentin and set OrthoMTA and their cytotoxicity on murine macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage. Materials and Methods OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage. Results Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%). Conclusions Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA. PMID:26877986

  3. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Auricelio A; Silva, Ana P C; Mol, Juliana P S; Costa, Luciana F; Garcia, Luize N N; Araújo, Marcio S; Martins Filho, Olindo A; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  4. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Auricelio A.; Silva, Ana P. C.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Luciana F.; Garcia, Luize N. N.; Araújo, Marcio S.; Martins Filho, Olindo A.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  5. Silica-induced apoptosis in murine macrophage: involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Gozal, Evelyne; Ortiz, Luis A; Zou, Xiaoyan; Burow, Matthew E; Lasky, Joseph A; Friedman, Mitchell

    2002-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in silica-induced lung fibrosis. Silica exposure induces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and apoptotic mechanisms have been implicated in silica-induced pathogenesis. To characterize potential relationships between these signaling events, we studied their induction in two murine macrophage cell lines. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was more sensitive, and the IC-21 macrophage cell line more tolerant to silica exposure (0.2 or 1 mg/ml for 6 h) as evidenced by significantly higher apoptotic responses in RAW 264.7 (P < 0.05). RAW 264.7 macrophages exhibited enhanced TNF-alpha production and NF-kappaB activation in response to silica, whereas IC-21 macrophages did not produce TNF-alpha in response to silica and did not induce NF-kappaB nuclear binding. Inhibition of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells with BAY11-7082 significantly increased apoptosis while inhibiting TNF-alpha release. In addition, TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB activation, but not apoptosis, were induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in both cell lines, and NF-kappaB inhibition reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. These data suggest that TNF-alpha induction is dependent on NF-kappaB activation in both cell lines. However, silica can induce apoptosis in murine macrophages, independently of TNF-alpha stimulation, as in IC-21 macrophages. Furthermore, NF-kappaB activation in macrophages may play dual roles, both pro- and antiapoptotic during silica injury. PMID:12091251

  6. Killing of Leishmania parasites in activated murine macrophages is based on an L-arginine-dependent process that produces nitrogen derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Maul, J.R.; Ransijn, A.; Buchmueller-Rouiller, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were aimed at determining whether L-arginine (L-arg)-derived nitrogen oxidation products (nitric oxide, nitrous acid, nitrites) are involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania parasites by activated murine macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal or bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with L. enriettii or L. major, then activated by exposure to recombinant murine interferon-gamma or to macrophage activating factor (MAF)-rich media in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Activation of macrophages in regular (i.e., arginine-containing) culture medium led to complete destruction of the microorganisms within 24 h (L. enriettii) or 48 h (L. major), concomitant with accumulation of nitrites (NO2-) in the culture fluids. When macrophage activation was carried out in L-arg-free medium, however, neither parasite killing nor NO2- production was obtained. A similar inhibition of macrophage leishmanicidal activity and of NO2- release was observed using media treated with arginase (which converts L-arg to urea and ornithine), or supplemented with NG-monomethyl-L-arg or guanidine (which inhibit the conversion of L-arg to nitrogen oxidation products). In all these situations, an excellent correlation between the levels of NO2- production by macrophages and intracellular killing of Leishmania was observed, whereas no strict correlation was detectable between leishmanicidal activity and superoxide production. Intracellular parasite killing by activated macrophages could be prevented by addition of iron salts to the incubation fluids. Incubation of free parasites with NaNO2 at acid pH led to immobilisation, multiplication arrest, and morphological degeneration of the microorganisms. Similarly, exposure of infected cells to NaNO2 led to killing of the intracellular parasite without affecting macrophage viability.

  7. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and lipopolysaccharide induce different transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the IRG1 gene in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Jeckstadt, Sabine; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic enteritis in ruminants. In addition, MAP is presently the most favored pathogen linked to Crohn's disease. In this study, we were interested in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation or deactivation after infection with MAP. By subtractive hybridization of cDNAs, we identified the immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1), which was expressed substantially higher in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated than in MAP-infected murine macrophage cell lines. A nuclear run-on transcription assay revealed that the IRG1 gene was activated transcriptionally in LPS-stimulated and MAP-infected macrophages with higher expression in LPS-stimulated cells. Analysis of post-transcriptional regulation demonstrated that IRG1 mRNA stability was increased in LPS-stimulated but not in MAP-infected macrophages. Furthermore, IRG1 gene expression of macrophages infected with the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis differed from those of LPS-stimulated and MAP-infected macrophages. At 2 h postinfection, M. smegmatis-induced IRG1 gene expression was as low as in MAP-infected, and 8 h postinfection, it increased nearly to the level in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Transient transfection experiments revealed similar IRG1 promoter activities in MAP- and M. smegmatis-infected cells. Northern analysis demonstrated increased IRG1 mRNA stability in M. smegmatis-infected macrophages. IRG1 mRNA stabilization was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent. Inhibition of protein synthesis revealed that constitutively expressed factors seemed to be responsible for IRG1 mRNA destabilization. Thus, our data demonstrate that transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for a differential IRG1 gene expression in murine macrophages treated with LPS, MAP, and M. smegmatis.

  8. Macrophage-mediated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell survival is independent of APRIL signaling.

    PubMed

    van Attekum, Mha; Terpstra, S; Reinen, E; Kater, A P; Eldering, E

    2016-01-01

    Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is mainly driven by interactions within the lymph node (LN) microenvironment with bystander cells such as T cells or cells from the monocytic lineage. Although the survival effect by T cells is largely governed by the TNFR ligand family member CD40L, the exact mechanism of monocyte-derived cell-induced survival is not known. An important role has been attributed to the TNFR ligand, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), although the exact mechanism remained unclear. Since we detected that APRIL was expressed by CD68+ cells in CLL LN, we addressed its relevance in various aspects of CLL biology, using a novel APRIL overexpressing co-culture system, recombinant APRIL, and APRIL reporter cells. Unexpectedly, we found, that in these various systems, APRIL had no effect on survival of CLL cells, and activation of NF-κB was not enhanced on APRIL stimulation. Moreover, APRIL stity mulation did not affect CLL proliferation, neither as single stimulus nor in combination with known CLL proliferation stimuli. Furthermore, the survival effect conveyed by macrophages to CLL cells was not affected by transmembrane activator and CAML interactor-Fc, an APRIL decoy receptor. We conclude that the direct role ascribed to APRIL in CLL cell survival might be overestimated due to application of supraphysiological levels of recombinant APRIL. PMID:27551513

  9. Nitric Oxide Participation in the Fungicidal Mechanism of Gamma Interferon-Activated Murine Macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angel; de Gregori, Waldemar; Velez, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz E.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis restricted to Latin America and produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is probably acquired by inhalation of conidia produced by the mycelial form. The macrophage (Mφ) represents the major cell defense against this pathogen; when activated with gamma interferon (IFN-γ), murine Mφs kill the fungus by an oxygen-independent mechanism. Our goal was to determine the role of nitric oxide in the fungicidal effect of Mφs on P. brasiliensis conidia. The results revealed that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs inhibited the conidium-to-yeast transformation process in a dose-dependent manner; maximal inhibition was observed in Mφs activated with 50 U/ml and incubated for 96 h at 37°C. When Mφs were activated with 150 to 200 U of cytokine per ml, the number of CFU was 70% lower than in nonactivated controls, indicating that there was a fungicidal effect. The inhibitory effect was reversed by the addition of anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibodies. Activation by IFN-γ also enhanced Mφ nitric oxide production, as revealed by increasing NO2 values (8 ± 3 μM in nonactivated Mφs versus 43 ± 13 μM in activated Mφs). The neutralization of IFN-γ also reversed nitric oxide production at basal levels (8 ± 5 μM). Additionally, we found that there was a significant inverse correlation (r = −0.8975) between NO2− concentration and transformation of P. brasiliensis conidia. Additionally, treatment with any of the three different nitric oxide inhibitors used (arginase, NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, and aminoguanidine), reverted the inhibition of the transformation process with 40 to 70% of intracellular yeast and significantly reduced nitric oxide production. These results show that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs kill P. brasiliensis conidia through the l-arginine–nitric oxide pathway. PMID:10768942

  10. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid induced suppression of phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress phagocytosis of heat killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in macrophage cultures. In order to determine the mechanisms by which this response occurs, this investigation was initiated to examine whether the suppression of phagocytosis is mediated by a steroid induced phagocytosis inhibitory protein (PIP). Furthermore, it is postulated that these suppressive effects may be associated with alterations in macrophage phospholipid metabolism. To assess the association between phospholipid metabolism and phagocytosis, control and 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone treated macrophages were exposed to the phospholipase inhibitor bromophenacylbromide. The enzyme inhibitor suppressed phagocytosis in a time and dose dependent manner. However, supplying dexamethasone treated cultures with arachidonate did not reverse the steroid induced suppression of phagocytosis, whether the arachidonate was supplied alone or together with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Control cells, prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonate, exhibited an increased percentage of the radiolabeled fatty acid in neutral lipids following phagocytosis, with a corresponding decrease in the percentage associated with phosphatidylcholine.

  11. Recombinant murine gamma interferon stimulates macrophages of the RAW cell line to inhibit intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, L T; Wu-Hsieh, B A; Howard, D H

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages of the RAW 264.7 cell line, activated by pretreatment with recombinant murine gamma interferon, inhibit the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum. Growth inhibition occurred by a mechanism that was operative only when L-Arg metabolism was allowed to occur. When activated macrophages were cultured in the absence of L-Arg or in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-Arg, a competitive inhibitor of L-Arg metabolism, activation to the antihistoplasma growth-inhibitory state did not occur. An increase in levels of NO2-, an end product of L-Arg metabolism, was detected only after activation of RAW 264.7 cells to the growth-inhibitory state. In contrast, only baseline levels of NO2- were detected when L-Arg was excluded or when NG-monomethyl-L-Arg was added to the culture medium. Nitric oxide (NO.), a reactive intermediate product of L-Arg metabolism, was implicated as the relevant antihistoplasma effector molecule. When H. capsulatum yeast cells were cultured for 24 to 28 h in a system designed to generate soluble NO., a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect was observed. PMID:8300224

  12. Ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® decreases LPS-induced IL-6 release from murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Michels, J; Runkel, F; Gokorsch, S; Häberlein, H

    2016-03-01

    IL-6 plays a key role in the course of inflammatory processes as well as in the regulation of immune responses by the release of different cytokines. IL-6 is produced e.g. by macrophages recruited to the airways in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli like allergens and respiratory viruses. Patients with inflammatory airway diseases therefore may benefit from therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway, e.g. reduction of the IL-6 release. Within this context, we tested the influence of the ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® on the LPS-induced release of IL-6 from murine macrophages (J774.2). One point seven µg/ml (5 µM) corticosterone served as positive control and was able to reduce LPS-induced IL-6 release by 46 ± 4%. EA 575® was tested in concentrations between 40 and 400 µg/ml. EA 575® decreased the LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and statistically significant by 25 ± 4%, 32 ± 4%, and 40 ± 7% in concentrations of 80, 160, and 400 µg/ml, respectively. The present data suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of EA 575® used in therapy of chronic- and acute inflammatory airway diseases accompanied with cough. PMID:27183712

  13. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-γ was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications. PMID:25857980

  14. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-γ was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications.

  15. The genetic basis for individual differences in mRNA splicing and APOBEC1 editing activity in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Musa A.; Butty, Vincent; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Saeij, Jeroen P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing and mRNA editing are known to contribute to transcriptome diversity. Although alternative splicing is pervasive and contributes to a variety of pathologies, including cancer, the genetic context for individual differences in isoform usage is still evolving. Similarly, although mRNA editing is ubiquitous and associated with important biological processes such as intracellular viral replication and cancer development, individual variations in mRNA editing and the genetic transmissibility of mRNA editing are equivocal. Here, we have used linkage analysis to show that both mRNA editing and alternative splicing are regulated by the macrophage genetic background and environmental cues. We show that distinct loci, potentially harboring variable splice factors, regulate the splicing of multiple transcripts. Additionally, we show that individual genetic variability at the Apobec1 locus results in differential rates of C-to-U(T) editing in murine macrophages; with mouse strains expressing mostly a truncated alternative transcript isoform of Apobec1 exhibiting lower rates of editing. As a proof of concept, we have used linkage analysis to identify 36 high-confidence novel edited sites. These results provide a novel and complementary method that can be used to identify C-to-U editing sites in individuals segregating at specific loci and show that, beyond DNA sequence and structural changes, differential isoform usage and mRNA editing can contribute to intra-species genomic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24249727

  16. Effects of Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 mimics on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yadong; Guo, Xiaola; He, Wei; Shao, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xueyong; Yang, Jing; Shen, Yujuan; Luo, Xuenong; Cao, Jianping

    2016-05-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory non-coding RNA that contributes to the activation of host-pathogen cross-talk during infection. In helminthes, miR-71 is highly conserved and it has recently been detected in nematode exosomes, as well as in the sera and/or fluids of infected humans and mice. However, the role of miR-71 during infection remains poorly characterized. Herein, we show that Ago1 and Ago4, which encode key components of the small RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), were up-regulated in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells transfected by Echinococcus multilocularis miR-71 (emu-miR-71) mimics. Using a miRNA PCR array, none of the 84 miRNAs involved in inflammation or autoimmunity were significantly up- or down-regulated in the transfected cells (p>0.05). Although it did not influence IL-10 production by the treated cells (p>0.05), the mimics significantly repressed the production of NO 12 h after treatment with LPS and IFN-γ (p<0.01), identifying another potential mechanism whereby parasites can carefully regulate host levels of NO. These findings indicate that the release of parasite-derived miR-71 into hosts can affect the functions of macrophages, and possibly represents an exciting direction for studies of the interplay between parasites and hosts. PMID:26995025

  17. Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Cruz, Anselmo; Z. Mendonça, Ronaldo; L. Petricevich, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells, especially at high concentrations. However its effects on host immune cells are not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cdt on functional status and the mediators production in peritoneal macrophages. The effects of Cdt were analyzed in vitro and were detected using functional status of macrophages as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading percentage, phagocytic index, vacuole formation, and mediators production. Several functional bioassays were employed: cytotoxicity was determined by taking the lyses percentage and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in macrophages, using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatants of macrophages by the Griess reaction. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity was detected by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L929 cells, and the production the level of other cytokines was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro studies revealed that Cdt produced (a) a discrete increase in the release of H2O2 and vacuole formation; (b) a decrease in spreading percentage and in the phagocytic index; and (c) an increment in the mediators production. More pronounced increments of IL-6 and TNF were observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Maximum levels of IFN-γ and NO were observed after 96 hours. Interestingly, levels of all mediators presented a discreet decrease, as the amount of Cdt was increased. In contrast, the IL-10 levels observed for all doses studied here did not alter. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio may possibly reflect the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming processes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdt have a differential effect on macrophage activation and that this venom is a potent inhibitor of anti-inflammatory response. PMID

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor-associated macrophages promotes breast cancer cell survival by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhong; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jing; Lin, Yong; Xiang, Tingxiu; Wan, Jingyuan; Li, Hongyuan; Chouaib, Salem; Ren, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer cell survival, however, the mechanism of which remains elusive. In this study, we found that COX-2 was abundantly expressed in breast TAMs, which was correlated to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Ectopic over-expression of COX-2 in TAMs enhanced breast cancer cell survival both in vitro and in vivo. COX-2 in TAMs was determined to be essential for the induction and maintenance of M2-phenotype macrophage polarity. COX-2+ TAMs promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by increasing Bcl-2 and P-gp and decreasing Bax in cancer cells. Furthermore, COX-2 in TAMs induced the expression of COX-2 in breast cancer cells, which in turn promoted M2 macrophage polarization. Inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in cancer cells suppressed COX-2+ TAMs-induced cancer cell survival. These findings suggest that COX-2, functions as a key cancer promoting factor by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells, which could be exploited for breast cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:26359357

  19. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF ACELLULAR DERMAL MATRIX GRAFT EVALUATED IN CULTURE OF MURINE MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    Vendramini, Ana Paula; Melo, Rafaela Fernanda; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici; Carlos, Iracilda Zepone

    2006-01-01

    The acellular dermal matrix allograft has been used as an alternative to autogenous palatal mucosal graft. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the biocompatibility of an acellular dermal matrix (AlloDerm®) in culture of macrophages. For hydrogen peroxidase determination we used the method of Pick & Kesari, and the Griess method for nitric oxide determination,. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0,05) in the release of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by the macrophages exposed to acellular dermal matrix and the negative control. The results suggest that acellular dermal matrix did not activate the cell inflammatory response. PMID:19089033

  20. A Comparison of the ATP Generating Pathways Used by S. Typhimurium to Fuel Replication within Human and Murine Macrophage and Epithelial Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; Chidlaw, Amanda C; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Bowden, Steven D; Tedin, Karsten; Kelly, David J; Thompson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of S. Typhimurium within infected host cells plays a fundamental role in virulence since it enables intracellular proliferation and dissemination and affects the innate immune response. An essential requirement for the intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium is the need to regenerate ATP. The metabolic route used to fulfil this requirement is the subject of the present study. For infection models we used human and murine epithelial and macrophage cell lines. The epithelial cell lines were mICc12, a transimmortalised murine colon enterocyte cell line that shows many of the characteristics of a primary epithelial cell line, and HeLa cells. The model macrophage cell lines were THP-1A human monocyte/macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Using a mutational approach combined with an exometabolomic analysis, we showed that neither fermentative metabolism nor anaerobic respiration play major roles in energy generation in any of the cell lines studied. Rather, we identified overflow metabolism to acetate and lactate as the foremost route by which S. Typhimurium fulfils its energy requirements.

  1. A Comparison of the ATP Generating Pathways Used by S. Typhimurium to Fuel Replication within Human and Murine Macrophage and Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; Chidlaw, Amanda C.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Bowden, Steven D.; Tedin, Karsten; Kelly, David J.; Thompson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of S. Typhimurium within infected host cells plays a fundamental role in virulence since it enables intracellular proliferation and dissemination and affects the innate immune response. An essential requirement for the intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium is the need to regenerate ATP. The metabolic route used to fulfil this requirement is the subject of the present study. For infection models we used human and murine epithelial and macrophage cell lines. The epithelial cell lines were mICc12, a transimmortalised murine colon enterocyte cell line that shows many of the characteristics of a primary epithelial cell line, and HeLa cells. The model macrophage cell lines were THP-1A human monocyte/macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Using a mutational approach combined with an exometabolomic analysis, we showed that neither fermentative metabolism nor anaerobic respiration play major roles in energy generation in any of the cell lines studied. Rather, we identified overflow metabolism to acetate and lactate as the foremost route by which S. Typhimurium fulfils its energy requirements. PMID:26930214

  2. A Comparison of the ATP Generating Pathways Used by S. Typhimurium to Fuel Replication within Human and Murine Macrophage and Epithelial Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; Chidlaw, Amanda C; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Bowden, Steven D; Tedin, Karsten; Kelly, David J; Thompson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of S. Typhimurium within infected host cells plays a fundamental role in virulence since it enables intracellular proliferation and dissemination and affects the innate immune response. An essential requirement for the intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium is the need to regenerate ATP. The metabolic route used to fulfil this requirement is the subject of the present study. For infection models we used human and murine epithelial and macrophage cell lines. The epithelial cell lines were mICc12, a transimmortalised murine colon enterocyte cell line that shows many of the characteristics of a primary epithelial cell line, and HeLa cells. The model macrophage cell lines were THP-1A human monocyte/macrophages and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Using a mutational approach combined with an exometabolomic analysis, we showed that neither fermentative metabolism nor anaerobic respiration play major roles in energy generation in any of the cell lines studied. Rather, we identified overflow metabolism to acetate and lactate as the foremost route by which S. Typhimurium fulfils its energy requirements. PMID:26930214

  3. A murine platelet-activating factor receptor gene: cloning, chromosomal localization and up-regulation of expression by lipopolysaccharide in peritoneal resident macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, S; Matsuda, Y; Nakamura, M; Waga, I; Kume, K; Izumi, T; Shimizu, T

    1996-01-01

    A murine gene encoding a platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) was cloned. The gene was mapped to a region of the D2.2 band of chromosome 4 both by fluorescence in situ hybridization and by molecular linkage analysis. Northern blot analysis showed a high expression of the PAFR message in peritoneal macrophages. When C3H/HeN macrophages were treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or synthetic lipid A, the PAFR gene expression was induced. Bacterial LPS, but not lipid A, induced the level of PAFR mRNA in LPS unresponsive C3H/HeJ macrophages. These induction patterns were parallel to those of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. Thus the PAFR in macrophages is important in LPS-induced pathologies. PMID:8670084

  4. Real-time high-resolution magnetic resonance tracking of macrophage subpopulations in a murine inflammation model: a pilot study with a commercially available cryogenic probe.

    PubMed

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Luciani, Nathalie; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Mattar, Essam; Clement, Olivier; Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages present different polarization states exhibiting distinct functions in response to environmental stimuli. However, the dynamic of their migration to sites of inflammation is not fully elucidated. Here we propose a real-time in vivo cell tracking approach, using high-resolution (HR)-MRI obtained with a commercially available cryogenic probe (Cryoprobe™), to monitor trafficking of differently polarized macrophages after systemic injection into mice. Murine bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were differentiated ex vivo into nonpolarized M0, pro-inflammatory M1 and immunomodulator M2 macrophage subsets and labeled with citrate-coated anionic iron oxide nanoparticles (AMNP). These cells were subsequently intravenously injected to mice bearing calf muscle inflammation. Whole body migration dynamics of macrophage subsets was monitored by MRI at 4.7 T with a volume transmission/reception radiofrequency coil and macrophage infiltration to the inflamed paw was monitored with the cryogenic probe, allowing 3D spatial resolution of 50 µm with a scan time of only 10 min. Capture of AMNP was rapid and efficient regardless of macrophage polarization, with the highest uptake in M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry confirmed that macrophages preserved their polarization hallmarks after labeling. Migration kinetics of labeled cells differed from that of free AMNP. A preferential homing of M2-polarized macrophages to inflammation sites was observed. Our in vivo HR-MRI protocol highlights the extent of macrophage infiltration to the inflammation site. Coupled to whole body imaging, HR-MRI provides quantitative information on the time course of migration of ex vivo-polarized intravenously injected macrophages.

  5. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  6. Inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigote internalization into murine macrophages by chemically defined parasite glycoconjugate ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik, C B; Borojevic, R; Previato, J O; Mendonça-Previato, L

    1989-01-01

    Leishmania donovani, the agent of human visceral leishmaniasis, is an intracellular parasite that must be recognized and internalized by host macrophages to complete its biological cycle. In a search for possible ligands for macrophage surface receptors, glycoconjugates were obtained from Leishmania promastigotes by aqueous, phenol-aqueous, and alkaline extraction. A fucose-mannose glycoproteic ligand, a lipopeptidephosphoglycan, and a phosphate mannogalactan ligand were purified from promastigotes and analyzed for their chemical contents, with special attention to their glycidic moieties. Sugars that were identified as components of these glycoconjugates were tested for their capacity to inhibit promastigote internalization by BALB/c peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Neutral hexoses showed little inhibitory activity; fucose, charged monosaccharides, and a mannose polymer showed the highest activity. Two of the glycoconjugates (fucose-mannose glycoproteic ligand and phosphate mannogalactan ligand) purified from promastigotes were potent inhibitors of internalization, 75% inhibition being obtained at concentrations of 6 to 10 micrograms/ml. The simultaneous presence of both ligands in low concentrations yielded an increase in inhibitory activity above that found for each ligand alone, indicating that promastigotes may use at least two receptor sites for penetration into macrophages. These ligands are specific inhibitors of L. donovani promastigote phagocytosis, since 10 micrograms of each ligand per ml interfered neither with internalization of yeast cells nor with phagocytosis of Leishmania adleri promastigotes. Images PMID:2537257

  7. Low shear stress induces M1 macrophage polarization in murine thin-cap atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Anusha N; Cole, Jennifer E; Goddard, Michael E; Park, Inhye; Mohri, Zahra; Sansom, Stephen; Udalova, Irina; Krams, Rob; Monaco, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages, a significant component of atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable to acute complications, can be pro-inflammatory (designated M1), regulatory (M2), lipid- (Mox) or Heme-induced (Mhem). We showed previously that low (LSS) and oscillatory (OSS) shear stress cause thin-cap fibroatheroma and stable smooth muscle cell-rich plaque formation respectively in ApoE-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Here we investigated whether different shear stress conditions relate to specific changes in macrophage polarization and plaque morphology by applying a shear stress-altering cast to the carotid arteries of high fat-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. The M1 markers iNOS and IRF5 were highly expressed in macrophage-rich areas of LSS lesions compared to OSS lesions 6weeks after cast placement, while the M2 marker Arginase-1, and Mox/Mhem markers HO-1 and CD163 were elevated in OSS lesions. Our data indicates shear stress could be an important determinant of macrophage polarization in atherosclerosis, with low shear promoting M1 programming.

  8. Combination of imipenem and TAK-242, a Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction inhibitor, improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Takuryu; Iizawa, Yuji; Ii, Masayuki

    2011-02-01

    Sepsis is characterized by an excessive host response to infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential for triggering this type of host immune response. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates recognition of LPS from gram-negative bacteria and is an important initiator of sepsis. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TAK-242, a novel TLR4 signal transduction inhibitor, in a murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Treatment with TAK-242 (10 mg/kg i.v.) in combination with imipenem (1 mg/kg s.c.) 1 h after CLP significantly increased the survival rates of mice from 17% to 50% (P ≤ 0.01) and suppressed CLP-induced increases in serum levels of IL-1[beta], IL-6, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 by 64%, 73%, 79%, and 81%, respectively (P ≤ 0.025). Additionally, coadministration of TAK-242 with imipenem after CLP significantly inhibited CLP-induced decreases in blood platelet counts by 37% (P ≤ 0.025) and increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase by 32% (P ≤ 0.025) and blood urea nitrogen by 43% (P ≤ 0.025). TAK-242 at a dose of 10 mg/kg had no effect on bacterial counts in blood, suggesting that it does not affect blood bacteria spread. These results indicate that TAK-242 shows therapeutic effects in murine polymicrobial sepsis, and it may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:20720515

  9. Impact of macrophages on tumor growth characteristics in a murine ocular tumor model.

    PubMed

    Stei, Marta M; Loeffler, Karin U; Kurts, Christian; Hoeller, Tobias; Pfarrer, Christiane; Holz, Frank G; Herwig-Carl, Martina C

    2016-10-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAM), mean vascular density (MVD), PAS positive extravascular matrix patterns, and advanced patients' age are associated with a poor prognosis in uveal melanoma. These correlations may be influenced by M2 macrophages and their cytokine expression pattern. Thus, the effect of TAM and their characteristic cytokines on histologic tumor growth characteristics were studied under the influence of age. Ninety five CX3CR1(+/GFP) mice (young 8-12weeks, old 10-12months) received an intravitreal injection of 1 × 10(5) HCmel12 melanoma cells. Subgroups were either systemically macrophage-depleted by Clodronate liposomes (n = 23) or received melanoma cells, which were pre-incubated with the supernatant of M1- or M2-polarized macrophages (n = 26). Eyes were processed histologically/immunohistochemically (n = 75), or for flow cytometry (n = 20) to analyze tumor size, mean vascular density (MVD), extravascular matrix patterns, extracellular matrix (ECM) and the presence/polarization of TAM. Prognostically significant extravascular matrix patterns (parallels with cross-linkings, loops, networks) were found more frequently in tumors of untreated old compared to tumors of untreated young mice (p = 0.024); as well as in tumors of untreated mice compared to tumors of macrophage-depleted mice (p = 0.014). Independent from age, M2-conditioned tumors showed more TAM (p = 0.001), increased collagen IV levels (p = 0.024) and a higher MVD (p = 0.02) than M1-conditioned tumors. Flow cytometry revealed a larger proportion of M2-macrophages in old than in young mice. The results indicate that TAM and their cytokines appear to be responsible for a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Tumor favoring and pro-angiogenic effects can be directly attributed to a M2-dominated tumor microenvironment rather than to age-dependent factors alone. However, an aged immunoprofile with an increased number of M2-macrophages may provide a tumor-favoring basis

  10. Mutations of Francisella novicida that Alter the Mechanism of Its Phagocytosis by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xin-He; Shirley, Renee L.; Crosa, Lidia; Kanistanon, Duangjit; Tempel, Rebecca; Ernst, Robert K.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin; Heffron, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis tularensis (F. tularensis) causes tularemia, a serious and debilitating disease. Francisella tularensis novicida strain U112 (abbreviated F. novicida), which is closely related to F. tularensis, is pathogenic for mice but not for man, making it an ideal model system for tularemia. Intracellular pathogens like Francisella inhibit the innate immune response, thereby avoiding immune recognition and death of the infected cell. Because activation of inflammatory pathways may lead to cell death, we reasoned that we could identify bacterial genes involved in inhibiting inflammation by isolating mutants that killed infected cells faster than the wild-type parent. We screened a comprehensive transposon library of F. novicida for mutant strains that increased the rate of cell death following infection in J774 macrophage-like cells, as compared to wild-type F. novicida. Mutations in 28 genes were identified as being hypercytotoxic to both J774 and primary macrophages of which 12 were less virulent in a mouse infection model. Surprisingly, we found that F. novicida with mutations in four genes (lpcC, manB, manC and kdtA) were taken up by and killed macrophages at a much higher rate than the parent strain, even upon treatment with cytochalasin D (cytD), a classic inhibitor of macrophage phagocytosis. At least 10-fold more mutant bacteria were internalized by macrophages as compared to the parent strain if the bacteria were first fixed with formaldehyde, suggesting a surface structure is required for the high phagocytosis rate. However, bacteria were required to be viable for macrophage toxicity. The four mutant strains do not make a complete LPS but instead have an exposed lipid A. Interestingly, other mutations that result in an exposed LPS core were not taken up at increased frequency nor did they kill host cells more than the parent. These results suggest an alternative, more efficient macrophage uptake mechanism

  11. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham; Soliman, Hesham; El-Domany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. RAW 264.7 cells were recruited to investigate the immunomodulatory effect through multiple parameters analysis. First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. TNF-α was decreased by percentage range from 3.8 to 85.8% and Trigonella foenugricium extract showed the highest inhibition of TNF-α release. All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25564700

  12. Cardiac-Specific YAP Activation Improves Cardiac Function and Survival in an Experimental Murine MI Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiqiang; von Gise, Alexander; Zhou, Pingzhu; Gu, Fei; Ma, Qing; Jiang, Jiangming; Yau, Allan L.; Buck, Jessica N.; Gouin, Katryna A.; van Gorp, Pim R. R.; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Jinghai; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Wang, Da-zhi; Pu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the terminal effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, is crucial for regulating embryonic cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation. Objective We hypothesized that YAP activation after myocardial infarction would preserve cardiac function and improve survival. Methods and Results We used a cardiac-specific, inducible expression system to activate YAP in adult mouse heart. Activation of YAP in adult heart promoted CM proliferation and did not deleteriously affect heart function. Furthermore, YAP activation after myocardial infarction (MI) preserved heart function and reduced infarct size. Using adeno-associated virus subtype 9 (AAV9) as a delivery vector, we expressed human YAP in the adult murine myocardium immediately after MI. We found that AAV9:hYAP significantly improved cardiac function and mouse survival. AAV9:hYAP did not exert its salutary effects by reducing CM apoptosis. Rather, AAV9:hYAP stimulated adult CM proliferation. Gene expression profiling indicated that AAV9:hYAP stimulated expression of cell cycle genes and promoted a less mature cardiac gene expression signature. Conclusions Cardiac specific YAP activation after MI mitigated myocardial injury, improved cardiac function, and enhanced survival. These findings suggest that therapeutic activation of YAP or its downstream targets, potentially through AAV-mediated gene therapy, may be a strategy to improve outcome after MI. PMID:24833660

  13. Notch1 regulated autophagy controls survival and suppressor activity of activated murine T-regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Nimi; Sarin, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Cell survival is one of several processes regulated by the Notch pathway in mammalian cells. Here we report functional outcomes of non-nuclear Notch signaling to activate autophagy, a conserved cellular response to nutrient stress, regulating survival in murine natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), an immune subset controlling tolerance and inflammation. Induction of autophagy required ligand-dependent, Notch intracellular domain (NIC) activity, which controlled mitochondrial organization and survival of activated Tregs. Consistently, NIC immune-precipitated Beclin and Atg14, constituents of the autophagy initiation complex. Further, ectopic expression of an effector of autophagy (Atg3) or recombinant NIC tagged to a nuclear export signal (NIC-NES), restored autophagy and suppressor function in Notch1-/- Tregs. Furthermore, Notch1 deficiency in the Treg lineage resulted in immune hyperactivity, implicating Notch activity in Treg homeostasis. Notch1 integration with autophagy, revealed in these experiments, holds implications for Notch regulated cell-fate decisions governing differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14023.001 PMID:27267497

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is Sufficient For Extracellular Growth But Not Intracellular Survival In Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Simon A; Voelz, Kerstin; May, Robin C

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fatal fungal pathogen of humans that efficiently parasitises macrophages. Birds can be colonised by cryptococci and can transmit cryptococcosis to humans via inhalation of inoculated bird excreta. However, colonisation of birds appears to occur in the absence of symptomatic infection. Here, using a pure population of primary bird macrophages, we demonstrate a mechanism for this relationship. We find that bird macrophages are able to suppress the growth of cryptococci seen in mammalian cells despite C. neoformans being able to grow at bird body temperature, and are able to escape from bird macrophages by vomocytosis. A small subset of cryptococci are able to adapt to the inhibitory intracellular environment of bird macrophages, exhibiting a large cell phenotype that rescues growth suppression. Thus, restriction of intracellular growth combined with survival at bird body temperature explains the ability of birds to efficiently spread C. neoformans in the environment whilst avoiding systemic disease. PMID:26883088

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is Sufficient For Extracellular Growth But Not Intracellular Survival In Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Simon A.; Voelz, Kerstin; May, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fatal fungal pathogen of humans that efficiently parasitises macrophages. Birds can be colonised by cryptococci and can transmit cryptococcosis to humans via inhalation of inoculated bird excreta. However, colonisation of birds appears to occur in the absence of symptomatic infection. Here, using a pure population of primary bird macrophages, we demonstrate a mechanism for this relationship. We find that bird macrophages are able to suppress the growth of cryptococci seen in mammalian cells despite C. neoformans being able to grow at bird body temperature, and are able to escape from bird macrophages by vomocytosis. A small subset of cryptococci are able to adapt to the inhibitory intracellular environment of bird macrophages, exhibiting a large cell phenotype that rescues growth suppression. Thus, restriction of intracellular growth combined with survival at bird body temperature explains the ability of birds to efficiently spread C. neoformans in the environment whilst avoiding systemic disease. PMID:26883088

  16. Transfusion-induced immunosuppression results in diminished host survival in a murine neuroblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, M D; Shou, J; Sigal, R K; Yu, J; Goldfine, J; Daly, J M

    1990-05-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been associated with decreased survival in cancer patients. The immunologic consequences of H-2 incompatible blood transfusion as related to neoplasia are unclear. This report examined the effect of multiple allogeneic blood transfusions, compared to syngeneic transfusions and saline infusion, on cellular immunity, tumor growth, and host survival in a murine C1300 neuroblastoma model. A/J mice were randomized to receive two weekly transfusions of washed whole blood cells from C57 Bl/6 or A/J donors or saline. Animals transfused with allogeneic blood, compared to syngeneic transfusions or saline infusions, had a significantly diminished lymphocyte response to mitogen (P less than 0.001), reduced donor-specific (P less than 0.001) and third party alloantigen (P less than 0.01) MLR, and reduced cytotoxicity against a natural killer (NK) cell-sensitive target (P less than 0.001). These in vitro deficits in cellular immunity correlated with a significantly greater Day 21 tumor weight to total body weight ratio in the allogeneic group (0.33) compared with the syngeneic (0.25) and saline (0.28) groups P less than 0.05). Median host survival was reduced in the allogeneic group (24 days) compared with the syngeneic (30 days) and saline (31 days) groups. There were no significant differences in cellular immunity, tumor growth, or survival between syngeneic and saline control groups. Allogeneic blood transfusion had an adverse affect on NK and T-lymphocyte function which was associated with enhanced tumor growth and reduced survival in tumor-bearing mice.

  17. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Perturbs Acquisition of Lysosomal Enzymes and Requires Phagosomal Acidification for Survival inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tranchemontagne, Zachary R.; Camire, Ryan B.; O'Donnell, Vanessa J.; Baugh, Jessfor

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes invasive, drug-resistant skin and soft tissue infections. Reports that S. aureus bacteria survive inside macrophages suggest that the intramacrophage environment may be a niche for persistent infection; however, mechanisms by which the bacteria might evade macrophage phagosomal defenses are unclear. We examined the fate of the S. aureus-containing phagosome in THP-1 macrophages by evaluating bacterial intracellular survival and phagosomal acidification and maturation and by testing the impact of phagosomal conditions on bacterial viability. Multiple strains of S. aureus survived inside macrophages, and in studies using the MRSA USA300 clone, the USA300-containing phagosome acidified rapidly and acquired the late endosome and lysosome protein LAMP1. However, fewer phagosomes containing live USA300 bacteria than those containing dead bacteria associated with the lysosomal hydrolases cathepsin D and β-glucuronidase. Inhibiting lysosomal hydrolase activity had no impact on intracellular survival of USA300 or other S. aureus strains, suggesting that S. aureus perturbs acquisition of lysosomal enzymes. We examined the impact of acidification on S. aureus intramacrophage viability and found that inhibitors of phagosomal acidification significantly impaired USA300 intracellular survival. Inhibition of macrophage phagosomal acidification resulted in a 30-fold reduction in USA300 expression of the staphylococcal virulence regulator agr but had little effect on expression of sarA, saeR, or sigB. Bacterial exposure to acidic pH in vitro increased agr expression. Together, these results suggest that S. aureus survives inside macrophages by perturbing normal phagolysosome formation and that USA300 may sense phagosomal conditions and upregulate expression of a key virulence regulator that enables its intracellular survival. PMID:26502911

  19. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bokil, Nilesh J; Totsika, Makrina; Carey, Alison J; Stacey, Katryn J; Hancock, Viktoria; Saunders, Bernadette M; Ravasi, Timothy; Ulett, Glen C; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J

    2011-11-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that UPEC can invade and replicate within epithelial cells, suggesting that this bacterial pathogen may occupy an intracellular niche within the host. Given that many intracellular pathogens target macrophages, we assessed the interactions between UPEC and macrophages. Colonization of the mouse bladder by UPEC strain CFT073 resulted in increased expression of myeloid-restricted genes, consistent with the recruitment of inflammatory macrophages to the site of infection. In in vitro assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50, originally isolated from patients with cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria respectively, showed elevated bacterial loads in BMM at 24h post-infection as compared to CFT073 and the asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. These differences did not correlate with differential effects on macrophage survival or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1(+) vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that some UPEC isolates may subvert macrophage anti-microbial pathways, and that host species differences may impact on intracellular UPEC survival.

  20. The virulence plasmid does not contribute to growth of Salmonella in cultured murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, P; Mäkelä, P H; Saarilahti, H; Sukupolvi, S; Taira, S; Rhen, M

    1992-10-01

    The virulence plasmid, characteristic of many serovars of Salmonella sp., and specifically its spv genes, promote intracellular growth of the bacteria in the liver and spleen and are essential for the virulence of these Salmonella serovars in the mouse. In an attempt to establish an in vitro model for studying its function, we evaluated its effect on the intracellular growth of the bacteria in macrophages in culture. We used a number of different macrophage-like cell lines (J774-A.1, IC-21 and PU5-1.8), as well as peritoneal or splenic macrophages from genetically Salmonella-sensitive (Itys, BALB/c) or resistant (Ityr, C3H/HeN) mice, and at different states of activation, stimulated in vivo or in vitro with lipopolysaccharide and/or recombinant gamma interferon. These were found to differ in their ability to suppress or sustain intracellular growth of several Salmonella serovars, but in all cases the growth was independent of the spv genes. PMID:1298867

  1. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Results Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Conclusion Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent. PMID:25281406

  2. The Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 Contributes to Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Paone, Christoph; Rodrigues, Natalie; Ittner, Ella; Santos, Carina; Buntru, Alexander; Hauck, Christof R

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family and is mainly expressed in neuronal and hematopoietic cells. As FAK family members are involved in signaling connections downstream of integrins, we studied the role of Pyk2 in complement-receptor 3 (CR3, also known as Mac-1, integrin αMβ2, CD11b/CD18)-mediated phagocytosis, a key process in innate immunity. Using 3 independent approaches, we observed that Pyk2 contributes to CR3-dependent phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages, but is dispensable for Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated uptake. Reduction of Pyk2 expression levels via siRNA, the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 kinase activity as well as macrophage treatment with a cell permeable TAT fusion protein containing the C-terminus of Pyk2 (TAT-PRNK) significantly impaired CR3-mediated phagocytosis without affecting FcγR-mediated uptake. In addition, Pyk2 was strongly recruited to complement opsonized Escherichia coli and the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 significantly decreased uptake of the bacteria. Finally, CRISPR/Cas-mediated disruption of the pyk2 gene in RAW 264.7 macrophages confirmed the role of this protein tyrosine kinase in CR3-mediated phagocytosis. Together, our data demonstrate that Pyk2 selectively contributes to the coordination of phagocytosis-promoting signals downstream of CR3, but is dispensable for FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  3. Isolation of nine gene sequences induced by silica in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Segade, F.; Claudio, E.; Wrobel, K.; Ramos, S.; Lazo, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Macrophage activation by silica is the initial step in the development of silicosis. To identify genes that might be involved in silica-mediated activation, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were treated with silica for 48 h, and a subtracted cDNA library enriched for silica-induced genes (SIG) was constructed and differently screened. Nine cDNA clones (designated SIG-12, -14, -20, -41, -61, -81, -91, and -111) were partially sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank/EMBL databases. SIG-12, -14, and -20 corresponded to the genes for ribosomal proteins L13A, L32, and L26, respectively. SIG-61 is the mouse homologue of p21 RhoC. SIG-91 is identical to the 67-kDa high-affinity laminin receptor. Four genes were not identified and are novel. All of the mRNAs corresponding to the nine cloned cDNAs were inducible by silica. Steady-state levels of mRNAs in RAW 264.7 cells treated with various macrophage activators and inducers of signal transduction pathways were determined. A complex pattern of induction and repression was found, indicating that upon phagocytosis of silica particles, many regulatory mechanisms of genes expression are simultaneously triggered. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Morin hydrate augments phagocytosis mechanism and inhibits LPS induced autophagic signaling in murine macrophage.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-10-01

    Morin, a natural flavonoid that is the primary bioactive constituent of the family Moraceae, has been found to be associated with many therapeutic properties. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of increasing concentration of morin hydrate in vitro. Three different concentrations of morin hydrate (5, 10, and 15μM) were used to evaluate their effect on splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic activity of macrophages, cytokine secretion and complement inhibition. We also evaluated the role of morin hydrate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced autophagy. Our study demonstrated that morin hydrate elicited a significant increase in splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic capacity and suppressed the production of cytokines and nitric oxide in activated macrophages. Humoral immunity measured by anti-complement activity showed an increase in inhibition of the complement system after the addition of morin hydrate, where morin hydrate at 15μM concentration induced a significant inhibition. Depending on our results, we can also conclude that morin hydrate protects macrophages from LPS induced autophagic cell death. Our findings suggest that morin hydrate represents a structurally diverse class of flavonoid and this structural variability can profoundly affect its cell-type specificity and its biological activities. Supplementation of immune cells with morin hydrate has an upregulating and immunoprotective effect that shows potential as a countermeasure to the immune dysfunction and suggests an interesting use in inflammation related diseases.

  5. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Katharina; Stollhof, Laura; Poetschke, Christian; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Diedrich, Stephan; Maier, Stefan; Bröker, Barbara M; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP. Methods Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined. Results As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP. Conclusion Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease. PMID:27366100

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica. PMID:27038159

  7. TGF-beta 1 inhibits both endotoxin-induced prostaglandin synthesis and expression of the TIS10/prostaglandin synthase 2 gene in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S T; Gilbert, R S; Xie, W; Luner, S; Herschman, H R

    1994-02-01

    Activated macrophages produce substantial quantities of paracrine mediators, including cytokines, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta) is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-beta inhibits the cytotoxic activity of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage cell lines and primary macrophage cultures, reducing their expression of cytokines and nitric oxide. In this report we demonstrate that TGF-beta also attenuates the LPS-induced synthesis and secretion of prostaglandin E2 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Macrophage activation also induces accumulation of the recently described ligand-responsive prostaglandin synthase (PGS) TIS10/PGS-2. While TGF-beta alone has no effect on expression from the TIS10/PGS-2 gene, this cytokine inhibits LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 protein accumulation and synthesis, as well as LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells. TGF-beta concentrations in the range of 0.1-1.0 ng/ml (4-40 pM) maximally inhibit LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation. In contrast, neither LPS nor TGF-beta has any effect on the level of PGS-1 (EC 1.14.99.1) message. TGF-beta also attenuates LPS-induced accumulation of unspliced TIS10/PGS-2 transcripts in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that this cytokine exerts its effects on TIS10/PGS-2 expression at the transcriptional level. TGF-beta inhibits the LPS-induced accumulation of TIS10/PGS-2 protein and message in cultured murine peritoneal macrophages, as well as in macrophage cell lines.

  8. Mycobacterium leprae-induced Insulin-like Growth Factor I attenuates antimicrobial mechanisms, promoting bacterial survival in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Batista-Silva, L. R.; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Vivarini, Aislan de Carvalho; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; Mattos, Katherine Antunes de; Costa, Maria Renata Sales Nogueira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Toledo-Pinto, T. G.; Dias, André Alves; Moura, Danielle Fonseca; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (ML), the etiologic agent of leprosy, can subvert macrophage antimicrobial activity by mechanisms that remain only partially understood. In the present study, the participation of hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in this phenomenum was investigated. Macrophages from the dermal lesions of the disseminated multibacillary lepromatous form (LL) of leprosy expressed higher levels of IGF-I than those from the self-limited paucibacillary tuberculoid form (BT). Higher levels of IGF-I secretion by ML-infected macrophages were confirmed in ex vivo and in vitro studies. Of note, the dampening of IGF-I signaling reverted the capacity of ML-infected human and murine macrophages to produce antimicrobial molecules and promoted bacterial killing. Moreover, IGF-I was shown to inhibit the JAK/STAT1-dependent signaling pathways triggered by both mycobacteria and IFN-γ most probably through its capacity to induce the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). Finally, these in vitro findings were corroborated by in vivo observations in which higher SOCS3 expression and lower phosphorylation of STAT1 levels were found in LL versus BT dermal lesions. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that IGF-I contributes to the maintenance of a functional program in infected macrophages that suits ML persistence in the host, reinforcing a key role for IGF-I in leprosy pathogenesis. PMID:27282338

  9. Discrimination between citrulline and arginine transport in activated murine macrophages: inefficient synthesis of NO from recycling of citrulline to arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Baydoun, A. R.; Bogle, R. G.; Pearson, J. D.; Mann, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    1. The kinetics, specificity, pH- and Na(+)-dependency of L-citrulline transport were examined in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage J774 cells. The dependency of nitric oxide production on extracellular arginine or citrulline was investigated in cells activated with LPS (1 microgram ml-1) for 24 h. 2. In unstimulated J774 cells, transport of citrulline was saturable (Kt = 0.16 mM and Vmax = 32 pmol micrograms-1 protein min-1), pH-insensitive and partially Na(+)-dependent. In contrast to arginine, transport of citrulline was unchanged in LPS-activated (1 microgram ml-1, 24 h) cells. 3. Kinetic inhibition experiments revealed that arginine was a relatively poor inhibitor of citrulline transport, whilst citrulline was a more potent inhibitor (Ki = 3.4 mM) of arginine transport but only in the presence of extracellular Na+. Neutral amino acids inhibited citrulline transport (Ki = 0.2-0.3 mM), but were poor inhibitors of arginine transport. 4. Activated J774 cells did not release nitrite in the absence of exogenous arginine. Addition of citrulline (0.01-10 mM), in the absence of exogenous arginine, could only partially restore the ability of cells to synthesize nitrite, which was abolished by 100 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine. 5. Intracellular metabolism of L-[14C]-citrulline to L-[14C]-arginine was detected in unstimulated J774 cells and was increased further in cells activated with LPS and interferon-gamma. 6. We conclude that J774 macrophage cells transport citrulline via a saturable but nonselective neutral carrier which is insensitive to induction by LPS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075867

  10. Group B streptococcus-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophages is CR3 (CD11b/CD18) dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, K J; McCormick, L L; Schneider, B

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by murine macrophages in response to cytokines and/or gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. NO induction by gram-positive bacteria such as group B streptococci (GBS), the major etiologic agents of neonatal pneumonia and meningitis, has received little study. GBS as well as two other gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were found to stimulate NO production in thioglycolate-elicited murine macrophages and in the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 in the presence of gamma interferon. Serotype Ia and III GBS were both stimulatory, as were asialo- and type antigen-deficient mutant strains of type III GBS. NO production was dose dependent, inhibitable by L-arginine analogs, and unaffected by polymyxin B. Since phagocytosis by murine and human phagocytes of GBS is dependent on complement receptor type 3 (CR3), the role of CR3 in the NO response to GBS was tested in the CR3-deficient myelomonocytic cell line WEHI-3. GBS did not induce NO, whereas S. aureus or lipopolysaccharide did induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. S. epidermidis, whose nonopsonic phagocytosis is also CR3 dependent, failed to induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. Monoclonal anti-CR3 (anti-CD11b or anti-CD18) in the presence of interferon also induced NO production in thioglycolate-elicited macrophages and in J774A.1 cells but not in WEHI-3 cells. This evidence suggests that ligated CR3 and gamma interferon act synergistically to induce NO production and that CR3 mediates the GBS-induced signal for NO production in interferon-treated macrophages. PMID:8039877

  11. Regulation of Cellular Caveolin-1 Protein Expression in Murine Macrophages by Microbial Products

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mei G.; Tan, Xiaoyu; Qureshi, Nilofer; Morrison, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we reported that expression of caveolin-1 in elicited peritoneal mouse macrophages was up-regulated by remarkably low (1.0-pg/ml) concentrations of Escherichia coli O111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that increases in caveolin-1 expression are manifested by different types of LPS, LPS-mimetic taxol, and heat-killed E. coli and to a much lesser extent by zymosan, polysaccharide-peptidoglycan, and heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RsDPLA) could not induce caveolin-1 expression in macrophages. Interestingly, polymyxin B (5 μg/ml) and RsDPLA show only a limited capacity to inhibit LPS-induced caveolin-1 expression. These findings suggest that expression of caveolin-1 in response to LPS may only partially be dependent upon lipid A. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha marginally induces caveolin-1, suggesting that the ability of LPS to regulate caveolin-1 is not mediated primarily through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism involving this cytokine. Under conditions in which cellular levels of caveolin-1 are profoundly induced, no significant changes in TLR4 expression are observed. Of interest, caveolin-1 appears to localize to two cellular compartments, one associated with lipid rafts and a second associated with TLR4. Gamma interferon treatment inhibits the induction of caveolin-1 by LPS in macrophages. Inhibition of the p38 kinase-dependent pathway, but not the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, effectively reduced the ability of LPS to mediate caveolin-1 up-regulation. Lactacystin, a potent inhibitor of the proteasome pathway, significantly modulates LPS-independent caveolin-1 expression, and lactacystin inhibits LPS-triggered caveolin-1 responses. These studies suggest that caveolin-1 up-regulation in response to LPS is likely to be proteasome dependent and triggered through the p38 kinase pathway. PMID:16299308

  12. Streptococcus suis Interactions with the Murine Macrophage Cell Line J774: Adhesion and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Mariela; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 is an important etiological agent of swine meningitis, and it is also a zoonotic agent. Since one hypothesis of the pathogenesis of S. suis infection is that bacteria enter the bloodstream and invade the meninges and other tissues in close association with mononuclear phagocytes, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of S. suis type 2 to adhere to macrophages. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was standardized to simply and accurately measure the rate of bacterial attachment to phagocytic cells. Results were confirmed by plate counting. Adhesion was dependent on bacterial concentration and incubation time and was not affected by cytochalasin pretreatment of macrophages. Inhibition studies showed that the sialic acid moiety of the S. suis capsule would be, at least in part, responsible for bacterial recognition by macrophages. Serum preopsonization of bacteria increased adhesion levels. Complement would be partially implicated in the serum-enhanced binding of S. suis to cells. Adhesion varied among different S. suis type 2 isolates. However, high bacterial concentrations of several isolates were cytotoxic for cells, and these cytotoxic effects correlated with suilysin production. Indeed, hemolytic strain supernatants, as well as purified suilysin, reproduced cytotoxic effects observed with live bacteria, and these effects were inhibited by cholesterol pretreatment. Bacterial adhesion and cytotoxicity were confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We hypothesize that attachment of bacteria to phagocytes could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. suis infection by allowing bacterial dissemination and causing a bacteremia and/or septicemia. This interaction could also be related to the activation of the host inflammatory response observed during meningitis. PMID:12117940

  13. Oxidative Stress Increases Surface Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression in Murine Macrophages Via Ceramide Generation.

    PubMed

    Tawadros, Patrick S; Powers, Kinga A; Ailenberg, Menachem; Birch, Simone E; Marshall, John C; Szaszi, Katalin; Kapus, Andras; Rotstein, Ori D

    2015-08-01

    Multiorgan failure is a major cause of late mortality following trauma. Oxidative stress generated during shock/resuscitation contributes to tissue injury by priming the immune system for an exaggerated response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We recently reported that oxidative stress causes rapid recruitment of the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to membrane lipid rafts, thus increasing LPS responsiveness and cellular priming. We hypothesized that activation of Src family kinases by oxidants might contribute to these events. We utilized microscopy, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin-layer chromatography methods. Using hydrogen peroxide in vitro and hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation in vivo, oxidant-induced TLR4 translocation in macrophages occurred in an Src-dependent manner. Approaches supporting this conclusion included pharmacologic inhibition of the Src family kinases by PP2, Src inhibition by a molecular approach of cell transfection with Csk, and genetic inhibition of all Src kinases relevant to the monocyte/macrophage lineage in hckfgrlyn triple knockout mice. To evaluate the upstream molecules involved in Src activation, we evaluated the ability of oxidative stress to activate the bioactive lipid molecule ceramide. Oxidants induced ceramide generation in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, an effect that appears to be due to activation of the acid sphingomyelinase. Using pharmacological approaches, ceramide was shown to be both necessary and sufficient to mediate TLR4 translocation to the plasma membrane in an Src-dependent manner. This study identifies a hierarchy of signaling molecules following oxidative stress that might represent novel targets for therapy in critical illness and organ injury.

  14. The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Water Extract from Cordyceps militaris in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Wol Soon; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ji; Lee, Jae Yun; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Jae Dong; Lee, Sang Wha; Seo, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of hot water extract from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies (CMWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of hot CMWE significantly reduced LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CMWE have potent inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators. PMID:23956624

  15. The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Water Extract from Cordyceps militaris in Murine Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wol Soon; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ji; Lee, Jae Yun; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Jae Dong; Lee, Sang Wha; Seo, Su Yeong; Jeong, Min Ho

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of hot water extract from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies (CMWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of hot CMWE significantly reduced LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CMWE have potent inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators. PMID:23956624

  16. Alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae survival during experimental murine genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Jerse, Ann E

    2006-07-01

    The addition of host-derived sialic acid to Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide is hypothesized to be an important mechanism by which gonococci evade host innate defenses. This hypothesis is based primarily on in vitro assays of complement-mediated and phagocytic killing. Here we report that a nonpolar alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (lst) mutant of N. gonorrhoeae was significantly attenuated in its capacity to colonize the lower genital tract of 17-beta estradiol-treated female BALB/c mice during competitive infection with the wild-type strain. Genetic complementation of the lst mutation restored recovery of the mutant to wild-type levels. Studies with B10.D2-HC(o)H2(d)H(2)-T18c/OSN (C5-deficient) mice showed that attenuation of the lst mutant was not due to increased sensitivity to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, a result that is consistent with recently reported host restrictions in the complement cascade. However, Lst-deficient gonococci were killed more rapidly than sialylated wild-type gonococci following intraperitoneal injection into normal mice, which is consistent with sialylation conferring protection against killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). As reported for human PMNs, sialylated gonococci were more resistant to killing by murine PMNs, and sialylation led to reduced association with and induction of a weaker respiratory burst in PMNs from estradiol-treated mice. In summary, these studies suggest sialylation confers a survival advantage to N. gonorrhoeae in mice by increasing resistance to PMN killing. This report is the first direct demonstration that alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase contributes to N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis in an in vivo model. This study also validates the use of experimental murine infection to study certain aspects of gonococcal pathogenesis. PMID:16790783

  17. Sex-associated expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and accessory molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ macrophages during murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80(hi) macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender.

  18. Sex-Associated Expression of Co-Stimulatory Molecules CD80, CD86, and Accessory Molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ Macrophages during Murine Cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80hi macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender. PMID:23533995

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jenna M; Miller, Andrea K; Cooper, Natalie; Muanza, Dave N; Smith, Jerry R; Shepherd, David M

    2010-09-01

    The popularity of herbal supplements, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory effects, has drastically increased in recent years as more people have turned to natural therapeutics. As the supplement industry is loosely regulated, the safety and efficacy of these products is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effects of natural product formulations prepared by the Biotics Research Corporation (BRC) on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme activity. We also evaluated the immune responsiveness of RAW264.7 macrophages, a key cell population involved in the inflammation, to those formulations. As a result, three supplements, BRC-301, BRC-304, and BRC-306, selectively inhibited COX-2, the inducible isoform involved in inflammation. Further evaluation of these three products indicated that BRC-304 and BRC-306 produced minimal effects on the production of inflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. BRC-301 decreased the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and IL-6, as well as CD40 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that the BRC-301 extract, comprising several polyphenolic natural products, may have a protective effect in chronic inflammatory disorders.

  20. P-body formation limits proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in endotoxin tolerant monocytes and murine septic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Clara; Brudecki, Laura; Yao, Zhi Q.; McCall, Charles E.; Gazzar, Mohamed El

    2015-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory phenotype with pronounced immunosuppression develops during sepsis, during which time neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages limit their toll-like receptor 4 responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS/endotoxin). We previously reported that during this endotoxin tolerant state, distinct signaling pathways differentially repress transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-6. Sustained endotoxin tolerance contributes to sepsis mortality. While transcription repression requires chromatin modifications, a translational repressor complex of Ago2 and RBM4, which bind the 3’ UTR of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA, limits protein synthesis. Here, we show that Dcp1 supports the assembly of Ago2 and RBM4 repressor complex into cytoplasmic p-bodies in endotoxin-tolerant THP-1 human monocytes following stimulation with LPS, resulting in translational repression and limiting protein synthesis. Importantly, this translocation process is reversed by Dcp1 knockdown, which restores TNFα and IL-6 protein levels. We also find this translational repression mechanism in primary macrophages of septic mice. Because p-body formation is a critical step in mRNA translation repression, we conclude that Dcp1 is a major component of the translational repression machinery of endotoxin tolerance and may contribute to sepsis outcome. PMID:25998849

  1. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach to study the cellular immunotoxicity of deoxynivalenol on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Sun, Jiadi; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Shuang; Sun, Chao; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-08-25

    Gas chromatography-time of fly/mass spectrum (GC-TOF/MS) based complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome strategy, including the endo-metabolome and the exo-metabolome, ANA-1 cell viability assays and apoptosis induced by diverse concentrations of DON were evaluated for selection of an optimized dose for in-depth metabolomic research. Using the optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal componentanalysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. The data sets were screened with a t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, similarity value > 500, leaving 16 exo-metabolite variables and 11 endo-metabolite variables for further pathway analysis. Implementing the integration of key metabolic pathways, the metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominating types, metabolism of amino acid and glycometabolism. Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the significant amino acids affected by the metabolic pathways, indicating statistically significant fold changes including pyruvate, serine, glycine, lactate and threonine. Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism, belonging to glycometabolism, were the pathways that were found to be primarily affected, resulting in abnormal metabolites such as glucose-1P, Glucose, gluconic acid, myo-inositol, sorbitol and glycerol.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of Saururus chinensis aerial parts in murine macrophages via induction of heme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue; Kim, Inhye; Jeong, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill. is a perennial plant distributed throughout Northeast Asia and its roots have been widely used as a traditional medicine for hepatitis, asthma, pneumonia, and gonorrhea. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an extract of S. chinensis of the aerial parts (rather than the root), and the signaling pathway responsible for this effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. The subfraction 4 (SCF4) from the n-hexane layer of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. chinensis exhibited the highest nitrite-inhibitory activity. SCF4 significantly inhibited the production of nitrite and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. SCF4 caused significant phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt, which subsequently induced the nuclear translocation of p-p65 nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2. SCF4 also suppressed the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1). The heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin attenuated the inhibitory effect of SCF4 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitrite production and expression of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and p-STAT1. We identified sauchinone as the active compound in S. chinensis extract and SCF4. Sauchinone was shown to significantly inhibit nitrite production and inflammatory mediators expression via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. These results suggest that S. chinensis extract, SCF4, and its active compound, sauchinone, could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:26553125

  3. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  4. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect.

  5. Moringa oleifera pod inhibits inflammatory mediator production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muangnoi, Channarong; Chingsuwanrote, Pimjai; Praengamthanachoti, Phawachaya; Svasti, Saovaros; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn

    2012-04-01

    Pro-inflammatory mediators produced during inflammatory response have been demonstrated to initiate and aggravate pathological development of several chronic diseases. Plant bioactive constituents have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activities. Various parts of Moringa oleifera have long been used as habitual diets and traditional remedy along the tropical region. Anti-inflammatory activity of boiled M. oleifera pod extract was assessed by measuring pro-inflammatory mediator expression in the lipopolysaccharide-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Prior treatment with 31-250 μg/mL M. oleifera extract for 1 h inhibited elevation of mRNA and protein level of interleukine-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenease-2, induced by lipopolysaccharide for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect was mediated partly by inhibiting phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B protein and mitogen-activated protein kinases. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity from bioactive compounds present in the M. oleifera pod constituents may contribute to ameliorate the pathogenesis of inflammatory-associated chronic diseases. PMID:21537903

  6. Histone deacetylases and the nuclear receptor corepressor regulate lytic-latent switch gene 50 in murine gammaherpesvirus 68-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Megan M; Molleston, Jerome M; Canny, Susan; Abou El Hassan, Mohamed; Willert, Erin K; Bremner, Rod; Virgin, Herbert W

    2010-11-01

    Gammaherpesviruses are important oncogenic pathogens that transit between lytic and latent life cycles. Silencing the lytic gene expression program enables the establishment of latency and a lifelong chronic infection of the host. In murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68, γHV68), essential lytic switch gene 50 controls the interchange between lytic and latent gene expression programs. However, negative regulators of gene 50 expression remain largely undefined. We report that the MHV68 lytic cycle is silenced in infected macrophages but not fibroblasts and that histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate silencing. The HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) acts on the gene 50 promoter to induce lytic replication of MHV68. HDAC3, HDAC4, and the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) are required for efficient silencing of gene 50 expression. NCoR is critical for transcriptional repression of cellular genes by unliganded nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid, a known ligand for the NCoR complex, derepresses gene 50 expression and enhances MHV68 lytic replication. Moreover, HDAC3, HDAC4, and NCoR act on the gene 50 promoter and are recruited to this promoter in a retinoic acid-responsive manner. We provide the first example of NCoR-mediated, HDAC-dependent regulation of viral gene expression. PMID:20719946

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Bennett, Louise; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; King, Kerryn; Williams, Roderick; Zabaras, Dimitrios; Head, Richard; Ooi, Lezanne; Gyengesi, Erika; Münch, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a well-known contributing factor to many age-related chronic diseases. One of the possible strategies to suppress inflammation is the employment of functional foods with anti-inflammatory properties. Edible mushrooms are attracting more and more attention as functional foods since they are rich in bioactive compounds, but their anti-inflammatory properties and the effect of food processing steps on this activity has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, White Button and Honey Brown (both Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake (Lentinus edodes), Enoki (Flammulina velutipes) and Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) preparations were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) activated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC₅₀<0.1 mg/ml), measured as inhibition of NO production, could be detected in all raw mushroom preparations, but only raw Oyster (IC₅₀=0.035 mg/ml), Shiitake (IC₅₀=0.047 mg/ml) and Enoki mushrooms (IC₅₀=0.099 mg/ml) showed also potent inhibition of TNF-α production. When the anti-inflammatory activity was followed through two food-processing steps, which involved ultrasonication and heating, a significant portion of the anti-inflammatory activity was lost suggesting that the anti-inflammatory compounds might be susceptible to heating or prone to evaporation. PMID:24262531

  8. Group B Streptococcus GAPDH Is Released upon Cell Lysis, Associates with Bacterial Surface, and Induces Apoptosis in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Liliana; Madureira, Pedro; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Bouaboud, Abdelouhab; Morello, Eric; Ferreira, Paula; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2012-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) are cytoplasmic glycolytic enzymes that, despite lacking identifiable secretion signals, have been detected at the surface of several prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms where they exhibit non-glycolytic functions including adhesion to host components. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a human commensal bacterium that has the capacity to cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia in newborns. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated the surface localization of GAPDH in GBS. By addressing the question of GAPDH export to the cell surface of GBS strain NEM316 and isogenic mutant derivatives of our collection, we found that impaired GAPDH presence in the surface and supernatant of GBS was associated with a lower level of bacterial lysis. We also found that following GBS lysis, GAPDH can associate to the surface of many living bacteria. Finally, we provide evidence for a novel function of the secreted GAPDH as an inducer of apoptosis of murine macrophages. PMID:22291899

  9. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach to study the cellular immunotoxicity of deoxynivalenol on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Sun, Jiadi; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Shuang; Sun, Chao; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-08-25

    Gas chromatography-time of fly/mass spectrum (GC-TOF/MS) based complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome strategy, including the endo-metabolome and the exo-metabolome, ANA-1 cell viability assays and apoptosis induced by diverse concentrations of DON were evaluated for selection of an optimized dose for in-depth metabolomic research. Using the optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal componentanalysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. The data sets were screened with a t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, similarity value > 500, leaving 16 exo-metabolite variables and 11 endo-metabolite variables for further pathway analysis. Implementing the integration of key metabolic pathways, the metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominating types, metabolism of amino acid and glycometabolism. Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the significant amino acids affected by the metabolic pathways, indicating statistically significant fold changes including pyruvate, serine, glycine, lactate and threonine. Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism, belonging to glycometabolism, were the pathways that were found to be primarily affected, resulting in abnormal metabolites such as glucose-1P, Glucose, gluconic acid, myo-inositol, sorbitol and glycerol. PMID:27350164

  10. Protective effect of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in leukocytopenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, T.; Okamura, S.; Okada, K.; Suga, A.; Shimono, N.; Ohhara, N.; Hirota, Y.; Sawae, Y.; Niho, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in ICR mice were investigated. Mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and were then injected intraperitoneally with rmGM-CSF three times daily, beginning on the day after CPA treatment, for 7 days. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in both CPA- and rmGM-CSF-treated mice and control CPA-treated mice reached a nadir on day 4, when P. aeruginosa was injected intraperitoneally. The administration of rmGM-CSF significantly increased the proportion of survivors among mice infected with a lethal dose of P. aeruginosa. This effect was further analyzed by monitoring sequential changes in leukocyte count and bacterial growth in various organs. The number of bacteria in the peritoneal cavities, peripheral blood samples, and livers of GM-CSF-treated mice decreased to an undetectable level after a transient increase, and the number was significantly lower than that in control mice. In GM-CSF-treated mice, the neutrophil levels in peripheral blood started to increase 5 days after CPA administration and were consistently higher than those in controls. Furthermore, the neutrophils in GM-CSF-treated mice were more mature morphologically. Thus, the prophylactic effect of rmGM-CSF against P. aeruginosa infection may result from a rapid recovery of myelopoiesis and a partial enhancement of mature neutrophil function. PMID:2656523

  11. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect. PMID:27374584

  12. Absolute monocyte count predicts overall survival in mantle cell lymphomas: correlation with tumour-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Wha; Shin, Su-Jin; Park, Chansik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by a variable clinical course in which patients can experience indolent disease or frequent relapses despite a good initial response to conventional therapy. Risk stratification of MCL is most frequently performed using the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI). Recent studies indicate that the peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and tumour-associated macrophages may reflect the state of the tumour microenvironment in lymphomas. The significance of AMC and tumour-associated macrophages in the clinical course of MCL is unknown. The prognostic impact of the AMC, of CD68 expression and of CD163 expression was retrospectively examined in 103 MCL samples using the receiver operating characteristic curved. Patients with an AMC ≥ 375 cells/μL at diagnosis were more likely to present with advanced-stage disease (p = 0.026), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), lymphocytosis (p = 0.01) and granulocytosis (p = 0.003). On univariate analysis, a high AMC (≥375 cells/μL) correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01). Neither CD68 nor CD163 expression was significantly associated with either OS or event-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that a high AMC was a prognostic factor for OS, independent of the MIPI [hazards ratio (HR), 1.811; 95% confidence interval, 1.018-3.223; p = 0.043]. This study demonstrates that the AMC at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for OS in MCL, which suggests the possibility that AMC may be used in addition to the MIPI to predict outcome in patients with MCL.

  13. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zago, María Paola; Hosakote, Yashoda M; Koo, Sue-Jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A; Robello, Carlos; Garg, Nisha J

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO(-)]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. PMID:27068090

  14. Proteomic expression profiles of virulent and avirulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive and proliferate within macrophages. In the current study, the ability of three L. monocytogenes strains (serovar 1/2a strain EGDe, serovar 4b strain F2365, and serovar 4a strain HCC23) to proliferate in the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 was analyzed. We...

  15. Production of Interleukin-12 by Murine Macrophages in Response to Bacterial Peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Christine; Nauciel, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), a component of the bacterial cell wall, has various immunomodulating activities, including the capacity to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to antigens administered in Freund’s adjuvant. We report that PG induces interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA production and IL-12 secretion by mouse macrophages. The capacity of PG to induce IL-12 production, like its previously reported immunomodulating activities, was dependent on the structure of its peptide subunit. PG from Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus induced IL-12 production, whereas PG from Micrococcus luteus and Corynebacterium poinsettiae did not. The ability of most bacterial PGs to induce IL-12 production suggests that they play an important role in triggering host defense mechanisms against bacterial infections. PMID:9746601

  16. Discovery of Salmonella Virulence Factors Translocated via Outer Membrane Vesicles to Murine Macrophages.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that the regulators SpvR, FruR, IHF, PhoP/PhoQ, SsrA/SsrB, SlyA, Hnr, RpoE, SmpB, CsrA, RpoS, Crp, OmpR/EnvZ, and Hfq are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in mice. Here we use quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics profiling of in-frame deletion mutants of these 14 regulators to identify proteins that are coordinately regulated by these virulence regulators and are thus presumably novel factors contributing to Salmonella pathogenesis. Putative candidate proteins from proteomics analysis were determined, which exhibited similar abundance profiles to those of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. A subset of 5 proteins including STM0082, STM1548, PdgL, STM1633, and STM3595 was selected for further analysis. All 5 proteins were expressed inside macrophage cells and STM0082 (SrfN) was secreted into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, deletion of STM0082 attenuated virulence in mice when administered intraperitoneally as determined by competitive index. srfN transcription was positively regulated by SsrAB, however, secretion was independent of SPI-2 TTSS as well as SPI-1 TTSS and flagella. Proteins including PagK and STM2585A, which are positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ, have sec signal peptides as predicted for SrfN and were secreted into macrophage cytoplasm regardless of SPI-2 TTSS. Isolation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) revealed the presence of SrfN, PagK, and STM2585A inside vesicle compartments. This result is the first case showing delivery of virulence effectors via OMVs in S. Typhimurium. Moreover, Hfq regulation of SrfN translation suggests that small non-coding RNAs may be responsible for regulating effector protein expression.

  17. Citral and eugenol modulate DNA damage and pro-inflammatory mediator genes in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marilia de Paula; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Luperini, Bruno Cesar Ottoboni; Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Castro Marcondes, João Paulo; Sforcin, José Maurício; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2014-11-01

    Citral and eugenol have been broadly studied because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiparasitic potentials. In this study, the effects of citral (25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) and eugenol (0.31, 0.62, 1.24 and 2.48 µg/mL) on the expression (RT-PCR) of the pro-inflammatory mediator genes NF-κB1, COX-2 and TNF-α were evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages with or without activation by a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, the genotoxic potentials of two compounds and their capacities to modulate the DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) were investigated using the comet assay. The data revealed that neither citral nor eugenol changed COX-2, NF-κB1 or TNF-α expression in resting macrophages. However, in LPS-activated cells, citral induced the hypoexpression of COX-2 (100 µg/mL) and TNF-α (50 and 100 µg/mL). Hypoexpression of TNF-α was also detected after cellular exposure to eugenol at the highest concentration (2.48 µg/mL). Both compounds exhibited genotoxic potential (citral at 50 and 100 µg/mL and eugenol at all concentrations) but also showed chemopreventive effects, in various treatment protocols. Both citral and eugenol might modulate inflammatory processes and DXR-induced DNA damage, but the use of these compounds must be viewed with caution because they are also able to induce primary DNA lesions.

  18. Aldose Reductase Mediates Endotoxin-Induced Production of Nitric oxide and Cytotoxicity in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, Kota V; Reddy, Aramati BM.; Tammali, Ravinder; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2007-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is a ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotrophic roles as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of toxic lipid aldehydes and mediator of hyperglycemia, cytokine and growth factor –induced redox sensitive signals that cause secondary diabetic complications. Although AR inhibition has been shown to be protective against oxidative stress signals, the role of AR in regulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and NO-mediated apoptosis has not been elucidated to date. We therefore investigated the role of AR in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO synthesis and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inhibition or RNA interference ablation of AR suppressed LPS-stimulated production of NO and over-expression of iNOS mRNA. Inhibition or ablation of AR also prevented the LPS-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, activation of caspase-3, p38-MAPK, JNK, NF-κB and AP1. In addition, AR inhibition prevented the LPS-induced down-regulation of Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax and Bak in macrophages. L-arginine increased and L-NAME decreased the severity of cell death caused by LPS and AR inhibitors prevented it. Furthermore, inhibition of AR prevents cell death caused by HNE and GS-HNE, but not GS-DHN. Our findings for the first time suggest that AR catalyzed lipid aldehyde-glutathione conjugates regulates the LPS-induced production of inflammatory marker NO and cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition or ablation of AR activity may be potential therapeutic target in endotoximia and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:17382209

  19. Effect of molecular size and modification pattern on the internalization of water soluble β-(1 → 3)-(1 → 4)-glucan by primary murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kim, Julian A

    2012-06-01

    It has been shown that -(1→3)-(1→4)-glucans (BG34) from barley and oats can trigger recognition and internalization by murine and human macrophages. Increasing evidence has suggested that macrophage recognition and internalization of BG34 are dramatically affected by the purity of BG34, the molecular weight and chemical modification. In this study, we investigated the structural features of BG34 for macrophage recognition and internalization. We prepared homogeneous BG34s of 10 kDa (BG34-10),200 kDa (BG34-200) and 500 kDa (BG34-500) with high purity, and then introduced green fluorescence FITC to the reducing ends (Re) or main chain (Mc). The results of size exclusion chromatography, 13C NMR,fluorescence microscopy, FACS analyses and MTS assay demonstrated that non-toxic BG34 of 10 kDa(BG34-10) effectively trigger macrophage internalization. The internalization was adversely affected by modifying the main chain of BG34-10 but not the reducing end. Studies using blocking antibodies on several CD11b+ and CD11b− cells suggested that CD11b may play an important role in mediating macrophage internalization of BG34-10. Quantitative RT-PCR and intracellular cytokine stain revealed that macrophages generate increased level of CD11b and TNF-α in response to BG34-10. This study for the first time demonstrated the molecular size (10 kDa) and pattern of modification (reducing end modification)for BG34-10 to mediate macrophage internalization. Since BG34 is water soluble, biocompatible and biodegradable FDA-approved material, this mechanism of BG34-10 can be used to design drug delivery system targeting macrophages.

  20. Chemical and physical effects on the adhesion, maturation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and foreign body giant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Terry Odell, III

    Injury caused by biomedical device implantation initiates inflammatory and wound healing responses. Cells migrate to the site of injury to degrade bacteria and toxins, create new vasculature, and form new and repair injured tissue. Blood-proteins rapidly adsorb onto the implanted material surface and express adhesive ligands which mediate cell adhesion on the material surface. Monocyte-derived macrophages and multi-nucleated foreign body giant cells adhere to the surface and degrade the surface of the material. Due to the role of macrophage and foreign body giant cell on material biocompatibility and biostability, the effects of surface chemistry, surface topography and specific proteins on the maturation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells has been investigated. Novel molecularly designed materials were used to elucidate the dynamic interactions which occur between inflammatory cells, proteins and surfaces. The effect of protein and protein adhesion was investigated using adhesive protein depleted serum conditions on RGD-modified and silane modified surfaces. The effects of surface chemistry were investigated using temperature responsive surfaces of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and micropatterned surfaces of N-(2 aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane regions on an interpenetrating polymer network of polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol). The physical effects were investigated using polyimide scaffold materials and polyurethane materials with surface modifying end groups. The depletion of immunoglobulin G caused decreased levels of macrophage adhesion, foreign body giant cell formation and increased levels of apoptosis. The temporal nature of macrophage adhesion was observed with changing effectiveness of adherent cell detachment with time, which correlated to increased expression of beta1 integrin receptors on detached macrophages with time. The limited ability of the micropatterned surface, polyimide scaffold and surface

  1. Hypoxia-mediated carbohydrate metabolism and transport promote early-stage murine follicle growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Makanji, Yogeshwar; Tagler, David; Pahnke, Jennifer; Shea, Lonnie D; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-04-15

    Oxygen tension is critical for follicle growth and metabolism, especially for early-stage follicles, where vascularity is limited. Its role and underlying mechanism in the in vitro activation and maturation of immature to ovulatory follicles is largely unknown. In this study, early secondary (110 μm) murine follicles were isolated and encapsulated in alginate hydrogels to replicate the in vivo environment of the growing/maturing follicle. Encapsulated follicles were cultured for 8 days at either 2.5 or 20% O2. Survival (2.6-fold) and growth (1.2-fold) were significantly higher for follicles cultured at 2.5% compared with 20% O2. Using a mouse hypoxia-signaling pathway qRT-PCR array and GeneGo Metacore analysis, we found that direct target genes of the hypoxia-activated HIF1-complex were significantly upregulated in follicles cultured for 8 days at 2.5% compared with 20% O2, including the carbohydrate transport and metabolism genes Slc2a3, Vegfa, Slc2a1, Edn1, Pgk1, Ldha, and Hmox1. Other upregulated genes included carbohydrate transporters (Slc2a1, Slc2a3, and Slc16a3) and enzymes essential for glycolysis (Pgk1, Hmox1, Hk2, Gpi1, Pfkl, Pfkp, Aldoa, Gapdh, Pgam1, Eno1, Pkm2, and Ldha). For follicles cultured at 2.5% O2, a 7.2-fold upregulation of Vegfa correlated to an 18-fold increase in VEGFA levels, and a 3.2-fold upregulation of Ldha correlated to a 4.8-fold increase in lactate levels. Both VEGFA and lactate levels were significantly higher in follicles cultured at 2.5% compared with 20% O2. Therefore, enhanced hypoxia-mediated glycolysis is essential for growth and survival of early secondary follicles and provides vital insights into improving in vitro culture conditions.

  2. Comparison of control of Listeria by nitric oxide redox chemistry from murine macrophages and NO donors: insights into listeriocidal activity of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, R; Pacelli, R; Espey, M G; Miranda, K M; Friedman, N; Kim, S M; Cox, G; Mitchell, J B; Wink, D A; Russo, A

    2001-02-01

    The physiological function of nitric oxide (NO) in the defense against pathogens is multifaceted. The exact chemistry by which NO combats intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes is yet unresolved. We examined the effects of NO exposure, either delivered by NO donors or generated in situ within ANA-1 murine macrophages, on L. monocytogenes growth. Production of NO by the two NONOate compounds PAPA/NO (NH2(C3H6)(N[N(O)NO]C3H7) and DEA/NO (Na(C2H5)2N[N(O)NO]) resulted in L. monocytogenes cytostasis with minimal cytotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species generated from xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine were neither bactericidal nor cytostatic and did not alter the action of NO. L. monocytogenes growth was also suppressed upon internalization into ANA-1 murine macrophages primed with interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) + tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha or INF-gamma + lipid polysaccharide (LPS). Growth suppression correlated with nitrite formation and nitrosation of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene elicited by stimulated murine macrophages. This nitrosative chemistry was not dependent upon nor mediated by interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS), but resulted solely from NO and intermediates related to nitrosative stress. The role of nitrosation in controlling L. monocytogenes was further examined by monitoring the effects of exposure to NO on an important virulence factor, Listeriolysin O, which was inhibited under nitrosative conditions. These results suggest that nitrosative stress mediated by macrophages is an important component of the immunological arsenal in controlling L. monocytogenes infections. PMID:11165873

  3. Macrophage polarization reflects T cell composition of tumor microenvironment in pediatric classical Hodgkin lymphoma and has impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Barros, Mário H M; Segges, Priscilla; Vera-Lozada, Gabriela; Hassan, Rocio; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and have been suggested to have a negative impact on outcome. Most studies addressing the role of macrophages in cHL have relied on identification of macrophages by generic macrophage antigens, e.g., CD68. We have therefore conducted an in situ analysis of macrophage polarization in a series of 100 pediatric cHL (pcHL) cases using double staining immunohistochemistry, combining CD68 or CD163 with pSTAT1 (M1-like) or CMAF (M2-like). M1- or M2-polarised microenvironment was defined by an excess of one population over the other (>1.5). Expression of STAT1 and LYZ genes was also evaluated by RT-qPCR. Patients <14 years and EBV+ cases displayed higher numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ cells than older children and EBV- cases, respectively (P=0.01 and P=0.02). A cytotoxic tumor microenvironment, defined by a CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio >1.5 was associated with higher numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ (P=0.025) and CD163+pSTAT1+ macrophages (P<0.0005). Levels of STAT1 and LYZ expression were associated with the numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ macrophages. EBV+ cHL cases disclosed a predominant M1 polarized microenvironment similar to Th1 mediated inflammatory disorders, while EBV- cHL showed a predominant M2 polarized microenvironment closer to Th2 mediated inflammatory diseases. Better overall-survival (OS) was observed in cases with higher numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+ macrophages (P=0.02) while larger numbers of CD163+CMAF+ macrophages were associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.02). Predominant M1-like polarization as disclosed by CD163+pSTAT1+/CD163+CMAF+ ratio > 1.5 was associated with better OS (P= 0.037). In conclusion, macrophage polarization in pcHL correlates with prevalent local T cell response and may be influenced by the EBV-status of neoplastic cells. Besides, M1-like and M2-like macrophages displayed differential effects on outcome in pcHL.

  4. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  5. Macrophage cytotoxicity in lethal and non-lethal murine malaria and the effect of vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, J; Treagust, J D; Playfair, J H

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the development of cell-mediated immunity in lethal and non-lethal malarial infections by assaying the cytotoxic activity of spleen cells for L929 tumour cells at different times after infection of mice with the lethal P. berghei, a lethal variant of Plasmodium yoelii and the non-lethal P. yoelii and P. chabaudi. In all cases the cytotoxicity increased to a peak during the first week and then diminished but the time of the peak varied with the infection; its activity was lowest with P. berghei. A second peak occurred in the non-lethal infections at the time of recovery. A protective vaccine accelerated and enhanced the early peak of cytotoxicity. The activity was mediated by adherent phagocytic cells, probably through the release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages since it was inhibited by antiserum against recombinant mouse TNF and did not destroy TNF-resistant L929 cells. Its induction was not dependent on T cells since it occurred in T cell-deficient mice infected with non-lethal P. yoelii. However, the accelerated increase associated with vaccination could be adoptively transferred by spleen lymphocytes from vaccinated mice. PMID:3542317

  6. Adherence of Salmonella typhimurium to murine peritoneal macrophages is mediated by lipopolysaccharide and complement receptors.

    PubMed

    al-Bahry, S N; Pistole, T G

    1997-06-01

    Adherence of Salmonella typhimurium to mouse peritoneal macrophages (Mø) was monitored using a direct microscopic assay and flow cytometry. Competitive binding studies using wild-type lipopolysaccharide and derivatives confirmed a role for this moiety in bacterial adherence. Mø pretreated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose exhibited lower binding activity than did untreated controls, suggesting involvement of either Fc or complement receptors. Pre-exposing Mø to Fc fragments, however, failed to reduce bacterial binding, thus eliminating a role for Fc receptors in this process. Mø pretreated with neutrophil elastase exhibited a diminished ability to bind S. typhimurium, suggesting involvement of complement receptor 1. Monoclonal antibodies M1/70 and M18/2, specific for epitopes on the alpha and beta chains, respectively, of complement receptor 3, also blocked this adherence. In each case we were unable to eliminate completely bacterial adhesion to Mø. Monoclonal antibodies to two additional Mø receptors, Mac-2 and Mac-3, did not block bacterial attachment. These data indicate that multiple mechanisms are involved in the initial adhesion of S. typhimurium to mouse Mø.

  7. Effect of amorphous silica nanoparticles on in vitro RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Akase, Takanori; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Uji, Miyuki; Ichihashi, Ko-Ichi; Yamashita, Takuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Morishita, Yuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Itoh, Norio; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2011-07-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been used as a polishing agent and/or as a remineralization promoter for teeth in the oral care field. The present study investigates the effects of nSP on osteoclast differentiation and the relationship between particle size and these effects. Our results revealed that nSP exerted higher cytotoxicity in macrophage cells compared with submicron-sized silica particles. However, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the number of osteoclast cells (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells) were not changed by nSP treatment in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) at doses that did not induce cytotoxicity by silica particles. These results indicated that nSP did not cause differentiation of osteoclasts. Collectively, the results suggested that nanosilica exerts no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, although a detailed mechanistic examination of the nSP70-mediated cytotoxic effect is needed.

  8. Pro-inflammatory effects of a litchi protein extract in murine RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaorong; Yan, Huiqing; Ma, Zhaocheng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that the consumption of litchi often causes symptoms characterized by itching or sore throat, gum swelling, oral cavity ulcers and even fever and inflammation, which significantly impair the quality of life of a large population. Using the RAW264.7 cell line, a step-by-step strategy was used to screen for the components in litchi fruits that elicited adverse reactions. The adverse reaction fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and analyzed using the SMART program, and a sequence alignment of the homologous proteins was performed. MTT tests were used to determine the cytotoxicity of a litchi protein extract in RAW264.7 macrophages, and real-time PCR was applied to analyze the expression of inflammatory genes in the RAW264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide or the litchi protein extract. The results showed that the litchi water-soluble protein extract could increase the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, iNOS and COX-2, and the anti-inflammatory mediator HO-1 in the RAW264.7 cell line. The 14-3-3-like proteins GF14 lambda, GF14 omega and GF14 upsilon were likely the candidate proteins that caused the adverse effects. PMID:27195125

  9. Yeast glucan particles activate murine resident macrophages to secrete proinflammatory cytokines via MyD88- and Syk kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Cramer, Daniel; Wagner, Stephanie; Hansen, Richard; King, Chelsea; Kakar, Shelly; Ding, Chuanlin; Yan, Jun

    2007-08-01

    The therapeutic benefits of fungal beta-glucans have been demonstrated as immuno-stimulating agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms used by yeast beta-glucan-rich particles to activate murine resident macrophages for cytokine secretion. We demonstrated that resident macrophages were effectively activated by whole yeast beta-glucan particles (WGPs), such as with the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of cytokines. The binding ability of WGPs and the levels of cytokine secretion in resident macrophages were significantly inhibited by soluble yeast beta-glucan but not by blockade of zymosan glucan receptor dectin-1. In addition, WGP-stimulated cytokine secretion was partially dependent on the MyD-88 pathway but was not significantly affected in CR3-deficient (CR3(-/-)) mice. Furthermore, we showed that Syk kinase was recruited upon WGP stimulation and was required for the production of cytokines. Taken together, these observations suggest that beta-glucan recognition is necessary but not sufficient to induce inflammatory response on resident macrophages. In addition, beta-glucan particles may use differential mechanisms for cytokine secretion in resident macrophages that may modulate both innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. Yeast Glucan Particles Activate Murine Resident Macrophages to Secrete Proinflammatory Cytokines Via MyD88- and Syk Kinase-dependent Pathways1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Cramer, Daniel; Wagner, Stephanie; Hansen, Richard; King, Chelsea; Kakar, Shelly; Ding, Chuanlin; Yan, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of fungal β-glucans have been demonstrated as immuno-stimulating agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms used by yeast β-glucan-rich particles to activate murine resident macrophages for cytokine secretion. We demonstrated that resident macrophages were effectively activated by whole yeast β-glucan particles (WGPs), such as with the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the secretion of cytokines. The binding ability of WGPs and the levels of cytokine secretion in resident macrophages were significantly inhibited by soluble yeast β-glucan but not by blockade of zymosan glucan receptor dectin-1. In addition, WGP-stimulated cytokine secretion was partially dependent on the MyD-88 pathway but was not significantly affected in CR3-deficient (CR3−/−) mice. Furthermore, we showed that Syk kinase was recruited upon WGP stimulation and was required for the production of cytokines. Taken together, these observations suggest that β-glucan recognition is necessary but not sufficient to induce inflammatory response on resident macrophages. In addition, β-glucan particles may use differential mechanisms for cytokine secretion in resident macrophages that may modulate both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:17572156

  11. Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor-induced Zn Sequestration Enhances Macrophage Superoxide and Limits Intracellular Pathogen Survival

    PubMed Central

    Vignesh, Kavitha Subramanian; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Porollo, Aleksey; Caruso, Joseph A.; Deepe, George S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Macrophages possess numerous mechanisms to combat microbial invasion, including sequestration of essential nutrients, like Zn. The pleiotropic cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances antimicrobial defenses against intracellular pathogens such as Histoplasma capsulatum, but its mode of action remains elusive. We have found that GM-CSF activated infected macrophages sequestered labile Zn by inducing binding to metallothioneins (MTs) in a STAT3 and STAT5 transcription factor-dependent manner. GM-CSF upregulated expression of Zn exporters, Slc30a4 and Slc30a7 and the metal was shuttled away from phagosomes and into the Golgi apparatus. This distinctive Zn sequestration strategy elevated phagosomal H+ channel function and triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase. Consequently, H. capsulatum was selectively deprived of Zn, thereby halting replication and fostering fungal clearance. GM-CSF mediated Zn sequestration via MTs in vitro and in vivo in mice and in human macrophages. These findings illuminate a GM-CSF-induced Zn-sequestration network that drives phagocyte antimicrobial effector function. PMID:24138881

  12. Delineating the importance of serum opsonins and the bacterial capsule in affecting the uptake and killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei by murine neutrophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mulye, Minal; Bechill, Michael P; Grose, William; Ferreira, Viviana P; Lafontaine, Eric R; Wooten, R Mark

    2014-08-01

    Infection of susceptible hosts by the encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes melioidosis, with septic patients attaining mortality rates ≥ 40%. Due to its high infectivity through inhalation and limited effective therapies, Bp is considered a potential bioweapon. Thus, there is great interest in identifying immune effectors that effectively kill Bp. Our goal is to compare the relative abilities of murine macrophages and neutrophils to clear Bp, as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and neutrophils are inherently unable to clear either unopsonized Bp or the relatively-avirulent acapsular bacterium B. thailandensis (Bt). Opsonization of Bp and Bt with complement or pathogen-specific antibodies increases macrophage-uptake, but does not promote clearance, although antibody-binding enhances complement deposition. In contrast, complement opsonization of Bp and Bt causes enhanced uptake and killing by neutrophils, which is linked with rapid ROS induction against bacteria exhibiting a threshold level of complement deposition. Addition of bacteria-specific antibodies enhances complement deposition, but antibody-binding alone cannot elicit neutrophil clearance. Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-killing. Macrophages were observed to efficiently clear Bp only after pre-activation with IFNγ, which is independent of serum- and/or antibody-opsonization. These studies indicate that antibody-enhanced complement activation is sufficient for neutrophil-clearance of Bp, whereas macrophages are ineffective at clearing serum-opsonized Bp unless pre-activated with IFNγ. This suggests that effective immune therapies would need to elicit both antibodies and Th1-adaptive responses for successful prevention/eradication of melioidosis.

  13. Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei by Murine Neutrophils and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mulye, Minal; Bechill, Michael P.; Grose, William; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Lafontaine, Eric R.; Wooten, R. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Infection of susceptible hosts by the encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes melioidosis, with septic patients attaining mortality rates ≥40%. Due to its high infectivity through inhalation and limited effective therapies, Bp is considered a potential bioweapon. Thus, there is great interest in identifying immune effectors that effectively kill Bp. Our goal is to compare the relative abilities of murine macrophages and neutrophils to clear Bp, as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and neutrophils are inherently unable to clear either unopsonized Bp or the relatively-avirulent acapsular bacterium B. thailandensis (Bt). Opsonization of Bp and Bt with complement or pathogen-specific antibodies increases macrophage-uptake, but does not promote clearance, although antibody-binding enhances complement deposition. In contrast, complement opsonization of Bp and Bt causes enhanced uptake and killing by neutrophils, which is linked with rapid ROS induction against bacteria exhibiting a threshold level of complement deposition. Addition of bacteria-specific antibodies enhances complement deposition, but antibody-binding alone cannot elicit neutrophil clearance. Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-killing. Macrophages were observed to efficiently clear Bp only after pre-activation with IFNγ, which is independent of serum- and/or antibody-opsonization. These studies indicate that antibody-enhanced complement activation is sufficient for neutrophil-clearance of Bp, whereas macrophages are ineffective at clearing serum-opsonized Bp unless pre-activated with IFNγ. This suggests that effective immune therapies would need to elicit both antibodies and Th1-adaptive responses for successful prevention/eradication of melioidosis. PMID:25144195

  14. Enhanced Survival of Rifampin- and Streptomycin-Resistant Escherichia coli Inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Durão, Paulo; Gülereşi, Daniela; Proença, João

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an increasing global problem. Even though mutations causing resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics, the magnitude of such costs varies across environments and genomic backgrounds. We studied how the combination of mutations that confer resistance to rifampin (Rifr) and streptomycin (Strr) affects the fitness of Escherichia coli when it interacts with cells from the immune system, i.e., macrophages (Mϕs). We found that 13 Rifr Strr doubly resistant genotypes, of the 16 tested, show a survival advantage inside Mϕs, indicating that double resistance can be highly beneficial in this environment. Our results suggest that there are multiple paths to acquire multiple-drug resistance in this context, i.e., if a clone carrying Rifr allele H526 or S531 acquires a second mutation conferring Strr, the resulting double mutant has a high probability of showing increased survival inside Mϕs. On the other hand, we found two cases of sign epistasis between mutations, leading to a significant decrease in bacterial survival. Remarkably, infection of Mϕs with one of these combinations, K88R+H526Y, resulted in an altered pattern of gene expression in the infected Mϕs. This indicates that the fitness effects of resistance may depend on the pattern of gene expression of infected host cells. Notwithstanding the benefits of resistance found inside Mϕs, the Rifr Strr mutants have massive fitness costs when the bacteria divide outside Mϕs, indicating that the maintenance of double resistance may depend on the time spent within and outside phagocytic cells. PMID:27161646

  15. Enhanced Survival of Rifampin- and Streptomycin-Resistant Escherichia coli Inside Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Durão, Paulo; Gülereşi, Daniela; Proença, João; Gordo, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria is an increasing global problem. Even though mutations causing resistance usually incur a fitness cost in the absence of antibiotics, the magnitude of such costs varies across environments and genomic backgrounds. We studied how the combination of mutations that confer resistance to rifampin (Rif(r)) and streptomycin (Str(r)) affects the fitness of Escherichia coli when it interacts with cells from the immune system, i.e., macrophages (Mϕs). We found that 13 Rif(r) Str(r) doubly resistant genotypes, of the 16 tested, show a survival advantage inside Mϕs, indicating that double resistance can be highly beneficial in this environment. Our results suggest that there are multiple paths to acquire multiple-drug resistance in this context, i.e., if a clone carrying Rif(r) allele H526 or S531 acquires a second mutation conferring Str(r), the resulting double mutant has a high probability of showing increased survival inside Mϕs. On the other hand, we found two cases of sign epistasis between mutations, leading to a significant decrease in bacterial survival. Remarkably, infection of Mϕs with one of these combinations, K88R+H526Y, resulted in an altered pattern of gene expression in the infected Mϕs. This indicates that the fitness effects of resistance may depend on the pattern of gene expression of infected host cells. Notwithstanding the benefits of resistance found inside Mϕs, the Rif(r) Str(r) mutants have massive fitness costs when the bacteria divide outside Mϕs, indicating that the maintenance of double resistance may depend on the time spent within and outside phagocytic cells. PMID:27161646

  16. Gene silencing of nfa1 affects the in vitro cytotoxicity of Naegleria fowleri in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suk-Yul; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Lee, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2009-05-01

    The gene nfa1 was isolated from the free-living pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri. The protein Nfa1 is located in pseudopodia and specifically in food-cups. It is also involved in cytotoxicity. In this study, we used synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA) to examine the effects of nfa1 down-regulation. We observed the expression of nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein using Northern and Western blots. We also examined the effects of nfa1 down-regulation on the in vitro cytotoxicity of N. fowleri. Four synthetic siRNAs were constructed, and of those, sinfa1-1 showed the highest down-regulation of an nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein by 70 and 43%, respectively. In order to achieve long-lasting silencing of the transfected genes, we constructed two vectors which were pAct/SAGAH and pAct/asnfa1AGAH cloned with the sinfa1-1 and an antisense RNA to the nfa1 gene. In N. fowleri transfected with pAct/SAGAH, FACS revealed a 60 and 57% reduction in nfa1 mRNA and Nfa1 protein levels, respectively. To determine whether the Nfa1 proteins were related with in vitro cytotoxicity, LDH assays were used and showed that the cytotoxicity of these transfectants to macrophages was reduced by 26.4 and 36.2% at 17 and 24h, respectively. Moreover, after transfection with pAct/asnfa1AGAH, amoebic cytotoxicity decreased by 8.2 and 10% at 17 and at 24h, respectively. This is the first report to show the RNA interference in N. folweri trophozoites and also demonstrate the Nfa1 function in vitro for its cytotoxicity.

  17. Discovery of Salmonella virulence factors translocated via outer membrane vesicles to murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen and leading cause of food-borne illness, encodes a plethora of virulence effectors. Salmonella virulence factors are translocated into host cells and manipulate host cellular activities, providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial proliferation. In this study, we report a new set of virulence factors that is translocated into the host cytoplasm via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV). PagK (or PagK1), PagJ, and STM2585A (or PagK2) are small proteins composed of ∼70 amino acids and have high sequence homology to each other (>85% identity). Salmonella lacking all three homologues was attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model, suggesting at least partial functional redundancy among the homologues. While each homologue was translocated into the macrophage cytoplasm, their translocation was independent of all three Salmonella gene-encoded type III secretion systems (T3SSs)-Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) T3SS, SPI-2 T3SS, and the flagellar system. Selected methods, including direct microscopy, demonstrated that the PagK-homologous proteins were secreted through OMV, which were enriched with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins. Vesicles produced by intracellular bacteria also contained lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), suggesting the possibility of OMV convergence with host cellular components during intracellular trafficking. This study identified novel Salmonella virulence factors secreted via OMV and demonstrated that OMV can function as a vehicle to transfer virulence determinants to the cytoplasm of the infected host cell.

  18. Early hematopoiesis and macrophage development.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kathleen E; Frame, Jenna M; Palis, James

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm that all blood cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been challenged by two findings. First, there are tissue-resident hematopoietic cells, including subsets of macrophages that are not replenished by adult HSCs, but instead are maintained by self-renewal of fetal-derived cells. Second, during embryogenesis, there is a conserved program of HSC-independent hematopoiesis that precedes HSC function and is required for embryonic survival. The presence of waves of HSC-independent hematopoiesis as well as fetal HSCs raises questions about the origin of fetal-derived adult tissue-resident macrophages. In the murine embryo, historical examination of embryonic macrophage and monocyte populations combined with recent reports utilizing genetic lineage-tracing approaches has led to a model of macrophage ontogeny that can be integrated with existing models of hematopoietic ontogeny. The first wave of hematopoiesis contains primitive erythroid, megakaryocyte and macrophage progenitors that arise in the yolk sac, and these macrophage progenitors are the source of early macrophages throughout the embryo, including the liver. A second wave of multipotential erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) also arises in the yolk sac. EMPs colonize the fetal liver, initiating myelopoiesis and forming macrophages. Lineage tracing indicates that this second wave of macrophages are distributed in most fetal tissues, although not appreciably in the brain. Thus, fetal-derived adult tissue-resident macrophages, other than microglia, appear to predominately derive from EMPs. While HSCs emerge at midgestation and colonize the fetal liver, the relative contribution of fetal HSCs to tissue macrophages at later stages of development is unclear. The inclusion of macrophage potential in multiple waves of hematopoiesis is consistent with reports of their functional roles throughout development in innate immunity, phagocytosis, and tissue morphogenesis and remodeling

  19. Enrichment of murine CD68+ CCR2+ and CD68+ CD206+ lung macrophages in acute pancreatitis-associated acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Akbarshahi, Hamid; Menzel, Mandy; Posaric Bauden, Monika; Rosendahl, Ann; Andersson, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the risk factors for developing this syndrome. Among the inflammatory cells, macrophages have a key role in determining the severity of the acute lung injury. In the lungs, macrophages constitute a heterogeneous cell population distributed in different compartments. Changes in not only the macrophage count, but also in their phenotype have been seen during the course of lung injury. A murine ductal ligation model of acute pancreatitis showed substantial morphological changes in the pancreas and lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed neutrophil recruitment into both organs after 9 hours and later on. F4/80(+) cells in the pancreas increased in the ligated animals, though there was not a significant difference in their number in the lungs as compared to sham operated animals. Flow cytometry analysis of lung macrophages demonstrated an enrichment of F4/80(-) CD68(+)CCR2(+) and F4/80(-) CD68(+)CD206(+) lung macrophages in ligated animals (AP) as compared to the sham operated group. The level of interleukin-6 in plasma increased 3 hours after ligation compared to the sham operated group, as a first indicator of a systemic inflammatory response.This study suggests a role for F4/80(-) CD68(+) macrophages in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in acute pancreatitis. Studying lung macrophages for different phenotypic markers, their polarization, activation and recruitment, in the context of acute lung injury, is a novel area to potentially identify interventions which may improve the outcome of acute lung injury.

  20. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang Suk; Yang, Kyong-Wol; Lee, Wook Jae; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Methods Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G. filicina. Conclusions Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for

  1. The CovS/CovR Acid Response Regulator Is Required for Intracellular Survival of Group B Streptococcus in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cumley, Nicola J.; Smith, Leanne M.; Anthony, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal meningitis and septicemia. The ability of this organism to survive inside phagocytic cells is poorly understood but thought to be an important step for the establishment of disease in the host. Here, we demonstrate that GBS shows prolonged survival within J774 macrophages and that the capacity to survive is not significantly changed across a diverse range of strains representing different serotypes, multilocus sequence types (MLST), and sites of clinical isolation. Using staining for the lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) and by pharmacological inhibition of phagosome acidification, we demonstrate that streptococci reside in a phagosome and that acidification of the phagosome is required for GBS to survive intracellularly. Moreover, we show that the GBS two-component system CovS/CovR, which is the major acid response regulator in this organism, is required for survival inside the phagosome. PMID:22331428

  2. Pathogenic Yersinia Promotes Its Survival by Creating an Acidic Fluid-Accessible Compartment on the Macrophage Surface

    PubMed Central

    Bahnan, Wael; Boettner, Douglas R.; Westermark, Linda; Fällman, Maria; Schesser, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and host immune cells each initiate events following their interaction in an attempt to drive the outcome to their respective advantage. Here we show that the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis sustains itself on the surface of a macrophage by forming acidic fluid-accessible compartments that are partially bounded by the host cell plasma membrane. These Yersinia-containing acidic compartments (YACs) are bereft of the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal antigen LAMP1 and readily form on primary macrophages as well as macrophage-like cell lines. YAC formation requires the presence of the Yersinia virulence plasmid which encodes a type III secretion system. Unexpectedly, we found that the initial formation of YACs did not require translocation of the type III effectors into the host cell cytosol; however, the duration of YACs was markedly greater in infections using translocation-competent Y. pseudotuberculosis strains as well as strains expressing the effector YopJ. Furthermore, it was in this translocation- and YopJ-dependent phase of infection that the acidic environment was critical for Y. pseudotuberculosis survival during its interaction with macrophages. Our findings indicate that during its extracellular phase of infection Y. pseudotuberculosis initiates and then, by a separate mechanism, stabilizes the formation of a highly intricate structure on the surface of the macrophage that is disengaged from the endocytic pathway. PMID:26275291

  3. Differences in human macrophage receptor usage, lysosomal fusion kinetics and survival between logarithmic and metacyclic Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Norikiyo; Bratt, Carol L.; Rodriguez, Nilda E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic) undergoes receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages, followed by a transient delay in phagolysosome maturation. We found differences in the pathway through which virulent Lic metacyclic promastigotes or avirulent logarithmic promastigotes are phagocytosed by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Both logarithmic and metacyclic promastigotes entered MDMs through a compartment lined by the third complement receptor (CR3). In contrast, many logarithmic promastigotes entered through vacuoles lined by mannose receptors (MR) whereas most metacyclic promastigotes did not (p < 0.005). CR3 positive vacuoles containing metacyclic promastigotes stained for caveolin-1 protein, suggesting CR3 localizes in caveolae during phagocytosis. Following entry, the kinetics of phagolysosomal maturation and intracellular survival also differed. Vacuoles containing metacyclic parasites did not accumulate lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) at early times after phagocytosis, whereas vacuoles with logarithmic promastigotes did. MDMs phagocytosed greater numbers of logarithmic than metacyclic promastigotes, yet metacyclics ultimately replicated intracellularly with greater efficiency. These data suggest that virulent metacyclic Leishmania promastigotes fail to ligate macrophage MR, and enter through a path that ultimately enhances intracellular survival. The relatively quiescent entry of virulent Leishmania spp. into macrophages may be accounted for by the ability of metacyclic promastigotes to selectively bypass deleterious entry pathways. PMID:19702651

  4. CX3CR1hi Monocyte/Macrophages Support Bacterial Survival and Experimental Infection-Driven Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Orit; Hoch, Shifra; Avniel-Polak, Shani; Gavish, Keren; Eli-Berchoer, Luba; Wilensky, Asaf; Nussbaum, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis,an anaerobic bacterium strongly linked to infection-driven inflammatory bone erosion, thrives within a highly inflamed milieu and disseminates to distant sites, such as atherosclerotic plaque. We examined the role of monocyte/macrophages in determining the outcome of infection with P. gingivalis. Surprisingly, transient monocyte/macrophage depletion led to greatly improved clearance of P. gingivalis. The chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 play a major role in monocyte recruitment and differentiation to Ly6C(hi) vs CX3CR1(hi) subsets, respectively. To determine the contribution of particular monocyte/macrophage subsets to bacterial survival, we challenged chemokine receptor knockout mice and found that P. gingivalis clearance is significantly improved in the absence of CX3CR1. CX3CR1(hi) monocyte/macrophages promote P. gingivalis survival by downregulating neutrophil phagocytosis. Furthermore, CX3CR1 knockout mice resist bone resorption in the oral cavity following challenge with P. gingivalis Our findings provide an explanation for bacterial coexistence alongside an activate neutrophil infiltrate. PMID:26704610

  5. Mammalian Innate Immune Response to a Leishmania-Resident RNA Virus Increases Macrophage Survival to Promote Parasite Persistence.

    PubMed

    Eren, Remzi Onur; Reverte, Marta; Rossi, Matteo; Hartley, Mary-Anne; Castiglioni, Patrik; Prevel, Florence; Martin, Ricardo; Desponds, Chantal; Lye, Lon-Fye; Drexler, Stefan K; Reith, Walter; Beverley, Stephen M; Ronet, Catherine; Fasel, Nicolas

    2016-09-14

    Some strains of the protozoan parasite Leishmania guyanensis (L.g) harbor a viral endosymbiont called Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1). LRV1 recognition by TLR-3 increases parasite burden and lesion swelling in vivo. However, the mechanisms by which anti-viral innate immune responses affect parasitic infection are largely unknown. Upon investigating the mammalian host's response to LRV1, we found that miR-155 was singularly and strongly upregulated in macrophages infected with LRV1+ L.g when compared to LRV1- L.g. LRV1-driven miR-155 expression was dependent on TLR-3/TRIF signaling. Furthermore, LRV1-induced TLR-3 activation promoted parasite persistence by enhancing macrophage survival through Akt activation in a manner partially dependent on miR-155. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt resulted in a decrease in LRV1-mediated macrophage survival and consequently decreased parasite persistence. Consistent with these data, miR-155-deficient mice showed a drastic decrease in LRV1-induced disease severity, and lesional macrophages from these mice displayed reduced levels of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:27593513

  6. Direct exposure to nitrogen dioxide fails to induce the expression of some inflammatory cytokines in an IC-21 murine macrophage cell model.

    PubMed

    Tu, B; Wallin, A; Moldéus, P; Cotgreave, I A

    1995-12-15

    Biologically-active molecules secreted from alveolar macrophages, such as cytokines, have been proposed to be involved in the induction of pulmonary toxicity and inflammation in response to the inhalation of oxidant gas pollutants such as NO2 and O3. Despite this, mechanistic studies are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining control macrophages from human subjects, and the intrinsic variability of such primary cells. It is, thus, of importance to develop alternative models for such studies. Here, we have characterised expression kinetics of the mRNAs for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) in confluent cultures of the murine IC-21 macrophage line in response to LPS. The secretion of TNF-alpha protein into the medium, assayed by L-929 cell bioassay, closely followed the expression of its mRNA in response to the LPS stimulus. In contrast to LPS, the exposure of IC-21 cells to either air or various concentrations of NO2 in air between 2 and 20 ppm, in an inverted plate exposure model, failed to induce the expression of any of the cytokine mRNAs probed. We conclude that the IC-21 cell line may represent a suitable model for studying the role of stimulated cytokine gene expression in inflammation and that the early events in the pulmonary inflammatory response to the inhalation of NO2 do not involve stimulated release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta or MIP-1 alpha/MIP-1 beta from macrophages. PMID:8560494

  7. Activation of tumor suppressor protein p53 is required for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced apoptosis in M1-D macrophages.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyung-No; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Lipton, Howard L

    2009-10-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a highly cytolytic picornavirus that persists in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) largely in macrophages with infection maintained by macrophage-to-macrophage spread. Infected macrophages in the CNS undergo apoptosis. We recently showed that M1-D macrophages infected with the low-neurovirulence TMEV BeAn virus became apoptotic through the mitochondrial pathway that is Bax mediated. Our present analyses of the molecular events and signaling pathway(s) culminating in the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization that initiates the caspase cascade and apoptosis of BeAn virus-infected M1-D macrophages revealed activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by 2 to 3 h postinfection (p.i.), followed by phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein p53 Ser 15 at 3 to 6 h p.i., stabilizing p53 levels until 6 h p.i. Activated p53 upregulated the transcription of proapoptotic puma and noxa genes at 2 to 4 h p.i. and their BH3-only protein expression, followed by the loss of detectable prosurvival Mcl-1 and A1 proteins at 4 to 10 h p.i. Degradation of the prosurvival proteins is known to release Bax, which forms homo-oligomers and translocates into and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane. Inhibition of phospho-p38 by two specific inhibitors, SB203580 and BIRB796, led to a significant decrease in apoptosis at 10 h p.i., with no effect on virus titers (only SB203580 tested). Together, these data indicate that p53 activation is required for the induction of apoptosis in infected M1-D cells.

  8. Murine J774 Macrophages Recognize LPS/IFN-g, Non-CpG DNA or Two-CpG DNA-containing Sequences as Immunologically Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Lynn; Casey, Warren; Morgan, Kevin; Ni, Hong; Yoon, Lawrence; Easton, Marilyn; Misukonis, Mary; Burleson, Gary; Ghosh, Dipak K.

    2010-01-01

    Specific bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), IFN-γ, and unmethylated cytosine or guanosine-phosphorothioate containing DNAs (CpG) activate host immunity, influencing infectious responses. Macrophages detect, inactivate and destroy infectious particles, and synthetic CpG sequences invoke similar responses of the innate immune system. Previously, murine macrophage J774 cells treated with CpG induced the expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) mRNA and protein. In this study murine J774 macrophages were exposed to vehicle, interferon γ + lipopolysaccharide (IFN-g/LPS), non-CpG (SAK1), or two-CpG sequence-containing DNA (SAK2) for 0–18 hr and gene expression changes measured. A large number of immunostimulatory and inflammatory changes were observed. SAK2 was a stronger activator of TNFα- and chemokine expression-related changes than LPS/IFN-g. Up regulation included tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily genes (TNFRSF’s), IL-1 receptor signaling via stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), NF-κB activation, hemopoietic maturation factors and sonic hedgehog/wingless integration site (SHH/Wnt) pathway genes. Genes of the TGF-β pathway were down regulated. In contrast, LPS/IFN-g -treated cells showed increased levels for TGF-β signaling genes, which may be linked to the observed up regulation of numerous collagens and down regulation of Wnt pathway genes. SAK1 produced distinct changes from LPS/IFN-g or SAK2. Therefore, J774 macrophages recognize LPS/IFN-g, non-CpG DNA or two-CpG DNA-containing sequences as immunologically distinct. PMID:20097302

  9. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2016-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  10. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  11. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-11-13

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxO (Rv2346c) promotes bacillary survival by inducing oxidative stress mediated genomic instability in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Dal Molin, Michael; Ganguli, Geetanjali; Padhi, Avinash; Jena, Prajna; Selchow, Petra; Sengupta, Srabasti; Meuli, Michael; Sander, Peter; Sonawane, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives inside the macrophages by modulating the host immune responses in its favor. The 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6; esxA) of Mtb is known as a potent virulence and T-cell antigenic determinant. At least 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins are encoded in the genome of Mtb; however, the function of many of them is still unknown. We herein report that ectopic expression of Mtb Rv2346c (esxO), a member of ESAT-6 family proteins, in non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis strain (MsmRv2346c) aids host cell invasion and intracellular bacillary persistence. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MsmRv2346c infection abated macrophage immunity by inducing host cell death and genomic instability as evident from the appearance of several DNA damage markers. We further report that the induction of genomic instability in infected cells was due to increase in the hosts oxidative stress responses. MsmRv2346c infection was also found to induce autophagy and modulate the immune function of macrophages. In contrast, blockade of Rv2346c induced oxidative stress by treatment with ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented the host cell death, autophagy induction and genomic instability in infected macrophages. Conversely, MtbΔRv2346c mutant did not show any difference in intracellular survival and oxidative stress responses. We envision that Mtb ESAT-6 family protein Rv2346c dampens antibacterial effector functions namely by inducing oxidative stress mediated genomic instability in infected macrophages, while loss of Rv2346c gene function may be compensated by other redundant ESAT-6 family proteins. Thus EsxO plays an important role in mycobacterial pathogenesis in the context of innate immunity. PMID:26786654

  13. Murine cytotoxic activated macrophages inhibit aconitase in tumor cells. Inhibition involves the iron-sulfur prosthetic group and is reversible.

    PubMed

    Drapier, J C; Hibbs, J B

    1986-09-01

    Previous studies show that cytotoxic activated macrophages cause inhibition of DNA synthesis, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, and loss of intracellular iron from tumor cells. Here we examine aconitase, a citric acid cycle enzyme with a catalytically active iron-sulfur cluster, to determine if iron-sulfur clusters are targets for activated macrophage-induced iron removal. Results show that aconitase activity declines dramatically in target cells after 4 h of co-cultivation with activated macrophages. Aconitase inhibition occurs simultaneously with arrest of DNA synthesis, another early activated macrophage-induced metabolic change in target cells. Dithionite partially prevents activated macrophage induced aconitase inhibition. Furthermore, incubation of injured target cells in medium supplemented with ferrous ion plus a reducing agent causes near-complete reconstitution of aconitase activity. The results show that removal of a labile iron atom from the [4Fe-4S] cluster, by a cytotoxic activated macrophage-mediated mechanism, is causally related to aconitase inhibition. PMID:3745439

  14. OxLDL and macrophage survival: essential and oxygen-independent involvement of the Hif-pathway.

    PubMed

    Poitz, David M; Augstein, Antje; Weinert, Sönke; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C; Strasser, Ruth H; Schmeisser, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by hypoxic even anoxic areas and by high concentrations of oxidized lipoproteins. Moreover, unstable plaques attract a high number of macrophages despite the proapoptotic background within these plaques. Recently, it was shown that these macrophages are positive for Hif-1α. This subunit is a part of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (Hif-1), a key transcriptional factor under hypoxia. Till date, it is not understood whether the Hif-system (consisting of Hif-1, Hif-2 and Hif-3) is involved in protection of macrophages under these proatherogenic conditions. The present study delineates that oxLDL causes fundamental changes in the regulation of the Hif-system in primary human macrophages. First, both oxLDL and hypoxia mediate accumulation of Hif-1α protein. Second, treatment with a combination of oxLDL and hypoxia is acting in an additive manner on Hif-1α protein content. Third, oxLDL alone does not increase Hif-2α protein, but abolishes the hypoxic induction of Hif-2α completely. OxLDL treatment alone was not toxic for macrophages under neither normoxia nor hypoxia. But, inhibition of Hif-pathway by adenoviral expression of a dominant-negative mutant combined with oxLDL treatment independently of the oxygen tension leads to apoptosis, as determined by caspase-3 activation and induction of DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, this inhibition also mediates the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In conclusion, the present data show that Hif-1α regulation is essential for survival of oxLDL-treated macrophages independent of the oxygen tension. Therefore, this newly characterized mechanism might also have an important influence for the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques.

  15. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p < 0.001) and associated with CD163+ macrophages (p < 0.0001), poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.021) and significantly increased numbers of TGF-α+ cells. While G-CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  16. Heterogeneous activity of immature and mature cells of the murine monocyte-macrophage lineage derived from different anatomical districts against yeast-phase Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, T; Lohmann-Matthes, M L; Baccarini, M

    1986-01-01

    Mature mononuclear phagocytes have been receiving much attention as effectors of spontaneous candidacidal activity, although with controversial results due to differences in the effector populations and the methods used in different laboratories. We here systematically compare the fungistatic activity of immature and mature cells of the murine macrophage series. The results show that nonadherent, nonphagocytic precursor cells (isolated either [90% purity] from bone marrow liquid cultures or from the organs of mice in which inflammatory conditions had been elicited in vivo) exerted a strong extracellular candidastatic activity. In contrast, mature macrophages, either obtained from different anatomical areas (spleen, liver, lung, peritoneal cavity) or matured in vitro from the precursor populations, displayed striking heterogeneity in their ability to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, depending on the anatomical site they were derived from. Lymphokine activation did not alter the fungistatic pattern of the untreated cells. The different macrophage populations behaved very differently also in the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in response to phagocytosis of C. albicans. The amounts of ROI generated, however, showed no correlation with candidastatic ability. Low levels of candidastatic activity exerted by resident peritoneal macrophages (good ROI producers) were inhibited by catalase, whereas high levels of growth inhibition by Kupffer cells (poor ROI producers) after 8 h of assay were hardly influenced by the enzyme. Our data suggest the existence of two different effector mechanisms in macrophage-mediated C. albicans growth inhibition, a rather inefficient ROI-dependent one, and a second, very efficient oxygen-independent mechanism. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:3533781

  17. Vaccination with Irradiated Tumor Cells Engineered to Secrete Murine Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Stimulates Potent, Specific, and Long-Lasting Anti-Tumor Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dranoff, Glenn; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Lazenby, Audrey; Golumbek, Paul; Levitsky, Hyam; Brose, Katja; Jackson, Valerie; Hamada, Hirofumi; Pardoll, Drew; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1993-04-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4^+ and CD8^+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  18. Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Dranoff, G; Jaffee, E; Lazenby, A; Golumbek, P; Levitsky, H; Brose, K; Jackson, V; Hamada, H; Pardoll, D; Mulligan, R C

    1993-01-01

    To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines. PMID:8097319

  19. Lipopolysaccharide of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces the expression of chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, and IP-10 via similar but distinct signaling pathways in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Ok-Jin; Cho, Min-Kyung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative bacterium frequently isolated from lesions of patients with localized aggressive periodontitis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to initiate inflammatory responses. In this study, we purified LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans (AaLPS) and investigated its ability to induce the expression of chemokines, which play an important role in recruitment of leukocytes to the infection site. AaLPS induced the expression of chemokines, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and IP-10 in murine macrophages, leading to the infiltration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a transwell system. Although TLR4 was essential for the induction of all these chemokines by AaLPS, MCP-1 and MIP-1α expressions were MyD88-dependent, but IP-10 expression was MyD88-independent, as determined using macrophages from mice deficient in TLR4 or MyD88. Furthermore, the activation of ERK and JNK were necessary for the expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1α, whereas p38 MAP kinase and JNK activations were required for IP-10 expression. In addition, IFN-β/STAT1 signaling was exclusively involved in IP-10 expression but not in MCP-1 or MIP-1α expression. AaLPS also activated the transcription factors, NF-κB, AP-1, NF-IL6, and ISRE, all of which are involved in chemokine gene expression. These results suggest that AaLPS induces the expression of chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α, and IP-10 through TLR4 in murine macrophages. Further, the induction of MCP-1 and MIP-1α requires MyD88, ERK, and JNK, whereas the induction of IP-10 requires JNK, p38 MAP kinase, and IFN-β/STAT1.

  20. Microarray-based detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium transposon mutants that cannot survive in macrophages and mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kaman; Kim, Charles C; Falkow, Stanley

    2005-09-01

    DNA microarrays provide an opportunity to combine the principles of signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) with microarray technology to identify potentially important bacterial virulence genes. The scope of DNA microarrays allows for less laborious screening on a much larger scale than possible by STM alone. We have adapted a microarray-based transposon tracking strategy for use with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cDNA microarray in order to identify genes important for survival and replication in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells or in the spleens of BALB/cJ mice. A 50,000-CFU transposon library of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain SL1344 was serially passaged in cultured macrophages or intraperitoneally inoculated into BALB/cJ mice. The bacterial genomic DNA was isolated and processed for analysis on the microarray. The novel application of this approach to identify mutants unable to survive in cultured cells resulted in the identification of components of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2), which is known to be critical for intracellular survival and replication. In addition, array results indicated that a number of SPI1-associated genes, currently not associated with intracellular survival, are negatively selected. However, of the SPI1-associated mutants individually tested for intracellular survival, only a sirA mutant exhibited reduced numbers relative to those of wild-type bacteria. Of the mutants unable to survive in mice, significant proportions are either components of the SPI2 pathogenicity island or involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis. This observation is in agreement with results obtained in the original S. enterica serovar Typhimurium STM screen, illustrating the utility of this approach for the high-throughput identification of virulence factors important for survival in the host.

  1. Intracellular survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in human macrophages is independent of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2.

    PubMed

    Forest, Chantal G; Ferraro, Elyse; Sabbagh, Sébastien C; Daigle, France

    2010-12-01

    For successful infection, Salmonella enterica secretes and injects effector proteins into host cells by two distinct type three secretion systems (T3SSs) located on Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs)-1 and -2. The SPI-2 T3SS is involved in intracellular survival of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and systemic disease. As little is known regarding the function of the SPI-2 T3SS from S. enterica serovar Typhi, the aetiological agent of typhoid fever, we investigated its role for survival in human macrophages. Mutations in the translocon (sseB), basal secretion apparatus (ssaR) and regulator (ssrB) did not result in any reduction in survival under many of the conditions tested. Similar results were obtained with another S. Typhi strain or by using human primary cells. Results were corroborated based on complete deletion of the SPI-2 T3SS. Surprisingly, the data suggest that the SPI-2 T3SS of S. Typhi is not required for survival in human macrophages.

  2. Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ji-Hyun; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Seo, Dong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor κB, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo. PMID:26539049

  3. Safrole suppresses murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo, and stimulates macrophage phagocytosis and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in leukemic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Yu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Chih-Chung; Ho, Heng-Chien; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2013-11-01

    Many anticancer drugs are obtained from phytochemicals and natural products. However, some phytochemicals have mutagenic effects. Safrole, a component of Piper betle inflorescence, has been reported to be a carcinogen. We have previously reported that safrole induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells in vitro and inhibited the human oral tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Until now, there is no information addressing if safrole promotes immune responses in vivo. To evaluate whether safrole modulated immune function, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with murine myelomonocytic WEHI-3 leukemia cells to establish leukemia and then were treated with or without safrole at 4 and 16 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks post-treatment with safrole for examining the immune cell populations, phagocytosis of macrophages and the natural killer (NK) cells' cytotoxicity. Results indicated that safrole increased the body weight, and decreased the weights of spleen and liver in leukemic mice. Furthermore, safrole promoted the activities of macrophages phagocytosis and NK cells' cytotoxicity in leukemic mice when compared with untreated leukemic mice. After determining the cell marker population, we found that safrole promoted the levels of CD3 (T cells), CD19 (B cells) and Mac-3 (macrophages), but it did not affect CD11b (monocytes) in leukemic mice. In conclusion, safrole altered the immune modulation and inhibited the leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

  4. Toll-like Receptor function of murine macrophages, probed by cytokine induction, is biphasic and is not impaired globally with age.

    PubMed

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Palasiewicz, Karol; Ucker, David S

    2016-07-01

    Aging is associated with a waning of normal immune function. This "immunosenescence" is characterized by a diverse repertoire of seemingly discreet and unbalanced immune alterations. A number of studies have suggested that aging-associated alterations in innate immune responsiveness, especially responsiveness dependent on Toll-like Receptor (TLR) engagement, are causally involved. We find, however, that the magnitude and dose-dependency of responsiveness to TLR engagement (assessed with respect to cytokine production) in distinct populations of murine macrophages are not altered generally with animal age or as a consequence of immunosenescence. Responses elicited with a wide array of TLR agonists were examined by extensive functional analyses, principally on the level of the individual cell. These studies reveal an intriguing "all-or-nothing" response behavior of macrophages, independent of animal age. Although reports to the contrary have been cited widely, aging-associated immune decline cannot be attributed to widespread alterations in the extents of TLR-dependent innate immune macrophage responses. PMID:27453067

  5. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Saposhnikoviae Radix, Regulates the Release of Cytokines in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Zheng, Ken Y. Z.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction, is composed of Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu) and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng) in a weight ratio of 1∶2∶1. Clinically, YPFS has been widely used to regulate immune functions; however, the action mechanism of it is not known. Here, we addressed this issue by providing detail analyses of chemical and biological properties of YPFS. By using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, fifteen chemicals deriving from different herbs of YPFS were determined, and which served as a control for the standardization of the herbal extract of YPFS. In general, the amounts of chosen chemical markers were higher in a preparation of YPFS as compared to that of single herb or two-herb compositions. In order to reveal the immune functions of YPFS, the standardized extract was applied onto cultured murine macrophages. The treatment of YPFS stimulated the mRNA and protein expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of NF-κB by enhancing IκBα degradation. In contrast, the application of YPFS suppressed the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic inflammation model. In addition, YPFS could up regulate the phagocytic activity in cultured macrophages. These results therefore supported the bi-directional immune-modulatory roles of YPFS in regulating the releases of cytokines from macrophages. PMID:24244327

  6. Differential Ly-6C expression identifies the recruited macrophage phenotype, which orchestrates the regression of murine liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prakash; Pellicoro, Antonella; Vernon, Madeleine A; Boulter, Luke; Aucott, Rebecca L; Ali, Aysha; Hartland, Stephen N; Snowdon, Victoria K; Cappon, Andrea; Gordon-Walker, Timothy T; Williams, Mike J; Dunbar, Donald R; Manning, Jonathan R; van Rooijen, Nico; Fallowfield, Jonathan A; Forbes, Stuart J; Iredale, John P

    2012-11-13

    Although macrophages are widely recognized to have a profibrotic role in inflammation, we have used a highly tractable CCl(4)-induced model of reversible hepatic fibrosis to identify and characterize the macrophage phenotype responsible for tissue remodeling: the hitherto elusive restorative macrophage. This CD11B(hi) F4/80(int) Ly-6C(lo) macrophage subset was most abundant in livers during maximal fibrosis resolution and represented the principle matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -expressing subset. Depletion of this population in CD11B promoter-diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11B-DTR) transgenic mice caused a failure of scar remodeling. Adoptive transfer and in situ labeling experiments showed that these restorative macrophages derive from recruited Ly-6C(hi) monocytes, a common origin with profibrotic Ly-6C(hi) macrophages, indicative of a phenotypic switch in vivo conferring proresolution properties. Microarray profiling of the Ly-6C(lo) subset, compared with Ly-6C(hi) macrophages, showed a phenotype outside the M1/M2 classification, with increased expression of MMPs, growth factors, and phagocytosis-related genes, including Mmp9, Mmp12, insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1), and Glycoprotein (transmembrane) nmb (Gpnmb). Confocal microscopy confirmed the postphagocytic nature of restorative macrophages. Furthermore, the restorative macrophage phenotype was recapitulated in vitro by the phagocytosis of cellular debris with associated activation of the ERK signaling cascade. Critically, induced phagocytic behavior in vivo, through administration of liposomes, increased restorative macrophage number and accelerated fibrosis resolution, offering a therapeutic strategy to this orphan pathological process.

  7. Survival of athymic (nu/nu) mice after Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection by passive administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, R S; Rosenthal, A; Lampert, P W; Zurbriggen, A; Yamada, M

    1989-01-01

    Little or no antiviral immune response is mounted in athymic nude mice infected with the Daniels strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. In these athymic mice, increasing levels of infectious virus could be detected in the central nervous system. Seventy-five percent (9 of 12) of the nude mice were moribund or dead by 4 weeks postinfection. In contrast, treatment of Theiler's virus-infected nude mice with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (H7-2) against the viral protein VP-1 resulted in a dramatic reduction of infectious virus within the central nervous system. All antibody-treated nude animals survived beyond 4 weeks postinfection. Monoclonal antibody titers could be maintained by passive transfer in treated nude mice at levels comparable to those of polyclonal antibody titers found in heterozygous infected nu/+ littermates. Areas of demyelination were detected in the untreated animals as early as 7 days after infection with little or no remyelination present. In approximately one-half of the antibody-treated nude animals, no demyelinating lesions were found. However, the rest of these treated mice were found to have areas of both demyelination and remyelination. Thus, anti-Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus antibody against VP-1 can play a dramatic role in the survival of mice, clearance of virus, limiting viral spread, and altering the pattern of disease in the absence of a functional T-cell response. Images PMID:2539504

  8. Survival of athymic (nu/nu) mice after Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection by passive administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, R S; Rosenthal, A; Lampert, P W; Zurbriggen, A; Yamada, M

    1989-05-01

    Little or no antiviral immune response is mounted in athymic nude mice infected with the Daniels strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. In these athymic mice, increasing levels of infectious virus could be detected in the central nervous system. Seventy-five percent (9 of 12) of the nude mice were moribund or dead by 4 weeks postinfection. In contrast, treatment of Theiler's virus-infected nude mice with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (H7-2) against the viral protein VP-1 resulted in a dramatic reduction of infectious virus within the central nervous system. All antibody-treated nude animals survived beyond 4 weeks postinfection. Monoclonal antibody titers could be maintained by passive transfer in treated nude mice at levels comparable to those of polyclonal antibody titers found in heterozygous infected nu/+ littermates. Areas of demyelination were detected in the untreated animals as early as 7 days after infection with little or no remyelination present. In approximately one-half of the antibody-treated nude animals, no demyelinating lesions were found. However, the rest of these treated mice were found to have areas of both demyelination and remyelination. Thus, anti-Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus antibody against VP-1 can play a dramatic role in the survival of mice, clearance of virus, limiting viral spread, and altering the pattern of disease in the absence of a functional T-cell response.

  9. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiyuan; Feldman, Nicole E; Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T; Strand, Matthew J; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R; Kinney, William H; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Voelker, Dennis R; Ordway, Diane J; Chan, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

  10. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiyuan; Feldman, Nicole E; Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T; Strand, Matthew J; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R; Kinney, William H; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Voelker, Dennis R; Ordway, Diane J; Chan, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  11. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation Decreases Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T.; Strand, Matthew J.; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R.; Kinney, William H.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  12. Macrophage binding to receptor VCAM-1 transmits survival signals in breast cancer cells that invade the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Massagué, Joan

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Aberrant expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in breast cancer cells is associated with lung relapse, but the role of VCAM-1 as a mediator of metastasis has remained unknown. We report that VCAM-1 provides a survival advantage to breast cancer cells that infiltrate leukocyte-rich microenvironments such as the lungs. VCAM-1 tethers metastasis-associated macrophages to cancer cells via counter-receptor α4 integrins. Clustering of cell surface VCAM-1, acting through Ezrin, triggers Akt activation and protects cancer cells from pro-apoptotic cytokines such as TRAIL. This pro-survival function of VCAM-1 can be blocked by antibodies against α4 integrins. Thus, newly disseminated cancer cells expressing VCAM-1 can thrive in leukocyte-rich microenvironments through juxtacrine activation of a VCAM-1–Ezrin-PI3K/Akt survival pathway. PMID:22014578

  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor promotes prolonged survival and the support of virulent infection by African swine fever virus of macrophages generated from porcine bone marrow and blood.

    PubMed

    Denham, S; Brookes, S M; Hutchings, G H; Parkhouse, R M

    1996-10-01

    Long-surviving cultures of non-adherent cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage were established from the bone marrow and blood of weanling pigs by culturing cells from these tissues in the presence of recombinant porcine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The cells increased in number, principally during the first 4 weeks of culture, bound monoclonal antibodies recognizing porcine macrophage antigens and avidly phagocytosed latex particles. The GM-CSF generated mononuclear phagocytes were highly infectible [correction of infectable] with a virulent Malawi isolate of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and able to generate levels of virus progeny similar to those produced by freshly isolated pig macrophages. The cultured cells retained their susceptibility to ASFV infection for as long as the cultures survived i.e. for up to 3 months.

  14. 4-Hydroxynonenal enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via 5-lipoxygenase-mediated activation of ERK and p38 MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung J.; Kim, Chae E.; Yun, Mi R.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Shin, Hwa K.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-01-15

    Exaggerated levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) co-exist in macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, and activated macrophages produce MMP-9 that degrades atherosclerotic plaque constituents. This study investigated the effects of HNE on MMP-9 production, and the potential role for 5-LO derivatives in MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with HNE led to activation of 5-LO, as measured by leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production. This was associated with an increased production of MMP-9, which was blunted by inhibition of 5-LO with MK886, a 5-LO inhibitor or with 5-LO siRNA. A cysteinyl-LT{sub 1} (cysLT{sub 1}) receptor antagonist, REV-5901 as well as a BLT{sub 1} receptor antagonist, U-75302, also attenuated MMP-9 production induced by HNE. Furthermore, LTB{sub 4} and cysLT (LTC{sub 4} and LTD{sub 4}) enhanced MMP-9 production in macrophages, suggesting a pivotal role for 5-LO in HNE-mediated production of MMP-9. Among the MAPK pathways, LTB{sub 4} and cysLT enhanced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK, but not JNK. Linked to these results, a p38 MAPK inhibitor as well as an ERK inhibitor blunted MMP-9 production induced by LT. Collectively, these data suggest that 5-LO-derived LT mediates HNE-induced MMP-9 production via activation of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways, consequently leading to plaque instability in atherosclerosis.

  15. The procyanidin trimer C1 induces macrophage activation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways, leading to Th1 polarization in murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2013-08-15

    Numerous studies have shown various relationships between foods with a high nutritional value and a robust immune response, particularly studies that have focused on host protection and cytokine networks. This study aimed to clarify the role played by the procyanidin trimer C1 in innate and adaptive immunity. Procyanidin C1 did not exert cytotoxicity at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 62.5 μg/ml in macrophage cells; therefore, concentration of 62.5 μg/ml was used as the maximum dose of procyanidin C1 throughout subsequent experiments. Procyanidin C1 enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, procyanidin C1 functionally induced macrophage activation by augmenting the expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC II) and proinflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6) via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), e.g., p38, ERK, and JNK and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways. Interestingly, procyanidin C1 effectively polarized T helper type 1 (Th1) by secreting Th1-mediated cytokines (interferon-γ, IL-12p70, and IL-2) and inducing splenocyte proliferation, indicating that procyanidin C1 contributes to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Accordingly, these findings confirms that the procyanidin C1 induces macrophage activation via NF-κB and MAPK pathways, leading to Th1 polarization in murine splenocytes, which suggests that procyanidin C1 regulates innate and adaptive immunity by macrophage activation and Th1 polarization.

  16. Prodigiosin isolated from Hahella chejuensis suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production by inhibiting p38 MAPK, JNK and NF-kappaB activation in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jung-Eun; Yim, Joung-Han; Lee, Hong-Kum; Moon, Eun-Yi; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2007-12-15

    Prodigiosin was isolated from marine bacteria Hahella chejuensis which has been recently discovered from Marado, Cheju Island, Republic of Korea. Immunosuppressive properties have been reported for prodigiosin members such as undecylprodigiosin, metacycloprodigiosin, prodigiosin and its synthetic analogue PNU156804 (PNU). However, the effect of this agent on macrophage function has not been characterized in detail. In the present study, we examined the effects of prodigiosin on the production of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage. When thioglycollate-elicited macrophages pre-exposed to prodigiosin (1-100 ng/ml) were stimulated with LPS, pretreatment with prodigiosin resulted in the inhibition of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 was not altered. Inhibition of iNOS protein expression appears to be at the transcriptional level, since prodigiosin decreased LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity through preventing the degradation of IkBalpha, with significant inhibition achieved following pretreatment with prodigiosin. However, prodigiosin did not exert any effect on AP-1 activity. Prodigiosin blocked phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). These results indicate that the inhibition of these signaling molecules expression was correlated with the reduced production of NO in macrophages. Taken together, the present data suggest that prodigiosin reduces NO production and iNOS expression by inhibiting LPS-triggered p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation, thereby implicating a mechanism by which prodigiosin may exert its immunosuppressive effects.

  17. Yersinia pestis Requires Host Rab1b for Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Michael G.; Pulsifer, Amanda R.; Price, Christopher T.; Abu Kwaik, Yousef; Lawrenz, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease known as plague. During infection of macrophages Y. pestis actively evades the normal phagosomal maturation pathway to establish a replicative niche within the cell. However, the mechanisms used by Y. pestis to subvert killing by the macrophage are unknown. Host Rab GTPases are central mediators of vesicular trafficking and are commonly targeted by bacterial pathogens to alter phagosome maturation and killing by macrophages. Here we demonstrate for the first time that host Rab1b is required for Y. pestis to effectively evade killing by macrophages. We also show that Rab1b is specifically recruited to the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV) and that Y. pestis is unable to subvert YCV acidification when Rab1b expression is knocked down in macrophages. Furthermore, Rab1b knockdown also altered the frequency of association between the YCV with the lysosomal marker Lamp1, suggesting that Rab1b recruitment to the YCV directly inhibits phagosome maturation. Finally, we show that Rab1b knockdown also impacts the pH of the Legionella pneumophila containing vacuole, another pathogen that recruits Rab1b to its vacuole. Together these data identify a novel role for Rab1b in the subversion of phagosome maturation by intracellular pathogens and suggest that recruitment of Rab1b to the pathogen containing vacuole may be a conserved mechanism to control vacuole pH. PMID:26495854

  18. A Mycobacterial Phosphoribosyltransferase Promotes Bacillary Survival by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Autophagy Pathways in Macrophages and Zebrafish*

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Ganguli, Geetanjali; Padhi, Avinash; Roy, Debasish; Alaridah, Nader; Saha, Pratip; Nongthomba, Upendra; Godaly, Gabriela; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar; Banerjee, Sulagna; Sonawane, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs various strategies to modulate host immune responses to facilitate its persistence in macrophages. The M. tuberculosis cell wall contains numerous glycoproteins with unknown roles in pathogenesis. Here, by using Concanavalin A and LC-MS analysis, we identified a novel mannosylated glycoprotein phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by Rv3242c from M. tuberculosis cell walls. Homology modeling, bioinformatic analyses, and an assay of phosphoribosyltransferase activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing recombinant Rv3242c (MsmRv3242c) confirmed the mass spectrometry data. Using Mycobacterium marinum-zebrafish and the surrogate MsmRv3242c infection models, we proved that phosphoribosyltransferase is involved in mycobacterial virulence. Histological and infection assays showed that the M. marinum mimG mutant, an Rv3242c orthologue in a pathogenic M. marinum strain, was strongly attenuated in adult zebrafish and also survived less in macrophages. In contrast, infection with wild type and the complemented ΔmimG:Rv3242c M. marinum strains showed prominent pathological features, such as severe emaciation, skin lesions, hemorrhaging, and more zebrafish death. Similarly, recombinant MsmRv3242c bacteria showed increased invasion in non-phagocytic epithelial cells and longer intracellular survival in macrophages as compared with wild type and vector control M. smegmatis strains. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the Rv3242c- and mimG-mediated enhancement of intramacrophagic survival was due to inhibition of autophagy, reactive oxygen species, and reduced activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. Infection with MsmRv3242c also activated the MAPK pathway, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines. In summary, we show that a novel mycobacterial mannosylated phosphoribosyltransferase acts as a virulence and immunomodulatory factor, suggesting that it may constitute a novel target for antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:25825498

  19. A mycobacterial phosphoribosyltransferase promotes bacillary survival by inhibiting oxidative stress and autophagy pathways in macrophages and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Ganguli, Geetanjali; Padhi, Avinash; Roy, Debasish; Alaridah, Nader; Saha, Pratip; Nongthomba, Upendra; Godaly, Gabriela; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar; Banerjee, Sulagna; Sonawane, Avinash

    2015-05-22

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs various strategies to modulate host immune responses to facilitate its persistence in macrophages. The M. tuberculosis cell wall contains numerous glycoproteins with unknown roles in pathogenesis. Here, by using Concanavalin A and LC-MS analysis, we identified a novel mannosylated glycoprotein phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by Rv3242c from M. tuberculosis cell walls. Homology modeling, bioinformatic analyses, and an assay of phosphoribosyltransferase activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing recombinant Rv3242c (MsmRv3242c) confirmed the mass spectrometry data. Using Mycobacterium marinum-zebrafish and the surrogate MsmRv3242c infection models, we proved that phosphoribosyltransferase is involved in mycobacterial virulence. Histological and infection assays showed that the M. marinum mimG mutant, an Rv3242c orthologue in a pathogenic M. marinum strain, was strongly attenuated in adult zebrafish and also survived less in macrophages. In contrast, infection with wild type and the complemented ΔmimG:Rv3242c M. marinum strains showed prominent pathological features, such as severe emaciation, skin lesions, hemorrhaging, and more zebrafish death. Similarly, recombinant MsmRv3242c bacteria showed increased invasion in non-phagocytic epithelial cells and longer intracellular survival in macrophages as compared with wild type and vector control M. smegmatis strains. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the Rv3242c- and mimG-mediated enhancement of intramacrophagic survival was due to inhibition of autophagy, reactive oxygen species, and reduced activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. Infection with MsmRv3242c also activated the MAPK pathway, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines. In summary, we show that a novel mycobacterial mannosylated phosphoribosyltransferase acts as a virulence and immunomodulatory factor, suggesting that it may constitute a novel target for antimycobacterial drugs. PMID:25825498

  20. A mycobacterial phosphoribosyltransferase promotes bacillary survival by inhibiting oxidative stress and autophagy pathways in macrophages and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumitra; Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Ganguli, Geetanjali; Padhi, Avinash; Roy, Debasish; Alaridah, Nader; Saha, Pratip; Nongthomba, Upendra; Godaly, Gabriela; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar; Banerjee, Sulagna; Sonawane, Avinash

    2015-05-22

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs various strategies to modulate host immune responses to facilitate its persistence in macrophages. The M. tuberculosis cell wall contains numerous glycoproteins with unknown roles in pathogenesis. Here, by using Concanavalin A and LC-MS analysis, we identified a novel mannosylated glycoprotein phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by Rv3242c from M. tuberculosis cell walls. Homology modeling, bioinformatic analyses, and an assay of phosphoribosyltransferase activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing recombinant Rv3242c (MsmRv3242c) confirmed the mass spectrometry data. Using Mycobacterium marinum-zebrafish and the surrogate MsmRv3242c infection models, we proved that phosphoribosyltransferase is involved in mycobacterial virulence. Histological and infection assays showed that the M. marinum mimG mutant, an Rv3242c orthologue in a pathogenic M. marinum strain, was strongly attenuated in adult zebrafish and also survived less in macrophages. In contrast, infection with wild type and the complemented ΔmimG:Rv3242c M. marinum strains showed prominent pathological features, such as severe emaciation, skin lesions, hemorrhaging, and more zebrafish death. Similarly, recombinant MsmRv3242c bacteria showed increased invasion in non-phagocytic epithelial cells and longer intracellular survival in macrophages as compared with wild type and vector control M. smegmatis strains. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the Rv3242c- and mimG-mediated enhancement of intramacrophagic survival was due to inhibition of autophagy, reactive oxygen species, and reduced activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. Infection with MsmRv3242c also activated the MAPK pathway, NF-κB, and inflammatory cytokines. In summary, we show that a novel mycobacterial mannosylated phosphoribosyltransferase acts as a virulence and immunomodulatory factor, suggesting that it may constitute a novel target for antimycobacterial drugs.

  1. Preferential phagocytosis of in vivo aged murine red blood cells by a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Singer, J A; Morrison, M; Jackson, C W

    1984-10-01

    The ability of an established line of mouse macrophages (IC-21) to ingest red blood cells (RBC) aged in vivo was assessed. RBC populations of increasing age were prepared in mice by serial hypertransfusion, a procedure that inhibits erythropoiesis. Mouse RBC with a mean age of about 58 d (normal RBC life span, 60 d) had a circulating half-life of less than 1 d when transfused into normal mice. IC-21 macrophages ingested the in vivo aged RBC in preference to RBC from normal mice (mean RBC age, 30 d). RBC isolated from mice 10 d after being released from one red blood cell lifespan (60 d) of inhibited erythropoiesis (mean RBC age 5 d) were ingested significantly less than RBC from normal mice. The IC-21 macrophage line used with in vivo aged RBC affords a highly defined model system for identifying the mechanism(s) of macrophage-mediated homeostasis. PMID:6477835

  2. Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

  3. Inhibition of x-box binding protein 1 reduces tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in aged murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Shen, Hua; Du, Wei; Goldstein, Daniel R

    2013-10-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER. Although apoptosis induced by ER stress has been implicated in several aging-associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis, it is unclear how aging modifies ER stress response in macrophages. To decipher this relationship, we assessed apoptosis in macrophages isolated from young (1.5-2 months) and aged (16-18 months) mice and exposed the cells to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. We found that aged macrophages exhibited more apoptosis than young macrophages, which was accompanied by reduced activation of phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (p-IRE1α), one of the three key ER stress signal transducers. Reduced gene expression of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a downstream effector of IRE1α, enhanced p-IRE1α levels and reduced apoptosis in aged, but not young macrophages treated with tunicamycin. These findings delineate a novel, age-dependent interaction by which macrophages undergo apoptosis upon ER stress, and suggest an important protective role of IRE1α in aging-associated ER stress-induced apoptosis. This novel pathway may not only be important in our understanding of longevity, but may also have important implications for pathogenesis and potential treatment of aging-associated diseases in general.

  4. P2X7 receptor-mediated killing of an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, by human and murine macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Michael P.; Fuller, Stephen J.; McLeod, Rima; Boulter, Nicola R.; Miller, Catherine M.; Zakrzewski, Alana M.; Mui, Ernest J.; Witola, William H.; Coyne, Jessica J.; Hargrave, Aubrey C.; Jamieson, Sarra E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Wiley, James S.; Smith, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R)4 is highly expressed on the macrophage cell surface and activation of infected cells by extracellular ATP has been shown to kill intracellular bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that decrease receptor function reduce the ability of human macrophages to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are associated with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In this paper we show that macrophages from people with the 1513C (rs3751143) loss-of-function P2X7R SNP are less effective in killing intracellular Toxoplasma gondii after exposure to ATP compared with macrophages from people with the 1513A wild-type allele. Supporting a P2X7R-specific effect on T. gondii, macrophages from P2X7R knock-out mice (P2X7R−/−) are unable to kill T. gondii as effectively as macrophages from wild-type mice. We show that P2X7R-mediated T. gondii killing occurs in parallel with host cell apoptosis and is independent of NO production. PMID:20488797

  5. Lunar soil simulant uptake produces a concentration-dependent increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anuran; Wang, Angela; Lera, Matthew; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2010-01-01

    One of NASA's long-term objectives is to be able to stay on the moon for extended periods, and to provide a stepping-stone for future Mars explorations. The lunar soil simulant JSC-1 has been developed by NASA from volcanic ash found in Arizona to facilitate testing of toxicity and system requirements for lunar exploration. A concentration-response study of JSC-1 was undertaken on the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results demonstrated concentrations of 50-2000 microg/ml JSC-1 induced enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Data suggest that extraterrestrial regolith has the potential to induce an inflammatory response, and that future development of anti-inflammatory mitigative strategies may be necessary to counteract lunar dust-associated cellular toxicity.

  6. Early Murine Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) Infection Induces Liver Natural Killer (NK) Cell Inflammation and Protection Through Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1α (MIP-1α)–dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Mather, Thais P.; Orange, Jordan S.; Biron, Christine A.

    1998-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells mediate defense against early murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infections in liver. The chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), can promote inflammatory responses. Our studies evaluated contributions of NK cells to early MCMV-induced liver inflammation and MIP-1α requirements for inflammation and delivery of antiviral defenses. NK cells were shown to be responsible for focal inflammation, and to be induced to migrate at high levels, in MCMV-infected livers. MIP-1α gene expression was elevated at coinciding times, and mice deficient in MIP-1α function were dramatically inhibited in both inflammatory and protective liver responses. The results precisely define MIP-1α–dependent steps required to achieve NK cell inflammation during, and mechanisms promoting defense against, viral infections in tissues. PMID:9419206

  7. Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nandini; Tripathi, Subhash K; Sahu, Debasis; Das, Hasi R; Das, Rakha H

    2010-03-01

    Whole plant methanolic extracts of 14 traditionally used medicinal herbs were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Extracts of Grindelia robusta, Salix nigra, Arnica montana, and Quassia amara showed up to 4.5-fold inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the J774 murine macrophage cells challenged with LPS without cytotoxicity. These four selected extracts significantly reduced the protein levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as observed by Western blot analysis. Culture supernatants from cells treated with these extracts indicated 3-5-fold reduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). However, only G. robusta and Q. amara extracts significantly inhibited (by 50%) IL-1beta and IL-12 secretions. Furthermore, all these plant extracts were shown to prevent the LPS-mediated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). All the above observations indicate the anti-inflammatory potential of these plant extracts.

  8. Lunar soil simulant uptake produces a concentration-dependent increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anuran; Wang, Angela; Lera, Matthew; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2010-01-01

    One of NASA's long-term objectives is to be able to stay on the moon for extended periods, and to provide a stepping-stone for future Mars explorations. The lunar soil simulant JSC-1 has been developed by NASA from volcanic ash found in Arizona to facilitate testing of toxicity and system requirements for lunar exploration. A concentration-response study of JSC-1 was undertaken on the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results demonstrated concentrations of 50-2000 microg/ml JSC-1 induced enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Data suggest that extraterrestrial regolith has the potential to induce an inflammatory response, and that future development of anti-inflammatory mitigative strategies may be necessary to counteract lunar dust-associated cellular toxicity. PMID:20391141

  9. Productive infection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout, a possible survival strategy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Verónica; Galanti, Norbel; Bols, Niels C; Marshall, Sergio H

    2009-10-15

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), an endemic disease which causes significant losses in salmon production. This intracellular bacterium is normally cultured in salmonid epithelial cell lines inducing characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs). In this study we demonstrate that P. salmonis is able to infect, survive, replicate, and propagate in the macrophages/monocytes cell line RTS11 derived from rainbow trout spleen, without inducing the characteristic CPEs and the host cells showing the same expression levels as non-infected control cell. On the other hand, bacteria were capable of expressing specific proteins within infected cells. Infected macrophages cease proliferation and a fraction of them detached from the plate, transform to non-adhesive, monocyte-like cells with proliferative activity. Productive infection of P. salmonis into salmonid macrophage/monocyte cells in culture provides an excellent model for the study of host-pathogen interactions, almost unknown in the case of P. salmonis. Our results suggest that the infection of cells from the salmonid innate immune system without inducing an important cell death response should lead to the persistence of the bacteria and consequently their dissemination to other tissues, favoring the evasion of the first line of defense against pathogens.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella on murine macrophage by down-regulating LPS-induced inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Fan, Nien-Chu; Lin, Ming-Hui; Chu, Inn-Ray; Huang, Shu-Jung; Hu, Ching-Yuan; Han, Shang-Yu

    2008-04-01

    Spilanthes acmella (Paracress), a common spice, has been administered as a traditional folk medicine for years to cure toothaches, stammering, and stomatitis. Previous studies have demonstrated its diuretic, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the active compounds contributing to the anti-inflammatory effect have seldom been addressed. This study isolates the active compound, spilanthol, by a bioactivity-guided approach and indicates significant anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage model, RAW 264.7. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of paracress is also investigated. Extracts of S. acmella are obtained by extraction with 85% ethanol, followed by liquid partition against hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The ethyl acetate extract exhibits a stronger free radical scavenging capacity than other fractions do, as determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chloroform extract significantly inhibits nitric oxide production ( p < 0.01) and is selected for further fractionation to yield the active compound, spilanthol. The diminished levels of LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression support the postulation that spilanthol inhibits proinflammatory mediator production at the transcriptional and translational levels. Additionally, the LPS-stimulated IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha productions are dose-dependently reduced by spilanthol. The LPS-induced phosphorylation of cytoplasmic inhibitor-kappaB and the nuclear NF-kappaB DNA binding activity are both restrained by spilanthol. Results of this study suggest that spilanthol, isolated from S. acmella, attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages partly due to the inactivation of NF-kappaB, which negatively regulates the production of proinflammatory mediators. PMID:18321049

  11. Leishmania donovani-Induced Ceramide as the Key Mediator of Akt Dephosphorylation in Murine Macrophages: Role of Protein Kinase Cζ and Phosphatase▿

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Ranadhir; Majumder, Nivedita; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Banerjee, Rajdeep; Ganguly, Sandipan; Das, Pradeep; Majumdar, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Leishmania donovani is an intracellular protozoan parasite that impairs the host macrophage immune response to render it suitable for its survival and establishment. L. donovani-induced immunosuppression and alteration of host cell signaling is mediated by ceramide, a pleiotropic second messenger playing an important role in regulation of several kinases, including mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatases. We observed that the endogenous ceramide generated during leishmanial infection led to the dephosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) (Akt) in infected cells. The study of ceramide-mediated Akt phosphorylation revealed that Akt was dephosphorylated at both Thr308 and Ser473 sites in infected cells. Further investigation demonstrated that ceramide was also responsible for the induction of PKCζ, an atypical Ca-independent stress kinase, as well as the ceramide-activated protein phosphatases (e.g., protein phosphatase 2A [PP2A]). We found that Akt dephosphorylation was mediated by ceramide-induced PKCζ-Akt association and PP2A activation. In addition, treatment of L. donovani-infected macrophages with PKCζ-specific inhibitor peptide could restore the translocation of phosphorylated Akt to the cell membrane. This study also revealed that ceramide is involved in the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha release by infected macrophages. These observations strongly suggest the importance of ceramide in the alteration of normal cellular functions, impairment of the kinase/phosphatase balance, and thereby establishment of leishmaniasis in the hostile macrophage environment. PMID:17220321

  12. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using (211)At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Johnnie J; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Frayo, Shani L; Hylarides, Mark D; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as (211)At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using (211)At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of (211)At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, (211)At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that (211)At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML. PMID:23471305

  13. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    PubMed Central

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani L.; Hylarides, Mark D.; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as 211At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using 211At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of 211At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, 211At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that 211At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML. PMID:23471305

  14. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using (211)At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Johnnie J; Bäck, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee; Balkin, Ethan R; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Frayo, Shani L; Hylarides, Mark D; Green, Damian J; Gopal, Ajay K; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using monoclonal antibodies labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse. β emitters are limited by lower energies and nonspecific cytotoxicity from longer path lengths compared with α emitters such as (211)At, which has a higher energy profile and shorter path length. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of anti-CD45 RIT using (211)At in a disseminated murine AML model. Biodistribution studies in leukemic SJL/J mice showed excellent localization of (211)At-anti-murine CD45 mAb (30F11) to marrow and spleen within 24 hours (18% and 79% injected dose per gram of tissue [ID/g], respectively), with lower kidney and lung uptake (8.4% and 14% ID/g, respectively). In syngeneic HSCT studies, (211)At-B10-30F11 RIT improved the median survival of leukemic mice in a dose-dependent fashion (123, 101, 61, and 37 days given 24, 20, 12, and 0 µCi, respectively). This approach had minimal toxicity with nadir white blood cell counts >2.7 K/µL 2 weeks after HSCT and recovery by 4 weeks. These data suggest that (211)At-anti-CD45 RIT in conjunction with HSCT may be a promising therapeutic option for AML.

  15. Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Jonas; Riedemann, Lars; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Susek, Katharina; Yu, Veronica; Dalvie, Nisha; Amelung, Robin L; Datta, Meenal; Song, Jonathan W; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Taylor, Jennie W; Lu-Emerson, Christine; Batista, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D; Jung, Keehoon; Snuderl, Matija; Muzikansky, Alona; Stubenrauch, Kay G; Krieter, Oliver; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Xu, Lei; Munn, Lance L; Duda, Dan G; Fukumura, Dai; Batchelor, Tracy T; Jain, Rakesh K

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has failed to improve overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously showed that angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) overexpression compromised the benefit from anti-VEGF therapy in a preclinical GBM model. Here we investigated whether dual Ang-2/VEGF inhibition could overcome resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We treated mice bearing orthotopic syngeneic (Gl261) GBMs or human (MGG8) GBM xenografts with antibodies inhibiting VEGF (B20), or Ang-2/VEGF (CrossMab, A2V). We examined the effects of treatment on the tumor vasculature, immune cell populations, tumor growth, and survival in both the Gl261 and MGG8 tumor models. We found that in the Gl261 model, which displays a highly abnormal tumor vasculature, A2V decreased vessel density, delayed tumor growth, and prolonged survival compared with B20. In the MGG8 model, which displays a low degree of vessel abnormality, A2V induced no significant changes in the tumor vasculature but still prolonged survival. In both the Gl261 and MGG8 models A2V reprogrammed protumor M2 macrophages toward the antitumor M1 phenotype. Our findings indicate that A2V may prolong survival in mice with GBM by reprogramming the tumor immune microenvironment and delaying tumor growth.

  16. Ang-2/VEGF bispecific antibody reprograms macrophages and resident microglia to anti-tumor phenotype and prolongs glioblastoma survival

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Jonas; Riedemann, Lars; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Susek, Katharina; Yu, Veronica; Dalvie, Nisha; Amelung, Robin L.; Datta, Meenal; Song, Jonathan W.; Askoxylakis, Vasileios; Taylor, Jennie W.; Lu-Emerson, Christine; Batista, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Jung, Keehoon; Snuderl, Matija; Muzikansky, Alona; Stubenrauch, Kay G.; Krieter, Oliver; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Xu, Lei; Munn, Lance L.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway has failed to improve overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We previously showed that angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) overexpression compromised the benefit from anti-VEGF therapy in a preclinical GBM model. Here we investigated whether dual Ang-2/VEGF inhibition could overcome resistance to anti-VEGF treatment. We treated mice bearing orthotopic syngeneic (Gl261) GBMs or human (MGG8) GBM xenografts with antibodies inhibiting VEGF (B20), or Ang-2/VEGF (CrossMab, A2V). We examined the effects of treatment on the tumor vasculature, immune cell populations, tumor growth, and survival in both the Gl261 and MGG8 tumor models. We found that in the Gl261 model, which displays a highly abnormal tumor vasculature, A2V decreased vessel density, delayed tumor growth, and prolonged survival compared with B20. In the MGG8 model, which displays a low degree of vessel abnormality, A2V induced no significant changes in the tumor vasculature but still prolonged survival. In both the Gl261 and MGG8 models A2V reprogrammed protumor M2 macrophages toward the antitumor M1 phenotype. Our findings indicate that A2V may prolong survival in mice with GBM by reprogramming the tumor immune microenvironment and delaying tumor growth. PMID:27044098

  17. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Baumgart, Martin; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Schukken, Ynte H

    2007-12-15

    In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n=3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n=3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.

  18. GdCl3 Attenuates Schistosomiasis japonicum Egg-Induced Granulomatosis Accompanied by Decreased Macrophage Infiltration in Murine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shengsheng; Lu, Qiang; Xu, Yuanhong; Wang, Xiaonan; Shen, Jilong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Early-stage hepatic granuloma and advanced-stage fibrosis are important characteristics of schistosomiasis. The direct consequences of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in egg-induced granuloma formation have not been reported, although GdCl3 is known to block the macrophages. In present study, mice were infected with 15 Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) cercariae and treated with GdCl3 (10 mg/kg body weight) twice weekly from day 21 to day 42 post-infection during the onset of egg-laying towards early granuloma formation. Histochemical staining showed that repeated injection of GdCl3 decreased macrophages infiltration in liver of mice infected with S. japonicum. Macrophage depletion by GdCl3 during the initial phase attenuated liver pathological injury characterized by smaller granuloma size and decreased immune inflammation as well as less fibrogenesis. In addition, IL-13Rα2 expression was reduced by GdCl3 in liver of mice infected with S. japonicum. The results suggest that GdCl3 depleted macrophages, which attenuated helminth infected immune responses involving with IL-13Rα2 signal. These findings would highlight a therapeutic potential via manipulating IL-13Rα2+ macrophage in schistosomiasis. PMID:26317423

  19. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE Proteins Rv0285 and Rv1386 Modulate Innate Immunity and Mediate Bacillary Survival in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Bhavana Mishra; Kannan, Nisha; Vemu, Lakshmi; Raghunand, Tirumalai R.

    2012-01-01

    The unique PE/PPE multigene family of proteins occupies almost 10% of the coding sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of human tuberculosis. Although some members of this family have been shown to be involved in pathways essential to M.tb pathogenesis, their precise physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here, we investigate the roles of the conserved members of the ‘PE only’ subfamily Rv0285 (PE5) and Rv1386 (PE15) in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strains expressing PE5 and PE15 showed enhanced survival vs controls in J774.1 and THP-1 macrophages - this increase in viable counts was correlated with a reduction in transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase. An up-regulation of anti- and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels was also observed in infected macrophages implying an immuno-modulatory function for these proteins. Induction of IL-10 production upon infection of THP-1 macrophages was associated with increased phosphorylation of the MAP Kinases p38 and ERK1/2, which was abolished in the presence of the pharmacological inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059. The PE5-PPE4 and PE15-PPE20 gene pairs were observed to be co-operonic in M.tb, hinting at an additional level of complexity in the functioning of these proteins. We conclude that M.tb exploits the PE proteins to evade the host immune response by altering the Th1 and Th2 type balance thereby favouring in vivo bacillary survival. PMID:23284742

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of chicanine on murine macrophage by down-regulating LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in IκBα/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haixia; Sohn, Johann; Zhang, Likang; Tian, Jingge; Chen, Shuhan; Bjeldanes, Leonard F.

    2014-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Baill is a Chinese traditional medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. In this study, chicanine, one of the major lignan compounds of Schiandra chinesis, was investigated for suppressive effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). Chicanine was found to have anti-infammatory properties with the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and Prostaglandin E (2) (PGE2) production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with no cytotoxic effects. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with chicanine down-regulated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, G-CSF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These inhibitory effects were found with the blockage of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and also IκB-α phosphorylation. These results indicated that anti-inflammatory actions of chicanine in macrophages involved inhibition of LPS-induced TLR4-IκBα/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. PMID:24361309

  1. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B translocation.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Mikihiko; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Todaka, Hiroshi; Sato, Takayuki

    2016-10-15

    We have previously demonstrated that the pharmacotherapy with donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, suppresses cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of ischemic heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the precise mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect of donepezil have not been completely delineated. Because post-ischemic inflammation is a pathological key event in the cardiac remodeling process following MI, we investigated the hypothesis that donepezil acts as an inhibitor of inflammatory mediators. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were pretreated with donepezil (100µM) prior to a pro-inflammatory stimulation by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10ng/ml). Donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular levels of various kinds of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-18 after the LPS stimulation, and attenuated LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). These results indicate that donepezil possesses an anti-inflammatory property. However, the inhibitory effect of donepezil on the macrophage inflammatory responses was never reproduced by ACh, nor was disrupted by ACh receptor blockers. Moreover, other kinds of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors failed to inhibit the inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. These results suggest that a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway would not be involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil and that the specific characteristics of donepezil in suppressing the LPS-induced cytokine release and the NF-κB activation would be independent of its acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The present study showed that donepezil exerts an anti-inflammatory effect independently of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory action, thereby donepezil may contribute to cardioprotection during cardiac remodeling process in an ischemic heart failure after MI.

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. PMID:25366263

  3. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion.

  4. Intracellular Macrophage Infections with E. coli under Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Stacey L.; Seed, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) produces disseminated infections of the urinary tract, blood, and central nervous system where it encounters professional phagocytes such as macrophages, which utilize reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to arrest bacteria. In vitro, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) can survive within bone marrow-derived macrophages for greater than 24 h post-infection within a LAMP1+ vesicular compartment, and ExPEC strains, in particular, are better adapted to intracellular macrophage survival than commensal strains (Bokil et al., 2011). This protocol details an intracellular murine macrophage-like cell infection, including modulation of the host nitrosative stress response, to model this host-pathogen interaction in vitro. To accomplish this, RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells are pre-incubated with either L-arginine, an NO precursor, or IFNγ to yield a high nitric oxide (NO) physiological state, or L-NAME, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-specific inhibitor, to yield a low NO physiological state. This protocol has been successfully utilized to assess the contribution of a novel ExPEC regulator to intracellular survival and the nitrosative stress response during macrophage infections (Bateman and Seed, 2012), but can be adapted for use with a variety of E. coli strains or isogenic deletions.

  5. Essential Role of Gamma Interferon in Survival of Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis, a Novel Murine Model of Abdominal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zantl, Niko; Uebe, Annette; Neumann, Brigitte; Wagner, Hermann; Siewert, Jörg-Rüdiger; Holzmann, Bernhard; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Pfeffer, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Despite considerable progress, peritonitis and sepsis remain life-threatening conditions. To improve the understanding of the pathophysiology encountered in sepsis, a new standardized and highly reproducible murine model of abdominal sepsis termed colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) was developed. In CASP, a stent is inserted into the ascending colon, which generates a septic focus. CASP employing a stent of 14-gauge diameter (14G stent) results in a mortality of 100% within 18 to 48 h after surgery. By inserting stents of small diameters, mortality can be exactly controlled. Thus, CASP surgery with insertion of a 22G or 18G stent (22G or 18G CASP surgery) results in 38 or 68% mortality, respectively. 14G CASP surgery leads to a rapid invasion of bacteria into the peritoneum and the blood. As a consequence, endotoxemia occurs, inflammatory cells are recruited, and a systemic inflammatory response syndrome develops. Interestingly, the most pronounced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and interleukin-12) is observed in spleen and lungs. CASP surgery followed by stent removal at specific time intervals revealed that all animals survived if intervention was performed after 3 h, whereas removal of the septic focus after 9 h did not prevent death, suggesting induction of autonomous mechanisms of a lethal inflammatory response syndrome. 18G CASP surgery in IFN-γ receptor-deficient (IFNγR−/−) mice revealed an essential role of IFN-γ in survival of sepsis, whereas TNF receptor p55-deficient (TNFRp55−/−) mice did not show altered survival rates. In summary, this study describes a novel animal model that closely mimics human sepsis and appears to be highly suitable for the study of the pathophysiology of abdominal sepsis. Importantly, this model demonstrates a protective role of IFN-γ in survival of bacterial sepsis. PMID:9573121

  6. Lon Mutant of Brucella abortus Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Murine J774.A1 Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungdo; Choi, Young-Sill; Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, Young-Rok; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Park, Mi-Yeoun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to isolate a Brucella lon mutant and to analyze the cytokine response of B. lon mutant during macrophage infection. Methods A wild-type Brucella abortus strain was mutagenized by Tn5 transposition. From the mouse macrophage J774.A1 cells, total RNA was isolated at 0 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after infection with Brucella. Using mouse cytokine microarrays, we measured transcriptional levels of the cytokine response, and validated our results with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to confirm the induction of cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA). Results In host J774.A1 macrophages, mRNA levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-type cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and IL-3, were significantly higher in the lon mutant compared to wild-type Brucella and the negative control. TNF-α levels in cell culture media were induced as high as 2 μg/mL after infection with the lon mutant, a greater than sixfold change. Conclusion In order to understand the role of the lon protein in virulence, we identified and characterized a novel B. lon mutant. We compared the immune response it generates to the wild-type Brucella response in a mouse macrophage cell line. We demonstrated that the B. lon mutants induce TNF-α expression from the host J774.A1 macrophage. PMID:24524018

  7. microRNA-20a Inhibits Autophagic Process by Targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and Favors Mycobacterial Survival in Macrophage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Le; Zhao, Jin; Qu, Yuliang; Yin, Runting; Gao, Qian; Ding, Shuqin; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Jun; Xu, Guangxian

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy plays important roles in the host immune response against mycobacterial infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can live in macrophages owing to its ability to evade attacks by regulating autophagic response. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding, endogenously encoded RNA which plays critical roles in precise regulation of macrophage functions. Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that BCG infection of macrophages resulted in enhanced expression of miRNA-20a, which inhibits autophagic process by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1 and promotes BCG survival in macrophages. Forced overexpression of miR-20a decreased the expression levels of LC3-II and the number of LC3 puncta in macrophages, and promoted BCG survival in macrophages, while transfection with miR-20a inhibitor had the opposite effect. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of miR-20a on autophagy was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Quantification of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section revealed a significant reduction upon transfection with miR-20a mimic, but transfection with miR-20a inhibitor increased the number of autophagosomes per cellular cross-section. Moreover, silencing of ATG7 significantly inhibited autophagic response, and transfection with ATG7 siRNA plus miR-20a mimic could further decrease autophagic response. Collectively, our data reveal that miR-20a inhibits autophagic response and promotes BCG survival in macrophages by targeting ATG7 and ATG16L1, which may have implications for a better understanding of pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:27803889

  8. The Intravenous Route of Injection Optimizes Engraftment and Survival in the Murine Model of In Utero Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Boelig, Matthew M; Kim, Aimee G; Stratigis, John D; McClain, Lauren E; Li, Haiying; Flake, Alan W; Peranteau, William H

    2016-06-01

    In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has the potential to treat a number of congenital hematologic disorders. Clinical application is limited by low levels of donor engraftment. Techniques that optimize donor cell delivery to the fetal liver (FL), the hematopoietic organ at the time of IUHCT, have the potential to enhance engraftment and the clinical success of IUHCT. We compared the 3 clinically applicable routes of injection (intravenous [i.v.], intraperitoneal [i.p.], and intrahepatic [i.h.]) and assessed short- and long-term donor cell engraftment and fetal survival in the murine model of IUHCT. We hypothesized that the i.v. route would promote direct donor cell homing to the FL, resulting in increased engraftment and allowing for larger injectate volumes without increased fetal mortality. We demonstrate that the i.v. route results in (1) rapid diffuse donor cell population of the FL compared with delayed diffuse engraftment after the i.p. and i.h. routes; (2) higher FL and spleen engraftment at early prenatal time points; (3) enhanced stable long-term peripheral blood donor cell engraftment; and (4) improved survival at higher injectate volumes, allowing for higher donor cell doses and increased long-term engraftment. These findings support the use of an i.v. route for clinical protocols of IUHCT. PMID:26797401

  9. Hemophagocytic Macrophages Harbor Salmonella enterica during Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Rebecca N; Altschuler, Sarah E; Henson, Peter M; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies can establish persistent, systemic infections in mammals, including human typhoid fever. Persistent S. enterica disease is characterized by an initial acute infection that develops into an asymptomatic chronic infection. During both the acute and persistent stages, the bacteria generally reside within professional phagocytes, usually macrophages. It is unclear how salmonellae can survive within macrophages, cells that evolved, in part, to destroy pathogens. Evidence is presented that during the establishment of persistent murine infection, macrophages that contain S. enterica serotype Typhimurium are hemophagocytic. Hemophagocytic macrophages are characterized by the ingestion of non-apoptotic cells of the hematopoietic lineage and are a clinical marker of typhoid fever as well as certain other infectious and genetic diseases. Cell culture assays were developed to evaluate bacterial survival in hemophagocytic macrophages. S. Typhimurium preferentially replicated in macrophages that pre-phagocytosed viable cells, but the bacteria were killed in macrophages that pre-phagocytosed beads or dead cells. These data suggest that during persistent infection hemophagocytic macrophages may provide S. Typhimurium with a survival niche. PMID:18085823

  10. Bindarit retards renal disease and prolongs survival in murine lupus autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Zoja, C; Corna, D; Benedetti, G; Morigi, M; Donadelli, R; Guglielmotti, A; Pinza, M; Bertani, T; Remuzzi, G

    1998-03-01

    As an alternative to classical immunosuppressants in experimental lupus nephritis, we looked at bindarit, 2-methyl-2-[[1-phenylmethyl)-1H-indazol-3-y1]methoxy]propanoic acid, a novel molecule devoid of immunosuppressive effects, which selectively reduces chronic inflammation in rat adjuvant arthritis. Two groups of NZB/W mice (N = 55 for each group) were given bindarit, (50 mg/kg/day p.o.) or vehicle starting at 2 months of age. Mice were sacrificed at 2, 6, 8 and 10 months or used for survival studies. Bindarit delayed the onset of proteinuria (% proteinuric mice, bindarit vs. vehicle, 6 months: 0 vs. 33% and 8 months: 7% vs. 60%, P < 0.005; 10 months: 53% vs. 80%) and significantly (P < 0.05) protected from renal function impairment (serum BUN, bindarit vs. vehicle: 8 months, 30 +/- 3 vs. 127 +/- 42; 10 months, 53 +/-5 vs. 140 +/- 37 mg/dl). Appearance of anti-DNA antibodies was retarded and survival significantly (P < 0.0001) prolonged by bindarit (% survival, bindarit vs. vehicle: 8 months, 100% vs. 80%; 10 months, 87% vs. 40%; 12 months, 27% vs. 20%). Bindarit significantly limited glomerular hypercellularity, interstitial inflammation and tubular damage. Renal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) mRNA (Northern blot) markedly increased (7 - 12-fold in 8- 10-month-old mice vs. 2-month-old) during the progression of nephritis in association with mononuclear cell infiltration. Bindarit completely prevented MCP-1 up-regulation. In another series of experiments, bindarit (0.25% and 0.5% medicated diet, N = 16 for each group) when started at 4.5 months of age in NZB/W mice improved survival in respect to untreated mice (N = 17) in a dose-dependent manner (% survival: 8 months, 94% and 100%, respectively, vs. 47%; 10 months, 75% and 100% vs. 35%; 12 months, 31% and 75% vs. 12%). Survival was even more prolonged when bindarit (0.5% medicated diet) was combined with a low dose of methylprednisolone (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), which that only partially modifies

  11. Abolition of mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation by itaconic acid produced by LPS-induced Irg1 expression in cells of murine macrophage lineage.

    PubMed

    Németh, Beáta; Doczi, Judit; Csete, Dániel; Kacso, Gergely; Ravasz, Dora; Adams, Daniel; Kiss, Gergely; Nagy, Adam M; Horvath, Gergo; Tretter, Laszlo; Mócsai, Attila; Csépányi-Kömi, Roland; Iordanov, Iordan; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Itaconate is a nonamino organic acid exhibiting antimicrobial effects. It has been recently identified in cells of macrophage lineage as a product of an enzyme encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1), acting on the citric acid cycle intermediate cis-aconitate. In mitochondria, itaconate can be converted by succinate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase to itaconyl-CoA at the expense of ATP (or GTP), and is also a weak competitive inhibitor of complex II. Here, we investigated specific bioenergetic effects of increased itaconate production mediated by LPS-induced stimulation of Irg1 in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and RAW-264.7 cells. In rotenone-treated macrophage cells, stimulation by LPS led to impairment in substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) of in situ mitochondria, deduced by a reversal in the directionality of the adenine nucleotide translocase operation. In RAW-264.7 cells, the LPS-induced impairment in SLP was reversed by short-interfering RNA(siRNA)-but not scrambled siRNA-treatment directed against Irg1. LPS dose-dependently inhibited oxygen consumption rates (61-91%) and elevated glycolysis rates (>21%) in BMDM but not RAW-264.7 cells, studied under various metabolic conditions. In isolated mouse liver mitochondria treated with rotenone, itaconate dose-dependently (0.5-2 mM) reversed the operation of adenine nucleotide translocase, implying impairment in SLP, an effect that was partially mimicked by malonate. However, malonate yielded greater ADP-induced depolarizations (3-19%) than itaconate. We postulate that itaconate abolishes SLP due to 1) a "CoA trap" in the form of itaconyl-CoA that negatively affects the upstream supply of succinyl-CoA from the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; 2) depletion of ATP (or GTP), which are required for the thioesterification by succinate-CoA ligase; and 3) inhibition of complex II leading to a buildup of succinate which shifts succinate-CoA ligase equilibrium toward ATP (or GTP) utilization. Our results

  12. Expression of the ARPC4 Subunit of Human Arp2/3 Severely Affects Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Suppresses Immunogenic Response in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamika; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Bhalla, Kuhulika; Tharad, Megha; Kumar, Sushil; Prakash, Prem; Kumar, Purnima; Das, Gobardhan; Ranganathan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background The search for molecules against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is urgent. The mechanisms facilitating the intra-macrophage survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are as yet not entirely understood. However, there is evidence showing the involvement of host cell cytoskeleton in every step of establishment and persistence of mycobacterial infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that expression of ARPC4, a subunit of the Actin related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) protein complex, severely affects the pathogen’s growth. TEM studies display shedding of the mycobacterial outer-coat. Furthermore, in infected macrophages, mycobacteria expressing ARPC4 were cleared off at a much faster rate, and were unable to mount a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The translocation of ARPC4-expressing mycobacteria to the lysosome of the infected macrophage was also impaired. Additionally, the ARPC4 subunit was shown to interact with Rv1626, an essential secretory mycobacterial protein. Real-time PCR analysis showed that upon expression of ARPC4 in mycobacteria, Rv1626 expression is downregulated as much as six-fold. Rv1626 was found to also interact with mammalian cytoskeleton protein, Arp2/3, and enhance the rate of actin polymerization. Conclusions/Significance With crystal structures for Rv1626 and ARPC4 subunit already known, our finding lays out the effect of a novel molecule on mycobacteria, and represents a viable starting point for developing potent peptidomimetics. PMID:23894563

  13. In vitro immune toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptosis and immune cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi-Yan; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong; Zhao, Lixia; Yang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants and are often detected in the environment, wildlife, and humans, presenting potential threats to ecosystem and human health. PBDEs can cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. However, data on PBDE immunotoxicity are limited, and the toxicity mechanisms remain largely unknown. Both immune cell death and dysfunction can modulate the responses of the immune system. This study examined the toxic effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on the immune system by using peritoneal macrophages as the model. The macrophages were exposed to PBDEs, and cell death was determined through flow cytometry and immunochemical blot. The results showed that after 24h of exposure, BDE-47 (>5 μM) and BDE-209 (>20 μM) induced cell apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and depleted glutathione. BDE-47 was more potent than BDE-209; the cytotoxic concentrations for BDE-47 and BDE-209 were determined to be 5 μM and 20 μM, respectively, during 24h of exposure. However, pretreatment with n-acetyl-l-cysteine (ROS scavenger) partially reversed the cytotoxic effects. Further gene expression analyses on Caspase-3,-8,-9, TNFR1, and Bax revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated. More importantly, non-cytotoxic concentrations BDE-47 (<2 μM) and BDE-209 (<10 μM) could impair macrophage accessory cell function in a concentration-dependent manner, but no effects were observed on phagocytic responses. These revealed effects of PBDEs on macrophages may shed light on the toxicity mechanisms of PBDEs and suggest the necessity of evaluating cellular functionality during the risk assessment of PBDE immunotoxicity. PMID:25462306

  14. Requirement for the Murine Zinc Finger Protein ZFR in Perigastrulation Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Madeleine J.; Braun, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The transition from preimplantation to postimplantation development leads to the initiation of complex cellular differentiation and morphogenetic movements, a dramatic decrease in cell cycle length, and a commensurate increase in the size of the embryo. Accompanying these changes is the need for the transfer of nutrients from the mother to the embryo and the elaboration of sophisticated genetic networks that monitor genomic integrity and the homeostatic control of cellular growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. To determine the function of the murine zinc finger protein ZFR in these events, we generated mice carrying a null mutation in the gene encoding it. Homozygous mutant embryos form normal-appearing blastocysts that implant and initiate the process of gastrulation. Mutant embryos form mesoderm but they are delayed in their development and fail to form normal anterior embryonic structures. Loss of ZFR function leads to both an increase in programmed cell death and a decrease in mitotic index, especially in the region of the distal tip of the embryonic ectoderm. Mutant embryos also have an apparent reduction in apical vacuoles in the columnar visceral endoderm cells in the extraembryonic region. Together, these cellular phenotypes lead to a dramatic development delay and embryonic death by 8 to 9 days of gestation, which are independent of p53 function. PMID:11283266

  15. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Filesi, Carmelina; Galvano, Fabio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKCδ. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power. PMID:26180584

  16. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  17. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  18. Bone marrow-derived macrophages distinct from tissue-resident macrophages play a pivotal role in Concanavalin A-induced murine liver injury via CCR9 axis

    PubMed Central

    Amiya, Takeru; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Chu, Po-sung; Teratani, Toshiaki; Nakajima, Hideaki; Fukuchi, Yumi; Taniki, Nobuhito; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shiba, Shunsuke; Miyake, Rei; Katayama, Tadashi; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism how heterogeneous hepatic macrophage (Mφ) subsets fulfill diverse functions in health and disease has not been elucidated. We recently reported that CCR9+ inflammatory Mφs play a critical role in the course of acute liver injury. To clarify the origin and differentiation of CCR9+Mφs, we used a unique partial bone marrow (BM) chimera model with liver shielding for maintaining hepatic resident Mφs. First, irradiated mice developed less liver injury with less Mφs accumulation by Concanavalin A (Con A) regardless of liver shielding. In mice receiving further BM transplantation, CD11blowF4/80high hepatic-resident Mφs were not replaced by transplanted donors under steady state, while under inflammatory state by Con A, CCR9+Mφs were firmly replaced by donors, indicating that CCR9+Mφs originate from BM, but not from hepatic-resident cells. Regarding the mechanism of differentiation and proliferation, EdU+CCR9+Mφs with a proliferative potential were detected specifically in the inflamed liver, and in vitro study revealed that BM-derived CD11b+ cells co-cultured with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) or stimulated with retinoic acids could acquire CCR9 with antigen-presenting ability. Collectively, our study demonstrates that inflammatory Mφs originate from BM and became locally differentiated and proliferated by interaction with HSCs via CCR9 axis during acute liver injury. PMID:27725760

  19. Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Campos, A C; Brant, F; Miranda, A S; Machado, F S; Teixeira, A L

    2015-03-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection that might cause permanent neurological deficits. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotomimetic compound of Cannabis sativa with neuroprotective properties. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of CBD in a murine model of CM. Female mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) and treated with CBD (30mg/kg/day - 3 or 7days i.p.) or vehicle. On 5th day-post-infection (dpi), at the peak of the disease), animals were treated with single or repeated doses of Artesunate, an antimalarial drug. All groups were tested for memory impairment (Novel Object Recognition or Morris Water Maze) and anxiety-like behaviors (Open field or elevated plus maze test) in different stages of the disease (at the peak or after the complete clearance of the disease). Th1/Th2 cytokines and neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) were measured in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of experimental groups. PbA-infected mice displayed memory deficits and exhibited increase in anxiety-like behaviors on the 5dpi or after the clearance of the parasitemia, effects prevented by CBD treatment. On 5dpi, TNF-α and IL-6 increased in the hippocampus, while only IL-6 increased in the prefrontal cortex. CBD treatment resulted in an increase in BDNF expression in the hippocampus and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6). Our results indicate that CBD exhibits neuroprotective effects in CM model and might be useful as an adjunctive therapy to prevent neurological symptoms following this disease.

  20. Murine Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody 3F8 Combined With Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma in First Remission

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Cheung, Irene Y.; Kushner, Brian H.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Chamberlain, Elizabeth; Kramer, Kim; Modak, Shakeel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown efficacy against neuroblastoma (NB). Prognostic variables that could influence clinical outcome were explored. Patients and Methods One hundred sixty-nine children diagnosed with stage 4 NB (1988 to 2008) were enrolled onto consecutive anti-GD2 murine MoAb 3F8 ± GM-CSF ± 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) protocols after achieving first remission (complete remission/very good partial remission). Patients enrolled in regimen A (n = 43 high-risk [HR] patients) received 3F8 alone; regimen B (n = 41 HR patients), 3F8 + intravenous GM-CSF + CRA, after stem-cell transplantation (SCT); and regimen C (n = 85), 3F8 + subcutaneous GM-CSF + CRA, 46 of 85 after SCT, whereas 28 of 85 required additional induction therapy and were deemed ultra high risk (UHR). Marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Survival probability was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic variables were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Results At 5 years from the start of immunotherapy, progression-free survival (PFS) improved from 44% for HR patients receiving regimen A to 56% and 62% for those receiving regimens B and C, respectively. Overall survival (OS) was 49%, 61%, and 81%, respectively. PFS and OS of UHR patients were 36% and 75%, respectively. Relapse was mostly at isolated sites. Independent adverse prognostic factors included UHR (PFS) and post–cycle two MRD (PFS and OS), whereas the prognostic factors for improved outcome were missing killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand (PFS and OS), human antimouse antibody response (OS), and regimen C (OS). Conclusion Retrospective analysis of consecutive trials from a single center demonstrated that MoAb 3F8 + GM-CSF + CRA is effective against chemotherapy-resistant marrow MRD. Its positive impact on long-term survival can only

  1. Inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis improves survival in a murine model of radiation combined injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Leathersich, Ann M; Dominguez, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Fox, Amy C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  2. Inhibition of Intestinal Epithelial Apoptosis Improves Survival in a Murine Model of Radiation Combined Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Enjae; Perrone, Erin E.; Brahmamdan, Pavan; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Leathersich, Ann M.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Clark, Andrew T.; Fox, Amy C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While either IR or MRSA alone yielded 100% survival, animals with radiation combined injury had 53% survival (p = 0.01). Compared to IR or MRSA alone, mice with radiation combined injury had increased gut apoptosis, local and systemic bacterial burden, decreased splenic CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and increased BAL and systemic IL-6 and G-CSF. In contrast, radiation combined injury did not alter lymphocyte apoptosis, pulmonary injury, or intestinal proliferation compared to IR or MRSA alone. In light of the synergistic increase in gut apoptosis following radiation combined injury, transgenic mice that overexpress Bcl-2 in their intestine and wild type mice were subjected to IR followed by MRSA. Bcl-2 mice had decreased gut apoptosis and improved survival compared to WT mice (92% vs. 42%; p<0.01). These data demonstrate that radiation combined injury results in significantly higher mortality than could be predicted based upon either IR or MRSA infection alone, and that preventing gut apoptosis may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:24204769

  3. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  4. Cryopreserved Interleukin-4–Treated Macrophages Attenuate Murine Colitis in an Integrin β7–Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Gabriella; Petri, Björn; Reyes, José Luis; Wang, Arthur; Iannuzzi, Jordan; McKay, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) has proven to attenuate inflammation in multiple mouse models of colitis; however, the effect of cryopreservation on AAMs, the ability of previously frozen AAMs to block dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) (Th1) and oxazolone (Th2) colitis and their migration postinjection remains unknown. Here we have found that while cryopreservation reduced mRNA expression of canonical markers of interleukin (IL)-4–treated macrophages [M(IL-4)], this step did not translate to reduced protein or activity, and the cells retained their capacity to drive the suppression of colitis. The anticolitic effect of M(IL-4) adoptive transfer required neither T or B cell nor peritoneal macrophages in the recipient. After injection into the peritoneal cavity, M(IL-4)s migrated to the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and colon of DNBS-treated mice. The chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CX3CL1 were expressed in the colon during the course of DNBS-induced colitis. The expression of integrin β7 on transferred M(IL-4)s was required for their anticolitic effect, whereas the presence of the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 were dispensable in this model. Collectively, the data show that M(IL-4)s can be cryopreserved M(IL-4)s and subsequently used to suppress colitis in an integrin β7-dependent manner, and we suggest that these proof-of-concept studies may lead to new cellular therapies for human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26701314

  5. Murine gamma interferon fails to inhibit Toxoplasma gondii growth in murine fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzman, J D; Gonias, S L; Pfefferkorn, E R

    1990-01-01

    Although treatment of human macrophages or fibroblasts with human gamma interferon results in the inhibition of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii, murine gamma interferon stimulated only murine macrophages, not murine fibroblasts, to inhibit T. gondii. This species difference may be important in understanding the control of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. PMID:2106497

  6. Thrombin binds to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and enhances colony-stimulating factor-1-driven mitogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Clohisy, D.R.; Erdmann, J.M.; Wilner, G.D. )

    1990-05-15

    The binding and mitogenic properties of thrombin have been established in various transformed cell lines. In such systems, thrombin induces cell division in the absence of exogenous growth factors, and the enzyme is considered to act directly as a mitogen. This study explores thrombin's interaction with nontransformed, growth factor-dependent cells. Binding of 125I-alpha-thrombin to colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1-dependent bone marrow-derived macrophages is saturable, time-dependent, and displaceable by both unlabeled alpha-thrombin, and esterolytically inactive thrombin. Both dissociation studies of pre-bound radio-labeled thrombin and Scatchard analysis assisted by the program Ligand suggest adherence of thrombin-binding data to a multi-site model. There are an estimated 2 x 10(4) high affinity sites (Kd = 7 x 10(-9)M) and 2 x 10(6) low affinity sites (Kd = 9 x 10(-7)M) per cell. Quiescent bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with either 10(-8)M thrombin, 1000 units of CSF-1/ml, or both and (3H)thymidine incorporation was determined. Thrombin alone did not induce mitogenesis. CSF-1 induced mitogenesis with peak (3H) thymidine incorporation occurring 24 h after addition of the mitogen. This CSF-1-dependent mitogenic influence was enhanced greater than 2-fold by treatment with thrombin.

  7. Down-modulation of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages treated with crude plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, D R; Mineo, J R; de Souza, M A; de Paula, J E; Espindola, L S; Espindola, F S

    2005-05-13

    Several plant species from the Cerrado biome in Brazil are popularly used as herbal medicines for its reputed analgesic, anti-acid, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties, among others. It has been reported that some plant extracts interfere in the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important inflammatory mediator. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexanic and ethanolic extracts from three plant species on NO production by LPS/IFN-gamma-activated J774 macrophages based on traditional use. The cytotoxic effect of the crude extracts was determined by the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) to measure cell viability. Serjania lethalis stem extracts and Cupania vernalis leaf extracts significantly inhibited NO production, while extracts from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua were inactive or showed low activity on NO production, or were very cytotoxic. The ethanolic stem bark and leaf extracts of Serjania lethalis and Cupania vernalis, respectively, almost completely inhibited the production of NO by J774 macrophages. It can be concluded that the selected extracts are potential sources of active compounds that might be used as anti-inflammatory agents.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid differentially affects TNFα and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kaori L; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; Wu, Dayong; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is generally reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, however, prior work has documented differential effects on individual pro-inflammatory cytokines: reduced IL-6, but not TNFα, mRNA expression in macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism, the roles of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and NFκB were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophages. DHA did not influence CREB activity, but significantly reduced PGE2 production by 41% and NFκB activity by 32%. Exogenous PGE2 inhibited TNFα mRNA expression dose dependently. Unexpectedly, inhibiting PGE2 production with NS-398 also decreased TNFα mRNA expression, suggesting a concentration-dependent dual role of PGE2 in regulating TNFα expression. IL-6 expression was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Partial block of NFκB activation (SN50; 46%, or, BAY-11-7082; 41%) lowered IL-6 to a greater extent than TNFα mRNA expression. The differential effect of DHA on TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression may be mediated via reduction in NFκB activity. PMID:25921297

  9. Berteroin present in cruciferous vegetables exerts potent anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae In; Cho, Han Jin; Choi, Myung-Sook; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina; Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-11-11

    Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear factor-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid differentially affects TNFα and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kaori L; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; Wu, Dayong; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-06-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is generally reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, however, prior work has documented differential effects on individual pro-inflammatory cytokines: reduced IL-6, but not TNFα, mRNA expression in macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism, the roles of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and NFκB were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophages. DHA did not influence CREB activity, but significantly reduced PGE2 production by 41% and NFκB activity by 32%. Exogenous PGE2 inhibited TNFα mRNA expression dose dependently. Unexpectedly, inhibiting PGE2 production with NS-398 also decreased TNFα mRNA expression, suggesting a concentration-dependent dual role of PGE2 in regulating TNFα expression. IL-6 expression was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Partial block of NFκB activation (SN50; 46%, or, BAY-11-7082; 41%) lowered IL-6 to a greater extent than TNFα mRNA expression. The differential effect of DHA on TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression may be mediated via reduction in NFκB activity.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid differentially affects TNFα and IL-6 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kaori L.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R.; Wu, Dayong; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is generally reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, however, prior work has documented differential effects on individual pro-inflammatory cytokines: reduced IL-6, but not TNFα, mRNA expression in macrophages. To elucidate the mechanism, the roles of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and NFκB were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophages. DHA did not influence CREB activity, but significantly reduced PGE2 production by 41% and NFκB activity by 32%. Exogenous PGE2 inhibited TNFα mRNA expression dose dependently. Unexpectedly, inhibiting PGE2 production with NS-398 also decreased TNFα mRNA expression, suggesting a concentration-dependent dual role of PGE2 in regulating TNFα expression. IL-6 expression was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Partial block of NFκB activation (SN50; 46%, or, BAY-11-7082; 41%) lowered IL-6 to a greater extent than TNFα mRNA expression. The differential effect of DHA on TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression may be mediated via reduction in NFκB activity. PMID:25921297

  12. Improved Survival and Hematopoietic Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells on Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber

    PubMed Central

    Dehdilani, Nima; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Movassaghpour, Aliakbar; Akbarzadehlaleh, Parvin; Amoughli Tabrizi, Bahram; Parsa, Hamed; Sabagi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional (3D) biomimetic nanofiber scaffolds have widespread ap- plications in biomedical tissue engineering. They provide a suitable environment for cel- lular adhesion, survival, proliferation and differentiation, guide new tissue formation and development, and are one of the outstanding goals of tissue engineering. Electrospinning has recently emerged as a leading technique for producing biomimetic scaffolds with mi- cro to nanoscale topography and a high porosity similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). These scaffolds are comprised of synthetic and natural polymers for tissue engi- neering applications. Several kinds of cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and mouse ESCs (mESCs) have been cultured and differentiated on nanofiber scaffolds. mESCs can be induced to differentiate into a particular cell lineage when cultured as em- bryoid bodies (EBs) on nano-sized scaffolds. Materials and Methods We cultured mESCs (2500 cells/100 µl) in 96-well plates with knockout Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM-KO) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640), both supplemented with 20% ESC grade fetal bovine serum (FBS) and essential factors in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). mESCs were seeded at a density of 2500 cells/100 µl onto electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers in 96-well plates. The control group comprised mESCs grown on tissue cul- ture plates (TCP) at a density of 2500 cells/100 µl. Differentiation of mESCs into mouse hematopoietic stem cells (mHSCs) was performed by stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-6 and Fms-related tyrosine kinase ligand (Flt3-L) cytokines for both the PCL and TCP groups. We performed an experimental study of mESCs differentiation. Results PCL was compared to conventional TCP for survival and differentiation of mESCs to mHSCs. There were significantly more mESCs in the PCL group. Flowcyto- metric analysis revealed differences in hematopoietic

  13. Evaluation of survival of murine norovirus-1 during sauerkraut fermentation and storage under standard and low-sodium conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Josée; Barrette, Julie; Savard, Tony; Brassard, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sodium reduction strategies have raised a few concerns in regards to possible outbreaks in unpasteurised raw fermented vegetables. Among potential outbreak agents, foodborne viruses are recognized as an important cause of food-borne illnesses. As most of them are acid-resistant, evaluation of the efficacy of lactic fermentation in inactivating enteric viruses must be considered to ensure the safety of these foods. In particular with the sodium reduction trend which could impair adequate fermentation in vegetables, we have challenged sauerkraut fermentation at a final concentration of 4 log TCID50/mL with the murine norovirus (MNV-1). Three sodium chloride concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) were evaluated in spontaneous and starter fermentation of sauerkraut and were followed during fermentation and over a storage phase of 90 days. Detection of MNV-1 genetic material was carried out by real-time RT-PCR and the infectivity on cell culture. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that viral RNA was still detected after 90 day in sauerkraut under all the different conditions. Furthermore, MNV-1 viral particles were able to infect RAW cells after 90 days of storage with a non-significant viral charge reduction. Sodium reduction has a significant impact on the fermentation processing of sauerkraut but no influence on the destruction of norovirus particles or on their survival.

  14. Evaluation of survival of murine norovirus-1 during sauerkraut fermentation and storage under standard and low-sodium conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Josée; Barrette, Julie; Savard, Tony; Brassard, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sodium reduction strategies have raised a few concerns in regards to possible outbreaks in unpasteurised raw fermented vegetables. Among potential outbreak agents, foodborne viruses are recognized as an important cause of food-borne illnesses. As most of them are acid-resistant, evaluation of the efficacy of lactic fermentation in inactivating enteric viruses must be considered to ensure the safety of these foods. In particular with the sodium reduction trend which could impair adequate fermentation in vegetables, we have challenged sauerkraut fermentation at a final concentration of 4 log TCID50/mL with the murine norovirus (MNV-1). Three sodium chloride concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) were evaluated in spontaneous and starter fermentation of sauerkraut and were followed during fermentation and over a storage phase of 90 days. Detection of MNV-1 genetic material was carried out by real-time RT-PCR and the infectivity on cell culture. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that viral RNA was still detected after 90 day in sauerkraut under all the different conditions. Furthermore, MNV-1 viral particles were able to infect RAW cells after 90 days of storage with a non-significant viral charge reduction. Sodium reduction has a significant impact on the fermentation processing of sauerkraut but no influence on the destruction of norovirus particles or on their survival. PMID:26338124

  15. Vaccination with Recombinant Non-transmembrane Domain of Protein Mannosyltransferase 4 Improves Survival during Murine Disseminated Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yan, Lan; Li, Xing Xing; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. The C. albicans cell wall proteins play an important role in crucial host-fungus interactions and might be ideal vaccine targets to induce protective immune response in host. Meanwhile, protein that is specific to C. albicans is also an ideal target of vaccine. In this study, 11 proteins involving cell wall biosynthesis, yeast-to-hypha formation, or specific to C. albicans were chosen and were successfully cloned, purified and verified. The immune protection of vaccination with each recombinant protein respectively in preventing systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice was assessed. The injection of rPmt4p vaccination significantly increased survival rate, decreased fungal burdens in the heart, liver, brain, and kidneys, and increased serum levels of both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against rPmt4p in the immunized mice. Histopathological assessment demonstrated that rPmt4p vaccination protected the tissue structure, and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Passive transfer of the rPmt4p immunized serum increased survival rate against murine systemic candidiasis and significantly reduced organ fungal burden. The immune serum enhanced mouse neutrophil killing activity by directly neutralizing rPmt4p effects in vitro. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum were higher in the immunized mice compared to those in the adjuvant control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that rPmt4p vaccination may be considered as a potential vaccine candidate against systemic candidiasis.

  16. Inhibition of Extracellular Calcium Influx Results in Enhanced IL-12 Production in LPS-Treated Murine Macrophages by Downregulation of the CaMKKβ-AMPK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanfeng; Yang, Yongjun; Chen, Xiaoli; Fan, Shijun; Chen, Qian; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Activated macrophages are the primary sources of IL-12, a key cytokine bridging innate and adaptive immunity. However, macrophages produce low amounts of IL-12 upon stimulation and the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found a new calcium-dependent mechanism that controlled IL-12 production in LPS-treated murine macrophages. First, LPS was demonstrated to induce extracellular calcium entry in murine peritoneal macrophages and inhibition of calcium influx resulted in marked enhancement in IL-12 production. Then, withdrawal of extracellular calcium was found to suppress CaMKKβ and AMPK activation triggered by LPS while chemical inhibition or genetic knockdown of these two kinases augmented LPS induced IL-12 production. AMPK activation increased the NAD+/NADH ratio and activated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylating enzyme and negative regulator of inflammation. Chemical inhibitor or siRNA of SIRT1 enhanced IL-12 release while its agonist suppressed IL-12 production. Finally, it was found that SIRT1 selectively affected the transcriptional activity of NF-κB which thereby inhibited IL-12 production. Overall, our study demonstrates a new role of transmembrane calcium mobilization in immunity modulation such that inhibition of calcium influx leads to impaired activation of CaMKKβ-AMPK-SIRT1 signaling pathway which lifts restriction on NF-κB activation and results in enhanced IL-12 production. PMID:27313401

  17. Signal-transducing mechanisms of ketamine-caused inhibition of interleukin-1{beta} gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.-L.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2009-10-01

    Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1{beta}, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms. Administration of Raw 264.7 cells with a therapeutic concentration of ketamine (100 {mu}M), LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. Exposure to 100 {mu}M ketamine decreased the binding affinity of LPS and LPS-binding protein but did not affect LPS-induced RNA and protein synthesis of TLR4. Treatment with LPS significantly increased IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha} gene expressions in Raw 264.7 cells. Ketamine at a clinically relevant concentration did not affect the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines, but significantly decreased LPS-caused increases in these cytokines. Immunoblot analyses, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and a reporter luciferase activity assay revealed that ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced translocation and DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF{kappa}B). Administration of LPS sequentially increased the phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and IKK. However, a therapeutic concentration of ketamine alleviated such augmentations. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA reduced cellular TLR4 amounts and ameliorated LPS-induced RAS activation and IL-1{beta} synthesis. Co-treatment with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA synergistically ameliorated LPS-caused enhancement of IL-1{beta} production. Results of this study show that a therapeutic concentration of ketamine can inhibit gene expression of IL-1{beta} possibly through suppressing TLR4-mediated signal-transducing phosphorylations of Ras, Raf, MEK1

  18. Tumoricidal effector mechanisms of murine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-activated macrophages: mediation of cytolysis, mitochondrial respiration inhibition, and release of intracellular iron by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Klostergaard, J; Leroux, M E; Ezell, S M; Kull, F C

    1987-04-15

    Murine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-activated macrophages mediate discrete cytotoxic effects in cocultured tumor target cells in vitro. These effects include: the loss of intracellular iron, in part associated with reversible inhibition of the Kreb's cycle enzyme, aconitase; cytostasis, associated with reversible lesions inflicted in the electron transport chain (ETC) of the mitochondria resulting in reversible loss of proliferative capacity; and cytolysis, manifested by eventual gross perturbation of the integrity of the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that these manifestations of cytotoxicity are the result of three independent mechanisms employing apparently distinct macromolecules for their commission. Analysis of target cells that are highly susceptible (L-929), highly resistant (L-1210), or have incomplete resistance (EMT-6) to the cytolytic effects of cocultured activated macrophages indicates that there is no consistent relationship between the release of intracellular 59Fe and 51Cr. Thus, perturbation of intracellular iron pools did not appear to be an obligatory step on the pathway to cytolysis. Further evidence for this dissociation was obtained by employing a specific heteroantiserum reactive with cytolytic molecule(s). This antiserum could block the cytolytic response (51Cr release of cocultured L-929 and EMT-6 targets) but had no effect on the extent of iron release from viable EMT-6 or L-1210 targets. Furthermore, the cytolytic factor itself was incapable of mediating effects on the ETC or in causing release of intracellular iron. Two lines of evidence suggested that effects on the ETC are not linked with loss of intracellular iron. First, the monokine respiration inhibitory factor was incapable of causing release of intracellular iron from target cells in which the mitochondria were strongly suppressed. Second, the kinetics of release of respiration inhibitory factor from endotoxin-triggered Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-activated macrophages indicate a

  19. Metallofullerene-Nanoplatform-Delivered Interstitial Brachytherapy Improved Survival in a Murine Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John D.; Broaddus, William C.; Dorn, Harry C.; Fatouros, Panos P.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Shultz, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Fullerenes are used across scientific disciplines because of their diverse properties gained by altering encapsulated or surface bound components. In this study, the recently developed theranostic agent based on a radiolabeled functionalized metallofullerene (177Lu-DOTA-f-Gd3N@C80) was synthesized with high radiochemical yield and purity. The efficacy of this agent was demonstrated in two orthotopic xenograft brain tumor models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A dose-dependent improvement in survival was also shown. The in vivo stability of the agent was verified through dual label measurements of biological elimination from the tumor. Overall, these results provide evidence that nanomaterial platforms can be used to deliver effective interstitial brachytherapy. PMID:22881865

  20. Essential roles of mgcRacGAP in multilineage differentiation and survival of murine hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Takayuki; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Hikida, Masaki

    2008-08-08

    MgcRacGAP, a negative regulator for Rho family GTPases, has been shown to play important roles in cytokinesis using several cell lines. However, the physiological role of mgcRacGAP in multilineage hematopoietic development remains unclear. Here, we conditionally ablated mgcRacGAP in vivo to clarify this issue. As the result, we found that normal hematopoietic development including proliferation and survival requires mgcRacGAP. We also found that depletion of mgcRacGAP in hematopoietic cells results in a marked decrease in c-Kit{sup +}Sca-1{sup +}Lin{sup -} cells, suggesting that mgcRacGAP is required for the maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, B cells in which mgcRacGAP had been selectively ablated showed proliferation failure and fell into apoptosis. Taken together, mgcRacGAP is now shown to play a indispensable role in the development of hematopoietic cells in vivo.

  1. Disruption of the trypanothione reductase gene of Leishmania decreases its ability to survive oxidative stress in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dumas, C; Ouellette, M; Tovar, J; Cunningham, M L; Fairlamb, A H; Tamar, S; Olivier, M; Papadopoulou, B

    1997-05-15

    Parasitic protozoa belonging to the order Kinetoplastida contain trypanothione as their major thiol. Trypanothione reductase (TR), the enzyme responsible for maintaining trypanothione in its reduced form, is thought to be central to the redox defence systems of trypanosomatids. To investigate further the physiological role of TR in Leishmania, we attempted to create TR-knockout mutants by gene disruption in L. donovani and L. major strains using the selectable markers neomycin and hygromycin phosphotransferases. TR is likely to be an important gene for parasite survival since all our attempts to obtain a TR null mutant in L. donovani failed. Instead, we obtained mutants with a partial trisomy for the TR locus where, despite the successful disruption of two TR alleles by gene targeting, a third TR copy was generated as a result of genomic rearrangements involving the translocation of a TR-containing region to a larger chromosome. Mutants of L. donovani and L. major possessing only one wild-type TR allele express less TR mRNA and have lower TR activity compared with wild-type cells carrying two copies of the TR gene. Significantly, these mutants show attenuated infectivity with a markedly decreased capacity to survive intracellularly within macrophages, provided that the latter are producing reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:9184206

  2. HGFL supports mammary tumorigenesis by enhancing tumor cell intrinsic survival and influencing macrophage and T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Benight, Nancy M.; Wagh, Purnima K.; Zinser, Glendon M.; Peace, Belinda E.; Stuart, William D.; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Pathrose, Peterson; Starnes, Sandra L.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Ron receptor is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is associated with heightened metastasis and poor survival. Ron overexpression in the mammary epithelium of mice is sufficient to induce aggressive mammary tumors with a high degree of metastasis. Despite the well-documented role of Ron in breast cancer, few studies have examined the necessity of the endogenous Ron ligand, hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) in mammary tumorigenesis. Herein, mammary tumor growth and metastasis were examined in mice overexpressing Ron in the mammary epithelium with or without HGFL. HGFL ablation decreased oncogenic Ron activation and delayed mammary tumor initiation. HGFL was important for tumor cell proliferation and survival. HGFL loss resulted in increased numbers of macrophages and T-cells within the tumor. T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity dramatically increased in HGFL deficient mice. Biochemical analysis of HGFL proficient tumors showed increased local HGFL production, with HGFL loss decreasing β-catenin expression and NF-κB activation. Re-expression of HGFL in HGFL deficient tumor cells stimulated cell migration and invasion with coordinate activation of NF-κB and reduced apoptosis. Together, these results demonstrate critical in vivo functions for HGFL in promoting breast tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting HGFL may inhibit tumor growth and reactivate anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:25938541

  3. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages-An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Visagie, Amcois; Kasonga, Abe; Deepak, Vishwa; Moosa, Shaakirah; Marais, Sumari; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-10-28

    Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone.

  4. Whiskey congeners suppress LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells by inducing heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Nukaya, Haruo

    2012-12-26

    Whiskey includes many nonvolatile substances (whiskey congeners; Whc) that seep from the oak cask during the maturation process. To date, many functions of Whc have reported, such as antiallergy and antimelanogenesis. This study examined the effect of Whc on LPS/IFNγ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells. Whc suppressed LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine the active compounds in Whc, the effect of 10 major compounds isolated from Whc on LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production was examined. Coniferylaldehyde (CA) and sinapylaldehyde (SiA) strongly suppressed LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production. Pretreatment with Whc, CA, and SiA induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. The expression of HO-1 by Whc, CA, and SiA pretreatment was due to activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling via the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. To investigate the in vivo effects of Whc, Whc was administered to mice with antitype II collagen antibody-induced arthritis, and we the arthritis score and hind paw volume were measured. Administration of Whc remarkably suppressed the arthritis score and hind paw volume. Taken together, these findings suggest that Whc is beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  5. Erucin exerts anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin: possible mediation through the inhibition of NFκB signaling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L) inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles) treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling. PMID:24132147

  6. Erucin Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin: Possible Mediation through the Inhibition of NFκB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Erucin, an isothiocyanate, is a hydrolysis product of glucoerucin found in arugula and has recently been reported to have anti-cancer properties in various cancer cells. In this study, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of erucin and the underlying mechanisms, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin. In RAW 264.7 cells, erucin (2.5, 5 μmol/L) inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. Erucin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of the inhibitor of κBα and translocation of p65 to the nucleus and, subsequently, reduced LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) DNA binding activities, as well as the transcriptional activity of NFκB, leading to the decreased expression of NFκB-target genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as transcriptional activity of iNOS and COX-2. In mice, erucin (100, 300 nmoles) treatment significantly inhibited phorbol ester-induced formation of ear edema and expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that erucin exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines, which may be mediated, at least in part, via the inhibition of NFκB signaling. PMID:24132147

  7. Whiskey congeners suppress LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells by inducing heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Nukaya, Haruo

    2012-12-26

    Whiskey includes many nonvolatile substances (whiskey congeners; Whc) that seep from the oak cask during the maturation process. To date, many functions of Whc have reported, such as antiallergy and antimelanogenesis. This study examined the effect of Whc on LPS/IFNγ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage RAW 264 cells. Whc suppressed LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. To determine the active compounds in Whc, the effect of 10 major compounds isolated from Whc on LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production was examined. Coniferylaldehyde (CA) and sinapylaldehyde (SiA) strongly suppressed LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production. Pretreatment with Whc, CA, and SiA induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. The expression of HO-1 by Whc, CA, and SiA pretreatment was due to activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling via the elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. To investigate the in vivo effects of Whc, Whc was administered to mice with antitype II collagen antibody-induced arthritis, and we the arthritis score and hind paw volume were measured. Administration of Whc remarkably suppressed the arthritis score and hind paw volume. Taken together, these findings suggest that Whc is beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:23199195

  8. Piperine inhibits PMA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression through downregulating NF-κB, C/EBP and AP-1 signaling pathways in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Jang, Woo-Seok; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Park, Bong Hwan; Tran, Thu Phuong; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2012-07-01

    Piperine is a major component of black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (Piper longum Linn) peppers, and is widely used as a traditional food and medicine. It also exhibits a variety of biological activities, which include antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-pyretic properties. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of piperine on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and analyzed the molecular mechanism of its activity in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Piperine dose-dependently decreased PMA-induced COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity. Transient transfections utilizing COX-2 promoter deletion constructs and COX-2 promoter constructs, in which specific enhancer elements were mutagenized, revealed that the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), were the predominant contributors to the effects of piperine. In addition, piperine inhibited PMA-induced NF-κB, C/EBP and c-Jun nuclear translocation. Furthermore, piperine significantly inhibited PMA-induced activation of the Akt and ERK. These findings demonstrate that piperine effectively attenuates COX-2 production, and provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of piperine. PMID:22542552

  9. Use of a Capture-Based Pathogen Transcript Enrichment Strategy for RNA-Seq Analysis of the Francisella Tularensis LVS Transcriptome during Infection of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Zachary W.; Brazel, David M.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary B.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Branda, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic intracellular pathogen that is capable of causing potentially fatal human infections. Like all successful bacterial pathogens, F. tularensis rapidly responds to changes in its environment during infection of host cells, and upon encountering different microenvironments within those cells. This ability to appropriately respond to the challenges of infection requires rapid and global shifts in gene expression patterns. In this study, we use a novel pathogen transcript enrichment strategy and whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to perform a detailed characterization of the rapid and global shifts in F. tularensis LVS gene expression during infection of murine macrophages. We performed differential gene expression analysis on all bacterial genes at two key stages of infection: phagosomal escape, and cytosolic replication. By comparing the F. tularensis transcriptome at these two stages of infection to that of the bacteria grown in culture, we were able to identify sets of genes that are differentially expressed over the course of infection. This analysis revealed the temporally dynamic expression of a number of known and putative transcriptional regulators and virulence factors, providing insight into their role during infection. In addition, we identified several F. tularensis genes that are significantly up-regulated during infection but had not been previously identified as virulence factors. These unknown genes may make attractive therapeutic or vaccine targets. PMID:24155975

  10. Innate imprinting of murine resident alveolar macrophages by allergic bronchial inflammation causes a switch from hypoinflammatory to hyperinflammatory reactivity.

    PubMed

    Naessens, Thomas; Vander Beken, Seppe; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Rooijen, Nico; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; De Koker, Stefaan; Grooten, Johan

    2012-07-01

    Resident alveolar macrophages (rAMs) residing in the bronchoalveolar lumen of the airways play an important role in limiting excessive inflammatory responses in the respiratory tract. High phagocytic activity along with hyporesponsiveness to inflammatory insults and lack of autonomous IFN-β production are crucial assets in this regulatory function. Using a mouse model of asthma, we analyzed the fate of rAMs both during and after allergic bronchial inflammation. Although nearly indistinguishable phenotypically from naïve rAMs, postinflammation rAMs exhibited a strongly reduced basal phagocytic capacity, accompanied by a markedly increased inflammatory reactivity to Toll-like receptors TLR-3 (poly I:C), TLR-4 [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], and TLR-7 (imiquimod). Importantly, after inflammation, rAMs exhibited a switch from an IFN-β-defective to an IFN-β-competent phenotype, thus indicating the occurrence of a new, inflammatory-released rAM population in the postallergic lung. Analysis of rAM turnover revealed a rapid disappearance of naïve rAMs after the onset of inflammation. This inflammation-induced rAM turnover is critical for the development of the hyperinflammatory rAM phenotype observed after clearance of bronchial inflammation. These data document a novel mechanism of innate imprinting in which noninfectious bronchial inflammation causes alveolar macrophages to acquire a highly modified innate reactivity. The resulting increase in secretion of inflammatory mediators on TLR stimulation implies a role for this phenomenon of innate imprinting in the increased sensitivity of postallergic lungs to inflammatory insults. PMID:22613023

  11. Molecular Imaging of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Survival and Homing in Murine Peripheral Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    van der Bogt, Koen E.A.; Hellingman, Alwine A.; Lijkwan, Maarten A.; Bos, Ernst-Jan; de Vries, Margreet R.; Fischbein, Michael P.; Quax, Paul H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) therapy is a promising treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study aims to provide insight into cellular kinetics using molecular imaging following different transplantation methods. Methods and Results MNCs were isolated from F6 transgenic mice (FVB background) that express firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Male FVB and C57Bl6 mice (n=50) underwent femoral artery ligation and were randomized into 4 groups receiving: (1) single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2×106 MNC; (2) four weekly i.m. injections of 5×105 MNC; (3) 2×106 MNCs intravenously (i.v.); and (4) PBS. Cellular kinetics, measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), revealed near-complete donor cell death 4 weeks after i.m. transplantation. Following i.v. transplantation, BLI monitored cells homed in on the injured area in the limb, as well as to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ex vivo BLI showed presence of MNCs in the scar tissue and adductor muscle. However, no significant effects on neovascularisation were observed as monitored by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion-Imaging and histology. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to assess kinetics of transplanted MNCs in PAD using in vivo molecular imaging. MNC survival is short lived and MNCs do not significantly stimulate perfusion in this model. PMID:22239892

  12. Piroxicam, indomethacin and aspirin action on a murine fibrosarcoma. Effects on tumour-associated and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Valdéz, J C; Perdigón, G

    1991-01-01

    Growth of a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in BALB/c mice was accompanied by an increase in the activation state of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM), as measured by their FcIgG receptor expression, phagocytic index and beta-glucuronidase levels. All of these parameters were markedly higher in TAM than in peritoneal macrophages (PM) derived from the same animal. On the other hand, PM from tumour-bearing mice showed lower activation parameters than PM from normal animals. We also studied the effect on tumour development of three inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis: indomethacin, piroxicam and aspirin. Intraperitoneal administration of these drugs during 8 d was followed by the regression of palpable tumours. Indomethacin (90 mg/d) induced 45% regression, while with piroxicam (two 400 mg/d doses and six 200 mg/d doses) and aspirin (1 mg/d) 32% and 30% regressions, respectively, were observed. The growth rate of nonregressing tumours, which had reached different volumes by the end of the treatment, was delayed to a similar extent by the three anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs (NSAID). With respect to TAM, the treatment did not induce any significant change in their activation state, though both piroxicam and indomethacin increased slightly the TAM number. In contrast, NSAID administration was followed by a remarkable increase in the activation parameters of PM when compared with PM from tumour-bearing mice receiving no treatment. Indeed, these parameters were in some cases higher than those of PM from normal mice. The leukocytosis (60,000/microliters) with neutrophilia (80%) induced by tumour growth on peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was reversed by the treatment to values close to normal, in parallel with the reduction of tumour size. A drop in haematocrit was also noted which was most probably a consequence of tumour growth rather than of the treatment. This study reveals that the three NSAID tested have a remarkable antitumour activity, which

  13. Kinetic analysis of the intracellular conjugation of monochlorobimane by IC-21 murine macrophage glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Young, P R; ConnorsWhite, A L; Dzido, G A

    1994-12-15

    Monochlorobimane (MCB) reacts with glutathione (GSH) in a reaction catalyzed by the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isozymes. The diffusion of MCB through cell membranes is rapid and the fluorescence conjugates are relatively insensitive to quenching and to pH effects, and are expelled slowly from the cell, allowing the rate of fluorescence increase to be used to probe the dynamics of the intracellular reaction. Using low-light microscopic cytometry to monitor the initial rates of fluorescence increase for the GST-catalyzed reaction within IC-21 macrophages yields Vmax = 8.4 x 10(-16) mol s-1 cell-1 and KMCBm = 65 microM. Combining these data with an integrated Michaelis analysis of the reaction course yields KIP approximately 1.5 x 10(-5) M, and KmGSH approximately 3.0 x 10(-4) M (at [MCB] = 50 microM). The values of Vmax and KMCBm for the cell-free (extracellular) GST-catalyzed conjugation reaction are 1.2 x 10(-18) mol s-1 cell-1 and 3.1 microM, respectively. The values of Vmax for the intra- and extracellular conjugation reactions differ by 700-fold, suggesting the presence of an intracellular activator for this enzyme system. PMID:7803478

  14. Hybrid pulmonary surfactant-coated nanogels mediate efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to murine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Lynn; Naessens, Thomas; De Koker, Stefaan; Zagato, Elisa; Demeester, Jo; Grooten, Johan; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-11-10

    The local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs may provide a therapeutic solution to a range of pulmonary disorders. Resident alveolar macrophages (rAM) in the bronchoalveolar lumen play a critical role in lung inflammatory responses and therefore constitute a particularly attractive target for siRNA therapeutics. However, achieving efficient gene silencing in the lung while avoiding pulmonary toxicity requires appropriate formulation of siRNA in functional nanocarriers. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary surfactant-coated dextran nanogels for the delivery of siRNA to rAM upon pharyngeal aspiration in BALB/c mice. Both the surfactant-coated and uncoated nanogels achieved high levels of siRNA uptake in rAM, yet only the surfactant-coated formulation could significantly reduce gene expression on the protein level. Surfactant-coated nanogels induced a profound downregulation of target mRNA levels, reaching 70% knockdown with ~1mgkg(-1) siRNA dose. In addition, only mild acute pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses were detected one day after nanoparticle aspiration, accompanied by a moderate neutrophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lumen. The latter could be substantially reduced by removal of excess surfactant from the formulation. Overall, our hybrid core-shell nanoparticles have demonstrated safe and effective siRNA delivery to rAM, providing a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory pathologies in the lung.

  15. Imbalanced Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Activations in Response to Candida albicans in a Murine Model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Venturini, James; Fraga-Silva, Thais Fernanda Campos; Marchetti, Camila Martins; Mimura, Luiza Ayumi Nishiyama; Conti, Bruno José; Golim, Márjorie de Assis; Mendes, Rinaldo Poncio; de Arruda, Maria Sueli Parreira

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, and diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important underlying disease in candidemia episodes. Although DM patients show an enhanced proinflammatory profile, they are highly susceptible to mycobacterial and mycotic infections. Attempting to understand this paradox, we investigated if imbalanced macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) activations could be associated to high incidence and/or severity of Candida albicans infection in the hypoinsulinemia-hyperglycemia (HH) milieu. HH alloxan-induced mice were infected with C. albicans and peritoneal aderent phagocytes were co-cultured with or without lipopolyssaccharide or heat-killed C. albicans, and the production of cytotoxic metabolites, cytokines, and chemokines was evaluated. We also evaluated the surface expression of MHC-II and CD86 in splenic DCs. Our findings showed that both uninfected and C. albicans-infected HH mice showed less production of CCL2 and reduced expression of CD86 by peritoneal phagocytes and splenic DCs, respectively.

  16. Hybrid pulmonary surfactant-coated nanogels mediate efficient in vivo delivery of siRNA to murine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Lynn; Naessens, Thomas; De Koker, Stefaan; Zagato, Elisa; Demeester, Jo; Grooten, Johan; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Raemdonck, Koen

    2015-11-10

    The local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs may provide a therapeutic solution to a range of pulmonary disorders. Resident alveolar macrophages (rAM) in the bronchoalveolar lumen play a critical role in lung inflammatory responses and therefore constitute a particularly attractive target for siRNA therapeutics. However, achieving efficient gene silencing in the lung while avoiding pulmonary toxicity requires appropriate formulation of siRNA in functional nanocarriers. In this study, we evaluated pulmonary surfactant-coated dextran nanogels for the delivery of siRNA to rAM upon pharyngeal aspiration in BALB/c mice. Both the surfactant-coated and uncoated nanogels achieved high levels of siRNA uptake in rAM, yet only the surfactant-coated formulation could significantly reduce gene expression on the protein level. Surfactant-coated nanogels induced a profound downregulation of target mRNA levels, reaching 70% knockdown with ~1mgkg(-1) siRNA dose. In addition, only mild acute pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses were detected one day after nanoparticle aspiration, accompanied by a moderate neutrophil infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lumen. The latter could be substantially reduced by removal of excess surfactant from the formulation. Overall, our hybrid core-shell nanoparticles have demonstrated safe and effective siRNA delivery to rAM, providing a new therapeutic approach for treatment of inflammatory pathologies in the lung. PMID:26307350

  17. The P2X7/P2X4 interaction shapes the purinergic response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Flores, Gabriela; Lévesque, Sébastien A; Pacheco, Jonathan; Vaca, Luis; Lacroix, Steve; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2015-11-20

    The ATP-gated P2X4 and P2X7 receptors are cation channels, co-expressed in excitable and non-excitable cells and play important roles in pain, bone development, cytokine release and cell death. Although these receptors interact the interacting domains are unknown and the functional consequences of this interaction remain unclear. Here we show by co-immunoprecipitation that P2X4 interacts with the C-terminus of P2X7 and by fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments that this receptor-receptor interaction is driven by ATP. Furthermore, disrupting the ATP-driven interaction by knocking-out P2X4R provoked an attenuation of P2X7-induced cell death, dye uptake and IL-1β release in macrophages. Thus, P2X7 interacts with P2X4 via its C-terminus and disrupting the P2X7/P2X4 interaction hinders physiological responses in immune cells.

  18. Lysozyme is an inducible marker of macrophage activation in murine tissues as demonstrated by in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    This study demonstrates the induction of lysozyme mRNA expression in situ in tissue macrophages (M phi) of mice following in vivo stimulation. The resting resident tissue M phi of most tissues do not contain enough lysozyme mRNA to be detected by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled RNA probes. Following Bacille Calmette Guerin or Plasmodium yoelli infection, however, M phi recruited to liver and spleen hybridize strongly to the lysozyme probe. Within 24 h of infection, cells found in the marginal zone of the spleen begin to produce lysozyme mRNA. This response is also evoked by a noninfectious agent (intravenously injected sheep erythrocytes), and is possibly the result of an early phagocytic interaction. Later in the infection, other cells in the red and white pulp of the spleen, and cells in granulomas in the liver, become lysozyme-positive. Kupffer cells are rarely lysozyme-positive. Lysozyme mRNA levels in liver granulomas remain relatively constant during the infection, and lysozyme is produced by most granuloma cells. This contrasts with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA, which is produced by fewer cells in the granuloma, and which can be massively induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. The production of lysozyme, previously considered a constitutive function of M phi, is therefore an indicator of M phi activation in vivo, where immunologically specific and nonspecific stimuli both stimulate lysozyme production at high levels in subpopulations of cells occupying discrete anatomical locations. PMID:1940787

  19. p161, a murine membrane protein expressed on mast cells and some macrophages, is mouse CD13/aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Kinzer, C A; Paul, W E

    1996-09-15

    pl6l is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on mast cells and on activated macrophages but on few if any other cells of hematopoietic lineages. Its lack of expression on basophils makes it useful to distinguish mast cells from basophils and aids in the analysis of mast cells and their precursors. p161 was purified from the mast cell line CFTL-12 by affinity chromatography and subjected to limited proteolysis. The sequences of the resultant peptides indicated that p161 is homologous with rat and human CD13/aminopeptidase N. Using oligonucleotide primers derived from rat CD13 cDNA, a mouse cDNA was obtained. Its deduced amino acid sequence displays 87% identity with rat CD13 and 76 % identity with human CD13. Expression of the mouse cDNA in M12 cells, which are p161 negative, renders these cells positive for staining with the monoclonal anti-p161 Ab, K-1. Furthermore, a mAb raised against partially purified mouse intestinal aminopeptidase N specifically blocked the binding of K-1 to both CFTL-12 cells and the transfected M12 cells. These results strongly indicate that mouse p161 is CD13/aminopeptidase N. Northern blot analysis shows that p161 mRNA is most abundantly expressed in the intestinal tract and kidney and is present in liver, lymph node, spleen, and brain.

  20. Platelet-derived CXCL12 regulates monocyte function, survival, differentiation into macrophages and foam cells through differential involvement of CXCR4–CXCR7

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, S N I; Seizer, P; Schlegel, F; Büttcher, M; Sindhu, N A; Müller, S; Mack, A; Gawaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Platelets store and release CXCL12 (SDF-1), which governs differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into either endothelial or macrophage-foam cells. CXCL12 ligates CXCR4 and CXCR7 and regulates monocyte/macrophage functions. This study deciphers the relative contribution of CXCR4–CXCR7 in mediating the effects of platelet-derived CXCL12 on monocyte function, survival, and differentiation. CXCL12 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) that ligate CXCR4–CXCR7 induced a dynamic bidirectional trafficking of the receptors, causing CXCR4 internalization and CXCR7 externalization during chemotaxis, thereby influencing relative receptor availability, unlike MCP-1. In vivo we found enhanced accumulation of platelets and platelet-macrophage co-aggregates in peritoneal fluid following induction of peritonitis in mice. The relative surface expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, and CXCR7 among infiltrated monocytes was also enhanced as compared with peripheral blood. Platelet-derived CXCL12 from collagen-adherent platelets and recombinant CXCL12 induced monocyte chemotaxis specifically through CXCR4 engagement. Adhesion of monocytes to immobilized CXCL12 and CXCL12-enriched activated platelet surface under static and dynamic arterial flow conditions were mediated primarily through CXCR7 and were counter-regulated by neutralizing platelet-derived CXCL12. Monocytes and culture-derived-M1–M2 macrophages phagocytosed platelets, with the phagocytic potential of culture-derived-M1 macrophages higher than M2 involving CXCR4–CXCR7 participation. CXCR7 was the primary receptor in promoting monocyte survival as exerted by platelet-derived CXCL12 against BH3-mimetic induced apoptosis (phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential). In co-culture experiments with platelets, monocytes predominantly differentiated into CD163+ macrophages, which was attenuated upon CXCL12 neutralization and CXCR4/CXCR7 blocking antibodies

  1. Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis of human monocytes during macrophagic differentiation through nuclear factor-kappaB-related survival pathway down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lemarie, Anthony; Morzadec, Claudie; Mérino, Delphine; Micheau, Olivier; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is known to be toxic toward leukemia cells. In this study, we determined its effects on survival of human monocytic cells during macrophagic differentiation, an important biological process involved in the immune response. As(2)O(3) used at clinically relevant pharmacological concentrations induced marked apoptosis of human blood monocytes during differentiation with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Apoptosis of monocytes was associated with increased caspase activities and decreased DNA binding of p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB); like As(2)O(3), the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor (E)-3-[(4-methylphenyl)-sulfonyl]-2-propenenitrile (Bay 11-7082) strongly reduced survival of differentiating monocytes. The role of NF-kappaB in arsenic toxicity was also studied in promonocytic U937 cells during phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophagic differentiation. In these cells, As(2)O(3) first reduced DNA binding of p65 NF-kappaB and subsequently induced apoptosis. In addition, overexpression of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit, following stable infection with a p65 retroviral expressing vector, increased survival of As(2)O(3)-treated U937 cells. As(2)O(3) specifically decreased protein levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and FLICE-inhibitory protein, two NF-kappaB-regulated genes in both U937 cells and blood monocytes during their differentiations. Finally, As(2)O(3) was found to inhibit macrophagic differentiation of monocytic cells when used at cytotoxic concentrations; however, overexpression of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit in U937 cells reduced its effects toward differentiation. In contrast to monocytes, well differentiated macrophages were resistant to low concentrations of As(2)O(3). Altogether, our study demonstrates that clinically relevant concentrations of As(2)O(3) induced marked apoptosis of monocytic cells during in vitro macrophagic differentiation

  2. Macrophages are essential for antitumour effects against weakly immunogenic murine tumours induced by class B CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Buhtoiarov, Ilia N; Sondel, Paul M; Eickhoff, Jens C; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L

    2007-03-01

    We explored the mechanisms of class B CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-induced antitumour effects against weakly immunogenic tumours. Treatment with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG) induced similar antitumour effects in B16 melanoma-bearing immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice and T-cell-deficient severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and NXS2 neuroblastoma-bearing T-cell-depleted A/J mice. Both macrophages (Mphi) and natural killer (NK) cells from CpG-treated C57BL/6 mice could mediate cytotoxicity in vitro, suggesting that these cell types might control tumour growth in vivo. However, CpG treatment of SCID/beige mice or T-cell-depleted and NK-cell-depleted A/J mice still induced antitumour effects in vivo, arguing against a major role of NK cells in the antitumour effects of CpG in the absence of T cells. In contrast, CpG treatment of interferon-gamma knockout (IFN-gamma(-/-)) C57BL/6 mice resulted in no antitumour effects in vivo and no Mphi-mediated tumoristasis in vitro despite unaltered cytolytic function of NK cells in vitro. Moreover, Mphi inactivation by silica substantially reduced CpG-induced suppression of tumour growth in vivo, revealing an important role of Mphi in CpG-induced antitumour effects. The in vitro tumouritoxicity by CpG-stimulated Mphi (CpG-Mphi) correlated with tumour cell mitochondria dysfunction and involved nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IFN-gamma, whereas interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-1beta, IFN-alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and Fas ligand played insignificant roles in CpG-Mphi tumouritoxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that the growth control of weakly immunogenic tumours during CpG-immunotherapy is mediated predominantly by Mphi, rather than T cells or NK cells.

  3. The impact of different nanoparticle surface chemistry and size on uptake and toxicity in a murine macrophage cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Clift, Martin J.D. Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Brown, David M.; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the uptake, kinetics and cellular distribution of different surface coated quantum dots (QDs) before relating this to their toxicity. J774.A1 cells were treated with organic, COOH and NH{sub 2} (PEG) surface coated QDs (40 nM). Model 20 nm and 200 nm COOH-modified coated polystyrene beads (PBs) were also examined (50 {mu}g ml{sup -1}). The potential for uptake of QDs was examined by both fixed and live cell confocal microscopy as well as by flow cytometry over 2 h. Both the COOH 20 nm and 200 nm PBs were clearly and rapidly taken up by the J774.A1 cells, with uptake of 20 nm PBs being relatively quicker and more extensive. Similarly, COOH QDs were clearly taken up by the macrophages. Uptake of NH{sub 2} (PEG) QDs was not detectable by live cell imaging however, was observed following 3D reconstruction of fixed cells, as well as by flow cytometry. Cells treated with organic QDs, monitored by live cell imaging, showed only a small amount of uptake in a relatively small number of cells. This uptake was insufficient to be detected by flow cytometry. Imaging of fixed cells was not possible due to a loss in cell integrity related to cytotoxicity. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the fluorescent intensity in a cell-free environment was found with organic QDs, NH{sub 2} (PEG) QDs, 20 nm and 200 nm PBs at pH 4.0 (indicative of an endosome) after 2 h, suggesting reduced stability. No evidence of exocytosis was found over 2 h. These findings confirm that surface coating has a significant influence on the mode of NP interaction with cells, as well as the subsequent consequences of that interaction.

  4. Extracellular calcium influx promotes antibacterial autophagy in Escherichia coli infected murine macrophages via CaMKKβ dependent activation of ERK1/2, AMPK and FoxO1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Yang, Yongjun; Chen, Xiaoli; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-01-15

    Autophagy induction has been found as an alternative mechanism for ultimate elimination of invaded bacteria in innate immune cells. However, underlying mechanisms for the regulation of antibacterial autophagy require further elucidation. The present study mainly explores calcium dependent regulation of autophagy and its contribution to bactericidal activity in Escherichia coli (E. coli) infected murine macrophages. In this study, E. coli was shown to increase cellular calcium levels by triggering extracellular calcium influx in murine bone marrow derived macrophages. The elevated calcium was required for autophagy and bactericidal activity against E. coli, as extracellular calcium depletion or inhibition of calcium influx suppressed E. coli induced Beclin1 and LC3B expression, dampened LC3B puncta or LC3I to LC3II conversion and impaired intracellular E. coli degradation. Then CaMKKβ was identified as activated by E. coli induced calcium influx and chemical inhibition or RNAi knockdown of CaMKKβ abolished calcium mediated antibacterial autophagy. CaMKKβ was demonstrated to activate signaling pathways involving ERK, AMPK and FoxO1 and RNAi knockdown of these molecules also dampened the antibacterial autophagy against E. coli. In summary, we demonstrate a new mechanism of calcium dependent antibacterial strategy in E. coli infected macrophages, which requires autophagy enhancement mediated by activation of CaMKKβ, ERK, AMPK and FoxO1.

  5. Activated prostaglandin D2 receptors on macrophages enhance neutrophil recruitment into the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jandl, Katharina; Stacher, Elvira; Bálint, Zoltán; Sturm, Eva Maria; Maric, Jovana; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Luschnig, Petra; Aringer, Ida; Fauland, Alexander; Konya, Viktoria; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kratky, Dagmar; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is an early-phase mediator in inflammation, but its action and the roles of the 2 D-type prostanoid receptors (DPs) DP1 and DP2 (also called chemoattractant receptor–homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) in regulating macrophages have not been elucidated to date. Objective We investigated the role of PGD2 receptors on primary human macrophages, as well as primary murine lung macrophages, and their ability to influence neutrophil action in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro studies, including migration, Ca2+ flux, and cytokine secretion, were conducted with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils and freshly isolated murine alveolar and pulmonary interstitial macrophages. In vivo pulmonary inflammation was assessed in male BALB/c mice. Results Activation of DP1, DP2, or both receptors on human macrophages induced strong intracellular Ca2+ flux, cytokine release, and migration of macrophages. In a murine model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, activation of each PGD2 receptor resulted in aggravated airway neutrophilia, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine contents, and decreased lung compliance. Selective depletion of alveolar macrophages abolished the PGD2-enhanced inflammatory response. Activation of PGD2 receptors on human macrophages enhanced the migratory capacity and prolonged the survival of neutrophils in vitro. In human lung tissue specimens both DP1 and DP2 receptors were located on alveolar macrophages along with hematopoietic PGD synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of PGD2 synthesis. Conclusion For the first time, our results show that PGD2 markedly augments disease activity through its ability to enhance the proinflammatory actions of macrophages and subsequent neutrophil activation. PMID:26792210

  6. Exposure-dependent Ag+ release from silver nanoparticles and its complexation in AgS2 sites in primary murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronesi, G.; Aude-Garcia, C.; Kieffer, I.; Gallon, T.; Delangle, P.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Rabilloud, T.; Carrière, M.

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides the fraction of Ag+ ions released from the AgNPs under a given exposure condition and highlights their complexation with thiolate groups; the ab initio modelling of the extended spectra allows measuring the Ag-S bond length in cellulo. Dissolution rates depend on the exposure scenario, chronicity leading to higher Ag+ release than acute exposure; Ag-S bond lengths are 2.41 +/- 0.03 Å and 2.38 +/- 0.01 Å in acute and chronic exposure respectively, compatible with digonal AgS2 coordination. Glutathione is identified as the most likely putative ligand for Ag+. The proposed method offers a scope for the investigation of metallic nanoparticle dissolution and recombination in cellular models.Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity is related to their dissolution in biological environments and to the binding of the released Ag+ ions in cellulo; the chemical environment of recombined Ag+ ions is responsible for their toxicological outcome, moreover it is indicative of the cellular response to AgNP exposure, and can therefore shed light on the mechanisms governing AgNP toxicity. This study probes the chemistry of Ag species in primary murine macrophages exposed to AgNPs by making use of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy under cryogenic conditions: the linear combination analysis of the near-edge region of the spectra provides

  7. Participation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Muneshige; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Oikawa, Shinji; Murakami, Akira; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Stimulation of the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with thapsigargin, an endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, induced histamine production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The protein kinase C activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), also enhanced histamine production. α-Fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide substrate of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), suppressed the thapsigargin (30 nM)- and TPA (30 nM)-induced histamine production. Both thapsigargin (30 nM) and TPA (30 nM) induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK-1 which phosphorylates p44/p42 MAP kinase, strongly suppressed both the thapsigargin (30 nM)- and TPA (30 nM)-induced histamine production, whereas SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited them only partially. The other MEK-1 inhibitor, U-0126, also inhibited both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production in a concentration-dependent manner. Thapsigargin (30 nM) and TPA (30 nM) increased the levels of HDC mRNA at 4 h, but PD98059 suppressed both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced increases in the HDC mRNA level. These findings indicate that thapsigargin and TPA induce histamine production in RAW 264.7 cells by increasing the level of HDC mRNA, and that both the thapsigargin- and TPA-induced histamine production are regulated largely by p44/p42 MAP kinase and partially by p38 MAP kinase.. PMID:10711350

  8. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomic strategy for combined toxicity effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Pi, Fuwei; Sun, Chao; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Jiadi; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-09-15

    The actual health risk from exposure to combined mycotoxins is unknown, and few studies have focused on changes to cellular biological systems (e.g., metabolomics) caused by combined mycotoxic effects. To evaluate the combined mycotoxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) on the level of cellular biological systems, gas chromatographic, time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (GC-TOF/MS) of the complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome was implemented in this study. Using optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed using multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent-structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolite sets were screened for further pathway analysis under rules of t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, and similarity value > 500. The mainly interfered metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominant types: amino acid metabolism and glycometabolism. Four metabolites, palmitic acid, 1-monopalmitin, ribose-5-phosphate and 2-deoxy-D-galactose, occur only under combined "DON + ZEN" treatment, indicating abnormal metabolism in ANA-1 cells. The metabolic state of ANA-1 cells under induction by combined "DON + ZEN" illustrates that DON may inhibit the estrogenic effects of ZEN. Thus, the combined effect of "DON + ZEN" may exacerbate toxicity in the pentose phosphate pathway, while palmitic acid metabolism is likely a new pathway effected by the combination, "DON + ZEN." PMID:27530666

  9. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL).

  10. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Pasko, Pawel; Zagrodzki, Pawel; Gajdzik, Ewelina; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-02-01

    Sprouts contain potent compounds which while influencing crucial transduction pathways in cell reveal anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we report the biological activity for seeds and colourful sprouts of four types of edible amaranth, as amaranth has recently attracted interest due to its appreciable nutritional value. MTT assay conducted for the amaranth seeds and sprouts did not show any adverse effect on the viability of murine RAW 264.7 cells. As amaranth accumulates selenium, the sprouts were supplemented with this trace element (10 mg/L; 15 mg/L Se as sodium selenite) while growing. Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species. In the present study, Amaranthus cruentus sprouts with the highest betacyanins (19.30 ± 0.57-28.85 ± 2.23 mg of amaranthin/100 g of fresh weight) and high total selenium (22.51 ± 1.57-1044.75 ± 73.08 μg/L in methanol extracts) content prevented NFκB translocation to the cell nucleus and subsequently exerted an anti-inflammatory effect by significant decreasing inflammatory interleukin 6 production (587.3 ± 34.2-710.0 ± 88.1 pg/mL) in the cell culture of activated RAW 264.7 macrophages (vs LPS control 1520 ± 114 pg/mL). PMID:26162623

  11. Concise Review: Macrophages: Versatile Gatekeepers During Pancreatic β-Cell Development, Injury, and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Van Gassen, Naomi; Staels, Willem; Van Overmeire, Eva; De Groef, Sofie; Sojoodi, Mozhdeh; Heremans, Yves; Leuckx, Gunter; Van de Casteele, Mark; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are classically considered detrimental for pancreatic β-cell survival and function, thereby contributing to β-cell failure in both type 1 (T1D) and 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus. In addition, adipose tissue macrophages negatively influence peripheral insulin signaling and promote obesity-induced insulin resistance in T2D. In contrast, recent data unexpectedly uncovered that macrophages are not only able to protect β cells during pancreatitis but also to orchestrate β-cell proliferation and regeneration after β-cell injury. Moreover, by altering their activation state, macrophages are able to improve insulin resistance in murine models of T2D. This review will elaborate on current insights in macrophage heterogeneity and on the evolving role of pancreas macrophages during organogenesis, tissue injury, and repair. Additional identification of macrophage subtypes and of their secreted factors might ultimately translate into novel therapeutic strategies for both T1D and T2D. Significance Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic disease, characterized by severe acute and chronic complications. Macrophages have long been considered prime suspects in the pathogenesis of both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. In this concise review, current insights in macrophage heterogeneity and on the, as yet, underappreciated role of alternatively activated macrophages in insulin sensing and β-cell development/repair are reported. Further identification of macrophage subtypes and of their secreted factors might ultimately translate into novel therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus. PMID:25848123

  12. Macrophages loaded with gold nanoshells for photothermal ablation of glioma: An in vitro model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkouk, Amani Riad

    The current median survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common type of glioma, remains at 14.6 months despite multimodal treatments (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy). This research aims to study the feasibility of photothermal ablation of glioma using gold nanoshells that are heated upon laser irradiation at their resonance wavelength. The novelty of our approach lies in improving nanoshell tumor delivery by loading them in macrophages, which are known to be recruited to gliomas via tumor-released chemoattractive agents. Ferumoxides, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, are needed as an additional macrophage load in order to visualize macrophage accumulation in the tumor with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to laser irradiation. The feasibility of this approach was studied in an in vitro model of glioma spheroids with the use of continuous wave (CW) laser light for ablation. The optimal loading of both murine and rat macrophages with Ferumoxides was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Higher concentrations of SPIO were observed in rat macrophages, and the optimal concentration was chosen at 100 microg Fe/ml. Macrophages were found to be very sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) laser irradiation, and their use as vehicles was thus not expected to hinder the function of loaded nanoshells as tumor-ablating tools. The intracellular presence of gold nanoshells in macrophages was confirmed with TEM imaging. Next, the loading of both murine and rat macrophages with gold nanoshells was studied using UV/Vis spectrophotometry, where higher nanoshell uptake was found in rat macrophages. Incubation of loaded murine and rat macrophages with rat C-6 and human ACBT spheroids, respectively, resulted in their infiltration of the spheroids. Subsequent laser irradiation at 55 W/cm2 for 10 min and follow-up of spheroid average diameter size over 14 days post-irradiation showed that

  13. The adult murine heart has a sparse, phagocytically active macrophage population that expands through monocyte recruitment and adopts an ‘M2’ phenotype in response to Th2 immunologic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mylonas, Katie J.; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Castellan, Raphael F.P.; Ruckerl, Dominik; McGregor, Kieran; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T.; Hewitson, James P.; Campbell, Sharon M.; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Allen, Judith E.; Gray, Gillian A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue resident macrophages have vital homeostatic roles in many tissues but their roles are less well defined in the heart. The present study aimed to identify the density, polarisation status and distribution of macrophages in the healthy murine heart and to investigate their ability to respond to immune challenge. Histological analysis of hearts from CSF-1 receptor (csf1-GFP; MacGreen) and CX3CR1 (Cx3cr1GFP/+) reporter mice revealed a sparse population of GFP positive macrophages that were evenly distributed throughout the left and right ventricular free walls and septum. F4/80+CD11b+ cardiac macrophages, sorted from myocardial homogenates, were able to phagocytose fluorescent beads in vitro and expressed markers typical of both ‘M1’ (IL-1β, TNF and CCR2) and ‘M2’ activation (Ym1, Arg 1, RELMα and IL-10), suggesting no specific polarisation in healthy myocardium. Exposure to Th2 challenge by infection of mice with helminth parasites Schistosoma mansoni, or Heligmosomoides polygyrus, resulted in an increase in cardiac macrophage density, adoption of a stellate morphology and increased expression of Ym1, RELMα and CD206 (mannose receptor), indicative of ‘M2’ polarisation. This was dependent on recruitment of Ly6ChighCCR2+ monocytes and was accompanied by an increase in collagen content. In conclusion, in the healthy heart resident macrophages are relatively sparse and have a phagocytic role. Following Th2 challenge this population expands due to monocyte recruitment and adopts an ‘M2’ phenotype associated with increased tissue fibrosis. PMID:25700973

  14. Intracellular growth inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum induced in murine macrophages by recombinant gamma interferon is not due to a limitation of the supply of methionine or cysteine to the fungus.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, B A; Howard, D H

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) stimulates mouse peritoneal macrophages to inhibit the intracellular growth of the zoopathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In some systems, the inhibition of growth of an intracellular parasite by rIFN-gamma has been related to nutritional constraints induced in the host cells by the lymphokine. Such an explanation might apply to H. capsulatum because the fungus is a functional methionine-cysteine (Met-Cys) auxotroph at 37 degrees C; its sulfite reductase is repressed at that temperature. For this reason, we set about to examine whether or not the antihistoplasma state induced in rMuIFN-gamma is due to a restriction in the availability of Met-Cys. Omission of Met-Cys from the medium in which macrophages were cultivated prevented H. capsulatum from growing within them. Addition of Met or Cys to the macrophage cultures did not antagonize the inhibitory effect induced in the cells by rMuIFN-gamma. Thus, there was no evidence from our work that rMuIFN-gamma evokes the antihistoplasma effect in mouse peritoneal macrophages by limiting the supply of Met-Cys to the fungus. PMID:1730506

  15. Murine Cerebral Malaria Is Associated with a Vasospasm-Like Microcirculatory Dysfunction, and Survival upon Rescue Treatment Is Markedly Increased by Nimodipine

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Zanini, Graziela M.; Meays, Diana; Frangos, John A.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that