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Sample records for murine macrophage survival

  1. Differential bacterial survival, replication, and apoptosis-inducing ability of Salmonella serovars within human and murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schwan, W R; Huang, X Z; Hu, L; Kopecko, D J

    2000-03-01

    Salmonella serovars are associated with human diseases that range from mild gastroenteritis to host-disseminated enteric fever. Human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi can lead to typhoid fever, but this serovar does not typically cause disease in mice or other animals. In contrast, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, which are usually linked to localized gastroenteritis in humans and some animal species, elicit a systemic infection in mice. To better understand these observations, multiple strains of each of several chosen serovars of Salmonella were tested for the ability in the nonopsonized state to enter, survive, and replicate within human macrophage cells (U937 and elutriated primary cells) compared with murine macrophage cells (J774A.1 and primary peritoneal cells); in addition, death of the infected macrophages was monitored. The serovar Typhimurium strains all demonstrated enhanced survival within J774A.1 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages, compared with the significant, almost 100-fold declines in viable counts noted for serovar Typhi strains. Viable counts for serovar Enteritidis either matched the level of serovar Typhi (J774A. 1 macrophages) or were comparable to counts for serovar Typhimurium (murine peritoneal macrophages). Apoptosis was significantly higher in J774A.1 cells infected with serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 compared to serovar Typhi strain Ty2. On the other hand, serovar Typhi survived at a level up to 100-fold higher in elutriated human macrophages and 2- to 3-fold higher in U937 cells compared to the serovar Typhimurium and Enteritidis strains tested. Despite the differential multiplication of serovar Typhi during infection of U937 cells, serovar Typhi caused significantly less apoptosis than infections with serovar Typhimurium. These observations indicate variability in intramacrophage survival and host cytotoxicity among the various serovars and are the first to show differences in

  2. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pan; Lu, Qiang; Cui, Guimei; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Changjiang; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-02-15

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. TREM-2 functions as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria as well as an inhibitor of Toll like receptors (TLR) induced inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM-2 in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. To investigate whether TREM-2 is involved in Brucella intracellular survival, we chose bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), in which TREM-2 is stably expressed, as cell model. Colony formation Units (CFUs) assay suggests that TREM-2 is involved in the internalization of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) by macrophages, while silencing of TREM-2 decreases intracellular survival of B. abortus. To further study the underlying mechanisms of TREM-2-mediated bacterial intracellular survival, we examined the activation of B. abortus-infected macrophages through determining the kinetics of activation of the three MAPKs, including ERK, JNK and p38, and measuring TNFα production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella (BrLPS) or B. abortus stimulation. Our data show that TREM-2 deficiency promotes activation of Brucella-infected macrophages. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that macrophage activation promotes killing of Brucella by enhancing nitric oxygen (NO), but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, macrophage apoptosis or cellular death. Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages.

  3. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Interaction between Candida krusei and Murine Macrophages Results in Multiple Outcomes, Including Intracellular Survival and Escape from Killing ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodas, Rocío; González-Camacho, Fernando; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Candida krusei is a fungal pathogen of interest for the scientific community for its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. Little is known about the interaction of this yeast with host immune cells. In this work, we have characterized the outcome of the interaction between C. krusei and murine macrophages. Once C. krusei was internalized, we observed different phenomena. In a macrophage-like cell line, C. krusei survived in a significant number of macrophages and induced filamentation and macrophage explosion. Phagocytosis of C. krusei led to actin polymerization around the yeast cells at the site of entry. Fluorescent specific staining with anti-Lamp1 and LysoTracker indicated that after fungal internalization, there was a phagolysosome maturation defect, a phenomenon that was more efficient when the macrophages phagocytosed killed yeast cells. Using cell line macrophages, we also observed macrophage fusion after cell division. When we used primary resident peritoneal macrophages in addition to macrophage explosion, we also observed a strong chemotaxis of uninfected macrophages to regions where C. krusei-infected macrophages were present. We also noticed yeast transfer phenomena between infected macrophages. Primary macrophages inhibited pseudohypha elongation more efficiently than the macrophage-like cell line, suggesting that C. krusei infection was better controlled by the former macrophages. Primary macrophages induced more tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) than the macrophage-like cell line. Our results demonstrate that C. krusei can exploit the macrophages for replication, although other different outcomes are also possible, indicating that the interaction of this pathogen with phagocytic cells is very complex and regulated by multiple factors. PMID:21422181

  5. A Transposon Site Hybridization Screen Identifies galU and wecBC as Important for Survival of Yersinia pestis in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kathryn A.; Fukuto, Hana S.; Pelletier, Mark; Romanov, Galina; Grabenstein, Jens P.; Palmer, Lance E.; Ernst, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is able to survive and replicate within murine macrophages. However, the mechanism by which Y. pestis promotes its intracellular survival is not well understood. To identify genes that are important for Y. pestis survival in macrophages, a library comprised of ∼31,500 Y. pestis KIM6+ transposon insertion mutants (input pool) was subjected to negative selection in primary murine macrophages. Genes underrepresented in the output pool of surviving bacteria were identified by transposon site hybridization to DNA oligonucleotide microarrays. The screen identified several genes known to be important for survival of Y. pestis in macrophages, including phoPQ and members of the PhoPQ regulon (e.g., pmrF). In addition, genes predicated to encode a glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (galU), a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (wecB) and a UDP-N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (wecC) were identified in the screen. Viable-count assays demonstrated that a KIM6+ galU mutant and a KIM6+ wecBC mutant were defective for survival in murine macrophages. The galU mutant was studied further because of its strong phenotype. The KIM6+ galU mutant exhibited increased susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptides polymyxin B and cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the galU mutant migrated faster than the LOS of the parent KIM6+, suggesting the core was truncated. In addition, the analysis of LOS isolated from the galU mutant by mass spectrometry showed that aminoarabinose modification of lipid A is absent. Therefore, addition of aminoarabinose to lipid A and complete LOS core (galU), as well as enterobacterial common antigen (wecB and wecC), is important for survival of Y. pestis in macrophages. PMID:22139502

  6. Antimicrobial proteins of murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, P S; Eisenhauer, P B; Harwig, S S; van den Barselaar, M T; van Furth, R; Lehrer, R I

    1993-01-01

    Three murine microbicidal proteins (MUMPs) were purified from cells of the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 that had been activated by gamma interferon. Similar proteins were also present in nonactivated RAW264.7 cells, in cells of the murine macrophage cell line J774A.1, and in resident and activated murine peritoneal macrophages. MUMP-1, MUMP-2, and MUMP-3 killed Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. MUMP-1 resembled an H1 histone but was unusual because its N-terminal residue (serine) was not N acetylated. Although MUMP-2 was N terminally blocked, its high lysine/arginine ratio and its reactivity with an antibody to H1 histones suggested that it also belonged to the H1 histone family. MUMP-3 was identical to histone H2B in 30 of 30 amino-terminal residues. Although the antimicrobial properties of histones have been recognized for decades, this is the first evidence that such proteins may endow the lysosomal apparatus of macrophages with nonoxidative antimicrobial potential. Other MUMPs, including some with a more restricted antimicrobial spectrum and one that appeared to be induced in RAW264.7 cells after gamma interferon stimulation, were noted but remain to be characterized. Images PMID:8514411

  7. Isolation and Differentiation of Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rios, Francisco J; Touyz, Rhian M; Montezano, Augusto C

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play a major role in inflammation, wound healing, and tissue repair. Infiltrated monocytes differentiate into different macrophage subtypes with protective or pathogenic activities in vascular lesions. In the heart and vascular tissues, pathological activation promotes cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling and there is increasing evidence that macrophages play important mechanisms in this environment. Primary murine macrophages can be obtained from: bone marrow by different treatments (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor-M-CSF or supernatant of murine fibroblast L929), peritoneal cavity (resident or thioglycolate elicit macrophages), from the lung (alveolar macrophages) or from adipose tissue. In this chapter we describe some protocols to obtain primary murine macrophages and how to identify a pure macrophage population or activation phenotypes using different markers.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival.

    PubMed

    Bent, Zachary W; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M; LaBauve, Annette E; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna J; House, Samantha E; Tew, Karen E; Hamblin, Rachelle Y; Williams, Kelly P; Branda, Steven S; Young, Glenn M; Meagher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26 °C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37 °C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.

  9. A transcriptomic analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B infecting murine macrophages reveals new mechanisms of intracellular survival

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Zachary W.; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna Joy; House, Samantha E.; Tew, Karen E.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; Williams, Kelly Porter; Branda, Steven S.; Young, Glenn M.; Meagher, Robert J.

    2015-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocoliticabiovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.

  10. A macrophage and theca cell-enriched stromal cell population influences growth and survival of immature murine follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tingen, Candace M; Kiesewetter, Sarah E; Jozefik, Jennifer; Thomas, Cristina; Tagler, David; Shea, Lonnie; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2011-06-01

    Innovations in in vitro ovarian follicle culture have revolutionized the field of fertility preservation, but the successful culturing of isolated primary and small secondary follicles remains difficult. Herein, we describe a revised 3D culture system that uses a feeder layer of ovarian stromal cells to support early follicle development. This culture system allows significantly improved primary and early secondary follicle growth and survival. The stromal cells, consisting mostly of thecal cells and ovarian macrophages, recapitulate the in vivo conditions of these small follicles and increase the production of androgens and cytokines missing from stromal cell-free culture conditions. These results demonstrate that small follicles have a stage-specific reliance on the ovarian environment, and that growth and survival can be improved in vitro through a milieu created by pre-pubertal ovarian stromal cell co-culture.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B Infecting Murine Macrophages Reveals New Mechanisms of Extracellular and Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; LaBauve, Annette E.; Sinha, Anupama; Curtis, Deanna J.; House, Samantha E.; Tew, Karen E.; Hamblin, Rachelle Y.; Williams, Kelly P.; Branda, Steven S.; Young, Glenn M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish a baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies. PMID:25895974

  12. A transcriptomic analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B infecting murine macrophages reveals new mechanisms of intracellular survival

    DOE PAGES

    Bent, Zachary W.; Poorey, Kunal; Brazel, David M.; ...

    2015-04-20

    Yersinia enterocolitica is typically considered an extracellular pathogen; however, during the course of an infection, a significant number of bacteria are stably maintained within host cell vacuoles. Little is known about this population and the role it plays during an infection. To address this question and to elucidate the spatially and temporally dynamic gene expression patterns of Y. enterocoliticabiovar 1B through the course of an in vitro infection, transcriptome sequencing and differential gene expression analysis of bacteria infecting murine macrophage cells were performed under four distinct conditions. Bacteria were first grown in a nutrient-rich medium at 26°C to establish amore » baseline of gene expression that is unrelated to infection. The transcriptomes of these bacteria were then compared to bacteria grown in a conditioned cell culture medium at 37°C to identify genes that were differentially expressed in response to the increased temperature and medium but not in response to host cells. Infections were then performed, and the transcriptomes of bacteria found on the extracellular surface and intracellular compartments were analyzed individually. The upregulated genes revealed potential roles for a variety of systems in promoting intracellular virulence, including the Ysa type III secretion system, the Yts2 type II secretion system, and the Tad pilus. It was further determined that mutants of each of these systems had decreased virulence while infecting macrophages. Overall, these results reveal the complete set of genes expressed by Y. enterocolitica in response to infection and provide the groundwork for future virulence studies.« less

  13. Alveolar macrophages are required for protective pulmonary defenses in murine Klebsiella pneumonia: elimination of alveolar macrophages increases neutrophil recruitment but decreases bacterial clearance and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Broug-Holub, E; Toews, G B; van Iwaarden, J F; Strieter, R M; Kunkel, S L; Paine, R; Standiford, T J

    1997-01-01

    To study the in vivo role of alveolar macrophages (AM) in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia in mice, AM were eliminated by the intratracheal (i.t.) administration of dichloromethylene diphosphonate encapsulated liposomes. Subsequently, the AM-depleted mice were infected i.t. with 100 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the effects of AM depletion on survival, bacterial clearance, and neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) recruitment were assessed. It was shown that depletion of AM decreases survival dramatically, with 100% lethality at day 3 postinfection, versus 100% long-term survival in the control group. This increased mortality was accompanied by 20- to 27- and 3- to 10-fold increases in the number of K. pneumoniae CFU in lung and plasma, respectively, compared to those in nondepleted animals. This decreased bacterial clearance was not due to an impaired PMN recruitment; on the contrary, the K. pneumoniae-induced PMN recruitment in AM-depleted lungs was sevenfold greater 48 h postinfection than that in control infected lungs. Together with an increased PMN infiltration, 3- and 10-fold increases in lung homogenate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) levels, respectively, were measured. Neutralization of TNF-alpha or MIP-2, 2 h before infection, reduced the numbers of infiltrating PMN by 41.6 and 64.2%, respectively, indicating that these cytokines mediate PMN influx in infected lungs, rather then just being produced by the recruited PMN themselves. Our studies demonstrate, for the first time, the relative importance of the AM in the containment and clearance of bacteria in the setting of Klebsiella pneumonia. PMID:9119443

  14. Autophagy favors Brucella melitensis survival in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu; Hu, Shengwei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yong; Du, Guoqing

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the role of autophagy in the survival of the invasive bacterium Brucella melitensis strain 16M in murine macrophages. Here, Brucella melitensis 16M was found to trigger autophagosome formation, enhance autophagy flux and increase the expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), Brucella replication efficiency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These results suggest that autophagy favors Brucella melitensis 16M survival in murine macrophages.

  15. Omp31 plays an important role on outer membrane properties and intracellular survival of Brucella melitensis in murine macrophages and HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Verdiguel-Fernández, L; Oropeza-Navarro, R; Basurto-Alcántara, Francisco J; Castañeda-Ramírez, A; Verdugo-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2017-04-05

    Brucellosis is an infectious disease that affects practically all species of mammals, including human, and is a major zoonosis worldwide. Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that have the ability to survive and multiply in phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells such as trophoblast and epithelial cells. Among the six recognized species of the genus Brucella, Brucella melitensis is the main etiological agent involved in goat brucellosis and is also the most pathogenic for human. It causes significant losses in livestock production as a result of abortions, metritis, infertility, and birth of weak animals. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are exposed on the bacterial surface and are in contact with cells and effectors of the host immune response, whereby they could be important virulence factors of Brucella species. To evaluate this hypothesis, the gene encoding for the major outer membrane protein Omp31 was amplified, cloned into pUC18 plasmid, and inactivated by inserting a kanamycin cassette, rendering pLVM31 plasmid which was transformed into B. melitensis wild-type strain to obtain LVM31 mutant strain. The Outer membrane (OM) properties of the mutant strain were compared with B. melitensis Bm133 wild-type and B. melitensis Rev1 vaccine strains, in assessing its susceptibility to polymyxin B, sodium deoxycholate, and nonimmune serum. The mutant strain was assessed in vitro with survival assays in murine macrophages J774.A1 and HeLa cells. Our results demonstrate that LVM31 mutant is more susceptible to polymyxin B, sodium deoxycholate, and nonimmune serum than control strains; moreover, Omp31 mutation caused a decrease in the internalization and a significant decrease in the intracellular survival compared with the reference strains in both cell lines. These results allow us to conclude that Omp31 is important for maintaining OM integrity, but also it is necessary for bacterial internalization, establishment and development of an optimal replication

  16. Macrophage elastase kills bacteria within murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Houghton, A McGarry; Hartzell, William O; Robbins, Clinton S; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Shapiro, Steven D

    2009-07-30

    Macrophages are aptly positioned to function as the primary line of defence against invading pathogens in many organs, including the lung and peritoneum. Their ability to phagocytose and clear microorganisms has been well documented. Macrophages possess several substances with which they can kill bacteria, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and antimicrobial proteins. We proposed that macrophage-derived proteinases may contribute to the antimicrobial properties of macrophages. Macrophage elastase (also known as matrix metalloproteinase 12 or MMP12) is an enzyme predominantly expressed in mature tissue macrophages and is implicated in several disease processes, including emphysema. Physiological functions for MMP12 have not been described. Here we show that Mmp12(-/-) mice exhibit impaired bacterial clearance and increased mortality when challenged with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria at macrophage-rich portals of entry, such as the peritoneum and lung. Intracellular stores of MMP12 are mobilized to macrophage phagolysosomes after the ingestion of bacterial pathogens. Once inside phagolysosomes, MMP12 adheres to bacterial cell walls where it disrupts cellular membranes resulting in bacterial death. The antimicrobial properties of MMP12 do not reside within its catalytic domain, but rather within the carboxy-terminal domain. This domain contains a unique four amino acid sequence on an exposed beta loop of the protein that is required for the observed antimicrobial activity. The present study represents, to our knowledge, the first report of direct antimicrobial activity by a matrix metallopeptidase, and describes a new antimicrobial peptide that is sequentially and structurally unique in nature.

  17. Alternative activation and increase of Trypanosoma cruzi survival in murine macrophages stimulated by cruzipain, a parasite antigen.

    PubMed

    Stempin, Cinthia; Giordanengo, Laura; Gea, Susana; Cerbán, Fabio

    2002-10-01

    We studied the macrophage (Mo) activation pathways through Mo interaction with immunogenic Trypanosoma cruzi antigens as cruzipain (Cz) and R13. J774 cells, peritoneal and spleen Mo from normal mice, were used. Although Mo classic activation was observed in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, evaluated through nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-12 production, Cz and R13 did not activate Mo in this way. To study the alternative pathway, we examined the arginase activity in Mo cultured with Cz. An increase of arginase activity was detected in all Mo sources assayed. An increase of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta in culture supernatants from Mo stimulated with Cz was observed. The study of expression of B7.1 and B7.2 in spleen Mo revealed that Cz induces preferential expression of B7.2. In vitro studies revealed that Cz stimulated J774 cells and then, infected with trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, developed a higher number of intracellular parasites than unstimulated infected Mo. Thus, Cz favors the perpetuation of T. cruzi infection. In addition, a down-regulation of inducible NO synthase was observed in J774 cells stimulated with Cz. These results suggest that Cz interaction with Mo could modulate the immune response generated against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway in Mo.

  18. Possible role of Toll-like receptor-2 in the intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages: involvement of cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, B; Bandyopadhyay, D; Majhi, A; Adhikary, R

    2014-08-01

    Effects of blocking toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss albino mice were analysed. Macrophages were infected with S. aureus in the presence and absence of anti-TLR-2 antibody. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations were measured. Expressions of TLR-2, NF-κB, MyD 88 were analysed by Western Blot. Expression of TLR-2 was increased in S. aureus-infected macrophages with respect to control and was MyD 88 independent. TLR2 blocking significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 and increased IFN-γ and IL-12 production. Decreased catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) by S. aureus with concomitant increase in H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) were observed in the case of prior TLR-2 blocking. To understand whether catalase contributing in the intracellular survival, was of bacterial origin or not, 3-amino, 1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ) was used to inhibit specifically macrophage-derived catalase. Catalase enzyme activity from the whole staphylococcal cells in the presence of ATZ suggested that the released catalase were of extracellular origin. From the intracellular survival assay, it was evident that pretreatment of macrophages with ATZ reduces the bacterial burden in macrophages when infected with the recovered bacteria only from the anti-TLR-2 antibody-treated macrophages after phagocytosis. Catalase protein expression from the whole staphylococcal cells recovered after phagocytosis also indicated the catalase release from S. aureus. Capturing of S. aureus via TLR-2 induces inflammatory reactions through activation of NF-κB-signalling pathways which was MyD88-independent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Murine macrophages response to iron.

    PubMed

    Polati, Rita; Castagna, Annalisa; Bossi, Alessandra Maria; Alberio, Tiziana; De Domenico, Ivana; Kaplan, Jerry; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Gevi, Federica; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Brunch, Ryan; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico

    2012-12-05

    Macrophages play a critical role at the crossroad between iron metabolism and immunity, being able to store and recycle iron derived from the phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes. The way by which macrophages manage non-heme iron at physiological concentration is still not fully understood. We investigated protein changes in mouse bone marrow macrophages incubated with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC 10 μM iron). Differentially expressed spots were identified by nano RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Transcriptomic, metabolomics and western immunoblotting analyses complemented the proteomic approach. Pattern analysis was also used for identifying networks of proteins involved in iron homeostasis. FAC treatment resulted in higher abundance of several proteins including ferritins, cytoskeleton related proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) at the membrane level, vimentin, arginase, galectin-3 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Interestingly, GAPDH has been recently proposed to act as an alternative transferrin receptor for iron acquisition through internalization of the GAPDH-transferrin complex into the early endosomes. FAC treatment also induced the up-regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins (PRDX), which was further confirmed at the metabolic level (increase in GSSG, 8-isoprostane and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates) through mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics approaches. This study represents an example of the potential usefulness of "integarated omics" in the field of iron biology, especially for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in normal and disease conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics.

  20. The Small Colony Variant of Listeria monocytogenes Is More Tolerant to Antibiotics and Has Altered Survival in RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas D.; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2016-01-01

    Small Colony Variant (SCV) cells of bacteria are a slow-growing phenotype that result from specific defects in the electron transport chain. They form pinpoint colonies on agar plates and have a variety of phenotypic characteristics, such as altered carbon metabolism, decreased toxin and lytic enzyme production, aminoglycoside resistance, and increased intracellular persistence. They are clinically relevant in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, serving as a reservoir for recurrent or prolonged infections. Here, we found that a SCV mutant in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (strain SCV E18), similar to the high persister mutant phenotype, survived significantly better than the wild type when exposed over a 48-h period to concentrations above Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for most tested antibiotics. SCV E18 survived more poorly than the wildtype in unactivated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, presumably because of its reduced listeriolysin O expression, however, it survived better in reactive oxygen species producing, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated macrophages. Although SCV E18 was sensitive to oxygen as it entered the stationary phase, it was significantly more tolerant to H2O2 than the wild type, which may result from a shift in metabolism, however, further investigation is needed to resolve this. SCV E18 is a spontaneous mutant with a point mutation in the hemA gene. A wild type copy of hemA was complemented on plasmid pSOG30222, which restored the wild type phenotype. The results reported here suggest that the SCV of L. monocytogenes could be of clinical importance and highlight a need for adequate clinical screening for this phenotype, as it could affect antibiotic treatment outcomes. PMID:27458449

  1. Intracellular survival of Clostridium chauvoei in bovine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Oliveira Bernardes, Laura Cristina; de Macêdo, Auricélio Alves; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; de Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Augusto; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium chauvoei is the etiological agent of blackleg, a severe disease of domestic ruminants, causing myonecrosis and serious toxemia with high mortality. Despite the known importance of this agent, studies evaluating its pathogenesis of blackleg are scarce, and many are based on an unproven hypothesis that states that macrophages are responsible for carrying C. chauvoei spores from the intestines to muscles in the early stages of blackleg. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the survival of C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores after phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages and to profile inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts of bovine macrophages infected with C. chauvoei vegetative cells or spores. Both vegetative cells and spores of C. chauvoei remain viable after internalization by murine and bovine macrophages. Bovine macrophages infected with vegetative cells showed a pro-inflammatory profile, while those infected with spores displayed an anti-inflammatory profile. Together, these results corroborate the classical hypothesis that macrophages may play a role in the early pathogenesis of blackleg. Moreover, this is the first study to evaluate the infection kinetics and cytokine profile of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with a Clostridium species.

  2. Survival and replication of Rhodococcus equi in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hondalus, M K; Mosser, D M

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium of macrophages that can cause serious pneumonia in both young horses and immunocompromised people. Essential to understanding rhodococcus pathogenesis is a quantitative documentation of the intracellular events that follow macrophage phagocytosis of the organism. By using a bacterial immunofluorescence staining assay, we verified the intracellular survival and replicative potential of R. equi in both murine peritoneal macrophages and equine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Following an initial lag period of 6 to 12 h, the intracellular numbers of R. equi begin to rise, often reaching macrophage-compromising levels by 48 h. A quantitative determination of bacterial growth by a novel image analysis cytometry technique confirmed our fluorescence microscopic results. By 48 h postinfection, bacterial numbers had increased by more than fivefold, and the majority of infected macrophages in the monolayer contained 10 or more bacteria per cell. The intracellular organisms were viable, as evidenced by the ability to incorporate radiolabeled uracil. The use of these techniques has identified differences in the in vitro replicative capacities of a virulent strain and an avirulent strain of R. equi. A clinical isolate of R. equi expressing a 17-kDa virulence-associated plasmid-encoded antigen was able to survive and replicate within macrophages, whereas an avirulent, non-plasmid-containing strain replicated poorly. These results suggest that plasmid-encoded bacterial virulence factors may contribute to the ability of R. equi to replicate within its host cell, the macrophage. Images PMID:7927672

  3. Immunological impact of magnetic nanoparticles (Ferucarbotran) on murine peritoneal macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Wang, Jaw-Lin; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-01-01

    Ferucarbotran, a clinically used superparamagnetic iron oxide, is widely developed as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent and has the potential to improve the monitoring of macrophage recirculation in vivo. However, the biological effect of Ferucarbotran or magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on macrophage is not clearly understood yet. This study is aimed to examine the immunological impact of Ferucarbotran toward murine peritoneal macrophages. Cells treated with Ferucarbotran demonstrated a dose-responsive increase of granularity in the cytoplasm. After 24 h of incubation, viability and cytotoxicity in macrophages treated with 200 μg Fe/mL of Ferucarbotran were not affected. Macrophages loaded with Ferucarbotran above 100 μg Fe/mL showed a significant ( p < 0.01) increase in cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) secretion and mRNA expression, followed by nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS mRNA expression. Chemotactic responses of Ferucarbotran-preloaded macrophages toward CX3CL1 were significantly ( p < 0.05) lower than those of untreated macrophages. Taking together, Ferucarbotran at high dose (100 μg Fe/mL) could induce murine peritoneal macrophages activation in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and NO production.

  4. Immunomodulation by Blastomyces dermatitidis: functional activity of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, L S; Cozad, G C

    1983-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays the dominant role in the immune response of mice to Blastomyces dermatitidis infections. Since macrophages play an important role in cell-mediated immunity, the interactions between sensitized murine peritoneal macrophages and the yeast phase of B. dermatitidis were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the sensitized macrophages readily phagocytized B. dermatitidis yeast cells. In addition, there appeared to be activation of metabolic pathways within the sensitized macrophages, as indicated by increased chemiluminescence activity during phagocytosis. Sensitized macrophages were significantly better at controlling intracellular proliferation of the yeast cells when compared to nonsensitized cells. This was determined by disruption of macrophages and plating for viable yeasts. Scanning electron microscope observations offered further substantiation. Experiments with Candida albicans indicated that B. dermatitidis non-specifically activated macrophages. At 2 h postphagocytosis, 30% fewer C. albicans in B. dermatitidis-activated macrophages were able to form germ tubes. These studies demonstrated the multiple potential of activated macrophages with regard to their functional activity. Images PMID:6840859

  5. Experimental infection of murine and human macrophages with Cystoisospora belli.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Assis, Dnieber C; Prata, Aluízio; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2009-08-01

    Extraintestinal cystoisosporosis by Cystoisospora belli has already been reported in HIV/AIDS patients, generally involving preferential invasion of mesenteric and trachaeobronchial lymph nodes, liver and spleen by unizoic cysts of this parasite, which may infect macrophages. To test this hypothesis, murine and human macrophages were exposed to sporozoites of C. belli and cultures were observed daily after contact with these cells. The parasites penetrated and multiplied by endodyogeny in both cell types and inserted themselves inside perinuclear vacuoles. After 48 h, extracellular parasites were removed from macrophage cultures and incubated in Monkey Kidney Rhesus cells (MK2) where there was intense multiplication. This is the first report of infection of macrophages by this parasite, which supports the hypothesis that these could act as C. belli host cells in extraintestinal sites.

  6. Effects of nanoparticles on murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallet, M.; Aude-Garcia, C.; Lelong, C.; Candéias, S.; Luche, S.; Collin-Faure, V.; Triboulet, S.; Diallo, D.; Diemer, H.; van Dorsselaer, A.; Rabilloud, T.

    2011-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are more and more widely used in an increasing number of applications. Consequently, they are more and more present in the environment, and the risk that they may represent for human health must be evaluated. This requires to increase our knowledge of the cellular responses to nanoparticles. In this context, macrophages appear as an attractive system. They play a major role in eliminating foreign matter, e.g. pathogens or infectious agents, by phagocytosis and inflammatory responses, and are thus highly likely to react to nanoparticles. We have decided to study their responses to nanoparticles by a combination of classical and wide-scope approaches such as proteomics. The long term goal of this study is the better understanding of the responses of macrophages to nanoparticles, and thus to help to assess their possible impact on human health. We chose as a model system bone marrow-derived macrophages and studied the effect of commonly used nanoparticles such as TiO2 and Cu. Classical responses of macrophage were characterized and proteomic approaches based on 2D gels of whole cell extracts were used. Preliminary proteomic data resulting from whole cell extracts showed different effects for TiO2-NPs and Cu-NPs. Modifications of the expression of several proteins involved in different pathways such as, for example, signal transduction, endosome-lysosome pathway, Krebs cycle, oxidative stress response have been underscored. These first results validate our proteomics approach and open a new wide field of investigation for NPs impact on macrophages.

  7. Extract from Calotropis procera latex activates murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seddek, Abdel latif Shaker; Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Iwami, Momoe; Miyazawa, Seiji; Nikami, Hideki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex has long been used in traditional medicines. Extracts from C. procera latex have been reported to have various pharmacological actions, including protection from myocardial infarction, hepatoprotective action, antitumor activity, antinociceptive, and pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. To evaluate the immunomodulatory functions of the water-soluble C. procera extract (CPE), we investigated its ability to activate macrophages-effector cells in inflammatory and immune responses. Intraperitoneal injection of CPE in mice (2 mg/mouse) induced migration of macrophages to the intraperitoneal cavity, confirming the proinflammatory effects of water-soluble CPE. The direct effects of CPE on macrophages were then assessed by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) as an indicator for macrophage activation. Addition of CPE (1-10 microg/ml) to the culture medium of the murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 caused an increase in NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CPE-elicited NO production was blocked by application of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Expression of iNOS mRNA was induced by treatment of cultured macrophages with CPE. Injection of CPE in mice also resulted in an increase in plasma NO level. The results suggest that CPE activates macrophages and facilitates NO production via up-regulation of iNOS gene expression.

  8. Specific binding sites for muramyl peptides on murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, D.H.S.; Krueger, J.M.; Karnovsky, M.L.

    1986-03-15

    Two radiolabeled (/sup 125/I) muramyl peptide derivatives of high specific activity were prepared: a tripeptide with an iodinated C-terminal tyrosine methyl ester (Ligand I), and a muramyl tripeptide with a C-terminal lysine derivatized with Bolton-Hunter reagent (Ligand II). These were used to characterize binding of muramyl peptides to monolayers of murine macrophages. Saturable high-affinity binding to resident, caseinate-elicited, and Listeria-activated peritoneal cells was observed with both radioligands. Binding affinities varied with the state of activation of the macrophages, and K/sub D/ values ranged from 48 +/- 33 pM (for resident macrophages, Ligand I) to 1020 +/- 90 pM (for activated macrophages, Ligand II). Specific binding sites were also found on a macrophage-derived cell line. The ability of several unlabeled muramyl peptides to compete with Ligands I and II for their binding sites was tested. Competition was stereospecific and correlated with known biological activities of these compounds (i.e., immunoadjuvanticity, pyrogenicity, and somnogenicity). The sites identified here for Ligands I and II may mediate some of the effects that muramyl peptides have previously been demonstrated to have on macrophages.

  9. Intracellular Survival and Persistence of Chlamydia muridarum Is Determined by Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Gracey, Eric; Lin, Aifeng; Akram, Ali; Chiu, Basil; Inman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFNγ)/LPS induced (M1) and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2) macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU) than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFNγ in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host–pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host. PMID:23967058

  10. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) stimulates murine macrophages infected with Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Ayelén A; Rolny, Ivanna S; Romanin, David; Pérez, Pablo F

    2017-03-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a specific murine enteropathogen which causes diarrheal disease characterized by colonic hyperplasia and intestinal inflammation. Recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages constitute a key step to control the infection. Since modulation of the activity of professional phagocytic cells could contribute to improve host´s defences against C. rodentium, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) on the interaction between murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C. rodentium. Phagocytosis, surface molecules and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) expression were determined by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The presence of lactobacilli increased phagocytosis of C. rodentium whereas C. rodentium had no effect on lactobacilli internalization. Survival of internalized C. rodentium diminished when strain CIDCA 133 was present. CD-86, MHCII, iNOs expression and nitrite production were increased when C. rodentium and lactobacilli were present even though strain CIDCA 133 alone had no effect. Strain CIDCA 133 led to a strong induction of ROS activity which was not modified by C. rodentium. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) is able to increase the activation of murine macrophages infected with C. rodentium. The sole presence of lactobacilli is enough to modify some stimulation markers (e.g. ROS induction) whereas other markers require the presence of both bacteria; thus, indicating a synergistic effect.

  11. Investigating intracellular persistence of Staphylococcus aureus within a murine alveolar macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Lacoma, A; Cano, V; Moranta, D; Regueiro, V; Domínguez-Villanueva, D; Laabei, M; González-Nicolau, M; Ausina, V; Prat, C; Bengoechea, J A

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a particularly difficult pathogen to eradicate from the respiratory tract. Previous studies have highlighted the intracellular capacity of S.aureus in several phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. The aim of this study was to define S.aureus interaction within a murine alveolar macrophage cell line. Cell line MH-S was infected with Newman strain. Molecular mechanisms involved in phagocytosis were explored. To assess whether S.aureus survives intracellularly quantitative (gentamicin protection assays and bacterial plating) and qualitative analysis (immunofluorescence microscopy) were performed. Bacterial colocalization with different markers of the endocytic pathway was examined to characterize its intracellular trafficking. We found that S.aureus uptake requires host actin polymerization, microtubule assembly and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Time course experiments showed that Newman strain was able to persist within macrophages at least until 28.5 h post infection. We observed that intracellular bacteria are located inside an acidic subcellular compartment, which co-localizes with the late endosome/lysosome markers Lamp-1, Rab7 and RILP. Colocalization counts with TMR-dextran might reflect a balance between bacterial killing and intracellular survival. This study indicates that S.aureus persists and replicates inside murine alveolar macrophages, representing a privileged niche that can potentially offer protection from antimicrobial activity and immunological host defense mechanisms.

  12. Assessment of carbon nanoparticle exposure on murine macrophage function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suro-Maldonado, Raquel M.

    There is growing concern about the potential cytotoxicity of nanoparticles. Exposure to respirable ultrafine particles (2.5uM) can adversely affect human health and have been implicated with episodes of increased respiratory diseases such as asthma and allergies. Nanoparticles are of particular interest because of their ability to penetrate into the lung and potentially elicit health effects triggering immune responses. Nanoparticles are structures and devises with length scales in the 1 to 100-nanometer range. Black carbon (BC) nanoparticles have been observed to be products of combustion, especially flame combustion and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been shown to be found in both indoor and outdoor air. Furthermore, asbestos, which have been known to cause mesothelioma as well as lung cancer, have been shown to be structurally identical to MWCNTs. The aims of these studies were to examine the effects of carbon nanoparticles on murine macrophage function and clearance mechanisms. Macrophages are immune cells that function as the first line of defense against invading pathogens and are likely to be amongst the first cells affected by nanoparticles. Our research focused on two manufactured nanoparticles, MWCNT and BC. The two were tested against murine-derived macrophages in a chronic contact model. We hypothesized that long-term chronic exposure to carbon nanoparticles would decrease macrophages ability to effectively respond to immunological challenge. Production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), cell surface macrophage; activation markers, reactive oxygen species formation (ROS), and antigen processing and presentation were examined in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following a 144hr exposure to the particulates. Data demonstrated an increase in TNF-alpha, and NO production; a decrease in phagocytosis and antigen processing and presentation; and a decrease in the expression levels of cell surface macrophage

  13. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savion, N.; Disatnik, M.H.; Nevo, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The degradation of (/sup 35/S)O/sub 4//sup -/-labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10..mu..g/ml), arteparon (10..mu..g/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 ..mu..g/ml. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage haparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis.

  14. Effects of sodium fluoride on immune response in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Beatriz; Vázquez, Marta; Rocha, René Antonio; Devesa, Vicenta; Vélez, Dinoraz

    2016-08-01

    Excessive fluoride intake may be harmful for health, producing dental and skeletal fluorosis, and effects upon neurobehavioral development. Studies in animals have revealed effects upon the gastrointestinal, renal and reproductive systems. Some of the disorders may be a consequence of immune system alterations. In this study, an in vitro evaluation is made of fluoride immunotoxicity using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage line over a broad range of concentrations (2.5-75mg/L). The results show that the highest fluoride concentrations used (50-75mg/L) reduce the macrophage population in part as a consequence of the generation of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and consequent redox imbalance, which in turn is accompanied by lipid peroxidation. A decrease in the expression of the antiinflammatory cytokine Il10 is observed from the lowest concentrations (5mg/L). High concentrations (50mg/L) in turn produce a significant increase in the proinflammatory cytokines Il6 and Mip2 from 4h of exposure. In addition, cell phagocytic capacity is seen to decrease at concentrations of ≥20mg/L. These data indicate that fluoride, at high concentrations, may affect macrophages and thus immune system function - particularly with regard to the inflammation autoregulatory processes, in which macrophages play a key role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Histoplasma capsulatum on murine macrophage functions: inhibition of macrophage priming, oxidative burst, and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Wolf, J E; Abegg, A L; Travis, S J; Kobayashi, G S; Little, J R

    1989-02-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells fail to trigger an oxidative burst response in normal murine macrophages. The results of this study, in which an in vitro assay of macrophage antifungal effects was used, extend these findings. During 18 h of incubation, unprimed elicited murine macrophages inhibited H. capsulatum growth only when macrophages were present in great excess. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-primed macrophages showed enhanced fungal growth inhibition but a similar requirement for an excess of phagocytes. Macrophages containing heat-killed H. capsulatum exhibited diminished antifungal effects toward viable H. capsulatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Parallel experiments showed no comparable effect of ingested latex particles on macrophage antifungal activity. Using chemiluminescence as a measure of the oxidative burst, we found that macrophages primed in vitro with IFN-gamma alone failed to exhibit a significant response to triggering by H. capsulatum yeast cells unless a second priming agent (tumor necrosis factor alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide) was added to IFN-gamma. Furthermore, macrophage priming with single agents was blocked by the prior ingestion of heat-killed H. capsulatum. These studies provide evidence that ingestion of H. capsulatum yeast cells can induce a prompt and enduring deactivation of murine macrophages.

  16. Analytical workflow profiling gene expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Scott E.; González-Peña, Dianelys; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; O’Connor, Jason C.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of all genes in a biological sample is a capability of RNA-Seq technology. Analysis of the entire transcriptome benefits from summarization of genes at the functional level. As a cellular response of interest not previously explored with RNA-Seq, peritoneal macrophages from mice under two conditions (control and immunologically challenged) were analyzed for gene expression differences. Quantification of individual transcripts modeled RNA-Seq read distribution and uncertainty (using a Beta Negative Binomial distribution), then tested for differential transcript expression (False Discovery Rate-adjusted p-value < 0.05). Enrichment of functional categories utilized the list of differentially expressed genes. A total of 2079 differentially expressed transcripts representing 1884 genes were detected. Enrichment of 92 categories from Gene Ontology Biological Processes and Molecular Functions, and KEGG pathways were grouped into 6 clusters. Clusters included defense and inflammatory response (Enrichment Score = 11.24) and ribosomal activity (Enrichment Score = 17.89). Our work provides a context to the fine detail of individual gene expression differences in murine peritoneal macrophages during immunological challenge with high throughput RNA-Seq. PMID:25708305

  17. Roles of nitric oxide in inducible resistance of Escherichia coli to activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nunoshiba, T; DeRojas-Walker, T; Tannenbaum, S R; Demple, B

    1995-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO.) is produced as a cytotoxic free radical through enzymatic oxidation of L-arginine in activated macrophages. Pure NO. gas was previously found to induce the Escherichia coli soxRS oxidative stress regulon, which is readily monitored by using a soxS'::lac fusion. The soxRS system includes antioxidant defenses, such as a superoxide dismutase and a DNA repair enzyme for oxidative damage, and protects E. coli from the cytotoxicity of NO.-generating macrophages. Previous experiments involved exposing E. coli to a bolus of NO. rather than the steadily generated gas expected of activated macrophages. We show here detectable induction of soxS transcription by NO. delivered at rates as low as 25 microM/h. Maximal induction was observed at 25 microM NO. per h under anaerobic conditions but at 125 microM/h aerobically. After incubation with murine macrophages, soxS expression was induced in the phagocytosed bacteria up to approximately 30-fold after an 8-h exposure. This in vivo induction was almost completely eliminated by the NO. synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. The inhibitor increased the survival of a delta soxRS strain but not that of wild-type E. coli after phagocytosis, which suggests that induction of the soxRS regulon by NO. can counteract most of the cytotoxic effects of NO. production by the macrophages. We show that the soxRS-regulated enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an important element of the defense against macrophages.

  18. Monarch-1 Activation in Murine Macrophage Cell Line (J774 A.1) Infected with Iranian Strain of Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Fata, A; Mahmoudian, MR; Varasteh, A; Sankian, M

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania major is an intracellular parasite transmitted through the bite of the female phlebotomine sand flies. Leishmania major is able to escape the host immune defense and survive within macrophages. Modulation of the NF-κB (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) activation and suppression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by L. major are the main evasion mechanisms that remain to be explored. This study aims to examine the expression level of the Monarch-1 in L. major-infected macrophages, as a negative regulator of the NF-κB activation. Methods Murine macrophage cell line (J774 A.1) was infected by metacyclic form of Leishmania promastigotes at macrophage/parasite ratio of 1:10. After harvesting infected cells at different times, total RNA was extracted and converted to cDNA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed for Monarch-1 by specific primers. Hypoxanthine Phospho-Ribosyl Transferase (HPRT) was used as an internal control to adjust the amount of mRNA in each sample. Results Semiquantitive analysis of Monarch-1 mRNA expression level showed a significant expression increase within 6 to 30 hours after L. major infection of macrophages when compared to the control macrophages. Conclusion Monarch-1 expression level reveals a significant increase in the early phase of macrophage infection with L. major, which in turn may suppress IL-12 production in Leishmania infected macrophages and deeply influence the relationship between host and parasite. PMID:23914232

  19. Chloroquine inhibits Rhodococcus equi replication in murine and foal alveolar macrophages by iron-starvation.

    PubMed

    Gressler, Leticia T; Bordin, Angela I; McQueen, Cole M; Cohen, Noah D; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2016-05-30

    Rhodococcus equi preferentially infects macrophages causing pyogranulomatous pneumonia in young foals. Both the vapA and rhbC genes are up-regulated in an iron (Fe)-deprived environment, such as that found within macrophages. Chloroquine (CQ) is a drug widely used against malaria that suppresses the intracellular availability of Fe in eukaryotic cells. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of CQ to inhibit replication of virulent R. equi within murine (J774A.1) and foal alveolar macrophages (AMs) and to verify whether the mechanism of inhibition could be Fe-deprivation-dependent. CQ effect on R. equi extracellular survival and toxicity to J774A.1 were evaluated. R. equi survival within J774A.1 and foal AMs was evaluated under CQ (10 and 20μM), bovine saturated transferrin (bHTF), and bovine unsaturated transferrin (bATF) exposure. To explore the action mechanism of CQ, the superoxide anion production, the lysozyme activity, as well as the relative mRNA expression of vapA and rhbC were examined. CQ at≤20μM had no effect on R. equi extracellular multiplication and J774A.1 viability. Exposure to CQ significantly and markedly reduced survival of R. equi within J774A.1 and foal AMs. Treatment with bHTF did not reverse CQ effect on R. equi. Exposure to CQ did not affected superoxide anion production or lysozyme activity, however vapA and rhbC expression was significantly increased. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that intracellular availability of Fe is required for R. equi survival, and our initial hypothesis that CQ can limit replication of R. equi in J774A.1 and foal AMs, most likely by Fe starvation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper redistribution in murine macrophages in response to Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Achard, Maud E S; Stafford, Sian L; Bokil, Nilesh J; Chartres, Jy; Bernhardt, Paul V; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2012-05-15

    The movement of key transition metal ions is recognized to be of critical importance in the interaction between macrophages and intracellular pathogens. The present study investigated the role of copper in mouse macrophage responses to Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. The copper chelator BCS (bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt) increased intracellular survival of S. Typhimurium within primary mouse BMM (bone-marrow-derived macrophages) at 24 h post-infection, implying that copper contributed to effective host defence against this pathogen. Infection of BMM with S. Typhimurium or treatment with the TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 ligand LPS (lipopolysaccharide) induced the expression of several genes encoding proteins involved in copper transport [Ctr (copper transporter) 1, Ctr2 and Atp7a (copper-transporting ATPase 1)], as well as the multi-copper oxidase Cp (caeruloplasmin). Both LPS and infection with S. Typhimurium triggered copper accumulation within punctate intracellular vesicles (copper 'hot spots') in BMM as indicated by the fluorescent reporter CS1 (copper sensor 1). These copper hot spots peaked in their accumulation at approximately 18 h post-stimulation and were dependent on copper uptake into cells. Localization studies indicated that the copper hot spots were in discrete vesicles distinct from Salmonella containing vacuoles and lysosomes. We propose that copper hot spot formation contributes to antimicrobial responses against professional intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  1. Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli survive in macrophages by suppressing NFκB signaling.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Sasaki, Maiko; Nusrat, Asma; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A

    2014-08-01

    Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest a role for enteric flora in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Crohn's disease-associated Escherichia coli (CDEC) is characterized by their ability to invade epithelial cells and survive and induce high concentration of TNF-α from infected macrophages. However, the molecular mechanisms of CDEC survival in infected macrophages are not completely understood. Intracellular survival of CDEC strain LF82 isolated from inflamed ileum tissue, 13I isolated from inflamed colonic tissue, and control E. coli strains were tested in the murine macrophage cell line, J774A.1 by Gentamicin protection assay. Modulation of intracellular cell signaling pathways by the E. coli strains were assessed by western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. 13I demonstrated increased survival in macrophages with 2.6-fold higher intracellular bacteria compared with LF82, yet both strains induced comparable levels of TNF-α. LF82 and 13I differentially modulated key mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during the acute phase of infection; LF82 activated all 3 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, whereas 13I activated ERK1/2 pathway but not p38 and JNK pathways. Both 13I and LF82 suppressed nuclear translocation of NFκB compared with noninvasive E. coli strains during the acute phase of infection. However, unlike noninvasive E. coli strains, 13I and LF82 infection resulted in chronic activation of NFκB during the later phase of infection. Our results showed that CDEC survive in macrophages by initially suppressing NFκB activation. However, persistence of bacterial within macrophages induces chronic activation of NFκB, which correlates with increased TNF-α secretion from infected macrophages.

  2. Survival of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis within macrophages and induction of phagocytes death.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, I; Gieryńska, M; Rzewuska, M; Binek, M

    2010-01-01

    Since C. pseudotuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen the aim of this study was focused on evaluating mechanisms that allowed these bacteria to survive in macrophages and determining their influence on induction of cell death. The influence of Corynebacteria on the programmed cell death of macrophages was determined on the basis of induction the autophagy and apoptosis in the cultures of murine macrophage cell lines J774 infected with bacteria. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strains could survive within macrophages more than 48 hours. During that time bacteria were released as a result of the process that lead to death of phagocytes. This property varied among studied strains. There was no increase of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (MAP I LC3) activity in macrophages infected with examined strains comparing with uninfected cultures and cultures treated with autophagy inducer (rapamycin) that served as negative and positive controls, respectively. The study with confocal microscopy did not show the increasing of caspase-3 activity in the infected macrophages and their nucleus did not reveal the fragmentation.

  3. Gender-Specific Transfusion Affects Tumor-Associated Neutrophil: Macrophage Ratios in Murine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Douglas D.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Meng, Xianzhong; Fullerton, David A.; Lee, Joon H.; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to decreased survival for pancreas cancer. Noting clinical data associating female blood products with increased morbidity, our lab has demonstrated that transfusion of female blood augments metastatic events compared to male blood in an immunocompetent murine pancreatic cancer model. It has been suggested that tumor-associated macrophages correlate with tumor progression by promoting angiogenesis. More recently, tumor-associated neutrophils have been implicated in aggressive tumor behavior. We hypothesize that differences in gender-specific transfusion-mediated pancreatic cancer progression are due to microenvironmental changes within the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we examined tumor-associated neutrophils and macrophage ratios in male and female mice with pancreatic cancer receiving blood transfusion from male or female donors. Methods C57/BL6 mice, age 7–9 weeks, underwent splenic inoculation with 2.5×105 PanO2 murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Mice were transfused on post-op day 7 with 1 ml/kg supernatant from day 42 male or female packed red cells. Necropsy was performed at 5 weeks or earlier for clinical deterioration, and tumors harvested. Frozen sections (5 μm) were stained for neutrophils and macrophages by immunofluorescence. Data were analyzed using ANOVA; p≤0.05 was used to determine significance; N≥3 per group. Results Clinically, male mice had greater morbidity and mortality than female mice when receiving female blood products, with roughened hair coat, development of ascites and death due to bowel obstruction. In evaluating the tumor microenvironment from mice receiving female blood products, male mice were noted to have a greater neutrophil to macrophage ratio than female mice, 0.176±0.028 vs. 0.073±0.012, p=0.03. When examining neutrophil to macrophage ratio in mice receiving male blood products, no difference was noted (p=0.48). Conclusions Male mice with pancreas

  4. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  5. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary.

  6. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  7. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72h functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.

  8. Murine embryonic stem cells secrete cytokines/growth modulators that enhance cell survival/anti-apoptosis and stimulate colony formation of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Graham-Evans, Barbara; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2006-04-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCL12, released by murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, enhances survival, chemotaxis, and hematopoietic differentiation of murine ES cells. Conditioned medium (CM) from murine ES cells growing in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) was generated while the ES cells were in an undifferentiated Oct-4 expressing state. ES cell-CM enhanced survival of normal murine bone marrow myeloid progenitors (CFU-GM) subjected to delayed growth factor addition in vitro and decreased apoptosis of murine bone marrow c-kit(+)lin- cells. ES CM contained interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-10, IL-11, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (CSF), oncostatin M, stem cell factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as a number of chemokines and other proteins, some of which are known to enhance survival/anti-apoptosis of progenitors. Irradiation of ES cells enhanced release of some proteins and decreased release of others. IL-6, FGF-9, and TNF-alpha, not detected prior to irradiation was found after ES cells were irradiated. ES cell CM also stimulated CFU-GM colony formation. Thus, undifferentiated murine ES cells growing in the presence of LIF produce/release a number of biologically active interleukins, CSFs, chemokines, and other growth modulatory proteins, results which may be of physiological and/or practical significance.

  9. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization. PMID:26664149

  10. Glycyrrhizic Acid Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Associated with the Activation of JNK and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yulong; Wang, Baikui; Xu, Xin; Du, Wei; Li, Weifen; Wang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    The roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza species (licorice) have been widely used as natural sweeteners and herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) from licorice on macrophage polarization. Both phenotypic and functional activities of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated by GA were assessed. Our results showed that GA obviously increased the cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, GA upregulated the expression of CCR7 and the production of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and NO (the markers of classically activated (M1) macrophages), whereas it downregulated the expression of MR, Ym1, and Arg1 (the markers of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage). The functional tests showed that GA dramatically enhanced the uptake of FITC-dextran and E. coli K88 by BMDMs and decreased the intracellular survival of E. coli K88 and S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that JNK and NF-κB activation are required for GA-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production, while ERK1/2 pathway exhibits a regulatory effect via induction of IL-10. Together, these findings indicated that GA promoted polarization of M1 macrophages and enhanced its phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity. The results expanded our knowledge about the role of GA in macrophage polarization.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  13. Otopathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enters and Survives Inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Lisi, Christopher V.; Kumari, Hansi; Grati, M’hamed; Blackwelder, Patricia; Yan, Denise; Jain, Chaitanya; Mathee, Kalai; Weckwerth, Paulo H.; Liu, Xue Z.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a broad term describing a group of infectious and inflammatory disorders of the middle ear. Despite antibiotic therapy, acute OM can progress to chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) characterized by ear drum perforation and purulent discharge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen associated with CSOM. Although, macrophages play an important role in innate immune responses but their role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa-induced CSOM is not known. The objective of this study is to examine the interaction of P. aeruginosa with primary macrophages. We observed that P. aeruginosa enters and multiplies inside human and mouse primary macrophages. This bacterial entry in macrophages requires both microtubule and actin dependent processes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that P. aeruginosa was present in membrane bound vesicles inside macrophages. Interestingly, deletion of oprF expression in P. aeruginosa abrogates its ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that otopathogenic P. aeruginosa entry and survival inside macrophages is OprF-dependent. The survival of bacteria inside macrophages will lead to evasion of killing and this lack of pathogen clearance by phagocytes contributes to the persistence of infection in CSOM. Understanding host–pathogen interaction will provide novel avenues to design effective treatment modalities against OM. PMID:27917157

  14. Surviving the macrophage: tools and tricks employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Rajesh; BoseDasgupta, Somdeb; Pieters, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved to withstand one of the most inhospitable cells within the human body, namely the macrophage, a cell that is normally geared toward the destruction of any invading microbe. How M. tuberculosis achieves this is still incompletely understood; however, a number of mechanisms are now known that provide advantages to M. tuberculosis for its survival and proliferation inside the macrophage. While some of these mechanisms are mediated by factors released by M. tuberculosis, others rely on host components that are being hijacked to benefit survival of M. tuberculosis within the macrophage as well to avoid the generation of an effective immune response. Here, we describe several of these mechanisms, also pointing out the potential usage of this knowledge toward the development of novel strategies to treat tuberculosis. Furthermore, we attempt to put the 'macrophage niche' into context with other intracellular pathogens and discuss some of the generalities as well as specializations that M. tuberculosis employs to survive.

  15. Novel Markers to Delineate Murine M1 and M2 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kyle A.; Amici, Stephanie A.; Webb, Lindsay M.; Ruiz-Rosado, Juan de Dios; Popovich, Phillip G.; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages exhibit distinct phenotypes and functions. It has been difficult to dissect macrophage phenotypes in vivo, where a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes exists, and also in vitro, where low or non-selective M2 marker protein expression is observed. To provide a foundation for the complexity of in vivo macrophage phenotypes, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptional signature of murine M0, M1 and M2 macrophages and identified genes common or exclusive to either subset. We validated by real-time PCR an M1-exclusive pattern of expression for CD38, G-protein coupled receptor 18 (Gpr18) and Formyl peptide receptor 2 (Fpr2) whereas Early growth response protein 2 (Egr2) and c-Myc were M2-exclusive. We further confirmed these data by flow cytometry and show that M1 and M2 macrophages can be distinguished by their relative expression of CD38 and Egr2. Egr2 labeled more M2 macrophages (~70%) than the canonical M2 macrophage marker Arginase-1, which labels 24% of M2 macrophages. Conversely, CD38 labeled most (71%) in vitro M1 macrophages. In vivo, a similar CD38+ population greatly increased after LPS exposure. Overall, this work defines exclusive and common M1 and M2 signatures and provides novel and improved tools to distinguish M1 and M2 murine macrophages. PMID:26699615

  16. Role of caveolae in Leishmania chagasi phagocytosis and intracellular survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Nilda E; Gaur, Upasna; Wilson, Mary E

    2006-07-01

    Caveolae are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, ganglioside M1 (GM1) and caveolin-1. We explored whether caveolae facilitate the entry of Leishmania chagasi into murine macrophages. Transient depletion of macrophage membrane cholesterol by 1 h exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) impaired the phagocytosis of non-opsonized and serum-opsonized virulent L. chagasi. In contrast, MbetaCD did not affect the phagocytosis of opsonized attenuated L. chagasi. As early as 5 min after phagocytosis, virulent L. chagasi colocalized with the caveolae markers GM1 and caveolin-1, and colocalization continued for over 48 h. We explored the kinetics of lysosome fusion. Whereas fluorescent-labelled dextran entered macrophage lysosomes by 30 min after addition, localization of L. chagasi in lysosomes was delayed for 24-48 h after phagocytosis. However, after transient depletion of cholesterol from macrophage membrane with MbetaCD, the proportion of L. chagasi-containing phagosomes that fused with lysosomes increased significantly. Furthermore, intracellular replication was impaired in parasites entering after transient cholesterol depletion, even though lipid microdomains were restored by 4 h after treatment. These observations suggest that virulent L. chagasi localize in caveolae during phagocytosis by host macrophages, and that cholesterol-containing macrophage membrane domains, such as caveolae, target parasites to a pathway that promotes delay of lysosome fusion and intracellular survival.

  17. Molecular basis of mycobacterial survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Awuh, Jane Atesoh; Flo, Trude Helen

    2017-05-01

    Macrophages play an essential role in the immune system by ingesting and degrading invading pathogens, initiating an inflammatory response and instructing adaptive immune cells, and resolving inflammation to restore homeostasis. More interesting is the fact that some bacteria have evolved to use macrophages as a natural habitat and tools of spread in the host, e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and some non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Mtb is considered one of humanity's most successful pathogens and is the causal agent of tuberculosis, while NTMs cause opportunistic infections all of which are of significant public health concern. Here, we describe mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens, with an emphasis on mycobacteria, manipulate macrophage functions to circumvent killing and live inside these cells even under considerable immunological pressure. Such macrophage functions include the selective evasion or engagement of pattern recognition receptors, production of cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, phagosome maturation, as well as other killing mechanisms like autophagy and cell death. A clear understanding of host responses elicited by a specific pathogen and strategies employed by the microbe to evade or exploit these is of significant importance for the development of effective vaccines and targeted immunotherapy against persistent intracellular infections like tuberculosis.

  18. Type III secretion decreases bacterial and host survival following phagocytosis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Murtha, James; Roberts, Margaret A; Siegel, Richard M; Bliska, James B

    2008-09-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis uses a plasmid (pYV)-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate a set of effectors called Yops into infected host cells. YopJ functions to induce apoptosis, and YopT, YopE, and YopH act to antagonize phagocytosis in macrophages. Because Yops do not completely block phagocytosis and Y. pseudotuberculosis can replicate in macrophages, it is important to determine if the T3SS modulates host responses to intracellular bacteria. Isogenic pYV-cured, pYV(+) wild-type, and yop mutant Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were allowed to infect bone marrow-derived murine macrophages at a low multiplicity of infection under conditions in which the survival of extracellular bacteria was prevented. Phagocytosis, the intracellular survival of the bacteria, and the apoptosis of the infected macrophages were analyzed. Forty percent of cell-associated wild-type bacteria were intracellular after a 20-min infection, allowing the study of the macrophage response to internalized pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis. Interestingly, macrophages restricted survival of pYV(+) but not pYV-cured or DeltayopB Y. pseudotuberculosis within phagosomes: only a small fraction of the pYV(+) bacteria internalized replicated by 24 h. In addition, approximately 20% of macrophages infected with wild-type pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis died of apoptosis after 20 h. Analysis of yop mutants expressing catalytically inactive effectors revealed that YopJ was important for apoptosis, while a role for YopE, YopH, and YopT in modulating macrophage responses to intracellular bacteria could not be identified. Apoptosis was reduced in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient macrophages, indicating that cell death required signaling through this receptor. Treatment of macrophages harboring intracellular pYV(+) Y. pseudotuberculosis with chloramphenicol reduced apoptosis, indicating that the de novo bacterial protein synthesis was necessary for cell death. Our finding that the presence of a

  19. Macrophage infection models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin K; Abramovitch, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonizes, survives, and grows inside macrophages. In vitro macrophage infection models, using both primary macrophages and cell lines, enable the characterization of the pathogen response to macrophage immune pressure and intracellular environmental cues. We describe methods to propagate and infect primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774 and THP-1 macrophage-like cell lines. We also present methods on the characterization of M. tuberculosis intracellular survival and the preparation of infected macrophages for imaging.

  20. Control of murine macrophage H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism by amphotericin B

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.H.; Wolf, J.E.; Little, J.R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors investigated the ability of amphotericin B (AmB) to modulate H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism in murine macrophages (M theta). Following a single 0.5 mg intraperitoneal dose of AmB, AKR peritoneal M theta showed greater chemiluminescence (CL) after triggering with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) than C57BL/6 M theta. The capacity for enhanced M theta CL was sustained for at least 2 weeks after AmB injection in AKR mice but less in C57BL/6 M theta. In other experiments, intracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism was evaluated by a fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) assay described by Bass et al. A comparison of FACS histograms of peritoneal M theta from AmB treated and control AKR mice revealed 25-28% stimulation in the experimental group; M theta from AmB treated C57BL/6 mice showed a significant reduction of the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ metabolism compared with resident M theta. These results are in accord with the effects of AmB on survival from experimental infection with Listeria monocytogenes. AmB enhanced survival in AKR mice while it reduced the survival of C57BL/6 mice infected with this facultative intracellular bacterium. Thus, AmB-induced resistance to infection correlates with stimulation of the M theta respiratory burst.

  1. Killing of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reactive nitrogen intermediates produced by activated murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, yet the mechanisms by which macrophages defend against Mycobacterium tuberculosis have remained obscure. Results from this study show that murine macrophages, activated by interferon gamma, and lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor alpha, both growth inhibit and kill M. tuberculosis. This antimycobacterial effect, demonstrable both in murine macrophage cell lines and in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice, is independent of the macrophage capacity to generate reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Both the ROI-deficient murine macrophage cell line D9, and its ROI-generating, parental line J774.16, expressed comparable antimycobacterial activity upon activation. In addition, the oxygen radical scavengers superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, mannitol, and diazabicyclooctane had no effect on the antimycobacterial activity of macrophages. These findings, together with the results showing the relative resistance of M. tuberculosis to enzymatically generated H2O2, suggest that ROI are unlikely to be significantly involved in killing M. tuberculosis. In contrast, the antimycobacterial activity of these macrophages strongly correlates with the induction of the L-arginine- dependent generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). The effector molecule(s) that could participate in mediating this antimycobacterial function are toxic RNI, including NO, NO2, and HNO2, as demonstrated by the mycobacteriocidal effect of acidified NO2. The oxygen radical scavenger SOD adventitiously perturbs RNI production, and cannot be used to discriminate between cytocidal mechanisms involving ROI and RNI. Overall, our results provide support for the view that the L-arginine-dependent production of RNI is the principal effector mechanism in activated murine macrophages responsible for killing and growth inhibiting virulent M. tuberculosis. PMID:1552282

  2. TNF-alpha and IL-10 modulate the induction of apoptosis by virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rojas, M; Olivier, M; Gros, P; Barrera, L F; García, L F

    1999-05-15

    The Bcg/Nramp1 gene controls early resistance and susceptibility of macrophages to mycobacterial infections. We previously reported that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected (Mtb) B10R (Bcgr) and B10S (Bcgs) macrophages differentially produce nitric oxide (NO-), leading to macrophage apoptosis. Since TNF-alpha and IL-10 have opposite effects on many macrophage functions, we determined the number of cells producing TNF-alpha and IL-10 in Mtb-infected or purified protein derivative-stimulated B10R and B10S macrophages lines, and Nramp1+/+ and Nramp1-/- peritoneal macrophages and correlated them with Mtb-mediated apoptosis. Mtb infection and purified protein derivative treatment induced more TNF-alpha+Nramp1+/+ and B10R, and more IL-10+Nramp1-/- and B10S cells. Treatment with mannosylated lipoarabinomannan, which rescues macrophages from Mtb-induced apoptosis, augmented the number of IL-10 B10R+ cells. Anti-TNF-alpha inhibited apoptosis, diminished NO- production, p53, and caspase 1 activation and increased Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, anti-IL-10 increased caspase 1 activation, p53 expression, and apoptosis, although there was no increment in NO- production. Murine rTNF-alpha induced apoptosis in noninfected B10R and B10S macrophages that was reversed by murine rIL-10 in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of NO- production and caspase 1 activation. NO- and caspase 1 seem to be independently activated in that aminoguanidine did not affect caspase 1 activation and the inhibitor of caspase 1, Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-acylooxymethylketone, did not block NO- production; however, both treatments inhibited apoptosis. These results show that Mtb activates TNF-alpha- and IL-10-dependent opposite signals in the induction of macrophage apoptosis and suggest that the TNF-alpha-IL-10 ratio is controlled by the Nramp1 background of resistance/susceptibility and may account for the balance between apoptosis and macrophage survival.

  3. Solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2.

    PubMed

    Shao, W; Jerva, L F; West, J; Lolis, E; Schweitzer, B I

    1998-06-09

    The solution structure of murine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), a heparin-binding chemokine that is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli, has been determined using two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Structure calculations were carried out by means of torsion-angle molecular dynamics using the program X-PLOR. The structure is based on a total of 2390 experimental restraints, comprising 2246 NOE-derived distance restraints, 44 distance restraints for 22 hydrogen bonds, and 100 torsion angle restraints. The structure is well-defined, with the backbone (N, Calpha, C) and heavy atom atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinates for residues 9-69 of the dimer being 0.57 +/- 0.16 A and 0.96 +/- 0.12 A, respectively. The N- and C-terminal residues (1-8 and 70-73, respectively) are disordered. The overall structure of the MIP-2 dimer is similar to that reported previously for the NMR structures of MGSA and IL-8 and consists of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residue 25-29, 39-44, and 48-52) packed against two C-terminal antiparallel alpha-helices. A best fit superposition of the NMR structure of MIP-2 on the structures of MGSA, NAP-2, and the NMR and X-ray structures of IL-8 are 1.11, 1.02, 1.27, and 1.19 A, respectively, for the monomers, and 1.28, 1.10, 1.55, and 1.36 A, respectively, for the dimers (IL-8 residues 7-14 and 16-67, NAP-2 residues 25-84). At the tertiary level, the main differences between the MIP-2 solution structure and the IL-8, MGSA, and NAP-2 structures involve the N-terminal loop between residues 9-23 and the loops formed by residues 30-38 and residues 53-58. At the quaternary level, the difference between MIP-2 and IL-8, MGSA, or NAP-2 results from differing interhelical angles and separations.

  4. Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

  5. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  6. Expression and Bactericidal Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Brucella suis-Infected Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Antoine; Spiesser, Sandra; Terraza, Annie; Rouot, Bruno; Caron, Emmanuelle; Dornand, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    We examined the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in both gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-treated and untreated murine macrophages infected with the gram-negative bacterium Brucella suis. The bacteria were opsonized with a mouse serum containing specific antibrucella antibodies (ops-Brucella) or with a control nonimmune serum (c-Brucella). The involvement of the produced NO in the killing of intracellular B. suis was evaluated. B. suis survived and replicated within J774A.1 cells. Opsonization with specific antibodies increased the number of phagocytized bacteria but lowered their intramacrophage development. IFN-γ enhanced the antibrucella activity of phagocytes, with this effect being greater in ops-Brucella infection. Expression of iNOS, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs was induced in both c-Brucella- and ops-Brucella-infected cells and was strongly potentiated by IFN-γ. In contrast to that of cytokine mRNAs, iNOS mRNA expression was independent of opsonization. Similar levels of iNOS mRNAs were expressed in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with c-Brucella or ops-Brucella; however, expression of iNOS protein and production of NO were detected only in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with ops-Brucella. These discrepencies between iNOS mRNA and protein levels were not due to differences in TNF-α production. The iNOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester increased B. suis multiplication specifically in IFN-γ-treated cells infected with ops-Brucella, demonstrating a microbicidal effect of the NO produced. This observation was in agreement with in vitro experiments showing that B. suis was sensitive to NO killing. Together our data indicate that in B. suis-infected murine macrophages, the posttranscriptional regulation of iNOS necessitates an additive signal triggered by macrophage Fcγ receptors. They also support the possibility that in mice, NO favors the elimination of Brucella, providing that IFN-γ and

  7. Robust growth of avirulent phase II Coxiella burnetii in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Long, Carrie M.; Robertson, Shelly J.; Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Miller, Heather E.; Myers, Lara; Larson, Charles L.; Starr, Tregei; Beare, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Published data show that murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) restrict growth of avirulent phase II, but not virulent phase I, Coxiella burnetii. Growth restriction of phase II bacteria is thought to result from potentiated recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which leads to production of inhibitory effector molecules. Past studies have used conditioned medium from L-929 murine fibroblasts as a source of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) to promote differentiation of bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors into macrophages. However, uncharacterized components of conditioned medium, such as variable amounts of type I interferons, can affect macrophage activation status and their permissiveness for infection. In the current study, we show that the C. burnetii Nine Mile phase II (NMII) strain grows robustly in primary macrophages from C57BL/6J mice when bone marrow cells are differentiated with recombinant murine M-CSF (rmM-CSF). Bacteria were readily internalized by BMDM, and replicated within degradative, LAMP1-positive vacuoles to achieve roughly 3 logs of growth over 6 days. Uninfected BMDM did not appreciably express CD38 or Egr2, markers of classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages, respectively, nor did infection change the lack of polarization. In accordance with an M0 phenotype, infected BMDM produced moderate amounts of TNF and nitric oxide. Similar NMII growth results were obtained using C57BL/6J myeloid progenitors immortalized with an estrogen-regulated Hoxb8 (ER-Hoxb8) oncogene. To demonstrate the utility of the ER-Hoxb8 system, myeloid progenitors from natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) C57BL/6J knock-in mice were transduced with ER-Hoxb8, and macrophages were derived from immortalized progenitors using rmM-CSF and infected with NMII. No difference in growth was observed when compared to macrophages from wild type mice, indicating depletion of metal ions by the Nramp1

  8. The macrophage LBP gene is an LXR target that promotes macrophage survival and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Tamer; Ito, Ayaka; Rong, Xin; Kim, Jason; van Stijn, Caroline; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Jung, Michael E.; Chao, Lily C.; Jones, Marius; Gilliland, Thomas; Wu, XiaoHui; Su, Grace L.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.; Tontonoz, Peter; Hong, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate sterol metabolism and inflammation. We sought to identify previously unknown genes regulated by LXRs in macrophages and to determine their contribution to atherogenesis. Here we characterize a novel LXR target gene, the lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) gene. Surprisingly, the ability of LXRs to control LBP expression is cell-type specific, occurring in macrophages but not liver. Treatment of macrophages with oxysterols or loading with modified LDL induces LBP in an LXR-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role for LBP in the cellular response to cholesterol overload. To investigate this further, we performed bone marrow transplant studies. After 18 weeks of Western diet feeding, atherosclerotic lesion burden was assessed revealing markedly smaller lesions in the LBP−/− recipients. Furthermore, loss of bone marrow LBP expression increased apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. Supporting in vitro studies with isolated macrophages showed that LBP expression does not affect cholesterol efflux but promotes the survival of macrophages in the setting of cholesterol loading. The LBP gene is a macrophage-specific LXR target that promotes foam cell survival and atherogenesis. PMID:24671012

  9. Transcriptomic analyses of murine resolution-phase macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Stables, Melanie J.; Shah, Sonia; Camon, Evelyn B.; Lovering, Ruth C.; Newson, Justine; Bystrom, Jonas; Farrow, Stuart; Gilroy, Derek W.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are either classically (M1) or alternatively-activated (M2). While this nomenclature was generated from monocyte-derived macrophages treated in vitro with defined cytokine stimuli, the phenotype of in vivo-derived macrophages is less understood. We completed Affymetrix-based transcriptomic analysis of macrophages from the resolution-phase of a zymosan-induced peritonitis. Compared to macrophages from hyper-inflamed mice possessing a pro-inflammatory nature as well as naive macrophages from the un-inflamed peritoneum, resolution-phase macrophages (rM) are similar to monocytes-derived dendritic cells (DC), being CD209a positive but lack CD11c. They are enriched for antigen processing/presentation (MHC-II [H2-Eb1, H2-Ab1, H2-Ob, H2-Aa], CD74, CD86), secrete T- and B-lymphocyte chemokines (Xcl1, Ccl5, Cxcl13) as well as factors that enhance macrophage/DC development and promote DC/T cells synapse formation (Clec2i, Tnfsf4, Clcf1). rM are also enriched for cell cycle/proliferation genes as well as Alox15, Timd4 and Tgfb2, key systems in the termination of leukocyte trafficking and clearance of inflammatory cells. Finally, comparison with in vitro-derived M1/M2 shows that rM are neither classically nor alternatively activated but possess aspects of both definitions consistent with an immune regulatory phenotype. We propose that macrophage in situ cannot be rigidly categorised as they can express many shades of the inflammatory spectrum determined by tissue, stimulus and phase-of-inflammation. PMID:22012065

  10. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  11. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  12. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711

    Epidemiological studies have shown ...

  13. Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

  14. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanomaterials in Murine Macrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanomaterials are increasingly used as antimicrobial agents in a variety of products. Although there is considerable potential for human exposure to these nanomaterials, little is known about the health risks associated with their use. Macrophages are prominent immune cell...

  15. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Silver Nanomaterials in Murine Macrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanomaterials are increasingly used as antimicrobial agents in a variety of products. Although there is considerable potential for human exposure to these nanomaterials, little is known about the health risks associated with their use. Macrophages are prominent immune cell...

  16. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects.

  17. The Immunomodulatory Activity of Jacaric Acid, a Conjugated Linolenic Acid Isomer, on Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wai Nam; Leung, Kwok Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at demonstrating the immunomodulatory property of jacaric acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomer that is present in jacaranda seed oil, on murine peritoneal macrophages. Our results showed that jacaric acid exhibited no significant cytotoxicity on the thioglycollate-elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as revealed by the neutral red uptake assay, but markedly increased their cytostatic activity on the T-cell lymphoma MBL-2 cells as measured by the fluorometric CyQuant® NF Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that jacaric acid could enhance the endocytic activity of macrophages and elevated their intracellular production of superoxide anion. Moreover, jacaric acid-treated macrophages showed an increase in the production of nitric oxide which was accompanied by an increase in the expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase protein. In addition, the secretion of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, was up-regulated. Collectively, our results indicated that the naturally-occurring CLNA isomer, jacaric acid, could exhibit immunomodulating activity on the murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro, suggesting that this CLNA isomer may act as an immunopotentiator which can be exploited for the treatment of some immunological disorders with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. PMID:26629697

  18. Ceroid accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to artificial lipoproteins: ultrastructural observations.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, R. Y.; Carpenter, K. L.; Mitchinson, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Murine resident peritoneal macrophages were maintained in cell culture in a medium containing 10% lipoprotein-deficient fetal calf serum to which various artificial lipoprotein particles (coacervates of lipid and bovine serum albumin) had been added. The uptake and intracellular fate of these particles was studied by electron microscopy. The appearance of material accumulating within the cells varied according to the nature of the lipid component of the ingested particles. Lipids which are readily oxidised (cholesteryl linoleate, cholesteryl arachidonate, trilinolein) were associated with the formation of ceroid within membrane-bound structures. Less readily oxidized lipids (cholesteryl oleate, triolein) were not associated with ceroid accumulation but instead the cells contained numerous nonmembrane-bound lipid inclusions. The appearances of the ceroid within the murine peritoneal macrophages are similar to those of ceroid in macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions. Images Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 PMID:3348959

  19. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  20. Morphological and biochemical changes during formocresol induced cell death in murine peritoneal macrophages: apoptotic and necrotic features.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, María Lorena; Todaro, Juan Santiago; Aguirre, María Victoria; Juaristi, Julián Antonio; Brandan, Nora Cristina

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Formocresol (FC)-induced apoptosis and necrotic cell death in murine peritoneal macrophages (pMø). Macrophages were cultured with 1:100 FC for 2 to 24 h. The viability (trypan blue assay), cell morphology (scanning electronic microscope), and apoptotic and necrotic indexes (light and fluorescent microscopy) were determined at different scheduled times. Simultaneously, the expressions of proteins related to stress, survival, and cell death were measured by western blotting. FC-exposed macrophages exhibited maximal apoptosis from 2 to 6 h, coincident with Bax overexpression (P < 0.001). Additionally, Bcl-x(L) showed maximal expression between 12 and 24 h suggesting its survival effect in pMø. The lowest pMø viability and the increment of the necrotic rate from 4 to 12 h were observed in accordance to Fas and Hsp60 overexpressions. In summary, all the experimental data suggest that two different pathways emerge in pMø exposed to FC, one leading Bax-dependent apoptosis (2-6 h) and the other one favoring necrosis (4-18 h), related to Fas-receptor and Hsp60 stress signal.

  1. Differential gene expression in human, murine, and cell line-derived macrophages upon polarization.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Kara L; Wrona, Emily A; Romero-Torres, Saly; Pallotta, Isabella; Graney, Pamela L; Witherel, Claire E; Panicker, Leelamma M; Feldman, Ricardo A; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Santambrogio, Laura; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freytes, Donald O

    2016-09-10

    The mechanisms by which macrophages control the inflammatory response, wound healing, biomaterial-interactions, and tissue regeneration appear to be related to their activation/differentiation states. Studies of macrophage behavior in vitro can be useful for elucidating their mechanisms of action, but it is not clear to what extent the source of macrophages affects their apparent behavior, potentially affecting interpretation of results. Although comparative studies of macrophage behavior with respect to cell source have been conducted, there has been no direct comparison of the three most commonly used cell sources: murine bone marrow, human monocytes from peripheral blood (PB), and the human leukemic monocytic cell line THP-1, across multiple macrophage phenotypes. In this study, we used multivariate discriminant analysis to compare the in vitro expression of genes commonly chosen to assess macrophage phenotype across all three sources of macrophages, as well as those derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), that were polarized towards four distinct phenotypes using the same differentiation protocols: M(LPS,IFN) (aka M1), M(IL4,IL13) (aka M2a), M(IL10) (aka M2c), and M(-) (aka M0) used as control. Several differences in gene expression trends were found among the sources of macrophages, especially between murine bone marrow-derived and human blood-derived M(LPS,IFN) and M(IL4,IL13) macrophages with respect to commonly used phenotype markers like CCR7 and genes associated with angiogenesis and tissue regeneration like FGF2 and MMP9. We found that the genes with the most similar patterns of expression among all sources were CXCL-10 and CXCL-11 for M(LPS,IFN) and CCL17 and CCL22 for M(IL4,IL13). Human PB-derived macrophages and human iPSC-derived macrophages showed similar gene expression patterns among the groups and genes studied here, suggesting that iPSC-derived monocytes have the potential to be used as a reliable cell source of human macrophages

  2. The Monocyte to Macrophage Transition in the Murine Sterile Wound

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Meredith J.; Daley, Jean M.; van Houtte, Olivier; Brancato, Samielle K.; Henry, William L.; Albina, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of wound repair macrophages is incompletely defined and was examined here in sterile wounds using the subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponge implantation model in mice. Phenotypic analysis identified F4/80+Ly6ChiCD64+MerTK– monocytes and F4/80+Ly6ClowCD64+MerTK+ macrophages in the wound. Circulating monocytes were the precursors of inflammatory Ly6Chi wound monocytes. Ly6ClowMerTK+ macrophages appeared later, expressed CD206, CD11c, and MHC class II, produced cytokines consistent with repair function, and lacked a gene expression profile compatible with mesenchymal transition or fibroblastic transdifferentiation. Data also demonstrated that Ly6Chi wound cells were precursors of Ly6Clow macrophages, although monocytes did not undergo rapid maturation but rather persisted in the wound as Ly6ChiMerTK– cells. MerTK-deficient mice were examined to determine whether MerTK-dependent signals from apoptotic cells regulated the maturation of wound macrophages. MerTK-deficient mice had day 14 cell compositions that resembled more immature wounds, with a smaller proportion of F4/80+ cells and higher frequencies of Ly6G+ neutrophils and Ly6Chi monocytes. The cytokine profile and number of apoptotic cells in day 14 wounds of MerTK-deficient mice was unaffected despite the alterations in cell composition. Overall, these studies identified a differentiation pathway in response to sterile inflammation in which monocytes recruited from the circulation acquire proinflammatory function, persist in the wound, and mature into repair macrophages. PMID:24466192

  3. Stimulation of various functions in murine peritoneal macrophages by glucans produced by glucosyltransferases from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inwook; Jo, Gayoung; Kim, Seunghyun; Jung, Changhwa; Kim, Yoonsook; Shin, Kwangsoon

    2005-09-01

    The glucan that was produced by glucosyltransferases (GTFs) from Streptococcus mutans was examined for its stimulating functions toward murine peritoneal macrophages. Soluble glucan was obtained by the reaction with cell-free crude GTFs and sucrose, followed by ethanol precipitation, dispersion in water and re-precipitation by ethanol. Soluble glucan, those average molecular weight was about 3 x 10(5), was composed of mixture of alpha-1,6 and alpha-1,3 linkages in a 3:1 ratio. When 30 and 60 microg/ml of the glucan was incubated with peritoneal macrophages, the lysosomal phosphatase activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that soluble glucan may activate macrophages. To examine its effects on the various functions of macrophages, soluble glucan was orally administered daily at a level of 100 mg/kg of body weight to C57BL/6 mice. Significant stimulation of the production of H2O2 by the macrophages was observed without any increase in NO production. The production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by the macrophages was also stimulated from 538.73-555.06 pg/ml to 585.73-596.40 pg/ml during 15 days of oral administration of soluble glucan. The cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages against B16 tumor cells was significantly enhanced by 25-38% during 15 days of oral administration. These results may indicate that soluble glucan stimulates the immune functions of macrophages.

  4. CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival

    PubMed Central

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Fischer, Brett G.; Plantinga, Theo S.; Johnson, Melissa D.; Jaeger, Martin; Green, Nathaniel M.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Mikelis, Constantinos; Wan, Wuzhou; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Lim, Jean K.; Rivollier, Aymeric; Yang, John C.; Laird, Greg M.; Wheeler, Robert T.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Perfect, John R.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is associated with neutropenia; however, the roles of other innate immune cells in pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that resident macrophages accumulated in the kidney, the main target organ of infection, and formed direct contacts with the fungus in vivo mainly within the first few hours after infection. Macrophage accumulation and contact with Candida were both markedly reduced in mice lacking chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which was found almost exclusively on resident macrophages in uninfected kidneys. Infected Cx3cr1–/– mice uniformly succumbed to Candida-induced renal failure, but exhibited clearance of the fungus in all other organs tested. Renal macrophage deficiency in infected Cx3cr1–/– mice was due to reduced macrophage survival, not impaired proliferation, trafficking, or differentiation. In humans, the dysfunctional CX3CR1 allele CX3CR1-M280 was associated with increased risk of systemic candidiasis. Together, these data indicate that CX3CR1-mediated renal resident macrophage survival is a critical innate mechanism of early fungal control that influences host survival in systemic candidiasis. PMID:24177428

  5. Unveiling the anti-inflammatory activity of Sutherlandia frutescens using murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Browning, Jimmy D.; Eichen, Peggy A.; Brownstein, Korey J.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens is a botanical widely used in southern Africa for treatment of inflammatory and other conditions. Previously, an ethanolic extract of S. frutescens (SFE) has been shown to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by murine neurons and a microglia cell line (BV-2 cells). In this study we sought to confirm the anti-inflammatory activities of SFE on a widely used murine macrophage cell line (i.e., RAW 264.7 cells) and primary mouse macrophages. Furthermore, experiments were conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonol and cycloartanol glycosides found in high quantities in S. frutescens. While the SFE exhibited anti-inflammatory activities upon murine macrophages similar to that reported with the microglia cell line, this effect does not appear to be mediated by sutherlandiosides or sutherlandins. In contrast, chlorophyll in our extracts appeared to be partly responsible for some of the activity observed in our macrophage-dependent screening assay. PMID:26585972

  6. Helicobacter pullorum induces nitric oxide release in murine macrophages that promotes phagocytosis and killing.

    PubMed

    Parente, Margarida R; Monteiro, João T; Martins, Gabriel G; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pullorum is an avian enterohepatic species that, more recently, has also been found as a naturally acquired infection in mice and rats, and isolated from patients with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary diseases. In this work, the interaction between H. pullorum and murine macrophages was examined. Firstly, the impact of nitric oxide, which is an antimicrobial produced by mammalian macrophages, on H. pullorum 6350-92 viability and morphology was studied by colony-forming assays and light microscopy, respectively. Exposure to nitric oxide lowered H. pullorum viability, in a growth-phase-dependent manner, and decreased the mean cell size. However, the number of coccoid forms remained low, contrasting with what has been observed for other Helicobacter species. Confocal microscopy showed that H. pullorum is internalized by murine macrophages, triggering nitric oxide production that promotes phagocytosis and killing of the pathogen. Interaction between H. pullorum and macrophages stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MIP-2. These results show that H. pullorum is able to infect mammalian murine cells triggering an inflammatory response.

  7. Synthesis of angiotensins by cultured granuloma macrophages in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstock, J.V.; Blum, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    Components of the angiotensin system are present in granulomas of murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Angiotensins may have immunoregulatory function. Granuloma macrophages cultured for up to 3 days generated substantial angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) which appeared in the culture supernatants. Macrophage monolayers were incubated with (/sup 3/H) amino acids, and culture supernatants were extracted with acetone and analyzed by HPLC. Radiolabeled products eluded at times corresponding to those of authentic angiotensins. Immunoadsorption of angiotensins with angiotensin antisera removed reputed radiolabeled angiotensins from the supernatants. Treatment of the elution fraction corresponding to that of authentic AI with angiotensin converting enzyme resulted in the generation of radiolabeled polypeptides which co-eluted with authentic AII and His-Leu. Similar experiments conducted with nonadherent granuloma cells devoid of macrophages failed to demonstrate angiotensin production. These results suggest that granuloma macrophages can synthesize angiotensin.

  8. Transduced monocyte/macrophages targeted to murine skin by UV light.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alexandra Y; Wu, Caiyun; Zhou, Lixin; Ismail, Sahar A; Tao, Jianming; McCormick, Laura L; Cooper, Kevin D; Gilliam, Anita C

    2006-01-01

    We have selectively targeted monocyte/macrophages overexpressing an immunomodulatory molecule, latency-associated peptide (LAP), a naturally occurring antagonist for transforming growth factor-beta1, to murine skin utilizing UV light to produce a cutaneous influx of transduced monocyte/macrophages. Bone marrow (BM) cells from BALB/c mice were transduced in vitro with a retroviral construct containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) for detection and human LAP (hLAP) as a test molecule. The transduced BM cells were then cultured in vitro with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to produce differentiation to monocyte/macrophages. More than 80% of transduced BM cells were CD11b-positive and MOMA-positive by fluorescence-activated cell-sorter analysis and secreted LAP by ELISA after 10 days of culture in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Transduced monocyte/macrophages containing either GFP or hLAP-GFP were then injected intravenously into BALB/c mice. One-half of recipients in each group were exposed to UVB (72 mJ) to induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into skin. Recipients were sacrificed 60 h after UV irradiation. We found transduced cutaneous macrophages expressing GFP by examining with fluorescence microscopy frozen skin sections of recipient mice immunostained with antibodies to GFP and to macrophage marker F4/80. We identified hLAP sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of total DNA in recipient blood and UV-irradiated skin but not in unirradiated skin. LAP sequences were also detected at much lower levels in other organs (lung, spleen, and liver) by PCR. Therefore, we have shown that genetically altered monocytic cells can be injected intravenously and targeted to mouse skin by UV exposure. This macrophage-based gene-transfer method may be a potentially useful immunotherapeutic approach for delivering monocyte/macrophage-derived products to skin.

  9. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R Power; Hoskin, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression.

  10. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  11. Salidroside attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and improves survival in murine endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shuang; Feng, Haihua; Song, Bocui; Guo, Weixiao; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Guoren; Zhong, Weiting; Huo, Meixia; Chen, Na; Lu, Jing; Deng, Xuming

    2011-12-01

    Salidroside is a major component isolated from the Rhodiola rosea. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of salidroside on cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro, and the results showed that salidroside reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretions. This inspired us to further study the effects of salidroside in vivo. Salidroside significantly attenuated TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 productions in serum from mice challenged with LPS, and consistent with the results in vitro. In the murine model of endotoxemia, mice were treated with salidroside prior to or after LPS challenge. The results showed that salidroside significantly increased mouse survival. Further studies revealed that salidroside could downregulate LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-қB (NF-қB) DNA-binding activation and ERK/MAPKs signal transduction pathways production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These observations indicated that salidroside modulated early cytokine responses by blocking NF-қB and ERK/MAPKs activation, and thus, increased mouse survival. These effects of salidroside may be of potential usefulness in the treatment of inflammation-mediated endotoxemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Huang, Qin; Mao, Yulong; Cui, Zhiwen; Li, Yali; Huang, Yi; Rajput, Imran Rashid; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) (natto) B4 spores on murine macrophage, RAW 264.7 cells were cultured alone or with B subtilis (natto) B4 spores at 37°C for 12 hrs, then both cells and culture supernatants were collected for analyses. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells to B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores had no significant effects on macrophage viability and amounts of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, it remarkably increased the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cells and the amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in culture supernatants. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores are harmless to murine macrophages and can stimulate their activation through up-regulation of ACP and LDH activities and enhance their immune function by increasing iNOS activity and stimulating NO and cytokine production. The above findings suggest that B. subtilis (natto) B4 spores have immunomodulatory effects on macrophages. © 2012 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Specific susceptibility to mucormycosis in murine diabetes and bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus.

    PubMed Central

    Waldorf, A R; Ruderman, N; Diamond, R D

    1984-01-01

    To assess the influence of diabetes mellitus in predisposing to pulmonary mucormycosis, a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used. Intranasal inoculation of Rhizopus oryzae into diabetic mice resulted in mucormycotic infection with histopathology resembling pulmonary mucormycosis observed in humans. There was no mortality nor infection in inoculated normal mice. Diabetic mice had fatal infections caused by R. oryzae but significantly reduced mortality following inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. These findings reflect the specific enhanced susceptibility to mucormycosis observed in human diabetics. Normal bronchoalveolar macrophages formed part of an efficient defense against R. oryzae by inhibiting germination, the critical step in the conversion of R. oryzae to its tissue invasive phase. Bronchoalveolar macrophages inhibited spore germination in vitro and appeared to help prevent germination in vivo. In contrast, spore germination occurred in diabetic mice following intranasal inoculation. Diabetic bronchoalveolar macrophages had a decreased ability to attach to hyphae. In diabetic mice, bronchoalveolar macrophages could damage spores or hyphae of R. oryzae, but serum factors appeared to both promote spore germination and impair attachment of macrophages to spores. This murine model of diabetes mellitus provides an opportunity for evaluation of the relative importance of cell and serum-mediated host factors in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Images PMID:6736246

  14. Rickettsia australis Activates Inflammasome in Human and Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Claire; Bechelli, Jeremy; Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Saito, Tais; Azar, Sasha R.; Ismail, Nahed; Walker, David H.; Fang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiae actively escape from vacuoles and replicate free in the cytoplasm of host cells, where inflammasomes survey the invading pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of Rickettsia australis with the inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages. R. australis induced a significant level of IL-1β secretion by human macrophages, which was significantly reduced upon treatment with an inhibitor of caspase-1 compared to untreated controls, suggesting caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation. Rickettsia induced significant secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro by infected mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) as early as 8–12 h post infection (p.i.) in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of these cytokines was accompanied by cleavage of caspase-1 and was completely abrogated in BMMs deficient in caspase-1/caspase-11 or apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), suggesting that R. australis activate the ASC-dependent inflammasome. Interestingly, in response to the same quantity of rickettsiae, NLRP3-/- BMMs significantly reduced the secretion level of IL-1β compared to wild type (WT) controls, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to cytosolic recognition of R. australis in vitro. Rickettsial load in spleen, but not liver and lung, of R. australis-infected NLRP3-/- mice was significantly greater compared to WT mice. These data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in host control of bacteria in vivo in a tissue-specific manner. Taken together, our data, for the first time, illustrate the activation of ASC-dependent inflammasome by R. australis in macrophages in which NLRP3 is involved. PMID:27362650

  15. Rickettsia australis Activates Inflammasome in Human and Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Claire; Bechelli, Jeremy; Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Saito, Tais; Azar, Sasha R; Ismail, Nahed; Walker, David H; Fang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiae actively escape from vacuoles and replicate free in the cytoplasm of host cells, where inflammasomes survey the invading pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of Rickettsia australis with the inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages. R. australis induced a significant level of IL-1β secretion by human macrophages, which was significantly reduced upon treatment with an inhibitor of caspase-1 compared to untreated controls, suggesting caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation. Rickettsia induced significant secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro by infected mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) as early as 8-12 h post infection (p.i.) in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of these cytokines was accompanied by cleavage of caspase-1 and was completely abrogated in BMMs deficient in caspase-1/caspase-11 or apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), suggesting that R. australis activate the ASC-dependent inflammasome. Interestingly, in response to the same quantity of rickettsiae, NLRP3-/- BMMs significantly reduced the secretion level of IL-1β compared to wild type (WT) controls, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to cytosolic recognition of R. australis in vitro. Rickettsial load in spleen, but not liver and lung, of R. australis-infected NLRP3-/- mice was significantly greater compared to WT mice. These data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in host control of bacteria in vivo in a tissue-specific manner. Taken together, our data, for the first time, illustrate the activation of ASC-dependent inflammasome by R. australis in macrophages in which NLRP3 is involved.

  16. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  17. Interaction of murine macrophage-membrane proteins with components of the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M L; Duarte-Escalante, E; Reyes-Montes, M R; Elizondo, N; Maldonado, G; Zenteno, E

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin, a crude antigen of the pathogenic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, was studied using murine peritoneal macrophages. Membrane proteins were purified via membrane attachment to polycationic beads and solubilized in Tris–HCl/SDS/DTT/glycerol for protein extraction; afterwards they were adsorbed or not with H. capsulatum yeast or lectin binding-enriched by affinity chromatography. Membrane proteins and histoplasmin interactions were detected by ELISA and immunoblotting assays using anti-H. capsulatum human or mouse serum and biotinylated goat anti-human or anti-mouse IgG/streptavidin-peroxidase system to reveal the interaction. Results indicate that macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin components interact in a dose-dependent reaction, and adsorption of macrophage-membrane proteins by yeast cells induces a critical decrease in the interaction. Macrophage-membrane glycoproteins with terminal d-galactosyl residues, purified by chromatography with Abrus precatorius lectin, bound to histoplasmin; and two bands of 68 kD and 180 kD of transferred membrane protein samples interacted with histoplasmin components, as revealed by immunoblot assays. Specificity for β-galactoside residues on the macrophage-membrane was confirmed by galactose inhibition of the interaction between macrophage-membrane proteins and histoplasmin components, in competitive ELISA using sugars, as well as by enzymatic cleavage of the galactoside residues. PMID:9737672

  18. Intracellular localization of myeloperoxidase in murine peritoneal B-lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Tomaz Henrique; Okada, Sabrina Sayori; Ghosn, Eliver Eid Bou; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; de Almeida, Sandro Rogerio; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Russo, Momtchilo; Campa, Ana; Albuquerque, Renata Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Generation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an important microbicidal agent, is considered to be the main function of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme present in phagocytes. High amounts of MPO are present in neutrophil azurophilic granules, which are mobilized into the phagolysosome vacuole during phagocytosis. MPO is also present in monocytes and macrophages, although to a lesser degree than in neutrophils. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of MPO in murine peritoneal cells using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy (CM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MPO was observed in macrophages, and surprisingly, we detected MPO in B lymphocytes, specifically in B1-a. MPO was present in cytoplasmic granules, vesicles, mitochondria and the nucleus of murine peritoneal cells. Together, these findings suggest that, in addition to its known microbicidal activity, MPO has a myriad of other unanticipated cellular functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Passive transfer of leishmania lipopolysaccharide confers parasite survival in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Handman, E.; Schnur, L.F.; Spithill, T.W.; Mitchell, G.F.

    1986-12-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania involves specific attachment to the host membrane, followed by phagocytosis and intracellular survival and growth. Two parasite molecules have been implicated in the attachment event: Leishmania lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) and a glycoprotein (gp63). This study was designed to clarify the role of L-LPS in infection and the stage in the process of infection at which it operates. The authors have recently identified a Leishmania major strain (LRC-L119) which lacks the L-LPS molecule and is not infective for hamsters or mice. This parasite was isolated from a gerbil in Kenya and was identified phenotypically as L. major by isoenzyme and fatty acid analysis. In this study they have confirmed at the genotype level that LRC-L119 is L. major by analyzing and comparing the organization of cloned DNA sequences in the genome of different strains of L. major. Here they show that LRC-L119 promastigotes are phagocytosed rapidly by macrophages in vitro, but in contrast to virulent strains of L. major, they are then killed over a period of 18 hr. In addition, they show that transfer of purified L-LPS from a virulent clone of L. major (V121) into LRC-L119 promastigotes confers on them the ability to survive in macrophages in vitro.

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae survives within macrophages by avoiding delivery to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Cano, Victoria; March, Catalina; Insua, Jose Luis; Aguiló, Nacho; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Regueiro, Verónica; Brennan, Gerard P; Millán-Lou, Maria Isabel; Martín, Carlos; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Evidence indicates that Klebsiella might be able to persist intracellularly within a vacuolar compartment. This study was designed to investigate the interaction between Klebsiella and macrophages. Engulfment of K. pneumoniae was dependent on host cytoskeleton, cell plasma membrane lipid rafts and the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Microscopy studies revealed that K. pneumoniae resides within a vacuolar compartment, the Klebsiella-containing vacuole (KCV), which traffics within vacuoles associated with the endocytic pathway. In contrast to UV-killed bacteria, the majority of live bacteria did not co-localize with markers of the lysosomal compartment. Our data suggest that K. pneumoniae triggers a programmed cell death in macrophages displaying features of apoptosis. Our efforts to identify the mechanism(s) whereby K. pneumoniae prevents the fusion of the lysosomes to the KCV uncovered the central role of the PI3K-Akt-Rab14 axis to control the phagosome maturation. Our data revealed that the capsule is dispensable for Klebsiella intracellular survival if bacteria were not opsonized. Furthermore, the environment found by Klebsiella within the KCV triggered the down-regulation of the expression of cps. Altogether, this study proves evidence that K. pneumoniae survives killing by macrophages by manipulating phagosome maturation that may contribute to Klebsiella pathogenesis.

  1. Alternatively activated macrophages determine repair of the infarcted adult murine heart

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Manabu; Shintani, Yasunori; Shintani, Yusuke; Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo; Yashiro, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (also known as M2) macrophages are involved in the repair of various types of organs. However, the contribution of M2 macrophages to cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI) remains to be fully characterized. Here, we identified CD206+F4/80+CD11b+ M2-like macrophages in the murine heart and demonstrated that this cell population predominantly increases in the infarct area and exhibits strengthened reparative abilities after MI. We evaluated mice lacking the kinase TRIB1 (Trib1–/–), which exhibit a selective depletion of M2 macrophages after MI. Compared with control animals, Trib1–/– mice had a catastrophic prognosis, with frequent cardiac rupture, as the result of markedly reduced collagen fibril formation in the infarct area due to impaired fibroblast activation. The decreased tissue repair observed in Trib1–/– mice was entirely rescued by an external supply of M2-like macrophages. Furthermore, IL-1α and osteopontin were suggested to be mediators of M2-like macrophage–induced fibroblast activation. In addition, IL-4 administration achieved a targeted increase in the number of M2-like macrophages and enhanced the post-MI prognosis of WT mice, corresponding with amplified fibroblast activation and formation of more supportive fibrous tissues in the infarcts. Together, these data demonstrate that M2-like macrophages critically determine the repair of infarcted adult murine heart by regulating fibroblast activation and suggest that IL-4 is a potential biological drug for treating MI. PMID:27140396

  2. Biological and antigenic similarities of murine interferon-gamma and macrophage-activating factor

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) treated with murine recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (greater than 99% estimated purity), or concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cell supernatants developed tumoricidal properties (macrophage activation factor [MAF] activity). MAF activity was found to occur with treatments of 10 U/ml IFN-gamma, and at levels as low as 1 U/ml IFN-gamma if a second signal (5 ng/ml endotoxin) was present in the MAF assay. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) alone at these levels failed to induce MAF; induction of MAF was observed at 1,000-fold greater levels. The ability of IFN-gamma to stimulate murine PEC was species specific. Various sources of materials that displayed MAF activity, including supernatants from interleukin 2- dependent cloned cytotoxic murine T lymphocyte lines that did not display detectable antiviral activity, were neutralized by antibody raised and affinity purified against recombinant IFN-gamma. Thus, IFN- gamma, although never detectable by antiviral assays, appears to be present in many lymphokine preparations and has potent macrophage activation capability. PMID:6421982

  3. Staining of intracellular deposits of uranium in cultured murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kalinich, J F; McClain, D E

    2001-01-01

    In our studies of the health effects of internalized depleted uranium, we developed a simple and rapid light microscopic method to stain specifically intracellular uranium deposits. Using J774 cells, a mouse macrophage line, treated with uranyl nitrate and the pyridylazo dye 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, uranium uptake by the cells was followed. Specificity of the stain for uranium was accomplished by using masking agents to prevent the interaction of the stain with other metals. Prestaining wash consisting of a mixture of sodium citrate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid eliminated staining of metals other than uranium. The staining solution consisted of the pyridylazo dye in borate buffer along with a quaternary ammonium salt, ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, and the aforementioned sodium citrate/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid mixture. The buffer was essential for maintaining the pH within the optimum range of 8 to 12, and the quaternary ammonium salt prevented precipitation of the dye. Staining was conducted at room temperature and was complete in 30 min. Staining intensity correlated with both uranyl nitrate concentration and incubation time. Our method provides a simple procedure for detecting intracellular uranium deposits in macrophages.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activities of mogrosides from Momordica grosvenori in murine macrophages and a murine ear edema model.

    PubMed

    Di, Rong; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-07-13

    Momordica grosvenori (Luo Han Guo), grown primarily in Guangxi province in China, has been traditionally used for thousands of years by the Chinese to make hot drinks for the treatment of sore throat and the removal of phlegm. The natural noncaloric sweetening triterpenoid glycosides (mogrosides) contained in the M. grosvenori fruits are also antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and helpful in preventing diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of mogrosides in both murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and a murine ear edema model. The results indicate that mogrosides can inhibit inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in RAW 264.7 cells by down-regulating the expression of key inflammatory genes iNOS, COX-2, and IL-6 and up-regulating some inflammation protective genes such as PARP1, BCL2l1, TRP53, and MAPK9. Similarly, in the murine ear edema model, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation was inhibited by mogrosides by down-regulating COX-2 and IL-6 and up-regulating PARP1, BCL2l1, TRP53, MAPK9, and PPARδ gene expression. This study shows that the anticancer and antidiabetic effects of M. grosvenori may result in part from its anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Role of Cathepsins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Survival in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pires, David; Marques, Joana; Pombo, João Palma; Carmo, Nuno; Bettencourt, Paulo; Neyrolles, Olivier; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Anes, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Cathepsins are proteolytic enzymes that function in the endocytic pathway, especially in lysosomes, where they contribute directly to pathogen killing or indirectly, by their involvement in the antigen presentation pathways. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that survives inside the macrophage phagosomes by inhibiting their maturation to phagolysosomes and thus avoiding a low pH and protease-rich environment. We previously showed that mycobacterial inhibition of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB results in impaired delivery of lysosomal enzymes to phagosomes and reduced pathogen killing. Here, we elucidate how MTB also controls cathepsins and their inhibitors, cystatins, at the level of gene expression and proteolytic activity. MTB induced a general down-regulation of cathepsin expression in infected cells, and inhibited IFNγ-mediated increase of cathepsin mRNA. We further show that a decrease in cathepsins B, S and L favours bacterial survival within human primary macrophages. A siRNA knockdown screen of a large set of cathepsins revealed that almost half of these enzymes have a role in pathogen killing, while only cathepsin F coincided with MTB resilience. Overall, we show that cathepsins are important for the control of MTB infection, and as a response, it manipulates their expression and activity to favour its intracellular survival. PMID:27572605

  6. Asc-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Contribute to Restriction of Legionella Pneumophila Infection in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Dalia H. A.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Kotrange, Sheetal; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Hassan, Zeinab A.; El-Sharkawi, Fathia Z.; Bedi, Simranjit S.; Ladner, Katherine; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Doseff, Andrea I.; Mostafa, Mahmoud; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Guttridge, Dennis; Marsh, Clay B.; Wewers, Mark D.; Amer, Amal O.

    2010-01-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (Asc) is an adaptor molecule that mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaire's pneumonia. L. pneumophila is able to cause pneumonia in immuno-compromised humans but not in most inbred mice. Murine macrophages that lack the ability to activate caspase-1, such as caspase-1−/− and Nlrc4−/− allow L. pneumophila infection. This permissiveness is attributed mainly to the lack of active caspase-1 and the absence of its down stream substrates such as caspase-7. However, the role of Asc in control of L. pneumophila infection in mice is unclear. Here we show that caspase-1 is moderately activated in Asc−/− macrophages and that this limited activation is required and sufficient to restrict L. pneumophila growth. Moreover, Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 requires bacterial flagellin and is mainly detected in cellular extracts but not in culture supernatants. We also demonstrate that the depletion of Asc from permissive macrophages enhances bacterial growth by promoting L. pneumophila-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway and decreasing caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that L. pneumophila infection in murine macrophages is controlled by several mechanisms: Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 and Asc-dependent regulation of NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. PMID:21713115

  7. A real time chemotaxis assay unveils unique migratory profiles amongst different primary murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif J; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Christou, Ivy; White, Gemma E; McNeill, Eileen; Kenyon, Amy; Taylor, Lewis; Kapellos, Theodore S; Fisher, Edward A; Channon, Keith M; Greaves, David R

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis assays are an invaluable tool for studying the biological activity of inflammatory mediators such as CC chemokines, which have been implicated in a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases. Conventional chemotaxis systems such as the modified Boyden chamber are limited in terms of the data captured given that the assays are analysed at a single time-point. We report the optimisation and validation of a label-free, real-time cell migration assay based on electrical cell impedance to measure chemotaxis of different primary murine macrophage populations in response to a range of CC chemokines and other chemoattractant signalling molecules. We clearly demonstrate key differences in the migratory behavior of different murine macrophage populations and show that this dynamic system measures true macrophage chemotaxis rather than chemokinesis or fugetaxis. We highlight an absolute requirement for Gαi signaling and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement as demonstrated by Pertussis toxin and cytochalasin D inhibition. We also studied the chemotaxis of CD14(+) human monocytes and demonstrate distinct chemotactic profiles amongst different monocyte donors to CCL2. This real-time chemotaxis assay will allow a detailed analysis of factors that regulate macrophage responses to chemoattractant cytokines and inflammatory mediators.

  8. Effects of selenizing angelica polysaccharide and selenizing garlic polysaccharide on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Kuanhui; Tian, Weijun; Wang, Hongchao; Liu, Zhenguang; Li, Youying; Li, Entao; Liu, Cui; Li, Xiuping; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-07-01

    The effects of two selenizing polysaccharides (sCAP2 and sGPS6) on immune function of murine peritoneal macrophages taking two non-selenizing polysaccharides (CAP and GPS) and modifier Na2SeO3 as control. In vitro test, the changes of selenizing polysaccharides, non-selenizing polysaccharides and Na2SeO3 on murine macrophages function were evaluated by phagocytosis and nitric oxide (NO) secretion tests. In vivo test, the mice were injected respectively with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg of sCAP2, sGPS6, CAP and GPS, or Na2SeO3 80 μg or normal saline 0.4 mL. The peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured to determine the contents of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that sCAP2 and sGPS6 could significantly promote the phagocytosis and secretion of NO and three cytokines of macrophages in comparison with CAP and GPS. sCAP2 possessed the strongest activity. This indicates that selenylation modification can further improve the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharide, and sCAP2 could be as a new immunopotentiator.

  9. THE PROTEASOME REGULATES BACTERIAL CpG DNA-INDUCED SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MURINE MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian Jun; Shen, Jing; Kolbert, Christopher; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Papasian, Christopher J.; Qureshi, Asaf A.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Morrison, David C.; Qureshi, Nilofer

    2010-01-01

    Our previous work has provided strong evidence that the proteasome is central to the vast majority of genes induced in mouse macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. In the studies presented here, we evaluated the role of the macrophage proteasome in response to a second microbial product CpG DNA (unmethylated bacterial DNA). For these studies, we applied Affymetrix microarray analysis of RNA derived from murine macrophages stimulated with CpG DNA in the presence or absence of proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin. The results of these studies revealed that similar to LPS, a vast majority of those macrophage genes regulated by CpG DNA are also under the control of the proteasome at 4 h. In contrast to LPS stimulation, however, many of these genes were induced much later than 4 h, at 18 h, in response to CpG DNA. Lactacystin treatment of macrophages completely blocked the CpG DNA-induced gene expression of TNF-α and other genes involved in production of inflammatory mediators. These data strongly support the conclusion that, similar to LPS, the macrophage proteasome is a key regulator of CpG DNA-induced signaling pathways. PMID:20160661

  10. Phorbal esters and calcium ionophore can prime murine peritoneal macrophages for tumor cell destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, S.D.; Weiel, J.E.; Hamilton, T.A.; Adams, D.O.

    1986-06-01

    Murine macrophages from sites of inflammation develop toward tumoricidal competence by exposure to a macrophage-activating factor such as interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..). To explore the biochemical transductional events initiated by IFN-..gamma.., peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6J mice elicited by various sterile irritants were treated in vitro with two pharmacologic agents that mimic the action of certain second messengers. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the ionophore A23187 cooperatively reproduced the ability of IFN-..gamma.. to prime macrophages for tumoricidal function. Neither agent alone was able to prime macrophages. The two agents acted on the macrophages, and target susceptibility to kill was not altered by PMA and A23187. Only active phorbol esters, which are known to bind and stimulate protein kinase C, were able to cooperate with A23187 to induce priming. A cell-permeable synthetic diacylglycerol (sn-1,2-dioctanoyl glycerol) could also prime for cytolysis. In the presence of PMA, A23187, and EGTA, addition of Ca/sup + +/ was sufficient for priming, whereas the addition of Mg/sup + +/ was much less efficient. Priming by IFN-..gamma.., however, was not blocked by EGTA. Efflux of /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ from preloaded cells was significantly increased by A23187 and by IFN-..gamma... Quin-2/AM, an intracellular chelator of Ca/sup + +/, blocked priming by IFN-..gamma...

  11. Impairment of survival signaling and efferocytosis in TRPC3-deficient macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Smedlund, Kathryn; Lee, Robert; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the role of TRPC3 channel in macrophage survival, apoptosis and efferocytic properties. {yields} TRPC3-deficient macrophages exhibit impaired survival signaling, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. {yields} These findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3 is an essential component for macrophage survival and clearance of apoptotic cells. -- Abstract: We have recently shown that in macrophages proper operation of the survival pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) has an obligatory requirement for constitutive, non-regulated Ca{sup 2+} influx. In the present work we examined if Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3), a member of the TRPC family of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cation channels, contributes to the constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx that supports macrophage survival. We used bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from TRPC3{sup -/-} mice to determine the activation status of survival signaling pathways, apoptosis and their efferocytic properties. Treatment of TRPC3{sup +/+} macrophages with the pro-apoptotic cytokine TNF{alpha} induced time-dependent phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, AKT and BAD, and this was drastically reduced in TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages. Compared to TRPC3{sup +/+} cells TRPC3{sup -/-} macrophages exhibited reduced constitutive cation influx, increased apoptosis and impaired efferocytosis. The present findings suggest that macrophage TRPC3, presumably through its constitutive function, contributes to survival signaling and efferocytic properties.

  12. MIP-1alpha as a critical macrophage chemoattractant in murine wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, L A; Burdick, M; Low, Q E; Kunkel, S L; Strieter, R M

    1998-01-01

    At sites of injury, macrophages secrete growth factors and proteins that promote tissue repair. While this central role of the macrophage has been well studied, the specific stimuli that recruit macrophages into sites of injury are not well understood. This study examines the role of macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), a C-C chemokine with monocyte chemoattractant capability, in excisional wound repair. Both MIP-1alpha mRNA and protein were detectable in murine wounds from 12 h through 5 d after injury. MIP-1alpha protein levels peaked 3 d after injury, coinciding with maximum macrophage infiltration. The contribution of MIP-1alpha to monocyte recruitment into wounds was assessed by treating mice with neutralizing anti-MIP-1alpha antiserum before injury. Wounds of mice treated with anti-MIP-1alpha antiserum had significantly fewer macrophages than control (41% decrease, P < 0. 01). This decrease in wound macrophages was paralleled by decreased angiogenic activity and collagen synthesis. When tested in the corneal micropocket assay, wound homogenates from mice treated with anti-MIP-1alpha contained significantly less angiogenic activity than control wound homogenates (27% positive for angiogenic activity versus 91% positive in the control group, P < 0.01). Collagen production was also significantly reduced in the wounds from anti-MIP-1alpha treated animals (29% decrease, P < 0.05). The results demonstrate that MIP-1alpha plays a critical role in macrophage recruitment into wounds, and suggest that appropriate tissue repair is dependent upon this recruitment. PMID:9541500

  13. Akt1-mediated regulation of macrophage polarization in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Kang, Yanhua; Zhang, Hang; Piao, Zhenghao; Yin, Hongping; Diao, Ran; Xia, Jingyan; Shi, Liyun

    2013-08-01

    Macrophage polarization is critical for dictating host defense against pathogens and injurious agents. Dysregulation of macrophage differentiation has been implicated in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that protein kinase B/Akt1 signaling induced by Staphylococcus aureus is essential in shifting macrophages from an antimicrobial phenotype (M1) to a functionally inert signature. Akt1(-/-)mice consistently had enhanced bacterial clearance and greater survival, compared with their wild-type littermates. The blunted M1 macrophage reaction driven by Akt1 was associated with decreased RelA/nuclear factor κB activity. Furthermore, by repression of the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), microRNA 155 revealed to promote the transcription of M1 signature genes in macrophages from Akt1(-/-) mice. Accordingly, blocking of microRNA 155 in macrophages from Akt1(-/-)mice or knockdown of SOCS1 in cells from wild-type mice disabled or enabled, respectively, an M1 macrophage shift and antibacterial response. These results thus establish an Akt1-mediated, microRNA-involved circuit that regulates pathogen-driven macrophage polarization and, subsequently, the host response to infection.

  14. Morphological effects of autologous hsp70 on peritoneal macrophages in a murine T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gautam, P K; Kumar, S; Deepak, P; Acharya, A

    2013-12-01

    Heat shock protein 70 is highly conserved cytosolic protein which have important role in growth, development, and apoptosis. Hsp70 is well-known activator of macrophages and enhances the release of specific and non-specific effector molecules that have major role in tumor destruction and immunopotentiation of host. However, morphological effects of hsp 70 has not been carried out, therefore, morphological effects of hsp 70 on murine peritoneal macrophages were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thioglycolate-induced peritoneal macrophages were prepared from BALB/c mice and cultured for 24 h in the presence of the hsp70. Tumor-associated macrophages treated with 10 μg/ml were varied in shape, mostly spindle shaped, i.e., stretched bidirectionally; surface ruffles were increased and their lamellipodia was prominent which suggest that hsp 70 treatment not only enhances the functional state of the peritoneal macrophages but also initiate immense morphological changes leading to increased endothelium adherence, increased antigen uptake, and increased migration to the inflammatory site.

  15. Endotoxin-induced enhancement of glucose influx into murine peritoneal macrophages via GLUT1.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, M; Shinomiya, H; Shimizu, Y; Ohishi, K; Utsumi, S

    1996-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is among the most injurious metabolic disorders caused by endotoxemia. In experimental endotoxemia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in animals, a marked glucose consumption is observed in macrophage-rich organs. However, the direct effect of LPS on the uptake of glucose by macrophages has not been fully understood, and the present study was undertaken to shed light on this point. The consumption and uptake of glucose, as measured with 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose, by murine peritoneal exudate macrophages in culture were accelerated two- to threefold by stimulation with 3 ng of LPS per ml. The rate of glucose uptake reached a plateau after 20 min of stimulation and remained at the maximum as long as LPS was present. Northern (RNA) blot analysis with cDNA probes for five known isoforms of glucose transporter (GLUT) revealed that the expression of GLUT by macrophages was restricted to the GLUT1 isoform during LPS stimulation and the amount of GLUT1 mRNA was increased by the stimulation. These results suggest that macrophage responses to LPS are supported by a rapid and sustained glucose influx via GLUT1 and that this is a participating factor in the development of systemic hypoglycemia when endotoxemia is prolonged. PMID:8557327

  16. B-1 cells modulate the murine macrophage response to Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Angelica F; Nunes, Marise P; Silva-Junior, Elias B; Leandro, Monique; da Rocha, Juliana Dutra Barbosa; Morrot, Alexandre; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo

    2017-05-26

    To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined using a PGE2 enzyme immunoassay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and the number of lipid bodies was quantified in the cytoplasm of infected macrophages in the presence and absence of B-1 cells. Culturing the cells with selective PGE2-neutralizing drugs inhibited PGE2 production and confirmed the role of this lipid mediator in IL-10 production. In contrast, we demonstrated that B-1 cells derived from IL-10 KO mice did not favor the intracellular growth of L. major. We report that B-1 cells promote the growth of L. major amastigotes inside peritoneal murine macrophages. We demonstrated that the modulatory effect was independent of physical contact between the cells, suggesting that soluble factor(s) were released into the cultures. We demonstrated in our co-culture system that B-1 cells trigger IL-10 production by L. major-infected macrophages. Furthermore, the increased secretion of IL-10 was attributed to the presence of the lipid mediator PGE2 in supernatants of L. major-infected macrophages. The presence of B-1 cells also favors the production of lipid bodies by infected macrophages. In contrast, we failed to obtain the same effect on parasite replication inside L. major-infected macrophages when the B-1 cells were isolated from IL-10 knockout mice. Our results show that elevated levels of PGE2 and IL-10 produced by B-1 cells increase L. major growth, as indicated by the number of parasites in cell cultures.

  17. B-1 cells modulate the murine macrophage response to Leishmania major infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, Angelica F; Nunes, Marise P; Silva-Junior, Elias B; Leandro, Monique; da Rocha, Juliana Dutra Barbosa; Morrot, Alexandre; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. METHODS Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined using a PGE2 enzyme immunoassay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and the number of lipid bodies was quantified in the cytoplasm of infected macrophages in the presence and absence of B-1 cells. Culturing the cells with selective PGE2-neutralizing drugs inhibited PGE2 production and confirmed the role of this lipid mediator in IL-10 production. In contrast, we demonstrated that B-1 cells derived from IL-10 KO mice did not favor the intracellular growth of L. major. RESULTS We report that B-1 cells promote the growth of L. major amastigotes inside peritoneal murine macrophages. We demonstrated that the modulatory effect was independent of physical contact between the cells, suggesting that soluble factor(s) were released into the cultures. We demonstrated in our co-culture system that B-1 cells trigger IL-10 production by L. major-infected macrophages. Furthermore, the increased secretion of IL-10 was attributed to the presence of the lipid mediator PGE2 in supernatants of L. major-infected macrophages. The presence of B-1 cells also favors the production of lipid bodies by infected macrophages. In contrast, we failed to obtain the same effect on parasite replication inside L. major-infected macrophages when the B-1 cells were isolated from IL-10 knockout mice. CONCLUSION Our results show that elevated levels of PGE2 and IL-10 produced by B-1 cells increase L. major growth, as indicated by the number of

  18. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Qui, Min; Paromov, Victor M; Yang, Hongsong; Smith, Milton; Stone, William L

    2006-01-01

    Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD). Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells since NO signalling affects inflammation, cell death, and wound healing. Murine macrophages stimulated with LPS produce NO almost exclusively via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. We suggest that the influence of CEES or HD on the cellular production of NO could play an important role in the pathophysiological responses of tissues to these toxicants. In particular, it is known that macrophage generated NO synthesised by iNOS plays a critical role in wound healing. Results We initially confirmed that in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages NO is exclusively generated by the iNOS form of nitric oxide synthase. CEES treatment inhibited the synthesis of NO (after 24 hours) in viable LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as measured by either nitrite secretion into the culture medium or the intracellular conversion of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) or dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). Western blots showed that CEES transiently decreased the expression of iNOS protein; however, treatment of active iNOS with CEES in vitro did not inhibit its enzymatic activity Conclusion CEES inhibits NO production in LPS stimulated macrophages by decreasing iNOS protein expression. Decreased iNOS expression is likely the result of CEES induced alteration in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway. Since NO can act as an antioxidant, the CEES induced down-regulation of iNOS in LPS-stimulated macrophages could elevate

  19. Anti-inflammatory action of γ-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Park, Jae-Nam; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-12-01

    This present study was to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of gamma (γ)-irradiated genistein in murine peritoneal macrophage. Inflammation to macrophage was induced by adding the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). γ-Irradiated genistein significantly decreased the cytotoxicity to murine peritoneal macrophage in dose ranges from 5 to 10 μM than that of non-irradiated genistein. Anti-inflammatory activity within the doses less than 2 μM showed that γ-irradiated genistein treatment remarkably reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by decreasing the nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) production. In a structural analysis through the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), γ-irradiated genistein showed a new peak production distinguished from main peak of genistein (non-irradiated). Therefore, increase of anti-inflammatory activity may closely mediate with structural changes induced by γ irradiation exposure. Based on the above result, γ-irradiation could be an effective tool for reduction of toxicity and increase of physiological activity of biomolecules.

  20. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in −738 bp ∼  −723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies. - Highlights: • FXR is expressed in murine macrophage cell line. • FXR down regulates MCP-1 expression. • FXR binds to the DR4 in MCP-1 promoter.

  1. Hemozoin Enhances Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages and Myeloid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Shahid; Ur-Rehman, Kashif; Kumar, Ramesh; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-03-01

    Falciparum malaria is a severe health burden worldwide. Antigen presenting cells are reported to be affected by erythrocytic stage of the parasite. Malarial hemozoin (HZ), a metabolite of malaria parasite, has adjuvant properties and may play a role in the induction of immune response against the parasite. To determine the immunological impact of hemozoin on the capacity of innate immune cells maturation. Plasmodium falciparum (F32 strain) was cultured in O+ blood group up to 18% parasitemia. Natural hemozoin was extracted from infected red blood cells. Murine bone marrow derived macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells were stimulated with 4 μg/mL or 40 μg/mL of synthetic hemozoin (β-hematin) or natural hemozoin. We assessed the immunomodulatory role of synthetic or natural hemozoinin vitro by flowcytometric analysis. The maturation markers MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 were significantly upregulated (p<0.05) on the surface of murine bone marrow derived macrophages or myeloid dendritic cells. Data confirmed the potential of macrophages or myeloid dendritic cells, through hemozoin activation, to establish an innate immune response against malaria parasites. Both synthetic and natural hemozoin are potent inducers of cellular immunity against malaria infection. However, natural hemozoin is a stronger inducer as compared to synthetic hemozoin.

  2. Murine macrophage interleukin-1 release by capsularlike serotype-specific polysaccharide antigens of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, T; Nishihara, T; Ishihara, Y; Amano, K; Shibuya, N; Moro, I; Koga, T

    1991-01-01

    Serotype-specific polysaccharide antigens (SPAs) were extracted from whole cells of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523 (serotype a), Y4 (serotype b), and NCTC 9710 (serotype c) by autoclaving and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and Sephacryl S-300 columns. Y4 SPA induced interleukin-1 (IL-1) release by P388D1 murine macrophages. Polymyxin B had virtually no effect on the release of IL-1. Rabbit anti-murine IL-1 serum strongly suppressed the proliferation of C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes induced with the culture supernatants of Y4 SPA-stimulated P388D1 cells and a submitogenic dose of concanavalin A. Gel filtration of the culture supernatants of Y4 SPA-stimulated macrophages on Sephacryl S-200 showed that an IL-1 peak at a point corresponding to approximately 16.5 kDa was eluted. The ability of SPAs from strains ATCC 29523 and NCTC 9710 to induce the release of IL-1 was lower than that of Y4 SPA. The IL-1-releasing ability of serotype a and c antigens was enhanced by deacetylation of both polysaccharides, suggesting that acetyl groups of these antigens might hinder the interaction between the antigens and macrophages. PMID:1987032

  3. Infection of Murine Macrophages by Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Blocks Murine Norovirus Infectivity and Virus-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Basco, Maria D S; Mullis, Lisa; Foley, Steven L; Hart, Mark E; Sung, Kidon; Azevedo, Marli P

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteritis caused by bacterial and viral pathogens constitutes a major public health threat in the United States accounting for 35% of hospitalizations. In particular, Salmonella enterica and noroviruses cause the majority of gastroenteritis infections, with emergence of sporadic outbreaks and incidence of increased infections. Although mechanisms underlying infections by these pathogens have been individually studied, little is known about the mechanisms regulating co-infection by these pathogens. In this study, we utilized RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells to investigate the mechanisms governing co-infection with S. enterica serovar Heidelberg and murine norovirus (MNV). We demonstrate that infection of RAW 264.7 cells with S. enterica reduces the replication of MNV, in part by blocking virus entry early in the virus life cycle, and inducing antiviral cytokines later in the infection cycle. In particular, bacterial infection prior to, or during MNV infection affected virus entry, whereas MNV entry remained unaltered when the virus infection preceded bacterial invasion. This block in virus entry resulted in reduced virus replication, with the highest impact on replication observed during conditions of co-infection. In contrast, bacterial replication showed a threefold increase in MNV-infected cells, despite the presence of antibiotic in the medium. Most importantly, we present evidence that the infection of MNV-infected macrophages by S. enterica blocked MNV-induced apoptosis, despite allowing efficient virus replication. This apoptosis blockade was evidenced by reduction in DNA fragmentation and absence of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), caspase 3 and caspase 9 cleavage events. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of pathogenesis whereby initial co-infection with these pathogens could result in prolonged infection by either of these pathogens or both together.

  4. Interferon-γ promotes phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans but not Cryptococcus gattii by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ikeda-Dantsuji, Yurika; Ohno, Hideaki; Tanabe, Koichi; Umeyama, Takashi; Ueno, Keigo; Nagi, Minoru; Yamagoe, Satoshi; Kinjo, Yuki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2015-12-01

    Among invasive fungal infections, cryptococcosis caused by inhalation of Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii is particularly dangerous because it can disseminate to the central nervous system and cause life-threatening meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Previous reports described significant differences in the histopathological features of C. neoformans and C. gattii infection, such as greater pathogen proliferation and a limited macrophage response in mouse lung infected by C. gattii. To elucidate the difference in pathogenicity of these two Cryptococcus species, we investigated the interaction of C. neoformans and C. gattii with murine macrophages, the first line of host defense, by confocal laser microscopy. Only thin-capsulated, and not thick-capsulated C. neoformans and C. gattii were phagocytosed by macrophages. Preactivation with interferon-γ increased the phagocytic rate of thin-capsulated C. neoformans up to two-fold, but did not promote phagocytosis of thin-capsulated C. gattii. Lipopolysaccharide preactivation or Aspergillus fumigatus conidia co-incubation had no effect on internalization of thin-capsulated C. neoformans or C. gattii by macrophages. Phagocytosis of live thin-capsulated C. neoformans, but not that of live thin-capsulated C. gattii, induced interleukin-12 release from macrophages. However, phagocytosis of heat-killed or paraformaldehyde-fixed thin-capsulated C. neoformans did not increase IL-12 release, showing that the internalization of live yeast is important for initiating the immune response during C. neoformans-macrophage interactions. Our data suggest that macrophage response to C. gattii is limited compared with that to C. neoformans and that these results may partially explain the limited immune response and the greater pathogenicity of C. gattii.

  5. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Annabelle . E-mail: arodrig5@jhmi.edu; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-05-27

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 {mu}g protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.04). Cytotoxicity, as measured by the cellular release of [{sup 14}C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1.

  6. Clostridium difficile spore-macrophage interactions: spore survival.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Cofre-Araneda, Glenda; Brito-Silva, Christian; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial infections including antibiotic associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. During the course of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), C. difficile undergoes sporulation and releases spores to the colonic environment. The elevated relapse rates of CDI suggest that C. difficile spores has a mechanism(s) to efficiently persist in the host colonic environment. In this work, we provide evidence that C. difficile spores are well suited to survive the host's innate immune system. Electron microscopy results show that C. difficile spores are recognized by discrete patchy regions on the surface of macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, and phagocytosis was actin polymerization dependent. Fluorescence microscopy results show that >80% of Raw 264.7 cells had at least one C. difficile spore adhered, and that ∼60% of C. difficile spores were phagocytosed by Raw 264.7 cells. Strikingly, presence of complement decreased Raw 264.7 cells' ability to phagocytose C. difficile spores. Due to the ability of C. difficile spores to remain dormant inside Raw 264.7 cells, they were able to survive up to 72 h of macrophage infection. Interestingly, transmission electron micrographs showed interactions between the surface proteins of C. difficile spores and the phagosome membrane of Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, infection of Raw 264.7 cells with C. difficile spores for 48 h produced significant Raw 264.7 cell death as demonstrated by trypan blue assay, and nuclei staining by ethidium homodimer-1. These results demonstrate that despite efficient recognition and phagocytosis of C. difficile spores by Raw 264.7 cells, spores remain dormant and are able to survive and produce cytotoxic effects on Raw 264.7 cells.

  7. Clostridium difficile Spore-Macrophage Interactions: Spore Survival

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Cofre-Araneda, Glenda; Brito-Silva, Christian; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial infections including antibiotic associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. During the course of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), C. difficile undergoes sporulation and releases spores to the colonic environment. The elevated relapse rates of CDI suggest that C. difficile spores has a mechanism(s) to efficiently persist in the host colonic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we provide evidence that C. difficile spores are well suited to survive the host’s innate immune system. Electron microscopy results show that C. difficile spores are recognized by discrete patchy regions on the surface of macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, and phagocytosis was actin polymerization dependent. Fluorescence microscopy results show that >80% of Raw 264.7 cells had at least one C. difficile spore adhered, and that ∼60% of C. difficile spores were phagocytosed by Raw 264.7 cells. Strikingly, presence of complement decreased Raw 264.7 cells’ ability to phagocytose C. difficile spores. Due to the ability of C. difficile spores to remain dormant inside Raw 264.7 cells, they were able to survive up to 72 h of macrophage infection. Interestingly, transmission electron micrographs showed interactions between the surface proteins of C. difficile spores and the phagosome membrane of Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, infection of Raw 264.7 cells with C. difficile spores for 48 h produced significant Raw 264.7 cell death as demonstrated by trypan blue assay, and nuclei staining by ethidium homodimer-1. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that despite efficient recognition and phagocytosis of C. difficile spores by Raw 264.7 cells, spores remain dormant and are able to survive and produce cytotoxic effects on Raw 264.7 cells. PMID:22952726

  8. In vitro Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative stress in mice murine peritoneal macrophages: a duration-dependent approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the free radical generation and status of the antioxidant enzymes in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro vancomycin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) treatment with different time interval. Methods Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 5×106 CFU/mL VSSA cell suspension in vitro for different time interval (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h) and superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide generation, antioxidant enzyme status and components of glutathione cycle were analyzed. Results Superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide generation got peak at 3 h, indicating maximum free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during VSSA infection. Reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-s-transferase activity were decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing time of VSSA infection. But the oxidized glutathione level was time dependently increased significantly (P<0.05) in murine peritoneal macrophages. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 3 h in vitro VSSA treatment had no significant difference. Conclusions From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro VSSA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant status and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophages. PMID:25183101

  9. Cell-delivered magnetic nanoparticles caused hyperthermia-mediated increased survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Basel, Matthew T; Balivada, Sivasai; Wang, Hongwang; Shrestha, Tej B; Seo, Gwi Moon; Pyle, Marla; Abayaweera, Gayani; Dani, Raj; Koper, Olga B; Tamura, Masaaki; Chikan, Viktor; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential cancer treatment. This report demonstrates a system that uses tumor homing cells to actively carry iron/iron oxide nanoparticles into tumor tissue for alternating magnetic field treatment. Paramagnetic iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded into RAW264.7 cells (mouse monocyte/ macrophage-like cells), which have been shown to be tumor homing cells. A murine model of disseminated peritoneal pancreatic cancer was then generated by intraperitoneal injection of Pan02 cells. After tumor development, monocyte/macrophage-like cells loaded with iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally and allowed to migrate into the tumor. Three days after injection, mice were exposed to an alternating magnetic field for 20 minutes to cause the cell-delivered nanoparticles to generate heat. This treatment regimen was repeated three times. A survival study demonstrated that this system can significantly increase survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model, with an average post-tumor insertion life expectancy increase of 31%. This system has the potential to become a useful method for specifically and actively delivering nanoparticles for local hyperthermia treatment of cancer. PMID:22287840

  10. Cell-delivered magnetic nanoparticles caused hyperthermia-mediated increased survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model.

    PubMed

    Basel, Matthew T; Balivada, Sivasai; Wang, Hongwang; Shrestha, Tej B; Seo, Gwi Moon; Pyle, Marla; Abayaweera, Gayani; Dani, Raj; Koper, Olga B; Tamura, Masaaki; Chikan, Viktor; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential cancer treatment. This report demonstrates a system that uses tumor homing cells to actively carry iron/iron oxide nanoparticles into tumor tissue for alternating magnetic field treatment. Paramagnetic iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded into RAW264.7 cells (mouse monocyte/ macrophage-like cells), which have been shown to be tumor homing cells. A murine model of disseminated peritoneal pancreatic cancer was then generated by intraperitoneal injection of Pan02 cells. After tumor development, monocyte/macrophage-like cells loaded with iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally and allowed to migrate into the tumor. Three days after injection, mice were exposed to an alternating magnetic field for 20 minutes to cause the cell-delivered nanoparticles to generate heat. This treatment regimen was repeated three times. A survival study demonstrated that this system can significantly increase survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model, with an average post-tumor insertion life expectancy increase of 31%. This system has the potential to become a useful method for specifically and actively delivering nanoparticles for local hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  11. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  12. Functional status of testicular macrophages in an immunopriviledged niche in cadmium intoxicated murine testes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumana; Gang, Sneha; Sengupta, Mahuya

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates the extent of immunomodulatory effects associated with semenological alterations in the testes, after exposure to cadmium (in vivo) in male Swiss albino mice. Despite residing in an immunopriviledged site, testicular macrophages have immunogenic functions. Experimental animals were divided into two groups: (i) control (isotonic saline) and (ii) treated (0.35 mg/kg b.w of cadmium chloride) intraperitoneally for 15 days. Murine testicular macrophages were isolated and the cell function studies such as morphological alteration and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF-α) release assay were performed. Among the semenological parameters, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and the testosterone levels in the epididymal semen samples from both groups were determined. The present work shows that cadmium is responsible for a significant alteration, degenerative changes and reduced cell function in testicular macrophages probably by increasing oxidative damage. Such oxidative stress also causes a parallel dysfunction of the semenological parameters. TNF-α which is probably unable to bind with the surface receptor in testicular macrophages as because of altered structural morphology with reduction of cell function, render the animals more prone to infection and ultimately causes subfertility. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Different patterns of macrophage infiltration into allogeneic-murine and xenogeneic-human neoplasms growing in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bucana, C. D.; Fabra, A.; Sanchez, R.; Fidler, I. J.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined the distribution pattern of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in murine and human neoplasms growing subcutaneously in nude mice. Seven different human neoplasms (cancers of the breast, kidney, colon, prostate, lung, and skin, and a melanoma) and five different murine neoplasms (carcinomas of the lung, colon, and kidney, melanoma, and fibrosarcoma) were injected into nude mice. The murine tumors also were injected into syngeneic mice. Tumor-associated macrophages in small and large tumors were studied immunohistochemically by the use of several antibodies, including the macrophage-specific F4/80. The pattern of TAM distribution differed between mouse and human tumors. Regardless of histologic classification, TAM were uniformly distributed throughout all the murine neoplasms growing in syngeneic or nude mice. In the human neoplasms, TAM were found on the periphery of the lesions and in association with fibrous septae. The distribution of TAM in murine and human tumors was associated with a pattern of vascularization as determined by antibodies to basement membrane collagen type IV. Because the pattern of TAM distribution in neoplasms influences their antitumor activity, the data question the validity of the nude mouse model for the study of macrophage infiltration into human neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1443054

  14. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  15. Triggering Dectin-1-Pathway Alone Is Not Sufficient to Induce Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Walachowski, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    β-glucans (BG) are abundant polysaccharides of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (Sc CW), an industry byproduct. They have immuno-stimulatory properties upon engagement of dectin-1 (Clec7a), their main receptor on particular immune cells, and they actually become of great interest because of their preventive or therapeutic potentials. Zymosan, a crude extract of Sc CW was studied as a prototypic BG, despite its miscellaneous PAMPs content. Here, we examined the response of murine wild type or Clec7a-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to products with increasing BG content (15, 65 or 75%) and compared their effects with those of other dectin-1 ligands. The enrichment process removed TLR ligands while preserving dectin-1 activity. The most enriched extracts have very low NFκB activity and triggered low amounts of cytokine production in contrast with crude products like zymosan and BG15. Furthermore, MyD88-/- BMDM did not produce TNFα in response to crude Sc CW extracts, whereas their response to BG-enriched extracts was unaffected, suggesting that BG alone are not able to initiate cytokine secretion. Although Sc CW-derived BG stimulated the late and strong expression of Csf2 in a dectin-1-dependent manner, they remain poor inducers of chemokine and cytokine production in murine macrophages. PMID:26840954

  16. A potential target gene for the host-directed therapy of mycobacterial infection in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhang; Chen, Ran; Zhang, Pei; Lu, Shan; Chen, Xing; Yao, Yake; Jin, Xiaozheng; Sun, Yilan; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), one of the major bacterial pathogens for lethal infectious diseases, is capable of surviving within the phagosomes of host alveolar macrophages; therefore, host genetic variations may alter the susceptibility to MTB. In this study, to identify host genes exploited by MTB during infection, genes were non-selectively inactivated using lentivirus-based antisense RNA methods in Raw264.7 macrophages, and the cells that survived virulent MTB infection were then screened. Following DNA sequencing of the surviving cell clones, 26 host genes affecting susceptibility to MTB were identified and their pathways were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. In total, 9 of these genes were confirmed as positive regulators of collagen α-5(IV) chain (Col4a5) expression, a gene encoding a type IV collagen subunit present on the cell surface. The knockdown of Col4a5 consistently suppressed intracellular mycobacterial viability, promoting the survival of Raw264.7 macrophages following mycobacterial infection. Furthermore, Col4a5 deficiency lowered the pH levels of intracellular vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes and phagosomes in the Raw264.7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of Col4a5 post-translationally increased microsomal vacuolar-type H+-ATPase activity in macrophages, leading to the acidification of intracellular vesicles. Our findings reveal a novel role for Col4a5 in the regulation of macrophage responses to mycobacterial infection and identify Col4a5 as a potential target for the host-directed anti-mycobacterial therapy.

  17. Contribution of the PhoP/Q regulon to survival and replication of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jessica A.; Liu, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The ability of serovars of Salmonella enterica to cause systemic disease is dependent upon their survival and replication within macrophages. To do this, bacteria must withstand or surmount bacteriostatic and bactericidal responses by the host cell, including the delivery of hydrolytic enzymes from lysosomes to the phagosome. The bacterial two-component regulatory system PhoP/Q has been implicated in avoidance of phagolysosomal fusion by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in murine macrophages. In this study, the involvement of PhoP/Q-activated genes in avoidance of phagolysosomal fusion was analysed: of all the S. Typhimurium mutant strains tested, only an mgtC mutant strain partially reproduced the phenotype of the phoP mutant strain. As this gene is required for bacterial growth in magnesium-depleted conditions in vitro, the contributions of PhoP/Q to intramacrophage replication and survival were reappraised. Although PhoP/Q was required for both replication and survival of S. Typhimurium within murine macrophages, subsequent analysis of the kinetics of phagolysosomal fusion, taking account of differences in the replication rates of wild-type and phoP mutant strains, provided no evidence for a PhoP/Q-dependent role in this process. PhoP/Q appeared to act subsequent to the process of phagolysosomal avoidance and to promote replication of those bacteria that had already escaped a phagolysosomal fate. Therefore, we conclude that the PhoP/Q regulon enables S. Typhimurium to adapt to intramacrophage stresses other than phagolysosomal fusion. PMID:21511762

  18. Nucleotide Receptor Signaling in Murine Macrophages Is Linked to Reactive Oxygen Species Generation1

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Zachary A.; Guerra, Alma N.; Hill, Lindsay M.; Gavala, Monica L.; Prabhu, Usha; Aga, Mini; Hall, David J.; Bertics, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage activation is critical in the innate immune response and can be regulated by the nucleotide receptor P2X7. In this regard, P2X7 signaling is not well understood but has been implicated in controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by various leukocytes. Although ROS can contribute to microbial killing, the role of ROS in nucleotide-mediated cell signaling is unclear. In this study, we report that the P2X7 agonists ATP and 3′-O-(4-benzoyl) benzoic ATP (BzATP) stimulate ROS production by RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. These effects are potentiated in lipopolysaccharide-primed cells, demonstrating an important interaction between extracellular nucleotides and microbial products in ROS generation. In terms of nucleotide receptor specificity, RAW 264.7 macrophages that are deficient in P2X7 are greatly reduced in their capacity to generate ROS in response to BzATP treatment (both with and without LPS priming), thus supporting a role for P2X7 in this process. Because MAP kinase activation is key for nucleotide regulation of macrophage function, we also tested the hypothesis that P2X7-mediated MAP kinase activation is dependent on ROS production. We observed that BzATP stimulates MAP kinase (ERK1/ERK2, p38, and JNK1/JNK2) phosphorylation, and that the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and ascorbic acid strongly attenuate BzATP-mediated JNK1/JNK2 and p38 phosphorylation but only slightly reduce BzATP-induced ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation. These studies reveal that P2X7 can contribute to macrophage ROS production, that this effect is potentiated upon lipopolysaccharide exposure, and that ROS are important participants in the extracellular nucleotide-mediated activation of several MAP kinase systems. PMID:17448897

  19. Progesterone-induced activation of membrane-bound progesterone receptors in murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Reese, Joshua; Zhou, Ying; Hirsch, Emmet

    2015-02-01

    Parturition is an inflammatory process mediated to a significant extent by macrophages. Progesterone (P4) maintains uterine quiescence in pregnancy, and a proposed functional withdrawal of P4 classically regulated by nuclear progesterone receptors (nPRs) leads to labor. P4 can affect the functions of macrophages despite the reported lack of expression of nPRs in these immune cells. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of the activation of the putative membrane-associated PR on the function of macrophages (a key cell for parturition) and discuss the implications of these findings for pregnancy and parturition. In murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), activation of mPRs by P4 modified to be active only extracellularly by conjugation to BSA (P4BSA, 1.0×10(-7) mol/l) caused a pro-inflammatory shift in the mRNA expression profile, with significant upregulation of the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 (Ptgs2)), Il1B, and Tnf and downregulation of membrane progesterone receptor alpha (Paqr7) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr). Pretreatment with PD98059, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced P4BSA-induced expression of mRNA of Il1B, Tnf, and Ptgs2. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) by H89 blocked P4BSA-induced expression of Il1B and Tnf mRNA. P4BSA induced rapid phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and CREB (a downstream target of PKA). This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059 and H89, respectively, revealing that MEK1/2 and PKA are two of the components involved in mPR signaling. Taken together, these results indicate that changes in membrane progesterone receptor alpha expression and signaling in macrophages are associated with the inflammatory responses; and that these changes might contribute to the functional withdrawal of P4 related to labor.

  20. The cannabinoid TRPA1 agonist cannabichromene inhibits nitric oxide production in macrophages and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Romano, B; Borrelli, F; Fasolino, I; Capasso, R; Piscitelli, F; Cascio, MG; Pertwee, RG; Coppola, D; Vassallo, L; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V; Izzo, AA

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabichromene is known to activate the transient receptor potential ankyrin-type1 (TRPA1) and to inhibit endocannabinoid inactivation, both of which are involved in inflammatory processes. We examined here the effects of this phytocannabinoid on peritoneal macrophages and its efficacy in an experimental model of colitis. Experimental Approach Murine peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by LPS. Nitrite levels were measured using a fluorescent assay; inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors were analysed by RT-PCR (and/or Western blot analysis); colitis was induced by dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS). Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Colonic inflammation was assessed by evaluating the myeloperoxidase activity as well as by histology and immunohistochemistry. Key Results LPS caused a significant production of nitrites, associated to up-regulation of anandamide, iNOS, COX-2, CB1 receptors and down-regulation of CB2 receptors mRNA expression. Cannabichromene significantly reduced LPS-stimulated nitrite levels, and its effect was mimicked by cannabinoid receptor and TRPA1 agonists (carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde) and enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists. LPS-induced anandamide, iNOS, COX-2 and cannabinoid receptor changes were not significantly modified by cannabichromene, which, however, increased oleoylethanolamide levels. In vivo, cannabichromene ameliorated DNBS-induced colonic inflammation, as revealed by histology, immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion and Implications Cannabichromene exerts anti-inflammatory actions in activated macrophages – with tonic CB1 cannabinoid signalling being negatively coupled to this effect – and ameliorates experimental murine colitis. PMID:23373571

  1. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T.; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells

  2. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Helen E; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Stevenson, Philip G

    2015-12-30

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells. Acute virus

  3. Immunostimulating activity of maysin isolated from corn silk in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jisun; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Seul; Chung, Mi Ja; Park, Yong Il

    2014-01-01

    Corn silk (CS) has long been consumed as a traditional herb in Korea. Maysin is a major flavonoid of CS. The effects of maysin on macrophage activation were evaluated, using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Maysin was isolated from CS by methanol extraction, and preparative C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Maysin was nontoxic up to 100 μg/ml, and dose-dependently increased TNF-α secretion and iNOS production by 11.2- and 4.2-fold, respectively, compared to untreated control. The activation and subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB was substantially enhanced upon treatment with maysin (1-100 μg/ml). Maysin also stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs (ERK, JNK). These results indicated that maysin activates macrophages to secrete TNF-α and induce iNOS expression, via the activation of the Akt, NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways. These results suggest for the first time that maysin can be a new immunomodulator, enhancing the early innate immunity. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(7): 382-387] PMID:24286330

  4. Pro-apoptotic effects of nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trichothecenes in J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Russo, Rosario; Bianco, Giuseppe; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella

    2009-08-25

    Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecenes mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi that occur in cereal grains alone or in combination. Several studies have shown that exposure to high concentrations of these mycotoxins resulted in decreased cell proliferation; however, the molecular mechanism underlying their activities are still partially known. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NIV and DON, alone and in combination, on J7741.A macrophages viability. The results of the current study show that both NIV and DON (10-100 microM) significantly stimulate apoptosis in J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner; in particular, NIV results a stronger pro-apoptotic effect than DON on cultured J774A.1 murine macrophages. No interactive effects were observed by exposing J774A.1 cells to both NIV and DON simultaneously. Pro-apoptotic activity induced by both mycotoxins seems to be essentially mediated by caspase-3 and is associated with a cell cycle blocking in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, our results show that NIV and DON are able to influence apoptotic pathway by ERK, pro-apoptotic protein Bax, caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose synthase (PARP), DNA repairing enzyme.

  5. Modified pectin from Theobroma cacao induces potent pro-inflammatory activity in murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Juliana C; Vriesmann, Lucia Cristina; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Noleto, Guilhermina R

    2016-11-01

    In vitro effects of acetylated pectin (OP) isolated from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.), its partially deacetylated and de-esterified form (MOP), and a commercial homogalacturonan (PG) were investigated on murine peritoneal macrophages. MOP stood out among the studied pectins. After 48h of incubation, compared with the control group, it was able to promote significant macrophage morphological differentiation from resident to activated stage and also stimulated nitric oxide production, which reached a level of 85% of that of LPS stimulus. In the presence of the highest tested concentration of MOP (200μg·mL(-1)), the levels of the cytokines TNF-α (6h) and IL-12 and IL-10 (48h) increased substantially in relation to untreated cells. Our results show that the partial deacetylation and de-esterification of pectin extracted from cacao pod husks (T. cacao L.) produced a polymer with greater ability than its native form to activate macrophages to a cytotoxic phenotype. Like this, they provide the possibility of a therapeutic application to MOP, which could lead to a decreased susceptibility to microbial infection besides antitumor activity. Additionally, the present results also corroborate with the proposition of that the chemical modifications of the biopolymers can result in an improved molecule with new possibilities of application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulate the flow of cholesterol for bacillary proliferation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ilke; Baird, Mark; Al-Dulayymi, Juma; Smet, Muriel; Verschoor, Jan; Grooten, Johan

    2017-04-01

    The differentiation of macrophages into lipid-filled foam cells is a hallmark of the lung granuloma that forms in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Mycolic acids (MAs), the abundant lipid virulence factors in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), can induce this foam phenotype possibly as a way to perturb host cell lipid homeostasis to support the infection. It is not exactly clear how MAs allow differentiation of foam cells during Mtb infection. Here we investigated how chemically synthetic MAs, each with a defined stereochemistry similar to natural Mtb-associated mycolates, influence cell foamy phenotype and mycobacterial proliferation in murine host macrophages. Using light and laser-scanning-confocal microscopy, we assessed the influence of MA structure first on the induction of granuloma cell types, second on intracellular cholesterol accumulation, and finally on mycobacterial growth. While methoxy-MAs (mMAs) effected multi-vacuolar giant cell formation, keto-MAs (kMAs) induced abundant intracellular lipid droplets that were packed with esterified cholesterol. Macrophages from mice treated with kMA were permissive to mycobacterial growth, whereas cells from mMA treatment were not. This suggests a separate yet key involvement of oxygenated MAs in manipulating host cell lipid homeostasis to establish the state of TB. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  8. MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

  9. MURINE PULMONARY MACROPHAGE EXPRESSION AND PRODUCTION OF TNFA AND MIP-2 AFTER EXPOSURE TO DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES (DEP) AND EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEP constitute an important fraction of particulate air pollution and have been shown to cause inflammation of the airways. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory cytokine response of alveolar macrophages exposed to DEP and DEP-extracts. A murine alveolar macr...

  10. Stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophage functions by neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Involvement of protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Bernaez, I; Del Rio, M; Hernanz, A

    1993-01-01

    The peptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) at concentrations from 10(-12) M to 10(-8) M have been shown in this study to stimulate significantly, in vitro, several functions of resting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of inert particles (latex beads) and foreign cells (Candida albicans), and production of superoxide anion measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with a maximal stimulation of the macrophage functions studied at 10(-10) M. These effects seem to be produced by specific receptors for the neuropeptides studied in peritoneal macrophages. Whereas the two peptides induced no change of intracellular cyclic AMP, they caused a significant stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) in murine macrophages. These results suggest that NPY and PYY produce their effects on macrophage function through PKC activation. PMID:8262554

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Persistence in Murine Macrophages Impairs IFN-β Response but Not Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Torres-González, Laura; Gómez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Type-I interferon (IFN-I) production is an early response to viral infection and pathogenic viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade this cellular defense. Some viruses can establish and maintain persistent infections by altering the IFN-I signaling pathway. Here, we studied IFN-I synthesis and response in an in vitro model of persistent infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a murine macrophage-like cell line. In this model, interferon regulatory factor 3 was constitutively active and located at nuclei of persistently infected cells, inducing expression of IFN-beta mRNA and protein. However, persistently infected macrophages did not respond in an autocrine manner to the secreted-IFN-beta or to recombinant-IFN-beta, since phosphorylated-STAT1 was not detected by western blot and transcription of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) Mx1 and ISG56 was not induced. Treatment of non-infected macrophages with supernatants from persistently infected cells induced STAT1 phosphorylation and ISGs expression, mediated by the IFN-I present in the supernatants, because blocking the IFN-I receptor inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation. Results suggest that the lack of autocrine response to IFN-I by the host cell may be one mechanism for maintenance of RSV persistence. Furthermore, STAT1 phosphorylation and ISGs expression induced in non-infected cells by supernatants from persistently infected macrophages suggest that RSV persistence may trigger a proinflammatory phenotype in non-infected cells as part of the pathogenesis of RSV infection. PMID:26501312

  12. SALIVARY GLAND EXTRACTS OF CULICOIDES SONORENSIS INHIBIT MURINE LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION AND NO PRODUCTION BY MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, JEANETTE V.; MEJIA, J. SANTIAGO; PÉREZ DE LEÓN, ADALBERTO A.; TABACHNICK, WALTER J.; TITUS, RICHARD G.

    2006-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges serve as vectors of pathogens affecting humans and domestic animals. Culicoides sonorensis is a vector of several arboviruses in North American that cause substantial economic losses to the US livestock industry. Previous studies showed that C. sonorensis saliva, like the saliva of many hematophagous arthropods, contains numerous pharmacological agents that affect hemostasis and early events in the inflammatory response, which may enhance the infectivity of Culicoides-borne pathogens. This paper reports on the immunomodulatory properties of C. sonorensis salivary gland extracts on murine immune cells and discusses the possible immunomodulatory role of C. sonorensis saliva in vesicular stomatitis virus infection of vertebrate hosts. Splenocytes treated with C. sonorensis mitogens were significantly affected in their proliferative response, and peritoneal macrophages secreted significantly less NO. A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate. PMID:16968936

  13. Mycobacterium bovis Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediated-Apoptosis by Activating IRF3 in a Murine Macrophage Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yongyong; Zhao, Deming; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Liu, Chunfa; Yang, Wei; Song, Zhiqi; Yang, Lifeng; Barrow, Paul; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is highly adapted to macrophages and has developed multiple mechanisms to resist intracellular assaults. However, the host cells in turn deploy a multipronged defense mechanism to control bacterial infection. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis is one such primary defense mechanism. However, the role of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) between ER stress and apoptosis during M. bovis infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that M. bovis effectively induced apoptosis in murine macrophages. Caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were activated over a 48 h infection period. The splicing of XBP-1 mRNA and the level of phosphorylation of eIF2α, indicators of ER stress, significantly increased at early time points after M. bovis infection. The expansion of the ER compartment, a morphological hallmark of ER stress, was observed at 6 h. Pre-treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with 4-PBA (an ER stress-inhibitor) reduced the activation of the ER stress indicators, caspase activation and its downstream poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, phosphorylation of TBK1 and IRF3 and cytoplasmic co-localization of STING and TBK1. M. bovis infection led to the interaction of activated IRF3 and cytoplasmic Bax leading to mitochondrial damage. Role of IRF3 in apoptosis was further confirmed by blocking this molecule with BX-795 that showed significant reduction expression of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Intracellular survival of M. bovis increased in response to 4-PBA and BX-795. These findings indicate that STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway mediates a crosstalk between ER stress and apoptosis during M. bovis infection, which can effectively control intracellular bacteria. PMID:28018864

  14. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  15. Production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by human and murine neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bin, Qian; Johnson, Bryon D; Schauer, Dennis W; Casper, James T; Orentas, Rimas J

    2002-01-01

    Tumor cells avoid immune recognition by subverting the ability of the immune system to mount an inflammatory response that generates cytotoxic effector cells. This can be achieved through cytokine production by the tumor itself. Our objective was to determine the cytokine profile of neuroblastoma (NB) lesions in tumor vaccine models. We found that the murine NB cell line, Neuro2a, secretes macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF, a multifunctional cytokine with the potential to block effective immune responses to a tumor. Patient-derived NB cell lines were also found to produce MIF. MIF production by NB was documented at the level of RNA by RNAse protection, soluble cytokine production by ELISA, and in a macrophage migration assay. Our studies also confirmed reports of IL-6 production by human NB cell lines. NB culture-derived MIF was also shown to activate tumor cell migration. This supports the hypothesis that MIF is a tumor-derived cytokine that may play a role in NB aggressiveness and evasion of immune recognition. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Regulation of adhesion behavior of murine macrophage using supported lipid membranes displaying tunable mannose domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaindl, T.; Oelke, J.; Pasc, A.; Kaufmann, S.; Konovalov, O. V.; Funari, S. S.; Engel, U.; Wixforth, A.; Tanaka, M.

    2010-07-01

    Highly uniform, strongly correlated domains of synthetically designed lipids can be incorporated into supported lipid membranes. The systematic characterization of membranes displaying a variety of domains revealed that the equilibrium size of domains significantly depends on the length of fluorocarbon chains, which can be quantitatively interpreted within the framework of an equivalent dipole model. A mono-dispersive, narrow size distribution of the domains enables us to treat the inter-domain correlations as two-dimensional colloidal crystallization and calculate the potentials of mean force. The obtained results demonstrated that both size and inter-domain correlation can precisely be controlled by the molecular structures. By coupling α-D-mannose to lipid head groups, we studied the adhesion behavior of the murine macrophage (J774A.1) on supported membranes. Specific adhesion and spreading of macrophages showed a clear dependence on the density of functional lipids. The obtained results suggest that such synthetic lipid domains can be used as a defined platform to study how cells sense the size and distribution of functional molecules during adhesion and spreading.

  17. Analysis of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of silicon in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Bu, So-Young; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of silicon (Si) in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce inflammatory conditions, and cells were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate. Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a well-known antioxidative substance, was used as a positive control to assess the degree of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Si. Sodium metasilicate at 100 μM suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide generation from macrophages 36 h after treatment. In addition, 50 μM sodium metasilicate decreased interleukin-6 production, and the degree of suppression was comparable to that of 10 μM TBHQ treatment. LPS-induced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase was significantly decreased by 1, 5, 10, and 50 μM sodium metasilicate. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression was also suppressed by 1, 5, 25, and 50 μM sodium metasilicate. Based on these data, Si has the ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and mediators, possibly through the suppression of radical scavenger activity and down-regulation of gene expression of inflammatory mediators.

  18. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Scarfì, Sonia; Magnone, Mirko; Ferraris, Chiara; Pozzolini, Marina; Benvenuto, Federica; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA) compared to untreated quartz (Q) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-α, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that TNF-α mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-α production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Conclusion Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals. PMID:19298665

  19. Differential inflammatory mediator response in vitro from murine macrophages to lactobacilli and pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, J; Ciszek, M; Bobek, M; Strus, M; Heczko, P B; Kurnyta, M; Biedroń, R; Chmielarczyk, A

    2007-06-01

    Chronic active colitis (including inflammatory bowel disease - IBD) is maintained by a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators. Certain intestinal bacterial strains may induce colitis, whereas some strains (e.g. Lactobacillus spp.) show a protective effect in colitis owing to their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we have examined the production of selected inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro by the intestinal bacterial strains, isolated from mice with colitis. Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. animalis/murinus) and two potentially pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) induced the production of substantial amounts of cytokines with a strain specific profile. Despite some interstrain differences, all lactobacilli induced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10(high), IL-6(low), IL-12p70(low)). Conversely, E. faecalis and E. coli induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p70), the cytokines essential for chronic IBD. Macrophages released comparably substantial amounts of ROS in response to all Lactobacillus strains tested, while E. coli and E. faecalis ability to induce generation of ROS was negligible. In contrast to ROS, the production of NO/NO(2) (-) by macrophages activated with all bacterial strains tested was similar. Moreover, for the first time, it has been shown that intestinal bacteria differed in their ability to induce expression of HO-1, a stress-inducible enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The beneficial immunoregulatory properties of candidate probiotic bacteria for the treatment of IBD are discussed.

  20. Differential inflammatory mediator response in vitro from murine macrophages to lactobacilli and pathogenic intestinal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, J; Ciszek, M; Bobek, M; Strus, M; Heczko, P B; Kurnyta, M; Biedroń, R; Chmielarczyk, A

    2007-01-01

    Chronic active colitis (including inflammatory bowel disease – IBD) is maintained by a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators. Certain intestinal bacterial strains may induce colitis, whereas some strains (e.g. Lactobacillus spp.) show a protective effect in colitis owing to their anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we have examined the production of selected inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro by the intestinal bacterial strains, isolated from mice with colitis. Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus reuteri, L. johnsonii, L. animalis/murinus) and two potentially pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) induced the production of substantial amounts of cytokines with a strain specific profile. Despite some interstrain differences, all lactobacilli induced production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10high, IL-6low, IL-12p70low). Conversely, E. faecalis and E. coli induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12p70), the cytokines essential for chronic IBD. Macrophages released comparably substantial amounts of ROS in response to all Lactobacillus strains tested, while E. coli and E. faecalis ability to induce generation of ROS was negligible. In contrast to ROS, the production of NO/NO2− by macrophages activated with all bacterial strains tested was similar. Moreover, for the first time, it has been shown that intestinal bacteria differed in their ability to induce expression of HO-1, a stress-inducible enzyme with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The beneficial immunoregulatory properties of candidate probiotic bacteria for the treatment of IBD are discussed. PMID:17504445

  1. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, Susan L.; Klimko, Christopher P.; Kern, Steven J.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Bozue, Joel A.; Bernhards, Robert C.; Trevino, Sylvia R.; Waag, David M.; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  2. Abl family kinases regulate FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Greuber, Emileigh K; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phagocytosis of Ab-coated pathogens is mediated through FcγRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways to drive actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Abl and Arg define a family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that regulate actin-dependent processes in a variety of cell types, including those important in the adaptive immune response. Using pharmacological inhibition as well as dominant negative and knockout approaches, we demonstrate a role for the Abl family kinases in phagocytosis by macrophages and define a mechanism whereby Abl kinases regulate this process. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice lacking Abl and Arg kinases exhibit inefficient phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes and zymosan particles. Treatment with the Abl kinase inhibitors imatinib and GNF-2 or overexpression of kinase-inactive forms of the Abl family kinases also impairs particle internalization in murine macrophages, indicating Abl kinase activity is required for efficient phagocytosis. Further, Arg kinase is present at the phagocytic cup, and Abl family kinases are activated by FcγR engagement. The regulation of phagocytosis by Abl family kinases is mediated in part by the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Loss of Abl and Arg expression or treatment with Abl inhibitors reduced Syk phosphorylation in response to FcγR ligation. The link between Abl family kinases and Syk may be direct, as purified Arg kinase phosphorylates Syk in vitro. Further, overexpression of membrane-targeted Syk in cells treated with Abl kinase inhibitors partially rescues the impairment in phagocytosis. Together, these findings reveal that Abl family kinases control the efficiency of phagocytosis in part through the regulation of Syk function.

  3. An Anacardiaceae preparation reduces the expression of inflammation-related genes in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leiro, J; García, D; Arranz, J A; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Orallo, F

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae; Vimang), which contains a defined mixture of components including polyphenols (principally mangiferin, MA), triterpenes, phytosteroids, fatty acids and microelements, on expression of inflammation mediators in inflammatory murine macrophages after stimulation in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro treatment with Vimang at 4 microg/ml reduced levels of NOS-2 mRNA and NOS-2, while treatment at 40 microg/ml also reduced levels of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Results suggested that MA is involved in these effects. In vitro treatment with Vimang at 40 microg/ml also inhibited mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), but did not affect mRNA levels of IL-6 or tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Extracellular release of TNF-alpha by inflammatory macrophages was inhibited by in vitro treatment with Vimang at the same concentrations that showed inhibition of TNF-alpha mRNA levels. The inhibition of TNF-alpha production appears to be at least partially attributable to MA. Vimang at 4 microg/ml decreased mRNA levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) but did not affect expression of the NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB). These data indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of Vimang are due to selective modulation of the expression of inflammation-related genes, leading to attenuation of macrophage activation.

  4. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

    PubMed

    Welkos, Susan L; Klimko, Christopher P; Kern, Steven J; Bearss, Jeremy J; Bozue, Joel A; Bernhards, Robert C; Trevino, Sylvia R; Waag, David M; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  5. Requirement for non-regulated, constitutive calcium influx in macrophage survival signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, Jean-Yves; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the role of constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx in macrophage survival. {yields} Survival signaling exhibits a mandatory requirement for constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx. {yields} CAM/CAMKII couples constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx to survival signaling. -- Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT axis and the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) pathway play critical roles in macrophage survival. In cells other than macrophages proper operation of those two pathways requires Ca{sup 2+} influx into the cell, but if that is the case in macrophages remains unexplored. In the present work we used THP-1-derived macrophages and a pharmacological approach to examine for the first time the role of constitutive, non-regulated Ca{sup 2+} influx in PI3K/AKT and NF{kappa}B signaling. Blocking constitutive function of Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channels with the organic channel blocker SKF96365 completely prevented phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, AKT and its downstream target BAD in TNF{alpha}-treated macrophages. A similar effect was observed upon treating macrophages with the calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor W-7 or the calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor KN-62. In addition, pre-treating macrophages with SKF96365 significantly enhanced TNF{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that in THP-1-derived macrophages survival signaling depends, to a significant extent, on constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx presumably through a mechanism that involves the CAM/CAMKII axis as a coupling component between constitutive Ca{sup 2+} influx and activation of survival signaling.

  6. Direct and Indirect Suppression of Interleukin-6 Gene Expression in Murine Macrophages by Nuclear Orphan Receptor REV-ERBα

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shogo; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Shirato, Ken; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Haga, Shukoh; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2014-01-01

    It is now evident that many nuclear hormone receptors can modulate target gene expression. REV-ERBα, one of the nuclear hormone receptors with the capacity to alter clock function, is critically involved in lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and the inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that REV-ERBα plays a key role in the mediation between clockwork and inflammation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the role of REV-ERBα in the regulation of interleukin-6 (il6) gene expression in murine macrophages. REV-ERBα agonists, or overexpression of rev-erb α in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264 cells, suppressed the induction of il6 mRNA following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin challenge. Also, rev-erb α overexpression decreased LPS-stimulated nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation in RAW264 cells. We showed that REV-ERBα represses il6 expression not only indirectly through an NFκB binding motif but also directly through a REV-ERBα binding motif in the murine il6 promoter region. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking rev-erb α increased il6 mRNA expression. These data suggest that REV-ERBα regulates the inflammatory response of macrophages through the suppression of il6 expression. REV-ERBα may therefore be identified as a potent anti-inflammatory receptor and be a therapeutic target receptor of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25401152

  7. Fluid-phase pinocytosis of native low density lipoprotein promotes murine M-CSF differentiated macrophage foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Barthwal, Manoj K; Anzinger, Joshua J; Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P; Kruth, Howard S

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR-/-) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR-/- macrophages with increasing concentrations of (125)I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on (125)I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect (125)I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR-/- mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  8. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  9. Intracellular survival of Candida glabrata in macrophages: immune evasion and persistence.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Lydia; Seider, Katja; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    Candida glabrata is a successful human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic infections. During infection, C. glabrata has to cope with cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, which belong to the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Candida glabrata is able to survive and even replicate inside macrophages while causing surprisingly low damage and cytokine release. Here, we present an overview of recent studies dealing with the interaction of C. glabrata with macrophages, from phagocytosis to intracellular growth and escape. We review the strategies of C. glabrata that permit intracellular survival and replication, including poor host cell activation, modification of phagosome maturation and phagosome pH, adaptation to antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms to overcome the nutrient limitations within the phagosome. In summary, these studies suggest that survival within macrophages may be an immune evasion and persistence strategy of C. glabrata during infection.

  10. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.L. )

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereas the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.

  11. Differences in the antigenic profile and infectivity of murine macrophages of Leishmania (Viannia) parasites.

    PubMed

    Matta, Nubia E; Cysne-Finkelstein, Lea; Machado, Gerzia Maria C; Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Leon, Leonor

    2010-06-01

    The antigenic profile and infectivity were compared between 3 recent Leishmania (Viannia) isolates from the Amazonian region (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia [INPA] strains) and 3 World Health Organization (WHO) reference species (Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania braziliensis, and Leishmania naiffi). Differences were observed in the peak and extent of promastigote growth. The WHO reference strains exhibited significantly higher exponential growth as promastigotes than INPA strains. In the immunoblot analyses, the INPA strains revealed several specific peptide fragments, as well as the greatest recognition frequencies by sera from Leishmania sp.-infected patients; among the latter, antigens derived from L. naiffi were the most frequently recognized. In vitro infection was carried out using mice peritoneal macrophages; all strains were able to enter the macrophages, but only L. amazonensis was able to reproduce. A striking observation was that L. naiffi exhibited the longest survival time inside the macrophages. Our data strongly suggest the application of recently isolated parasites as sources of antigen for diagnosis procedures. Moreover, L. naiffi species possesses several characteristics relevant for its use as a source of novel antigens to be explored in the design of diagnostic tools and vaccines.

  12. Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-In; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Whang, Jake; Kim, Kwangwook; Jeon, Heat Sal; Park, Hye-Soo; Back, Yong Woo; Choi, Seunga; Kim, Seong-Woo; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium and its sonic extracts induce apoptosis in macrophages. However, little is known about the M. avium components regulating macrophage apoptosis. In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production. ROS-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-JNK pathway was a major signaling pathway for MAV2052-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAV2052 bound to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 molecule and MAV2052-induced ROS production, ΔΨm loss, and apoptosis were all significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Altogether, our results suggest that MAV2052 induces apoptotic cell death through TLR4 dependent ROS production and JNK pathway in murine macrophages.

  13. Visualization of the molecular dynamics of lipopolysaccharide on the plasma membrane of murine macrophages by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shawkat, Samia; Karima, Risuke; Tojo, Tadashi; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Saitoh, Shin-Ichiroh; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Miyake, Kensuke; Funatsu, Takashi; Matsushima, Kouji

    2008-08-22

    The molecular action of Alexa 594-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli was examined on living peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6 mice by total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), and the molecular kinetics of LPS was analyzed. TIRFM visualization of the action of fluorescence-labeled LPS revealed an increase in the mean fluorescence intensity of LPS on the plasma membrane of wild type macrophages at 60 min after administration, indicating the oligomerization of LPS after binding to the macrophages. Additionally, a time-dependent sharp decrease in the mean diffusion coefficient of LPS was observed. On the other hand, both mean fluorescence intensity and diffusion coefficient of LPS in cases of TLR4(-/-), MD2(-/-), MyD88(-/-), and TRIF(-/-) macrophages were significantly different from the corresponding values of wild type macrophage, whereas differences were also noticed among these molecule-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated the major role of receptors (TLR4 and MD2) and intracellular signaling molecules (MyD88 and TRIF) in oligomerization and lowering of the diffusion rate of LPS on the plasma membrane of murine macrophages, respectively.

  14. Myeloperoxidase-Oxidized LDLs Enhance an Anti-Inflammatory M2 and Antioxidant Phenotype in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Aude; Van Steenbrugge, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and oxidized LDLs play a key role in atherogenesis but their heterogeneity has been neglected up to now. Macrophages are prone to polarization and subsets of polarized macrophages have been described in atheromas. LDLs can be oxidized not only chemically by copper (Ox-LDLs) but also enzymatically by myeloperoxidase (MpOx-LDLs) resulting in oxidized LDLs poor in lipid peroxides. The effects of physiologically relevant myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDLs on macrophage polarization or on polarized macrophages remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of LDLs on macrophage polarization were investigated by monitoring the expression of M1 and M2 genes following stimulation with native LDLs, Ox-LDLs, or MpOx-LDLs in RAW 264.7 cells. Except for MRC1, which is induced only by Ox-LDLs, MpOx-LDLs induced an overexpression of most of the selected marker genes at the mRNA level. MpOx-LDLs also modulate marker gene expression in polarized macrophages favoring notably anti-inflammatory Arg1 expression in M2 cells and also in the other phenotypes. Noteworthy, MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate lipids intracellularly in (un)polarized macrophages whatever the phenotype. These data were largely confirmed in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that MpOx-LDLs were the most efficient to accumulate within cells and to enhance an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phenotype in M2 cells and also in the other macrophage phenotypes. PMID:27656049

  15. [Effects of isocitrate lyase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in macrophage and mechanism thereof].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Ming; Wan, La-Gen; Zhu, Dao-Yin; Li, Na; He, Yong-Lin; Yang, Chun

    2008-02-26

    To investigate the effects of isocitrate lyase (ICL) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB-icl) on the survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS) in macrophage and illuminate the possible mechanisms. MTB-icl gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into Ecoli-Mycobacterium shuttle plasmid pUV15 to obtain recombinant shuttle plasmid pUV15-icl expressing ICL-GFP. The recombinant shuttle plasmid pUV15-icl and blank plasmid pUV15 were induced into MS of the line 1-2c so as to obtain rMS-pUV15-icl and rMS-pUV15. Shuttle plasmid rMS-pUV15-IG expressing ICL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed. rMS-pUV15-IG and MS 1-2c were used to infect the murine macrophages of the line RAW264.7, fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the expression of ICL-GFP. The expression of ICL in the MS swallowed by the macrophages was verified by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Another macrophages RAW264.7 were cultured and infected with rMS-pUV15-icl and rMS-pUV15 respectively. 0, 24, and 48 hours later macrophages were collected and the number of MS colonies was calculated. The interferon (IFN)-gamma and nitrogen oxide (NO) concentrations in the culture supernatants of macrophages infected by rMS-pUV15-icl and rMS-pUV15 were measured by ELISA and Griess assay respectively. The apoptotic rate of the macrophages was assayed by in situ TUNEL technique. Western blotting showed that the MTB ICL protein expression of the rMS-pUV15-icl was significantly higher than that of rMS-pUVI5. Fluorescence microscopy showed green fluorescence in the RAW264.7 cells infected with rMS-pUV15-IG, but not ion the RAW264.7 cells infected with MS 1-2c. 0 h after the infection of the macrophages there was not significant difference in the MS amount in the macrophages between the rMS-pUV15-isl and rMS-pUV15 groups, and 24 h and 48 h later the MS amounts of the rMS-pUV15-icl group were (32.78 +/- 2.90) x 10(3) and (23.33 + 2.34) x 10(3) respectively, both significantly higher than those of the rMS-pUV15 group [(14

  16. Promoting macrophage survival delays progression of pre-existing atherosclerotic lesions through macrophage-derived apoE.

    PubMed

    Bouchareychas, Laura; Pirault, John; Saint-Charles, Flora; Deswaerte, Virginie; Le Roy, Tiphaine; Jessup, Wendy; Giral, Philippe; Le Goff, Wilfried; Huby, Thierry; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Lesnik, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage apoptosis is a prominent feature of atherosclerosis, yet whether cell death-protected macrophages would favour the resolution of already established atherosclerotic lesions, and thus hold therapeutic potential, remains unknown. We irradiated then transplanted into Apoe(-/-) or LDLr(-/-) recipient mice harbouring established atherosclerotic lesions, bone marrow cells from mice displaying enhanced macrophage survival through overexpression of the antiapoptotic gene hBcl-2 (Mø-hBcl2 Apoe(-/-) or Mø-hBcl2 Apoe(+/+) LDLr(-/-)). Both recipient mice exhibited decreased lesional apoptotic cell content and reduced necrotic areas when repopulated with Mø-hBcl2 mouse-derived bone marrow cells. In contrast, only LDLr(-/-) recipients showed a reduction in plasma cholesterol levels and in atherosclerotic lesions. The absence of significant reduction of plasma cholesterol levels in the context of apoE deficiency highlighted macrophage-derived apoE as key in both the regulation of plasma and tissue cholesterol levels and the progression of pre-existing lesion. Accordingly, hBcl2 expression in macrophages was associated with larger pools of Kupffer cells and Ly-6C(low) monocytes, both high producers of apoE. Additionally, increased Kupffer cells population was associated with improved clearance of apoptotic cells and modified lipoproteins. Collectively, these data show that promoting macrophage survival provides a supplemental source of apoE, which hinders pre-existing plaque progression. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Expression of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) in macrophages contributes to the fulminant hepatitis caused by murine hepatitis virus strain-3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengying; Chen, Yongwen; Guo, Guoning; Li, Hong; Cao, Dayan; Xu, Huan; Guo, Sheng; Fei, Lei; Yan, Weiming; Ning, Qing; Zheng, Lixin; Wu, Yuzhang

    2013-08-01

    Fulminant viral hepatitis (FH) remains a serious clinical problem for which the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. The B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immunoglobulin-domain-containing protein that has the capacity to maintain peripheral tolerance and limit immunopathological damage during immune responses. However, its precise role in FH has yet to be investigated. BTLA-deficient (BTLA-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were infected with murine hepatitis virus strain-3 (MHV-3), and the levels of tissue damage, cell apoptosis, serum liver enzymes, fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) and cytokine production were measured and compared. Survival rate was studied after MHV-3 infection with or without adoptive transferring macrophages. FGL2 production, liver and spleen damage, and mortality were significantly reduced in BTLA-/- mice infected with MHV-3. This effect is due to rapid, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-dependent apoptosis of MHV-3-infected macrophages in BTLA-/- mice. The early loss of macrophages resulted in reduced pathogenic tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and FGL2 levels and lower viral titres. The importance of TNFα in MHV-3-induced pathology was demonstrated by increased mortality in TNFα-treated MHV-3-infected BTLA-/- mice, whereas TNFα-/- mice were resistant to the infection. Moreover, adoptively transferring macrophages to BTLA-/- mice caused sensitisation, whereas blocking BTLA protected wild-type mice from virus-induced FH mortality. BTLA promotes the pathogenesis of virus-induced FH by enhancing macrophage viability and function. Targeting BTLA may be a novel strategy for the treatment of FH.

  18. The unique trafficking pattern of Salmonella typhimurium-containing phagosomes in murine macrophages is independent of the mechanism of bacterial entry.

    PubMed Central

    Rathman, M; Barker, L P; Falkow, S

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that Salmonella typhimurium is able to survive and even replicate in the normally bactericidal environment of the macrophage phagosome, the mechanisms by which this organism accomplishes this feat remain obscure. In this study, a murine macrophage cell line and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were used to more thoroughly define the specific nature of phagosomes containing latex beads or wild-type S. typhimurium (viable or heat-killed organisms). Live S. typhimurium organisms were observed to reside in phagosomes that diverge from the degradative pathway of the macrophage. These compartments contain lysosomal glycoproteins and lysosomal acid phosphatase, endocytic markers delivered to vacuoles by mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent mechanisms, but are devoid of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor and cathepsin L. In contrast, phagosomes containing latex beads or heat-killed organisms appeared to be processed along the degradative pathway of the host cell; these compartments colocalized not only with lysosomal glycoproteins and lysosomal acid phosphatases but also with mannose 6-phosphate receptors and cathepsin L. The uniqueness of the phagosome containing viable S. typhimurium was confirmed by the observation that these compartments, in comparison to phagosomes containing latex beads, do not readily interact with incoming endocytic traffic. Finally, we show that an isogenic, noninvasive mutant of S. typhimurium, BJ66, ends up in an intracellular compartment identical to the wild-type S. typhimurium-containing phagosome. Thus, modifications of the Salmonella-containing compartment occur independently of the mechanism of bacterial entry. PMID:9119490

  19. Global gene expression changes underlying Stachybotrys chartarum toxin-induced apoptosis in murine alveolar macrophages: evidence of multiple signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyan; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2007-03-01

    The overall mechanism(s) underlying macrophage apoptosis caused by the toxins of the indoor mold Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) are not yet understood. In this direction, we report a microarray-based global gene expression profiling on the murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S) treated with SC toxins for short (2 h) and long (24 h) periods, coinciding with the pre-apoptotic (<3 h) and progressed apoptotic stages of the treated cells, respectively. Microarray results on differential expression were validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis using representative gene targets. The toxin-regulated genes corresponded to multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, proliferation and death, inflammatory/immune response, genotoxic stress and oxidative stress, and to the underlying multiple signal transduction pathways involving MAPK-, NF-kB-, TNF-, and p53-mediated signaling. Transcription factor NF-kB showed dynamic temporal changes, characterized by an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition. Up-regulation of a battery of DNA damage-responsive and DNA repair genes in the early stage of the treatment suggested a possible role of genotoxic stress in the initiation of apoptosis. Simultaneous expression changes in both pro-survival genes and pro-apoptotic genes indicated the role of a critical balance between the two processes in SC toxin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the results imply that multiple signaling pathways underlie the SC toxin-induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages.

  20. C/EBPβ is a transcriptional key regulator of IL-36α in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Andreas; Ruangkiattikul, Nanthapon; Laarmann, Kristin; Janze, Nina; Dittrich-Breiholz, Oliver; Kracht, Michael; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36α - one of the novel members of the IL-1 family of cytokines - is a potent regulator of dendritic and T cells and plays an important role in inflammatory processes like experimental skin inflammation in mice and in mouse models for human psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that C/EBPβ, a transcription factor required for the selective expression of inflammatory genes, is a key activator of the Il36A gene in murine macrophages. RNAi-mediated suppression of C/EBPβ expression in macrophages (C/EBPβ(low) cells) significantly impaired Il36A gene induction following challenge with LPS. Despite the presence of five predicted C/EBP binding sites, luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that C/EBPβ confers responsiveness to LPS primarily through a half-CRE•C/EBP element in the proximal Il36A promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that C/EBPβ but not CREB proteins interact with this critical half-CRE•C/EBP element. In addition, overexpression of C/EBPβ in C/EBPβ(low) cells enhanced the expression of Il36A whereas CREB-1 had no effect. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that C/EBPβ but neither CREB-1, ATF-2 nor ATF4 is directly recruited to the proximal promoter region of the Il36A gene. Together, these findings demonstrate an essential role of C/EBPβ in the regulation of the Il36A gene via the proximal half-CRE•C/EBP element in response to inflammatory stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of phagocytic function in murine peritoneal macrophages by bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin C.

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, M; Del Rio, M; Ferrandez, M D; Hernanz, A

    1991-01-01

    Bombesin, as well as the two mammalian bombesin-like peptides gastrin-releasing peptide and neuromedin C, have been shown in this study to stimulate in vitro all steps of the phagocytic process in murine peritoneal macrophages: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of cells (Candida albicans) and inert particles (latex beads), and production of superoxide anion as measured by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. A dose-response relationship was observed, with maximal stimulation of phagocytic process between 10(-12)M and 10(-9)M. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin C caused a higher activation of adherence, chemotaxis and ingestion of C. albicans than bombesin. The three neuropeptides induced in murine macrophages a significant, but transient, increase of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels at 60 seconds. On the contrary, these neuropeptides produced a rapid, transient and significant decrease of cAMP at 30 seconds. These results suggest that there are close relations between IP3 and cAMP messenger systems and the phagocytic process in murine peritoneal macrophages when these cells are incubated in the presence of bombesin, GRP or neuromedin C. PMID:1649124

  2. Tumor-associated macrophages favor C26 murine colon carcinoma cell proliferation in an oxidative stress-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Luput, Lavinia; Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Laura, Patras; Alupei, Marius Costel; Banciu, Manuela

    2017-02-17

    The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development of colon carcinoma is still controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the TAM‑driven processes that may affect colon cancer cell proliferation. To achieve this purpose, murine macrophages were co-cultured with C26 murine colon carcinoma cells at a cell density ratio that approximates physiological conditions for colon carcinoma development in vivo. In this respect, the effects of TAM-mediated angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress on the proliferative capacity of C26 murine colon carcinoma cells were studied. To gain insight into the TAM-driven oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, the main pro-oxidant enzyme in macrophages, was inhibited. Our data revealed that the stimulatory effects of TAMs on C26 cell proliferation may be related mainly to their pro-oxidant actions exerted by NADPH oxidase activity, which maintains the redox status and the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of TAMs on tumor cells were found to create a favorable microenvironment for C26 colon carcinoma development and progression. In conclusion, our data confirmed the protumor role of TAMs in the development of colon carcinoma in an oxidative stress-dependent manner that potentiates the angiogenic capacity of the tumor microenvironment. These data may offer valuable information for future tumor-targeted therapies based on TAM 're-education' strategies.

  3. Melanoma-initiating cells exploit M2 macrophage TGFβ and arginase pathway for survival and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Muly; Tan, Kar Wai; Keeble, Jo; Wang, Xiaojie; Hubert, Sandra; Barron, Luke; Tan, Nguan Soon; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Armelle; Angeli, Veronique; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    M2 macrophages promote tumor growth and metastasis, but their interactions with specific tumor cell populations are poorly characterized. Using a mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed that CD34− but not CD34+ tumor-initiating cells (TICs) depend on M2 macrophages for survival and proliferation. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and macrophage-conditioned media protected CD34− TICs from chemotherapy in vitro. In vivo, while inhibition of CD115 suppressed the macrophage-dependent CD34− TIC population, chemotherapy accelerated its development. The ability of TICs to respond to TAMs was acquired during melanoma progression and immediately preceded a surge in metastatic outgrowth. TAM-derived transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and polyamines produced via the Arginase pathway were critical for stimulation of TICs and synergized to promote their growth. PMID:25294815

  4. Interferon-gamma-treated murine macrophages inhibit growth of tubercle bacilli via the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Denis, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and their ability to restrict growth of a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to IFN-gamma was assessed in various conditions. Doses of IFN-gamma ranging from 10 to 100 U stimulated high levels of antimycobacterial activity, as seen by inhibition of growth. Addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other scavengers of reactive oxygen species before infection failed to abrogate this restriction of growth, suggestive of a lack of involvement of reactive oxygen species in this phenomenon. Addition of arginase before infection inhibited the bacteriostatic ability of IFN-gamma-pulsed macrophages as did addition of NG-monomethyl L-arginine, an inhibitor of the synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxide. In both cases, this inhibition was reversed by adding excess L-arginine in the medium. Moreover, nitrite production in macrophages was correlated with their ability to restrict tubercle bacilli growth. These results imply that nitric oxide or another inorganic nitrogen oxide is an important effector molecule in restricting growth of M. tuberculosis in IFN-gamma-pulsed murine macrophages.

  5. Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine macrophages: inhibition of LPS binding to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Shinsuke; Matsura, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Atsushi; Horie, Shunsuke; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Nishida, Tadashi; Minami, Yukari; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ishibe, Yuichi; Nakada, Junya; Ohta, Yoshiji; Yamada, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    We investigated whether pretreatment with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a potent heat shock protein (HSP) inducer, could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine liberation and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages. The levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) released from murine macrophage RAW 264 cells were increased dose- and time-dependently following treatment with LPS (1 microg/ml). GGA (80 microM) treatment 2 h before LPS addition significantly suppressed TNF-alpha and NO productions at 12 h and 24 h after LPS, respectively, indicating that GGA inhibits activation of macrophages. However, replacement by fresh culture medium before LPS treatment abolished the inhibitory effect of GGA on NO production in LPS-treated cells. Furthermore, GGA inhibited both HSP70 and inducible NO synthase expressions induced by LPS treatment despite an HSP inducer. When it was examined whether GGA interacts with LPS and/or affects expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 on the cell surface, GGA inhibited the binding of LPS to the cell surface, while GGA did not affect TLR4 and CD14 expressions. These results indicate that GGA suppresses the binding of LPS to the cell surface of macrophages, resulting in inhibiting signal transduction downstream of TLR4.

  6. Geranylgeranylacetone Ameliorates Inflammatory Response to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Murine Macrophages: Inhibition of LPS Binding to The Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Shinsuke; Matsura, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Atsushi; Horie, Shunsuke; Ohata, Shuzo; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Nishida, Tadashi; Minami, Yukari; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ishibe, Yuichi; Nakada, Junya; Ohta, Yoshiji; Yamada, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether pretreatment with geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), a potent heat shock protein (HSP) inducer, could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine liberation and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages. The levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released from murine macrophage RAW 264 cells were increased dose- and time-dependently following treatment with LPS (1 µg/ml). GGA (80 µM) treatment 2 h before LPS addition significantly suppressed TNF-α and NO productions at 12 h and 24 h after LPS, respectively, indicating that GGA inhibits activation of macrophages. However, replacement by fresh culture medium before LPS treatment abolished the inhibitory effect of GGA on NO production in LPS-treated cells. Furthermore, GGA inhibited both HSP70 and inducible NO synthase expressions induced by LPS treatment despite an HSP inducer. When it was examined whether GGA interacts with LPS and/or affects expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 on the cell surface, GGA inhibited the binding of LPS to the cell surface, while GGA did not affect TLR4 and CD14 expressions. These results indicate that GGA suppresses the binding of LPS to the cell surface of macrophages, resulting in inhibiting signal transduction downstream of TLR4. PMID:18193105

  7. Pure populations of murine macrophages from cultured embryonic stem cells. Application to studies of chemotaxis and apoptotic cell clearance.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Lihui; Pound, John D; Willems, Jorine J L P; Taylor, A Helen; Forrester, Lesley M; Gregory, Christopher D

    2012-11-30

    Embryonic stem cells provide a potentially convenient source of macrophages in the laboratory. Given the propensity of macrophages for plasticity in phenotype and function, standardised culture and differentiation protocols are required to ensure consistency in population output and activity in functional assays. Here we detail the development of an optimised culture protocol for the production of murine embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM). This protocol provides improved yields of ESDM and we demonstrate that the cells are suitable for application to the study of macrophage responses to apoptotic cells. ESDM so produced were of higher purity than commonly used primary macrophage preparations and were functional in chemotaxis assays and in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Maturation of ESDM was found to be associated with reduced capacity for directed migration and increased capacity for phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. These results show ESDM to be functionally active in sequential phases of interaction with apoptotic cells and establish these macrophage populations as useful models for further study of molecular mechanisms underlying the recognition and removal of apoptotic cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Myosin V and iNOS expression is enhanced in J774 murine macrophages treated with IFN-gamma.

    PubMed

    Reis, D; Souza, M; Mineo, J; Espindola, F

    2001-02-01

    Actin-based motor protein requirements and nitric oxide (NO) production are important features of macrophage activity during phagocytosis or microbicidal processes. Different classes of myosins contribute directly or indirectly to phagocytosis by providing mechanical force for phagosome closure or organelle movement. Recent data have shown the presence of myosins IC, II, V and IXb in phagosomes of bone marrow-derived murine macrophages. In our investigation we demonstrated the presence of different classes of myosins in J774 macrophages. We also analyzed the effect of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), with or without calcium ionophore or cytochalasin B, on myosins as well as on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. Myosins IC, II, Va, VI and IXb were identified in J774 macrophages. There was an increase of myosin V expression in IFN-gamma-treated cells. iNOS expression was increased by IFN-gamma treatment, while calcium ionophore and cytochalasin B had a negative influence on both myosin and iNOS expression, which was decreased. The increases in NO synthesis were reflected by increased iNOS expression. Macrophages activated by IFN-gamma released significant amounts of NO when compared to control groups. In contrast, NO production by calcium ionophore- and cytochalasin B-treated cells was similar to that of control cells. These results suggest that IFN-gamma is involved in macrophage activation by stimulating protein production to permit both phagocytosis and microbicidal activity.

  9. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chae E.; Lee, Seung J.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Bae, Jin U.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-05-15

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB{sub 4} production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB{sub 4}. Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB{sub 4}, subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  10. Immunostimulatory activity of snake fruit peel extract on murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wijanarti, Sri; Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Harmayani, Eni; Sugahara, Takuya

    2016-10-01

    Snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) is a tropical fruit produced in Indonesia. Snake fruit peel is normally discarded as waste. In the present study, it was revealed that snake fruit peel has high bioactivities on stimulation of the immune system. Snake fruit peel extract (SFPE) was prepared by extracting snake fruit peel powder in water for 15 h at 4 °C. SFPE enhanced phagocytotic activity of murine macrophage-like J774.1 cells. Production of cytokine such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 was also stimulated by SFPE. The gene expression levels for these cytokines were elevated. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SFPE enhanced not only nuclear factor (NF)-κB but also mitogen-activated protein kinases signalling cascades such as JNK and p38 in macrophage. Overall findings suggested that SFPE has a potential beneficial effect to promote our body health through the stimulation of macrophage.

  11. Citrobacter koseri brain abscess in the neonatal rat: survival and replication within human and rat macrophages.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Stacy M; Pollack, Harvey A; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Badger, Julie L

    2003-10-01

    A unique feature of Citrobacter koseri is the extremely high propensity to initiate brain abscesses during neonatal meningitis. Previous clinical reports and studies on infant rats have documented many Citrobacter-filled macrophages within the ventricles and brain abscesses. It has been hypothesized that intracellular survival and replication within macrophages may be a mechanism by which C. koseri subverts the host response and elicits chronic infection, resulting in brain abscess formation. In this study, we showed that C. koseri causes meningitis and brain abscesses in the neonatal rat model, and we utilized histology and magnetic resonance imaging technology to visualize brain abscess formation. Histology and electron microscopy (EM) revealed that macrophages (and not fibroblasts, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons) were the primary target for long-term C. koseri infection. To better understand C. koseri pathogenesis, we have characterized the interactions of C. koseri with human macrophages. We found that C. koseri survives and replicates within macrophages in vitro and that uptake of C. koseri increases in the presence of human pooled serum in a dose-dependent manner. EM studies lend support to the hypothesis that C. koseri uses morphologically different methods of uptake to enter macrophages. FcgammaRI blocking experiments show that this receptor primarily facilitates the entry of opsonized C. koseri into macrophages. Further, confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that C. koseri survives phagolysosomal fusion and that more than 90% of intracellular C. koseri organisms are colocalized within phagolysosomes. The ability of C. koseri to survive phagolysosome fusion and replicate within macrophages may contribute to the establishment of chronic central nervous system infection including brain abscesses.

  12. Role of the Brucella suis Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen in Phagosomal Genesis and in Inhibition of Phagosome-Lysosome Fusion in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Porte, Françoise; Naroeni, Aroem; Ouahrani-Bettache, Safia; Liautard, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Brucella species are gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that infect humans and animals. These organisms can survive and replicate within a membrane-bound compartment inside professional and nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion has been proposed as a mechanism for intracellular survival in both cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms and the microbial factors involved are poorly understood. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella has been reported to be an important virulence factor, although its precise role in pathogenesis is not yet clear. In this study, we show that the LPS O side chain is involved in inhibition of the early fusion between Brucella suis-containing phagosomes and lysosomes in murine macrophages. In contrast, the phagosomes containing rough mutants, which fail to express the O antigen, rapidly fuse with lysosomes. In addition, we show that rough mutants do not enter host cells by using lipid rafts, contrary to smooth strains. Thus, we propose that the LPS O chain might be a major factor that governs the early behavior of bacteria inside macrophages. PMID:12595466

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects against bacterial infection by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiro; Abe, Hiromi; Tsuruta, Sanae; Chiba, Sayuri; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Sekiya, Takashi; Morita, Rimpei; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is crucial for various immune responses. The relationship between AhR and infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is poorly understood. Here, we show that in response to LM infection, AhR is required for bacterial clearance by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. AhR-deficient mice were more susceptible to listeriosis, and AhR deficiency enhances bacterial growth in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in AhR-deficient macrophages infected with LM despite enhanced susceptibility to LM infection in AhR-deficient mice. Subsequent studies demonstrate that AhR protects against macrophage cell death induced by LM infection through the induction of the antiapoptotic factor, the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages, which promotes macrophage survival in the setting of LM infection. Furthermore, AhR promotes ROS production for bacterial clearance. Our results demonstrate that AhR is essential to the resistance against LM infection as it promotes macrophage survival and ROS production. This suggests that the activation of AhR by its ligands may be an effective strategy against listeriosis.

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoeae survives within and modulates apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Château, Alice; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-04-01

    The human-adapted organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection. It readily colonizes the genital, rectal and nasalpharyngeal mucosa during infection. While it is well established that N. gonorrhoeae recruits and modulates the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during infection, how N. gonorrhoeae interacts with macrophages present in infected tissue is not fully defined. We studied the interactions of N. gonorrhoeae with two human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and primary monocytes, all differentiated into macrophages. Most engulfed bacteria were killed in the phagolysosome, but a subset of bacteria was able to survive and replicate inside the macrophages suggesting that those cells may be an unexplored cellular reservoir for N. gonorrhoeae during infection. N. gonorrhoeae was able to modulate macrophage apoptosis: N. gonorrhoeae induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas it inhibited induced apoptosis in U937 cells and primary human macrophages. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting a role for macrophages in recruiting polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of infection. These results indicate macrophages may serve as a significant replicative niche for N. gonorrhoeae and play an important role in gonorrheal pathogenesis.

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae survives within and modulates apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production of human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Château, Alice; Seifert, H. Steven

    2017-01-01

    The human-adapted organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection. It readily colonizes the genital, rectal, and nasalpharyngal mucosa during infection. While it is well-established that N. gonorrhoeae recruits and modulates the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) during infection, how N. gonorrhoeae interacts with macrophages present in infected tissue is not fully defined. We studied the interactions of N. gonorrhoeae with two human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and primary monocytes, all differentiated into macrophages. Most engulfed bacteria were killed in the phagolysosome, but a subset of bacteria were able to survive and replicate inside the macrophages suggesting that those cells may be an unexplored cellular reservoir for N. gonorrhoeae during infection. N. gonorrhoeae was able to modulate macrophage apoptosis, N. gonorrhoeae induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas it inhibited induced apoptosis in U937 cells and primary human macrophages. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting a role for macrophages in recruiting PMNs to the site of infection. These results indicate macrophages may serve as a significant replicative niche for N. gonorrhoeae and play an important role in gonorrheal pathogenesis. PMID:26426083

  16. Intracellular Survival of Leishmania major Depends on Uptake and Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycans by Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Eleanor C.; Kloehn, Joachim; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W.; Brown, Tracey J.; McConville, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leishmania parasites replicate within the phagolysosome compartment of mammalian macrophages. Although Leishmania depend on sugars as a major carbon source during infections, the nutrient composition of the phagolysosome remains poorly described. To determine the origin of the sugar carbon source in macrophage phagolysosomes, we have generated a N-acetylglucosamine acetyltransferase (GNAT) deficient Leishmania major mutant (∆gnat) that is auxotrophic for the amino sugar, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). This mutant was unable to grow or survive in ex vivo infected macrophages even when macrophages were cultivated in presence of exogenous GlcNAc. In contrast, the L. major ∆gnat mutant induced normal skin lesions in mice, suggesting that these parasites have access to GlcNAc in tissue macrophages. Intracellular growth of the mutant in ex vivo infected macrophages was restored by supplementation of the macrophage medium with hyaluronan, a GlcNAc-rich extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan. Hyaluronan is present and constitutively turned-over in Leishmania-induced skin lesions and is efficiently internalized into Leishmania containing phagolysosomes. These findings suggest that the constitutive internalization and degradation of host glycosaminoglycans by macrophages provides Leishmania with essential carbon sources, creating a uniquely favorable niche for these parasites. PMID:26334531

  17. Brucella spp. of amphibians comprise genomically diverse motile strains competent for replication in macrophages and survival in mammalian hosts

    PubMed Central

    Al Dahouk, Sascha; Köhler, Stephan; Occhialini, Alessandra; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Eisenberg, Tobias; Vergnaud, Gilles; Cloeckaert, Axel; Zygmunt, Michel S.; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Melzer, Falk; Drees, Kevin P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Wattam, Alice R.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-one small Gram-negative motile coccobacilli were isolated from 15 systemically diseased African bullfrogs (Pyxicephalus edulis), and were initially identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi by standard microbiological identification systems. Phylogenetic reconstructions using combined molecular analyses and comparative whole genome analysis of the most diverse of the bullfrog strains verified affiliation with the genus Brucella and placed the isolates in a cluster containing B. inopinata and the other non-classical Brucella species but also revealed significant genetic differences within the group. Four representative but molecularly and phenotypically diverse strains were used for in vitro and in vivo infection experiments. All readily multiplied in macrophage-like murine J774-cells, and their overall intramacrophagic growth rate was comparable to that of B. inopinata BO1 and slightly higher than that of B. microti CCM 4915. In the BALB/c murine model of infection these strains replicated in both spleen and liver, but were less efficient than B. suis 1330. Some strains survived in the mammalian host for up to 12 weeks. The heterogeneity of these novel strains hampers a single species description but their phenotypic and genetic features suggest that they represent an evolutionary link between a soil-associated ancestor and the mammalian host-adapted pathogenic Brucella species. PMID:28300153

  18. Targeting Sirtuin-1 prolongs murine renal allograft survival and function.

    PubMed

    Levine, Matthew H; Wang, Zhonglin; Xiao, Haiyan; Jiao, Jing; Wang, Liqing; Bhatti, Tricia R; Hancock, Wayne W; Beier, Ulf H

    2016-05-01

    Current immunosuppressive medications used after transplantation have significant toxicities. Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells can prevent allograft rejection without compromising protective host immunity. Interestingly, inhibiting the class III histone/protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 can augment Foxp3(+) T-regulatory suppressive function through increasing Foxp3 acetylation. Here we determined whether Sirtuin-1 targeting can stabilize biological allograft function. BALB/c kidney allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients with a CD4-conditional deletion of Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre)) or mice treated with a Sirtuin-1-specific inhibitor (EX-527), and the native kidneys removed. Blood chemistries and hematocrit were followed weekly. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients showed markedly longer survival and improved kidney function. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients exhibited donor-specific tolerance, accepted BALB/c, but rejected third-party C3H cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c renal allografts that were treated with EX-527 showed improved survival and renal function at 1, but not 10 mg/kg/day. Pharmacologic inhibition of Sirtuin-1 also improved renal allograft survival and function with dosing effects having relevance to outcome. Thus, inhibiting Sirtuin-1 can be a useful asset in controlling T-cell-mediated rejection. However, effects on non-T cells that could adversely affect allograft survival and function merit consideration.

  19. Macrophage Delivery of Therapeutic Nanozymes in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brynskikh, Anna M.; Zhao, Yuling; Mosley, R. Lee; Li, Shu; Boska, Michael D.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Batrakova, Elena V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with profound nigrostriatal degeneration. Regrettably, no therapies are currently available that can attenuate disease progression. To this end, we developed a cell-based nanoformulation delivery system using the antioxidant enzyme, catalase, to attenuate neuroinflammatory processes linked to neuronal death. Methods Nanoformulated catalase was obtained by coupling catalase to a synthetic polyelectrolyte of opposite charge leading to the formation of a polyion complex micelle. The nanozyme was loaded into bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and its transport to the substantia nigra pars compacts evaluated in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxicated mice. Results Therapeutic efficacy of BMM loaded with nanozyme was confirmed by two -fold reductions in micro- gliosis as measured by CD11b expression. A two-fold increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic neurons was detected in nanozyme-treated compared to untreated MPTP-intoxicated mice. Neuronal survival was confirmed by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. BMM loaded catalase showed sustained release of the enzyme in plasma. Conclusion These data support the importance of macrophage-based nanozyme carriage for PD therapies. PMID:20394532

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells reprogram host macrophages to attenuate obliterative bronchiolitis in murine orthotopic tracheal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhixiang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Li, Jing; Meng, Qingshu; Cao, Hao; Kang, Le; Ni, Yinkai; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin

    2013-04-01

    After lung transplantation, obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is one of the major limitations for the long-term survival of allografts. At present, effective treatment to prevent this phenomenon remains elusive. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of modulating the immune system through the interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Here, we found that treatment of mice with bone marrow derived MSCs prevents the development of airway occlusion and increased IL-10 levels in trachea grafts, which was eliminated by the depletion of macrophages. Mechanistically, MSCs-derived PGE2, through the receptors EP2 and EP4, promoted the release of IL-10 and inhibited the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by macrophages. These results suggest that MSCs can both decrease the innate inflammatory responses and prevent allograft rejection by down-regulating the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and increasing IL-10 production respectively. For easy availability and immune privilege, MSC-based treatment of OB provides an effective strategy for regulation of immune responses in lung transplantation.

  1. Tert-butylhydroquinone compromises survival in murine experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahong; Hu, Heng; Ren, Xuefang; Simpkins, James W

    2016-01-01

    Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 signaling pathway inducer that is widely used as a food additive in the U.S., prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. This study assesses the effects of tBHQ on ischemic stroke outcomes in mice. We measured infarct size, neurological deficits, and brain volume after tBHQ treatments in murine permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model in vivo. Further, we evaluated the regulation of tBHQ on mitochondrial function in cerebrovascular endothelial cells in vitro, which is critical to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Our results demonstrated that tBHQ increased post-stroke mortality and worsened stroke outcomes. Mitochondrial function was suppressed by tBHQ treatment of cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and this suppression was potentiated by co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the bacterial mimic. These data indicate that tBHQ-exacerbated stroke damage might due to the compromised BBB permeability in permanent stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tert-butylhydroquinone Compromises Survival in Murine Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiahong; Hu, Heng; Ren, Xuefang; Simpkins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 signaling pathway inducer that is widely used as a food additive in the U.S., prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. This study assesses the effects of tBHQ on ischemic stroke outcomes in mice. We measured infarct size, neurological deficits, and brain volume after tBHQ treatments in murine permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model in vivo. Further, we evaluated the regulation of tBHQ on mitochondrial function in cerebrovascular endothelial cells in vitro, which is critical to the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Our results demonstrated that tBHQ increased post-stroke mortality and worsened stroke outcomes. Mitochondrial function was suppressed by tBHQ treatment of cerebrovascular endothelial cells, and this suppression was potentiated by co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the bacterial mimic. These data indicate that tBHQ-exacerbated stroke damage might due to the compromised BBB permeability in permanent stroke. PMID:26827673

  3. Adoptive transfer of CD34(+) cells during murine sepsis rebalances macrophage lipopolysaccharide responses.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, Laura; Ferguson, Donald A; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Effective treatment of the acute systemic inflammatory response associated with sepsis is lacking, but likely will require new ways to rebalance dysregulated immune responses. One challenge is that human sepsis often is diagnosed too late to reduce the hyperinflammation of early sepsis. Another is that the sequential response to sepsis inflammation rapidly generates an adaptive and immunosuppressive state, which by epigenetic imprint may last for months or years. Emerging data support that the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis can both directly reprogram gene expression of circulating and tissue cells, and disrupt development and differentiation of myeloid precursor cells into competent immunocytes. We recently reported that adoptive transfer of bone marrow CD34(+) cells into mice after sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture significantly improves late-sepsis survival by enhancing bacterial clearance through improved neutrophil and macrophage phagocytosis. That study, however, did not examine whether CD34(+) transfer can modify noninfectious acute systemic inflammatory responses. Here, we report that CD34(+) cell transfer mice that have survived late sepsis also resist lethal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory shock (88% lived vs 0% of naive mice). The CD34(+) cell-recipient survivor mice administered LPS had globally reduced levels of circulating inflammatory mediators compared with naive mice, but their peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), unlike those from naïve mice, remained LPS responsive ex vivo. We further found that CD34(+) cell transfer into LPS-challenged naïve mice had diminished immunosuppression, as assessed by ex vivo responses of peritoneal and BMDMs to LPS challenge. We conclude that CD34(+) cell adoptive transfer rebalances dysregulated immune responses associated with sepsis and endotoxin shock.

  4. Cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) mediates trafficking events during mycobacterial infection of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Indrigo, Jessica; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2003-08-01

    The persistence of tuberculosis within pulmonary granulomatous lesions is a complex phenomenon, with bacterial survival occurring in a focal region of high immune activity. In part, the survival of the organism may be linked to the ability of the surface glycolipid trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM; cord factor) to inhibit fusion events between phospholipid vesicles inside the host macrophage. At the same time, TDM contributes to macrophage activation and a cascade of events required for initiation and maintenance of granulomatous responses. This allows increased sequestration of organisms and further survival and persistence within host tissues. Bacterial viability, macrophage cytokine and chemokine response, and intracellular trafficking were investigated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from which TDM had been removed. Removal of surface lipids led to enhanced trafficking of organisms to acidic compartments; reconstitution of delipidated organisms with either pure TDM or the petroleum ether extract containing crude surface lipids restored normal responses. Use of TDM-coated polystyrene beads demonstrated that TDM can mediate intracellular trafficking events, as well as influence macrophage production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Thus, the presence of TDM may be an important determinant for successful infection and survival of M. tuberculosis within macrophages.

  5. Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by water-soluble extracts of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a pine wood nematode.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroaki; Tai, Akihiro; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Itaru

    2006-01-01

    In our previous study, water-soluble extracts from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (B. xylophilus), a pine wood nematode, were shown to enhance interleukin (IL)-4 plus lipopolysaccharide-induced polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in vitro in mice and to increase serum levels of an antigen-nonspecific IgE in vivo. Here we examined whether the nematode extracts stimulate immunofunctions of murine peritoneal macrophages. In both resident and inflammatory macrophages, Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis was markedly activated by B. xylophilus extracts, while non-specific phagocytosis was not. The enhancement of specific phagocytosis was accompanied by an increase in the formation of IgG-Fcgamma receptor rosettes. B. xylophilus extracts also stimulated IL-1beta production in both types of macrophages, and enhanced NO production and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory macrophages. These results indicate that the extracts of B. xylophilus contain an activating substance(s) for immunofunctions in macrophages, besides an enhancing factor for polyclonal IgE production.

  6. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Roy, Somenath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM) macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og) and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12) and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β) was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM). The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity. PMID:22220218

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB 101, 153, and 180) Impair Murine Macrophage Responsiveness to Lipopolysaccharide: Involvement of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Anna; Ferrante, Maria C; Di Guida, Francesca; Pirozzi, Claudio; Lama, Adriano; Simeoli, Raffaele; Clausi, Maria T; Monnolo, Anna; Mollica, Maria Pina; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants, associated with a range of adverse health effects, including interference with the immune system. In this study, we investigate the capability of NDL-PCBs 101, 153, and 180, 3 of the 6 NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, to impair the immune response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 and primary murine macrophages. Our results clearly demonstrate that the exposure of J774A.1 and primary macrophages to NDL-PCB 153 or 180 or all NDL-PCBs mixtures causes a significant reduction in LPS-induced cytokine/chemokine synthesis, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, together with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, involved in cell recruitment. Moreover, PCBs were found to suppress LPS-stimulated NO production, and to reduce cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in J774A.1 and primary macrophages. At mechanistic level, PCBs significantly counteract the LPS-driven toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CD14 upregulation, therefore inhibiting downstream nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in J774A.1. Furthermore, PCBs determine a significant loss of macrophage endocytic capacity, a prerequisite for efficient antigen presentation. Taken together, these data indicate that NDL-PCBs reduce macrophage responsiveness, particularly when they are combined at concentrations per se inactive, impairing the capability to orchestrate a proper immune response to an infectious stimulus, disrupting TLR4/NF-κB pathway.

  8. Diesel exhaust particle extracts and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inhibit Cox-2-dependent prostaglandin synthesis in murine macrophages and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rudra-Ganguly, Nandini; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Korge, Paavo; Herschman, Harvey R

    2002-10-18

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their organic constituents modulate the immune system and exacerbate allergic airway inflammation. We investigated the role of DEP extract and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on prostaglandin synthesis in endotoxin-activated murine macrophages and in mitogen-stimulated fibroblasts. In both macrophages and fibroblasts, DEP extract, phenanthrene, anthracene, phenanthrenequinone, and beta-napthoflavone inhibit prostaglandin production from endogenous arachidonic acid in response to ligand stimulation. However, DEP extract and PAHs do not block ligand induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, either in mitogen-stimulated fibroblasts or endotoxin-treated macrophages. Release of total arachidonic acid and total lipid products is not reduced by DEP or PAHs following ligand stimulation of macrophages or fibroblasts. DEP extract and the PAHs inhibit the activity of purified COX-2 enzyme in vitro but do not inhibit COX-1 activity. Thus, DEP and PAHs do not affect ligand-induced COX-2 gene expression, phospholipase activation, or arachidonic acid release in macrophages and fibroblasts but exert their inhibitory effect on prostaglandin production by preferentially blocking COX-2 enzyme activity.

  9. The immunomodulatory effects of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol on murine splenocyte and peritoneal macrophage function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jung A; Ryu, Mi Hyun; Lee, Jong Kwon

    2006-04-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (MCPD) is a well-known by-product of acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce during its manufacturing process. MCPD has been reported genotoxic in vitro, and reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of MCPD on murine splenocyte and macrophage in vitro, we investigated splenocyte blastogenesis by concanavalin A (Con A), anti-CD3, and lipopolyssacharide (LPS), the production of cytokines from splenocyte, and the activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. There was a significant decrease in lymphocyte blastogenesis to Con A or anti-CD3 at subtoxic dose of MCPD. A significant decrease in splenocyte blastogenesis to LPS was also observed. The production level of interferon (IFN)-gamma on splenocyte culture with Con A was significantly reduced at the higher concentration than 1.0mM of MCPD. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 were also decreased at high concentrations of MCPD. There was a significant decrease in production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal macrophages treated with MCPD. MCPD also inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production of stimulated macrophages. These results indicate that MCPD might be able to reduce the functionality of lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

  10. Rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland molecules induce differential CD86 expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tick parasitism is a major impediment for cattle production in many parts of the world. The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is an obligate hematophagous parasite of domestic and wild animals that serves as vector of infectious agents lethal to cattle. Tick saliva contains molecules evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses which facilitates blood feeding and pathogen transmission. Tick feeding promotes CD4 T cell polarization to a Th2 profile usually accompanied by down-regulation of Th1 cytokines through as yet undefined mechanisms. Co-stimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells are central to development of T cell responses including Th1 and Th2 responses. Tick induced changes to antigen presenting cell signal transduction pathways are largely unknown. Here we document the ability of R. microplus salivary gland extracts (SGE) to effect differential CD86 expression. Results We examined changes in co-stimulatory molecule expression in murine RAW 264.7 cells in response to R. microplus SGE exposure in the presence of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand, LPS. After 24 hrs, CD86, but not CD80, was preferentially up-regulated on mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells when treated with SGE and then LPS, but not SGE alone. CD80 and CD40 expression was increased with LPS, but the addition of SGE did not alter expression. Higher concentrations of SGE were less effective at increasing CD86 RNA expression. The addition of mitogen or extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059, significantly reduced the ability for SGE to induce CD86 expression, indicating activation of MEK is necessary for SGE induced up-regulation. Conclusions Molecules in SGE of R. microplus have a concentration-dependent effect on differential up-regulation of CD86 in a macrophage cell line activated by the TLR4 ligand, LPS. This CD86 up-regulation is at least partially dependent on the ERK1/2 pathway and may serve to promote Th2 polarization

  11. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS.

  12. Monocytes and Macrophages Regulate Immunity through Dynamic Networks of Survival and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Arti; Eubank, Timothy D.; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2010-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are central cells of the innate immune system, responsible for defending against diverse pathogens. While they originate from a common myeloid precursor and share functions in innate immunity, each has a very distinct life span finely tuned by the apoptotic caspases. Normally, circulating monocytes are short-lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis on a daily basis. Macrophages, however, have a longer life span. In chronic inflammatory diseases and, as recently recognized, in the tumor microenvironment, the inhibition of the apoptotic program promotes monocyte survival contributing to the accumulation of macrophages and the persistence of an inflammatory milieu. A complex network of differentiation factors and inflammatory stimuli determine monocyte/macrophage life span by blocking the apoptotic pathway and activating a myriad of survival pathways. Our understanding of apoptosis has flourished over the last decade, and its relevance in the regulation of the immune system is now indisputable. Nevertheless, how the complicated networks of survival and apoptotic regulators are integrated to determine cellular life span remains elusive. This review summarizes the contribution of the caspases and their regulators in monocyte/macrophage cell fate and discusses how these molecules orchestrate the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation. More provocatively, we discuss possible strategies to control inflammation by manipulating leukocyte life span. PMID:20375558

  13. Single-cell analysis reveals new subset markers of murine peritoneal macrophages and highlights macrophage dynamics upon Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Accarias, Solène; Genthon, Clémence; Rengel, David; Boullier, Séverine; Foucras, Gilles; Tabouret, Guillaume

    2016-07-01

    Resident macrophages play a central role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance. Here, we used single cell-based qPCR coupled with flow cytometry analysis to further define the phenotypes of large and small resident peritoneal macrophages (LPMs and SPMs, respectively) in mice. We demonstrated that the expression of Cxcl13, IfngR1, Fizz-1 and Mrc-1 clearly distinguished between LPMs and SPMs subsets. Using these markers, the dynamics of peritoneal macrophages in a Staphylococcus aureus-induced peritonitis model were analyzed. We found that S. aureus infection triggers a massive macrophage disappearance reaction in both subsets. Thereafter, inflammatory monocytes rapidly infiltrated the cavity and differentiated to replenish the SPMs. Although phenotypically indistinguishable from resident SPMs by flow cytometry, newly recruited SPMs had a different pattern of gene expression dominated by M2 markers combined with M1 associated features (inos expression). Interestingly, S. aureus elicited SPMs showed a robust expression of Cxcl13, suggesting that these cells may endorse the role of depleted LPMs and contribute to restoring peritoneal homeostasis. These data provide information on both resident and recruited macrophages dynamics upon S. aureus infection and demonstrate that single-cell phenotyping is a promising and highly valuable approach to unraveling macrophage diversity and plasticity.

  14. Suppression of prostaglandin E(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction by interleukin-4 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, D; Kawajiri, H; Takahashi, Y; Yoshimoto, T

    2000-03-01

    When murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated for 30 min with arachidonic acid, the growth-associated immediate early gene c-fos was induced in a concentration-dependent manner as assessed by Northern blot analysis. The arachidonic acid-induced c-fos mRNA expression was inhibited by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Macrophages produced prostaglandin (PG) E(2) from arachidonic acid as determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Northern blot analysis revealed the expression of PGE receptor EP2 and EP4 subtypes, but not EP1 and EP3 in murine macrophages. PGE(2) brought about a marked elevation of cAMP, and c-fos mRNA expression was increased by PGE(2) and dibutyryl cAMP in these cells. These results suggest that arachidonic acid is transformed to PGE(2), which then binds to EP2 and EP4 receptors to increase intracellular cAMP and c-fos mRNA expression. Furthermore, the induction of c-fos by arachidonic acid, PGE(2), and cAMP was suppressed by pretreatment with interleukin (IL)-4. We also showed that the tyrosine phosphorylation of a Janus kinase, JAK3, is enhanced by IL-4 treatment, suggesting that the PGE(2)-mediated c-fos mRNA induction is inhibited by IL-4 through the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3.

  15. DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-14

    Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25,611 cells using the standard hot-phenol-water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.

  16. Determinants of the Proinflammatory Action of Ambient Particulate Matter in Immortalized Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Guastadisegni, Cecilia; Kelly, Frank J.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E.; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Pozzi, Roberta; Brunekreef, Bert; Sandström, Thomas; Mudway, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background Proximity to traffic-related pollution has been associated with poor respiratory health in adults and children. Objectives We wished to test the hypothesis that particulate matter (PM) from high-traffic sites would display an enhanced capacity to elicit inflammation. Methods We examined the inflammatory potential of coarse [2.5–10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5–10)] and fine [0.1–2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM0.1–2.5)] PM collected from nine sites throughout Europe with contrasting traffic contributions. We incubated murine monocytic-macrophagic RAW264.7 cells with PM samples from these sites (20 or 60 μg/cm2) and quantified their capacity to stimulate the release of arachidonic acid (AA) or the production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) as measures of their inflammatory potential. Responses were then related to PM composition: metals, hydrocarbons, anions/cations, and endotoxin content. Results Inflammatory responses to ambient PM varied markedly on an equal mass basis, with PM2.5–10 displaying the largest signals and contrasts among sites. Notably, we found no evidence of enhanced inflammatory potential at high-traffic sites and observed some of the largest responses at sites distant from traffic. Correlation analyses indicated that much of the sample-to-sample contrast in the proinflammatory response was related to the content of endotoxin and transition metals (especially iron and copper) in PM2.5–10. Use of the metal chelator diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid inhibited AA release, whereas recombinant endotoxin-neutralizing protein partially inhibited TNFα production, demonstrating that different PM components triggered inflammatory responses through separate pathways. Conclusions We found no evidence that PM collected from sites in close proximity to traffic sources displayed enhanced proinflammatory activity in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20663738

  17. Inflammatory responses to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in murine alveolar macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Damte, D; Lee, S-J; Hwang, M-H; Gebru, E; Choi, M-J; Lee, J-S; Cheng, H; Park, S-C

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae induces inflammatory responses in murine alveolar macrophage (MH-S) cells. A pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae cultured in modified Friis medium was used to investigate the inflammatory response in MH-S cell lines. The effect of stimulation by M. hyopneumoniae on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines in MH-S cells and inhibition of their production, using specific inhibitors of signalling pathways, was investigated using the Griess reaction and ELISA respectively. A Western blot assay was used to confirm activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB was further confirmed using transient transfection and luciferase gene reporter assay. The results revealed dose-dependent production of NO in MH-S cells stimulated by M. hyopneumoniae. Increased concentrations of the cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were also observed (p<0.05). Using immunoblot analysis, involvement of three MAPK pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinase I/II (ERK1/2), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK) was confirmed. Specific inhibitors of signal pathways also demonstrated their effect on the NO and cytokine responses of MH-S cells. Degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκB)-alpha was observed, while the luciferase gene reporter assays revealed activation of NF-κB after stimulation by M. hyopneumoniae. Inhibition of NF-κB by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decreased M. hyopneumoniae-induced production of NO and IL-1β (p<0.05), whereas no inhibitory effect was observed on concentrations of TNF-α, and IL-6. These findings indicate that M. hyopneumoniae induces NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NF-κB and the three MAPK pathways are involved in the process.

  18. Nanoliposomal Buparvaquone Immunomodulates Leishmania infantum-Infected Macrophages and Is Highly Effective in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    da Costa-Silva, Thais Alves; Galisteo, Andrés Jimenez; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Tempone, Andre Gustavo

    2017-04-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a fatal parasitic neglected disease affecting 1.5 million people worldwide. Based on a drug repositioning approach, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of buparvaquone (BPQ) and to establish a safe regimen to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of BPQ entrapped by negatively charged nanoliposomes (BPQ-LP) in Leishmania infantum-infected hamsters. Small-angle X-ray scattering, dynamic light scattering, and the ζ-potential were applied in order to study the influence of BPQ on the liposome structure. Our data revealed that BPQ was located in the polar-apolar interface, snorkeling the polar region, and protected against aggregation inside the lipophilic region. The presence of BPQ also decreased the Z-average hydrodynamic diameter and increased the surface charge. Compared to intravenous and intramuscular administration, a subcutaneous route was a more effective route for BPQ-LP; at 0.4 mg/kg, BPQ-LP reduced infection in the spleen and liver by 98 and 96%, respectively. Treatment for 5 days resulted in limited efficacy, but 10 days of treatment resulted in an efficacy similar to that of a 15-day regimen. The nanoliposomal drug was highly effective, with a mean 50% effective dose of 0.25 mg/kg, reducing the parasite load in bone marrow by 80%, as detected using quantitative PCR analysis. In addition, flow cytometry studies showed that BPQ upregulated cytokines as tumor necrosis factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and IL-6 in Leishmania-infected macrophages, eliminating the parasites via a nitric oxide-independent mechanism. This new formulation proved to be a safe and effective treatment for murine leishmaniasis that could be a useful candidate against visceral leishmaniasis.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of Ruta graveolens L. in murine macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Raghav, S K; Gupta, B; Agrawal, C; Goswami, K; Das, H R

    2006-03-08

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is used for several therapeutic purposes worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of plant extract of Ruta graveolens on murine macrophage cells (J-774) challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induces inflammatory response by stimulating the production of nitric oxide and other mediators. Significant inhibition (p=0.01 to p<0.002) of the LPS-induced nitric oxide production was observed in cells treated with plant extract in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibition observed for the extract was significantly higher than that observed for rutin, a flavonoid constituent of the plant. At 40 microM rutin, a comparable concentration of this flavonoid in the highest concentration (500 microg/ml) of plant extract was used in this study; a 20% inhibition (p=0.058) was observed. Inhibition in inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) gene expression in the cells treated with the plant extract suggests an inhibition at the transcription level. Interestingly, a concomitant decrease in transcription of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene has also been observed in cells treated with the plant extract and this inhibition is significantly higher than that observed with the highest concentration of rutin (80 microM) used in the study. As an inflammatory response, upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 enzymes leads to production of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. Hence, the significant inhibitory effects on both of these inflammatory mediators unravel a novel anti-inflammatory action of this plant.

  20. [The in vitro antitumor responses of murine peritoneal macrophages induced by adenovirus-mediated IL-4 and/or M-CSF gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Cao, X; Lei, H

    1996-07-01

    To observe the antitumor responses of murine peritoneal macrophages induced by adenovirus-mediated IL-4 and/or M-CSF gene transfer. The IL-4 gene and/or M-CSF gene was transfected into murine peritoneal macrophages-mediated by adenovirus and the levels of IL-4, M-CSF, TNF, IL-1 and NO in the supernatant of the macrophages and the cytotoxicity of the macrophages to tumor cells were assayed. The high levels of IL-4 and M-CSF could be detected in the supernatant of macrophages 18 hours after being infected with advenovirus expressing IL-4 or M-CSF. The cytotoxicity of the macrophages engineered to secrete IL-4 or M-CSF increased significantly, and when IL-4 gene and M-CSF gene were cotransfected into the macrophages or the macrophages were co-stimulated with LPS, the cytotoxicity increased even more significantly. The levels of TNF, IL-land NO in the supernatant of macrophages also increased. The results demonstrated that transfection of IL-4 and/or M-CSF gene into macrophages could augment their anti-tumor immunity.

  1. Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 exerts protective effects in a murine sepsis model.

    PubMed

    Zeckey, Christian; Tschernig, Thomas; Hildebrand, Frank; Frink, Michael; Frömke, Cornelia; Dorsch, Martina; Krettek, Christian; Barkhausen, Tanja

    2010-06-01

    It is still a major problem to achieve successful therapy in polymicrobial sepsis. Stimulation of the innate immune system via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 6 had beneficial effects on chronic inflammatory disorders and a severe peritonitis model when administered 4 days before induction. In the present study, the hypothesis whether the TLR-2 and TLR-6 pathway can also be used as a therapeutic agent parallel to sepsis induction and several hours after the induction was tested. Therefore, the TLR-2 and TLR-6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) was applied simultaneous to cecal ligation and puncture-sepsis induction and 6 h thereafter. Vehicle-treated animals served as controls. Survival, activity, cytokine levels at different time points, and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration were determined. Improved survival was found after both MALP-2 treatments in comparison with untreated controls. The treatment resulted in reduced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 levels in the plasma; furthermore, pulmonary infiltration by neutrophils was decreased. These results demonstrate a beneficial effect of MALP-2 as a therapeutic agent in polymicrobial sepsis in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model.

  2. Translational Regulation of Specific mRNAs Controls Feedback Inhibition and Survival during Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Johanna; Reitter, Sonja; Philipp, Janine; Haneke, Katharina; Schäfer, Heiner; Stoecklin, Georg

    2014-01-01

    For a rapid induction and efficient resolution of the inflammatory response, gene expression in cells of the immune system is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The control of mRNA translation has emerged as an important determinant of protein levels, yet its role in macrophage activation is not well understood. We systematically analyzed the contribution of translational regulation to the early phase of the macrophage response by polysome fractionation from mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual mRNAs whose translation is specifically regulated during macrophage activation were identified by microarray analysis. Stimulation with LPS for 1 h caused translational activation of many feedback inhibitors of the inflammatory response including NF-κB inhibitors (Nfkbid, Nfkbiz, Nr4a1, Ier3), a p38 MAPK antagonist (Dusp1) and post-transcriptional suppressors of cytokine expression (Zfp36 and Zc3h12a). Our analysis showed that their translation is repressed in resting and de-repressed in activated macrophages. Quantification of mRNA levels at a high temporal resolution by RNASeq allowed us to define groups with different expression patterns. Thereby, we were able to distinguish mRNAs whose translation is actively regulated from mRNAs whose polysomal shifts are due to changes in mRNA levels. Active up-regulation of translation was associated with a higher content in AU-rich elements (AREs). For one example, Ier3 mRNA, we show that repression in resting cells as well as de-repression after stimulation depends on the ARE. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Ier3 knockout mice showed reduced survival upon activation, indicating that IER3 induction protects macrophages from LPS-induced cell death. Taken together, our analysis reveals that translational control during macrophage activation is important for cellular survival as well as the expression of anti-inflammatory feedback inhibitors that promote the

  3. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.

  4. Coronin-1a inhibits autophagosome formation around Mycobacterium tuberculosis-containing phagosomes and assists mycobacterial survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seto, Shintaro; Tsujimura, Kunio; Koide, Yukio

    2012-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular bacterium that can survive within macrophages. Such survival is potentially associated with Coronin-1a (Coro1a). We investigated the mechanism by which Coro1a promotes the survival of M. tuberculosis in macrophages and found that autophagy was involved in the inhibition of mycobacterial survival in Coro1a knock-down (KD) macrophages. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses revealed that LC3, a representative autophagic protein, was recruited to M. tuberculosis-containing phagosomes in Coro1a KD macrophages. Thin-section electron microscopy demonstrated that bacilli were surrounded by the multiple membrane structures in Coro1a KD macrophages. The proportion of LC3-positive mycobacterial phagosomes colocalized with p62/SQSTM1, ubiquitin or LAMP1 increased in Coro1a KD macrophages during infection. These results demonstrate the formation of autophagosomes around M. tuberculosis in Coro1a KD macrophages. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was induced in response to M. tuberculosis infection in Coro1a KD macrophages, suggesting that Coro1a blocks the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway involved in autophagosome formation. LC3 recruitment to M. tuberculosis-containing phagosomes was also observed in Coro1a KD alveolar or bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggest that Coro1a inhibits autophagosome formation in alveolar macrophages, thereby facilitating M. tuberculosis survival within the lung. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Bacterial sphingophospholipids containing non-hydroxy fatty acid activate murine macrophages via Toll-like receptor 4 and stimulate bacterial clearance.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Porcelli, Steven A; Naka, Takashi; Yano, Ikuya; Maeda, Shinji; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Akira, Shizuo; Uematsu, Satoshi; Takii, Takemasa; Ogura, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2013-06-01

    Sphingobacterium spiritivorum has five unusual sphingophospholipids (SPLs). Our previous study determined the complete chemical structures of these SPLs. The compositions of the long-chain bases/fatty acids in the ceramide portion, isoheptadecasphingosine/isopentadecanoate or isoheptadecasphingosine/2-hydroxy isopentadecanoate, are characteristic. The immune response against bacterial lipid components is considered to play important roles in microbial infections. It is reported that several bacterial sphingolipids composed of ceramide are recognized by CD1-restricted T and NKT cells and that a non-peptide antigen is recognized by γδ T cells. In this study, we demonstrated that these bacterial SPLs activated murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 but not TLR2, although they slightly activated CD1d-restricted NKT and γδT cells. Interestingly, this TLR 4-recognition pathway of bacterial SPLs involves the fatty acid composition of ceramide in addition to the sugar moiety. A non-hydroxy fatty acid composed of ceramide was necessary to activate murine BMMs. The bacterial survival was significantly higher in TLR4-KO mice than in TLR2-KO and wild-type mice. The results indicate that activation of the TLR4-dependent pathway of BMMs by SPLs induced an innate immune response and contributed to bacterial clearance.

  6. Serum Amyloid P Therapeutically Attenuates Murine Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Its Effects on Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Lynne A.; Rosada, Rogerio; Moreira, Ana Paula; Joshi, Amrita; Kramer, Michael S.; Hesson, David P.; Argentieri, Rochelle L.; Mathai, Susan; Gulati, Mridu; Herzog, Erica L.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophages promote tissue remodeling but few mechanisms exist to modulate their activity during tissue fibrosis. Serum amyloid P (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family of proteins, signals through Fcγ receptors which are known to affect macrophage activation. We determined that IPF/UIP patients have increased protein levels of several alternatively activated pro-fibrotic (M2) macrophage-associated proteins in the lung and monocytes from these patients show skewing towards an M2 macrophage phenotype. SAP therapeutically inhibits established bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, when administered systemically or locally to the lungs. The reduction in aberrant collagen deposition was associated with a reduction in M2 macrophages in the lung and increased IP10/CXCL10. These data highlight the role of macrophages in fibrotic lung disease, and demonstrate a therapeutic action of SAP on macrophages which may extend to many fibrotic indications caused by over-exuberant pro-fibrotic macrophage responses. PMID:20300636

  7. Spliced XBP1 promotes macrophage survival and autophagy by interacting with Beclin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ping-Ge; Jiang, Zhi-Xin; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Qing-Hua

    2015-08-07

    Macrophage autophagy plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanism mediating this process is unclear. The potential role of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a crucial transduction factor that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy is unknown. This study mainly explores the roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy. The present study shows that the transient overexpression of spliced XBP1 via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer induces autophagy and promotes proliferation in bone marrow-derived macrophages via the down-regulation of Beclin-1, but that the sustained overexpression of spliced XBP1 leads to apoptosis. When XBP1 is down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using siRNA, rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation is ablated. Furthermore, we have detected the overexpression of XBP1 in areas of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of ApoE−/− mice. These results demonstrate that XBP1 mRNA splicing plays an important role in maintaining the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages and provide new insight into the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • XBP1 was up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE−/− mice. • Transient spliced XBP1 overexpression induced macrophages autophagy via Beclin-1. • Sustained spliced XBP1 overexpression triggered macrophages apoptosis. • Spliced XBP1 plays a key role in maintaining the macrophages survival.

  8. Fisetin antagonizes cell fusion, cytoskeletal organization and bone resorption in RANKL-differentiated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Lye; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Sin-Hye; Han, Seon-Young; Kang, Soon Ah; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is comprised of several stage s including progenitor survival, differentiation to mononuclear preosteoclasts, cell fusion to multinuclear mature osteoclasts, and activation to osteoclasts with bone resorbing activity. Botanical antioxidants are now being increasingly investigated for their health-promoting effects on bone. This study investigated that fisetin, a flavonol found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, suppressed osteoclastogenesis by disturbing receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling pathway and demoting osteoclastogenic protein induction. Nontoxic fisetin at ≤10 μM inhibited the induction of RANK, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and the activation of NF-κB in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In RANKL-differentiated osteoclasts cell fusion protein of E-cadherin was induced, which was dampened by fisetin. The formation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts was suppressed by adding fisetin to RANKL-exposed macrophages. It was also found that fisetin reduced actin ring formation and gelsolin induction of osteclasts enhanced by RANKL through disturbing c-Src-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 signaling. Fisetin deterred preosteoclasts from the cell-cell fusion and the organization of the cytoskeleton to seal the resorbing area and to secret protons for bone resorption. Consistently, the 5 day-treatment of fisetin diminished RANKL-induced cellular expression of carbonic anhydrase II and integrin β3 concurrently with a reduction of osteoclast bone-resorbing activity. Therefore, fisetin was a natural therapeutic agent retarding osteoclast fusion and cytoskeletal organization such as actin rings and ruffled boarder, which is a property of mature osteoclasts and is required for osteoclasts to resorb bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Echinacea purpurea Extract Polarizes M1 Macrophages in Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages Through the Activation of JNK.

    PubMed

    Fu, Aikun; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Chen, Hongliang; Zheng, Shasha; Li, Yali; Xu, Xin; Li, Weifen

    2017-09-01

    Echinacea purpurea is an indigenous North American purple cone flower used by North Americans for treatment of various infectious diseases and wounds. This study investigated the effect of polysaccharide enriched extract of Echinacea purpurea (EE) on the polarization of macrophages. The results showed that 100 µg/mL of EE could markedly activate the macrophage by increasing the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHCII molecules. Meanwhile, EE upregulated the markers of classically activated macrophages (M1) such as CCR7 and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, TNF-αand NO. The functional tests showed that EE enhanced the phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal activity of macrophage against ST. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JNK are required for EE-induced NO and M1-related cytokines production. Together, these results demonstrated that EE can polarize macrophages towards M1 phenotype, which is dependent on the JNK signaling pathways. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2664-2671, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Glucocorticoids relieve collectin-driven suppression of apoptotic cell uptake in murine alveolar macrophages through downregulation of SIRPα1

    PubMed Central

    McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Sonstein, Joanne; Ames, Theresa M.; Freeman, Christine M; Curtis, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The lung environment actively inhibits apoptotic cell (AC) uptake by alveolar macrophages (AMø) via lung collectin signaling through signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Even brief glucocorticoid treatment during maturation of human blood monocyte-derived or murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (Mø) increases their AC uptake. Whether glucocorticoids similarly impact differentiated tissue Mø and the mechanisms for this rapid response are unknown and important to define, given the widespread therapeutic use of inhaled glucocorticoids. We found that the glucocorticoid fluticasone rapidly and dose-dependently increased AC uptake by murine AMø without a requirement for protein synthesis. Fluticasone rapidly suppressed AMø expression of SIRPα mRNA and surface protein, and also activated a more delayed, translation-dependent upregulation of AC recognition receptors that was not required for the early increase in AC uptake. Consistent with a role for SIRPα suppression in rapid glucocorticoid action, murine peritoneal macrophages (PMø) that had not been exposed to lung collectins showed delayed but not rapid increase in AC uptake. However, pretreatment of PMø with the lung collectin surfactant protein D inhibited AC uptake and fluticasone treatment rapidly reversed this inhibition. Thus, glucocorticoids act not only by upregulating AC recognition receptors during Mø maturation but also via a novel rapid down-regulation of SIRPα expression by differentiated tissue Mø. Release of AMø from inhibition of AC uptake by lung collectins may in part explain the beneficial role of inhaled glucocorticoids in inflammatory lung diseases, especially emphysema, in which there is both increased lung parenchymal cell apoptosis and defective AC uptake by AMø. PMID:22615206

  11. Secretion by stimulated murine macrophages of a heparin-binding fibroblast growth activity, distinct from basic FGE and IL-1

    SciTech Connect

    Rappolee, D.A.; Banda, M.J.; Werb, Z.

    1986-03-01

    Wound healing requires granulation and formation of neovascularization tissue. These two events require increases in fibroblasts, vascular endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Macrophages may produce several growth factors which participate in these would healing events. To test this hypothesis they have partially purified a fibroblast growth promoting activity from a murine macrophage cell line (P388 Dl). The activity causes growth in Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells as measured by thymidine uptake, nuclear labeling and increase in cell number. PDGF, Basic FGF, and EGF are also mitogenic by thymidine uptake, but purified human IL-1 and recombinant murine IL-1 are not. The activity is pH 2.5-, freeze/thaw-, and dialysis/lyphilyzation-stable. The activity elutes from heparin-Sepharose at 2.0M, but not 0.15m, 0.5M, or 3.0M NaCl. Basic FGF elutes from the same heparin-Sepharose batch at 3.0M, but not at the other three NaCl concentrations. The growth activity is secreted by viable murine macrophage line cells (P388D1, WEHI-3, RAW 264.7) at a 48 hour peak after activating (LPS) or phagocytic stimuli. Unstimulated P388D1 caused growth 1.7 times control whereas stimulation increases the growth 5.1 to 7.1 times control. The optimal activity concentration fails to complement insulin in an assay in which optimal basic FGF concentration complements insulin. These data suggest that the activity may contain a progression factor.

  12. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  13. TceSR two-component regulatory system of Brucella melitensis 16M is involved in invasion, intracellular survival and regulated cytotoxicity for macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Fu, Q; Wang, Z; Li, T; Zhang, H; Guo, F; Wang, Y; Zhang, J; Chen, C

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of invasion and intracellular survival of Brucella are still poorly understood. Previous studies showed that the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play an important role in the intracellular survival of Brucella. To investigate if TCSs involve in the virulence and cytotoxicity of Brucella melitensis, we introduced a mutation into one of the TCSs in chromosome II in Br. melitensis 16M strain, and generated 16MΔTceSR, a mutant of Br. melitensis 16M strain. In vitro infection experiments using murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) showed that the survival of 16MΔTceSR mutant in macrophages decreased 0·91-log compared with that of wild type Br. melitensis 16M strain at 2 h postinfection, replication of 16MΔTceSR mutant in macrophages was 5·65-log, which was much lower than that wild type strain. Results of lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assays in macrophages demonstrated high dose infection with wide type strain produced high level cytotoxicity to macrophages, but 16MΔTceSR mutant had very low level cytotoxicity, indicating mutation of TCSs impaired the cytotoxicity of Br. melitensis to macrophages. Animal experiments showed that the spleen colonization of 16MΔTceSR was significantly reduced compared with its wild type strains. The lower levels of survival of 16MΔTceSR in various stress conditions suggested that the mutation of the TCSs of Br. melitensis was the causative factor of its reduced resistance to stress conditions. Taken together, our results demonstrated TCS TceSR involves in the intracellular survival, virulence and cytotoxicity of Br. melitensis during its infection. Significance and impact of the study: Two-component systems (TCSs) are predominant bacterial signal transduction mechanisms. The pathogenicity of Brucella is due to its ability to adapt to the intracellular environment including low levels of acidic pH, high-salt and heat shock. TCSs are designed to sense diverse stimuli, transfer signals and enact an

  14. Lysis of herpesvirus-infected cells by macrophages activated with free or liposome-encapsulated lymphokine produced by a murine T cell hybridoma.

    PubMed Central

    Koff, W C; Showalter, S D; Seniff, D A; Hampar, B

    1983-01-01

    Thioglycolate-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by the lymphokine designated macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced by a murine T cell hybridoma to lyse herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-infected murine target cells. Comparison of uninfected BALB/c 10E2 cells with HSV-2-infected 10E2 cells showed that macrophages activated with MAF selectively destroyed HSV-2-infected cells and left uninfected cells unharmed, as measured by an 18-h 51Cr-release assay. In contrast, macrophages treated with medium were as efficient as MAF-activated macrophages in suppressing the production of HSV-2 from virus-infected cells. These findings suggest that macrophages must attain an activated state to lyse HSV-2-infected cells. Finally, incubation of macrophages with liposomes containing MAF was shown to be a highly efficient method for activation of macrophages against HSV-2 infected cells. The ability to selectively destroy herpesvirus-infected cells in vitro by macrophages activated with liposome-encapsulated MAF suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment in vivo should be evaluated. PMID:6358037

  15. N-Alkyl-Substituted Isatins Enhance P2X7 Receptor-Induced Interleukin-1β Release from Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, Ronald; Vine, Kara L

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates the P2X7 receptor channel to induce the rapid release of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, from macrophages. Microtubule rearrangements are thought to be involved in this process. Some isatin derivatives alter microtubules and display anticancer activities. The current study investigated the effect of isatin and seven structurally diverse isatin derivatives on P2X7-mediated IL-1β release from murine J774 macrophages. ATP-induced IL-1β and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed by specific colorimetric assays. P2X7 activity was determined by flow cytometric measurements of ATP-induced cation dye uptake. Cytotoxicity of isatin derivatives was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. ATP caused rapid IL-1β release in a concentration-dependent manner, and this process was completely impaired by the P2X7 antagonist, AZ10606120. In contrast, 5,7-dibromo-N-(p-methoxybenzyl)isatin (NAI) and 3-{4-[5,7-dibromo-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenamino]phenyl}propanoic acid (NAI-imine) enhanced P2X7-induced IL-1β release by twofold compared to that of isatin and the parent molecule, 5,7-dibromoisatin. NAI and NAI-imine had minimal effect on P2X7-induced dye uptake and LDH release. In contrast, 24-hour incubation with NAI and NAI-imine (in the absence of exogenous ATP) induced macrophage death in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that N-alkyl-substituted isatins enhance P2X7 receptor-induced IL-1β release from murine macrophages. Thus, in addition to direct anticancer effects, these compounds may also impact inflammatory and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment.

  16. A novel association between resident tissue macrophages and nerves in the peripheral stroma of the murine cornea.

    PubMed

    Seyed-Razavi, Yashar; Chinnery, Holly R; McMenamin, Paul G

    2014-03-03

    To characterize the interactions between resident macrophage populations and nerves in naïve and injured corneas of the mouse eye. Corneas from wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and transgenic Cx3cr1-eGFP mice were subjected to a 1-mm central epithelial debridement injury. The eyes were fixed and immunostained as flat mounts with a range of antibodies to identify macrophages, neurons, and Schwann cells. Interactions between nerves and immune cells were analyzed and quantitated using three-dimensional reconstructions of confocal microscopy images. Naïve eyes acted as controls. A distinctive association between resident immune cells and corneal nerves was noted in the peripheral or perilimbal stromal nerve trunks. These epineurial cells were mostly Cx3cr1(+) Iba-1(+) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+) macrophages. The number of nerve-associated macrophages was greater in WT BALB/c mice than in C57BL/6J mice. There were no qualitative or quantitative differences in the circumferential distribution of nerve-associated macrophages in the cornea. Sterile corneal epithelial debridement led to a dissociation of macrophages from peripheral nerve trunks as early as 2 hours postinjury, with numbers returning to baseline after 72 hours. This dissociation was Cx3cr1 dependent. This study is the first to highlight a direct physical association between nerves and resident immune cells in the murine cornea. Furthermore, we reveal that this association in normal eyes is responsive to central corneal epithelial injury and is partly mediated by Cx3cr1 signaling. This association may serve as an indicator of malfunctioning neuroimmune communication in disease states such as neurotrophic keratitis and peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Murine cytomegalovirus infection of mouse macrophages stimulates early expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Alston, Christine I.; Dix, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a species-specific β-herpesvirus that infects for life up to 80% of the world’s population and causes severe morbidity in at-risk immunocompromised populations. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 are host proteins that act as inducible negative feedback regulators of cytokine signaling and have been implicated in several ocular diseases and viral infections. We recently found in our mouse model of experimental cytomegalovirus retinitis that subretinally-injected murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) stimulates ocular SOCS1 and SOCS3 during retrovirus-induced immune suppression of murine AIDS (MAIDS), and that infiltrating macrophages are prominent cellular sources of retinal SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression. Herein we investigate possible virologic mechanisms whereby MCMV infection may stimulate SOCS1 and/or SOCS3 expression in cell culture. We report that infection of IC-21 mouse macrophages with MCMV propagated through the salivary glands of BALB/c mice, but not from tissue culture in C57BL/6 fibroblasts, transiently stimulates SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNA transcripts, but not SOCS5 mRNA. Viral tegument proteins are insufficient for this stimulation, as replication-deficient UV-inactivated MCMV fails to stimulate SOCS1 or SOCS3 in IC-21 macrophages. By contrast, infection of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with either productive MCMV or UV-inactivated MCMV significantly stimulates SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNA expression early after infection. Treatment of MCMV-infected IC-21 mouse macrophages with the antiviral drug ganciclovir significantly decreases MCMV-stimulated SOCS3 expression at 3 days post-infection. These data suggest cell type-specific, different roles for viral immediate early or early gene expression and/or viral tegument proteins in the early stimulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 during MCMV infection. Furthermore, putative biphasic stimulation of SOCS3 during late MCMV infection of IC-21 mouse macrophages may occur by divergent

  18. Type and location of tumor-infiltrating macrophages and lymphatic vessels predict survival of colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Algars, Annika; Irjala, Heikki; Vaittinen, Samuli; Huhtinen, Heikki; Sundström, Jari; Salmi, Marko; Ristamäki, Raija; Jalkanen, Sirpa

    2012-08-15

    The type of tumor-infiltrating macrophages may be decisive in tumor immunity, lymphangiogenesis and in the clinical outcome of cancer. Here, we elucidated the prognostic significance of lymphatic vessels, different types of macrophages and the balance between different macrophage types in colorectal cancer. We analyzed the impact of density, type and location of macrophages on the clinical behavior of 159 primary colorectal carcinomas using CD68 as a pan-macrophage marker and CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1 as a marker for regulatory/suppressive macrophages. Podoplanin was used as a pan-lymphatic vessel marker. A high number of CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1(+) peritumoral macrophages positively correlated with survival (p = 0.04). However, in more advanced disease (Stage IV), the patients with a high number of peritumoral or intratumoral CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1(+) macrophages had a shorter disease-specific survival (p = 0.05, and p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, a low number of suppressive intratumoral CLEVER-1/Stabilin-1(+) macrophages among high numbers of CD68(+) macrophages correlated with a low number of distant recurrences (p = 0.01) and to fewer disease relapses exclusively in the liver as well (p = 0.006). A high number of intratumoral lymphatics correlated with poor survival (p = 0.03). The results of this work suggest that the type of macrophages, number of lymphatic vessels and their location contribute to the clinical behavior of colorectal cancer in a disease stage-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Pattern of disease after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection correlates with macrophage activation and not viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M; Rotstein, O; Cole, E; Sinclair, S; Parr, R; Cruz, B; Fingerote, R; Chung, S; Gorczynski, R; Fung, L

    1995-01-01

    Murine hepatitis virus strain (MHV-3) produces a strain-dependent pattern of disease which has been used as a model for fulminant viral hepatitis. This study was undertaken to examine whether there was a correlation between macrophage activation and susceptibility or resistance to MHV-3 infection. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice and, following stimulation with MHV-3 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), analyzed for transcription of mRNA and production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), mouse fibrinogen-like protein (musfiblp), tissue factor (TF), leukotriene B4, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Macrophages from BALB/cJ mice produced greater amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, leukotriene B4, and musfiblp following MHV-3 infection than macrophages from resistant A/J mice, whereas in response to LPS, equivalent amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and TF were produced by macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of mRNA of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and musfiblp were greater and more persistent in BALB/cJ than in A/J macrophages, whereas the levels and kinetics of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and TF mRNA following LPS stimulation were identical in macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of production of PGE2 by MHV-3-stimulated macrophages from resistant and susceptible mice were equivalent; however, the time course for induction of PGE2, differed, but the total quantity of PGE2 produced was insufficient to inhibit induction of musfiblp, a procoagulant known to correlate with development of fulminant hepatic necrosis in susceptible mice. These results demonstrate marked differences in production of inflammatory mediators to MHV-3 infection in macrophages from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice, which may explain the marked hepatic necrosis and fibrin deposition and account for the lethality of MHV-3 in susceptible mice. PMID:7636967

  20. Placental growth factor is a survival factor for tumor endothelial cells and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Adini, Avner; Kornaga, Tad; Firoozbakht, Farshid; Benjamin, Laura E

    2002-05-15

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related factor, placental growth factor (PlGF),has been shown recently to play an important role in pathological VEGF-driven angiogenesis. In this study, we examine the effects of mPlGF/PlGF-2 overexpression in tumors grown from glioma cells containing a tetracycline-regulated mPlGF cDNA. Overexpression of mPlGF leads to increased tumor growth and vascular survival. When tetracycline is used to abruptly withdraw mPlGF overexpression, we see increased apoptosis in both vascular cells and macrophages. In addition, PlGF-2 induces survival gene expression and inhibits apoptosis in vitro. Thus, we propose that PlGF-2 contributes to tumor angiogenesis by providing increased survival function to endothelial cells and macrophages.

  1. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. PMID:26229149

  3. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  4. Macrophages and galectin 3 play critical roles in CVB3-induced murine acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jaquenod De Giusti, Carolina; Ure, Agustín E; Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Schattner, Mirta; Gomez, Ricardo M

    2015-08-01

    Macrophage influx and galectin 3 production have been suggested as major players driving acute inflammation and chronic fibrosis in many diseases. However, their involvement in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis and subsequent cardiomyopathy are unknown. Our aim was to characterise the role of macrophages and galectin 3 on survival, clinical course, viral burden, acute pathology, and chronic fibrosis in coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. Our results showed that C3H/HeJ mice infected with CVB3 and depleted of macrophages by liposome-encapsulated clodronate treatment compared with infected untreated mice presented higher viral titres but reduced acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis, compared with untreated infected mice. Increased galectin 3 transcriptional and translational expression levels correlated with CVB3 infection in macrophages and in non-depleted mice. Disruption of the galectin 3 gene did not affect viral titres but reduced acute myocarditis and chronic fibrosis compared with C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Similar results were observed after pharmacological inhibition of galectin 3 with N-acetyl-d-lactosamine in C3H/HeJ mice. Our results showed a critical role of macrophages and their galectin 3 in controlling acute viral-induced cardiac injury and the subsequent fibrosis. Moreover, the fact that pharmacological inhibition of galectin 3 induced similar results to macrophage depletion regarding the degree of acute cardiac inflammation and chronic fibrosis opens up the possibility of new pharmacological strategies for viral myocarditis.

  5. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendelé, B.; Sandberg, W.J.; Ivanova, L.; Kocbach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G.; Holme, J.A.

    2012-05-15

    The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1β and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ► The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ► The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ► EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ► Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1

  6. Infection of murine macrophages with Toxoplasma gondii is associated with release of transforming growth factor beta and downregulation of expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, L E; Covaro, G; Remington, J

    1993-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is capable of invading and multiplying within murine peritoneal macrophages. Previous studies have shown that treatment of macrophage monolayers with recombinant gamma interferon but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with intracellular killing of T. gondii by macrophages. Furthermore, infection of macrophages with T. gondii prevents their stimulation for mycobactericidal activity by TNF. Since transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is known to suppress a number of functions in macrophages, we investigated the influence of infection with T. gondii on macrophage TNF receptors and on production of TGF-beta. Infection with T. gondii was associated with increased production of TGF-beta and downregulation of TNF receptors. This effect was observed early after infection and was partially inhibited by anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody. PMID:8406801

  7. CXCL10-Mediates Macrophage, but not Other Innate Immune Cells-Associated Inflammation in Murine Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Kyoko; Freeman, Brittany L.; Bronk, Steven F.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; White, Thomas A.; Hirsova, Petra; Ibrahim, Samar H.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory lipotoxic disorder, but how inflammatory cells are recruited and activated within the liver is still unclear. We previously reported that lipotoxic hepatocytes release CXCL10-enriched extracellular vesicles, which are potently chemotactic for cells of the innate immune system. In the present study, we sought to determine the innate immune cell involved in the inflammatory response in murine NASH and the extent to which inhibition of the chemotactic ligand CXCL10 and its cognate receptor CXCR3 could attenuate liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. C57BL/6J CXCL10−/−, CXCR3−/− and wild type (WT) mice were fed chow or high saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC) diet. FFC-fed CXCL10−/− and WT mice displayed similar weight gain, metabolic profile, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In contrast, compared to the WT mice, FFC-fed CXCL10−/− mice had significantly attenuated liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis. Genetic deletion of CXCL10 reduced FFC-induced proinflammatory hepatic macrophage infiltration, while natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, neutrophils and dendritic cells hepatic infiltration were not significantly affected. Our results suggest that CXCL10−/− mice are protected against diet-induced NASH, in an obesity-independent manner. Macrophage-associated inflammation appears to be the key player in the CXCL10-mediated sterile inflammatory response in murine NASH. PMID:27349927

  8. Calcium Modulated Chloride Pathways Contribute to Chloride Flux in Murine CF-Affected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Ambika; Kopic, Sascha; Murek, Michael; Caputo, Christina; Geibel, John P.; Egan, Marie E.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF), a common lethal inherited disorder defined by ion transport abnormalities, chronic infection and robust inflammation, is the result of mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, a cAMP-activated chloride (Cl−) channel. Macrophages are reported to have impaired activity in CF. Previous studies suggest that Cl− transport is important for macrophage function therefore impaired Cl− secretion may underlie CF macrophage dysfunction. To determine if alterations in Cl− transport exist in CF macrophages, Cl− efflux was measured using N-[ethoxycarbonylmethyl]-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide (MQAE), a fluorescent indicator dye. The contribution of CFTR was assessed by calculating Cl− flux in the presence and absence of cftrinh-172. The contribution of calcium (Ca2+) modulated Cl− pathways was assessed by examining Cl− flux with varied extracellular Ca2+ concentrations, or following treatment with carbachol or thapsigargin, agents that increase intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our data demonstrate that CFTR contributed to Cl− efflux only in WT macrophages, while Ca2+-mediated pathways contributed to Cl− transport in CF and WT macrophages. Furthermore, CF macrophages demonstrated augmented Cl− efflux with increases in extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, this suggests that Ca2+-mediated Cl− pathways are enhanced in CF macrophages compared to WT macrophages. PMID:21796019

  9. Natural variation of macrophage activation as disease-relevant phenotype predictive of inflammation and cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Buscher, Konrad; Ehinger, Erik; Gupta, Pritha; Pramod, Akula Bala; Wolf, Dennis; Tweet, George; Pan, Calvin; Mills, Charles D; Lusis, Aldons J; Ley, Klaus

    2017-07-24

    Although mouse models exist for many immune-based diseases, the clinical translation remains challenging. Most basic and translational studies utilize only a single inbred mouse strain. However, basal and diseased immune states in humans show vast inter-individual variability. Here, focusing on macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we use the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) of 83 inbred strains as a surrogate for human natural immune variation. Since conventional bioinformatics fail to analyse a population spectrum, we highlight how gene signatures for LPS responsiveness can be derived based on an Interleukin-12β and arginase expression ratio. Compared to published signatures, these gene markers are more robust to identify susceptibility or resilience to several macrophage-related disorders in humans, including survival prediction across many tumours. This study highlights natural activation diversity as a disease-relevant dimension in macrophage biology, and suggests the HMDP as a viable tool to increase translatability of mouse data to clinical settings.

  10. In Vitro Immune Toxicity of Depleted Uranium: Effects on Murine Macrophages, CD4+ T Cells, and Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Bin; Fleming, James T.; Schultz, Terry W.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process and shares chemical properties with natural and enriched uranium. To investigate the toxic effects of environmental DU exposure on the immune system, we examined the influences of DU (in the form of uranyl nitrate) on viability and immune function as well as cytokine gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages and splenic CD4+ T cells. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells were exposed to various concentrations of DU, and cell death via apoptosis and necrosis was analyzed using annexin-V/propidium iodide assay. DU cytotoxicity in both cell types was concentration dependent, with macrophage apoptosis and necrosis occurring within 24 hr at 100 μM DU exposure, whereas CD4+ T cells underwent cell death at 500 μM DU exposure. Noncytotoxic concentrations for macrophages and CD4+ T cells were determined as 50 and 100 μM, respectively. Lymphoproliferation analysis indicated that macrophage accessory cell function was altered with 200 μM DU after exposure times as short as 2 hr. Microarray and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that DU alters gene expression patterns in both cell types. The most differentially expressed genes were related to signal transduction, such as c-jun, NF-κ Bp65, neurotrophic factors (e.g., Mdk), chemokine and chemokine receptors (e.g., TECK/CCL25), and interleukins such as IL-10 and IL-5, indicating a possible involvement of DU in cancer development, autoimmune diseases, and T helper 2 polarization of T cells. The results are a first step in identifying molecular targets for the toxicity of DU and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for the immune modulation ability of DU. PMID:16393663

  11. In vitro immune toxicity of depleted uranium: effects on murine macrophages, CD4+ T cells, and gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Wan, Bin; Fleming, James T; Schultz, Terry W; Sayler, Gary S

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process and shares chemical properties with natural and enriched uranium. To investigate the toxic effects of environmental DU exposure on the immune system, we examined the influences of DU (in the form of uranyl nitrate) on viability and immune function as well as cytokine gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages and splenic CD4+ T cells. Macrophages and CD4+ T cells were exposed to various concentrations of DU, and cell death via apoptosis and necrosis was analyzed using annexin-V/propidium iodide assay. DU cytotoxicity in both cell types was concentration dependent, with macrophage apoptosis and necrosis occurring within 24 hr at 100 microM DU exposure, whereas CD4+ T cells underwent cell death at 500 microM DU exposure. Noncytotoxic concentrations for macrophages and CD4+ T cells were determined as 50 and 100 microM, respectively. Lymphoproliferation analysis indicated that macrophage accessory cell function was altered with 200 microM DU after exposure times as short as 2 hr. Microarray and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that DU alters gene expression patterns in both cell types. The most differentially expressed genes were related to signal transduction, such as c-jun, NF- kappa Bp65, neurotrophic factors (e.g., Mdk), chemokine and chemokine receptors (e.g., TECK/CCL25), and interleukins such as IL-10 and IL-5, indicating a possible involvement of DU in cancer development, autoimmune diseases, and T helper 2 polarization of T cells. The results are a first step in identifying molecular targets for the toxicity of DU and the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for the immune modulation ability of DU.

  12. Receptor-recognized alpha 2-macroglobulin-methylamine elevates intracellular calcium, inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, U K; Chu, C T; Rubenstein, D S; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, S V

    1993-01-01

    Human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a tetrameric proteinase inhibitor, which undergoes a conformational change upon reaction with either a proteinase or methylamine. As a result, a receptor recognition site is exposed on each subunit of the molecule enabling it to bind to its receptors on macrophages. We have used Fura-2-loaded murine peritoneal macrophages and digital video fluorescence microscopy to examine the effects of receptor binding on second messenger levels. alpha 2M-methylamine caused a rapid 2-4-fold increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) within 5 s of binding to receptors. The agonists induced a focal increase in [Ca2+]i that spread out to other areas of the cell. The increase in [Ca2+]i was dependent on the alpha 2M-methylamine concentration and on the extracellular [Ca2+]. Both sinusoidal and transitory oscillations were observed, which varied from cell to cell. Neither alpha 2M nor boiled alpha 2M-methylamine, forms that are not recognized by the receptor, affected [Ca2+]i in peritoneal macrophages under identical conditions of incubation. The alpha 2M-methylamine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was accompanied by a rapid and transient increase in macrophage inositol phosphates, including inositol tris- and tetrakis-phosphates. Native alpha 2M did not stimulate a rise in inositol phosphates. Finally, binding of alpha 2M-methylamine to macrophages increased cyclic AMP transiently. Thus receptor-recognized alpha-macroglobulins behave as agonists whose receptor binding causes stimulation of signal transduction pathways. Images Figure 2 PMID:7681282

  13. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine macrophages by chloroquine used alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin or azithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Somrita; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine any alteration in the killing of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages when chloroquine (CQ) is used alone compared with when it is used in combination with ciprofloxacin (CIP) or azithromycin (AZM). The study also aimed to find out the implication of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cytokine release in the intracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophages. We present here data obtained with a model of S. aureus-infected mouse peritoneal macrophages in which the intracellular growth of the bacteria and the influence of antibiotics was monitored for 30, 60, and 90 minutes in the presence or absence of CQ along with the production of ROS and alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes and cytokines. It was observed that S. aureus-triggered cytokine response was regulated when macrophages were co-cultured with CQ and AZM as compared with CQ stimulation only. It can be suggested that action of AZM in mediating bacterial killing is enhanced by the presence of CQ, indicating enhanced uptake of AZM during early infection that may be essential for bacteria killing by AZM. Reduction of oxidative stress burden on the S. aureus-infected macrophages may pave the way for better killing of internalized S. aureus by CQ plus ciprofloxacin (CIP) or CQ plus AZM. Based on these observations, one may speculate that in an inflammatory milieu, CQ loaded with AZM elicits a stronger proinflammatory response by increasing the intracellular uptake of AZM or CIP, thus enabling the immune system to mount a more robust and prolonged response against intracellular pathogens. PMID:25653549

  14. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-01-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS. PMID:24786833

  15. Effects of cobalt-chrome alloy wear particles on the morphology, viability and phagocytic activity of murine macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garrett, R; Wilksch, J; Vernon-Roberts, B

    1983-06-01

    Metallic wear particles were prepared from orthopaedic cobalt-chrome alloy by milling in medium supplemented with 20% foetal calf serum to maintain particle dispersion. The size distribution of particles was determined by sedimentation and centrifugation and particle concentration was assessed using light extinction. Monolayers of mouse peritoneal macrophages were exposed to metal particles at different concentrations for varying periods. After 4 h of exposure to particle concentrations exceeding 30 micrograms/ml there was a progressive decline in cell viability, and light and electron microscopy showed that surviving cells had assumed remarkably smooth profiles and contained abundant endocytosed metal. Phagocytic uptake of polystyrene spherules was inhibited markedly by exposure to metal particles even at concentrations at which macrophages remained 100% viable, and preceded the reduction of viability at higher concentrations. The findings are consistent with a pathological role for the metallic wear particles observed frequently within macrophages in the synovial tissues around loose artificial joints in humans.

  16. The effects of macrophage source on the mechanism of phagocytosis and intracellular survival of Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chia-Hung Christine; Ueno, Norikiyo; Shao, Jian Q.; Schroeder, Kristin R.; Moore, Kenneth C.; Donelson, John E.; Wilson, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. protozoa are obligate intracellular parasites that replicate in macrophages during mammalian infection. Efficient phagocytosis and survival in macrophages are important determinants of parasite virulence. Macrophage lines differ dramatically in their ability to sustain intracellular Leishmania infantum chagasi (Lic). We report that the U937 monocytic cell line supported the intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread of Lic during 72 hours after parasite addition, whereas primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) did not. Electron microscopy and live cell imaging illustrated that Lic promastigotes anchored to MDMs via their anterior ends and were engulfed through symmetrical pseudopods. In contrast, U937 cells bound Lic in diverse orientations, and extended membrane lamellae to reorient and internalize parasites through coiling phagocytosis. Lic associated tightly with the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) membrane in both cell types. PVs fused with LAMP-1-expressing compartments 24 hours after phagocytosis by MDMs, whereas U937 cell PVs remained LAMP-1 negative. The expression of one phagocytic receptor (CR3) was higher in MDMs than U937 cells, leading us to speculate that parasite uptake proceeds through dissimilar pathways between these cells. We hypothesize that the mechanism of phagocytosis differs between primary versus immortalized human macrophage cells, with corresponding differences in the subsequent intracellular fate of the parasite. PMID:21723411

  17. The opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis resists phagosome acidification and autophagy to promote intracellular survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Shankar, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    While many strains of Enterococcus faecalis have been reported to be capable of surviving within macrophages for extended periods, the exact mechanisms involved are largely unknown. In this study, we found that after phagocytosis by macrophages, enterococci-containing vacuoles resist acidification, and E. faecalis is resistant to low pH. Ultrastructural examination of the enterococci-containing vacuole by transmission electron microscopy revealed a single membrane envelope, with no evidence of the classical double-membraned autophagosomes. Western blot analysis further confirmed that E. faecalis could trigger inhibition of the production of LC3-II during infection. By employing cells transfected with RFP-LC3 plasmid and infected with GFP-labelled E. faecalis, we also observed that E. faecalis was not delivered into autophagosomes during macrophage infection. While these observations indicated no role for autophagy in elimination of intracellular E. faecalis, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were keys to this process. Stimulation of autophagy suppressed the intracellular survival of E. faecalis in macrophages in vitro and decreased the burden of E. faecalis in vivo. In summary, the results from this study offer new insights into the interaction of E. faecalis with host cells and may provide a new approach to treatment of enterococcal infections.

  18. Bacillus anthracis-derived nitric oxide is essential for pathogen virulence and survival in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shatalin, Konstantin; Gusarov, Ivan; Avetissova, Ekaterina; Shatalina, Yelena; McQuade, Lindsey E.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Nudler, Evgeny

    2008-01-01

    Phagocytes generate nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in large quantities to combat infecting bacteria. Here, we report the surprising observation that in vivo survival of a notorious pathogen—Bacillus anthracis—critically depends on its own NO-synthase (bNOS) activity. Anthrax spores (Sterne strain) deficient in bNOS lose their virulence in an A/J mouse model of systemic infection and exhibit severely compromised survival when germinating within macrophages. The mechanism underlying bNOS-dependent resistance to macrophage killing relies on NO-mediated activation of bacterial catalase and suppression of the damaging Fenton reaction. Our results demonstrate that pathogenic bacteria use their own NO as a key defense against the immune oxidative burst, thereby establishing bNOS as an essential virulence factor. Thus, bNOS represents an attractive antimicrobial target for treatment of anthrax and other infectious diseases. PMID:18215992

  19. Modulation of proinflammatory NF-κB signaling by ectromelia virus in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Justyna; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Papiernik, Diana; Winnicka, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a crucial role in the innate immune response and may be involved in both clearance and spread of viruses. Stimulation of macrophages via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) results in activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. In this work, we show modulation of proinflammatory NF-κB signaling by a member of the family Poxviridae, genus Orthopoxvirus--ectromelia virus (ECTV)--in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. ECTV interfered with p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by TLR ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (TLR4), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) (TLR3) and diacylated lipopeptide Pam2CSK4 (TLR2/6). We observed that ECTV modulates phosphorylation of Ser32 of inhibitor of κB (IκBα) and Ser536 of p65. Interference of ECTV with TLR signaling pathways implied that proinflammatory cytokine synthesis was inhibited. Our studies provide new insights into the strategies of proinflammatory signaling modulation by orthopoxviruses during their replication cycle in immune cells. Understanding important immune interactions between viral pathogens and APCs might contribute to the identification of drug targets and the development of vaccines.

  20. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia.

  1. The impact of cell surface PEGylation and short-course immunotherapy on islet graft survival in an allogeneic murine model.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Jaime A; Molano, R Damaris; Rengifo, Hernán R; Fotino, Carmen; Gattás-Asfura, Kerim M; Pileggi, Antonello; Stabler, Cherie L

    2017-02-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, host inflammatory and immune responses lead to islet dysfunction and destruction, despite potent systemic immunosuppression. Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to the periphery of cells or tissues can mitigate inflammation and immune recognition via generation of a steric barrier. Herein, we sought to evaluate the complementary impact of islet PEGylation with a short-course immunotherapy on the survival of fully-MHC mismatched islet allografts (DBA/2 islets into diabetic C57BL/6J recipients). Anti-Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen 1 (LFA-1) antibody was selected as a complementary, transient, systemic immune monotherapy. Islets were PEGylated via an optimized protocol, with resulting islets exhibiting robust cell viability and function. Following transplantation, a significant subset of diabetic animals receiving PEGylated islets (60%) or anti-LFA-1 antibody (50%) exhibited long-term (>100d) normoglycemia. The combinatorial approach proved synergistic, with 78% of the grafts exhibiting euglycemia long-term. Additional studies examining graft cellular infiltrates at early time points characterized the local impact of the transplant protocol on graft survival. Results illustrate the capacity of a simple polymer grafting approach to impart significant immunoprotective effects via modulation of the local transplant environment, while short-term immunotherapy serves to complement this effect. We believe this study is important and of interest to the biomaterials and transplant community for several reasons: 1) it provides an optimized protocol for the PEGylation of islets, with minimal impact on the coated islets, which can be easily translated for clinical applications; 2) this optimized protocol demonstrates the benefits of islet PEGylation in providing modest immunosuppression in a murine model; 3) this work demonstrates the combinatory impact of PEGylation with short

  2. Cholesterol, ganglioside GM1 and class A scavenger receptor contribute to infection by Brucella ovis and Brucella canis in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martín-Martín, Ana I; Vizcaíno, Nieves; Fernández-Lago, Luis

    2010-03-01

    The establishment of infection by Brucella ovis and Brucella canis in J774.A1 macrophages was found to be dependent upon cholesterol and ganglioside GM(1), two components of lipid rafts. This process also required a class A scavenger receptor of macrophages, and was not inhibited by smooth and rough lipopolysaccharides from Brucella spp. In response to infection, both bacteria induced a weak degree of macrophage activation. These results demonstrate that B. ovis and B. canis use cell surface receptors common to smooth Brucella spp. for macrophage infection, thus limiting macrophage activation and favouring intracellular multiplication and/or the survival of both bacteria. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Interactions of Murine Macrophages with Francisella tularensis Map to Mouse Chromosome 19

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Avner; Hassan, Musa A.; Okan, Nihal A.; Sheffer, Michal; Camejo, Ana; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differences among individuals in susceptibility to infectious diseases can be modulated by host genetics. Much of the research in this field has aimed to identify loci within the host genome that are associated with these differences. In mice, A/J (AJ) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice show differential susceptibilities to various pathogens, including the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Because macrophages are the main initial target during F. tularensis infection, we explored early interactions of macrophages from these two mouse strains with F. tularensis as well as the genetic factors underlying these interactions. Our results indicate that bacterial interactions with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) during early stages of infection are different in the AJ and B6 strains. During these early stages, bacteria are more numerous in B6 than in AJ macrophages and display differences in trafficking and early transcriptional response within these macrophages. To determine the genetic basis for these differences, we infected BMDMs isolated from recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from reciprocal crosses between AJ and B6, and we followed early bacterial counts within these macrophages. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed a locus on chromosome 19 that is associated with early differences in bacterial counts in AJ versus B6 macrophages. QTL analysis of published data that measured the differential susceptibilities of the same RI mice to an in vivo challenge with F. tularensis confirmed the F. tularensis susceptibility QTL on chromosome 19. Overall, our results show that early interactions of macrophages with F. tularensis are dependent on the macrophage genetic background. PMID:26980837

  4. Early Interactions of Murine Macrophages with Francisella tularensis Map to Mouse Chromosome 19.

    PubMed

    Fink, Avner; Hassan, Musa A; Okan, Nihal A; Sheffer, Michal; Camejo, Ana; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Kasper, Dennis L

    2016-03-15

    Differences among individuals in susceptibility to infectious diseases can be modulated by host genetics. Much of the research in this field has aimed to identify loci within the host genome that are associated with these differences. In mice, A/J (AJ) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice show differential susceptibilities to various pathogens, including the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. Because macrophages are the main initial target during F. tularensis infection, we explored early interactions of macrophages from these two mouse strains with F. tularensis as well as the genetic factors underlying these interactions. Our results indicate that bacterial interactions with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) during early stages of infection are different in the AJ and B6 strains. During these early stages, bacteria are more numerous in B6 than in AJ macrophages and display differences in trafficking and early transcriptional response within these macrophages. To determine the genetic basis for these differences, we infected BMDMs isolated from recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from reciprocal crosses between AJ and B6, and we followed early bacterial counts within these macrophages. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed a locus on chromosome 19 that is associated with early differences in bacterial counts in AJ versus B6 macrophages. QTL analysis of published data that measured the differential susceptibilities of the same RI mice to an in vivo challenge with F. tularensis confirmed the F. tularensis susceptibility QTL on chromosome 19. Overall, our results show that early interactions of macrophages with F. tularensis are dependent on the macrophage genetic background. Francisella tularensis is a highly pathogenic bacterium with a very low infectious dose in humans. Some mechanisms of bacterial virulence have been elucidated, but the host genetic factors that contribute to host resistance or susceptibility are largely unknown. In this work, we

  5. Yersinia pestis survival and replication within human neutrophil phagosomes and uptake of infected neutrophils by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Justin L; Winfree, Seth; Starr, Tregei; Shannon, Jeffrey G; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is transmitted by fleas. The bite of an infected flea deposits Y. pestis into the dermis and triggers recruitment of innate immune cells, including phagocytic PMNs. Y. pestis can subvert this PMN response and survive at the flea-bite site, disseminate, and persist in the host. Although its genome encodes a number of antiphagocytic virulence factors, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by PMNs has been observed. This study tests the hypotheses that Y. pestis, grown at the ambient temperature of the flea vector (21°C), where the major antiphagocytic virulence factors are not produced, can survive and replicate within human PMNs and can use PMNs as a route to infect macrophages subsequently. We show that Y. pestis is localized within PMN phagosomes, predominately as individual bacteria, and that intracellular bacteria can survive and replicate. Within 12 h of infection, ~70% of infected PMNs had PS on their surface and were plausibly competent for efferocytosis. With the use of live cell confocal imaging, we show that autologous HMDMs recognize and internalize infected PMNs and that Y. pestis survives and replicates within these HMDMs following efferocytosis. Addition of HMDMs to infected PMNs resulted in decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines (compared with HMDMs incubated directly with pCD1(-) Y. pestis) and increased secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ra. Thus, Y. pestis can survive and replicate within PMNs, and infected PMNs may be a route for noninflammatory infection of macrophages.

  6. Radiation survival of murine and human melanoma cells utilizing two assay systems: monolayer and soft agar.

    PubMed Central

    Yohem, K. H.; Slymen, D. J.; Bregman, M. D.; Meyskens, F. L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation response of murine and human melanoma cells assayed in bilayer soft agar and monolayer was examined. Cells from the murine melanoma Cloudman S91 CCL 53.1 cell line and three human melanoma cell strains (C8146C, C8161, and R83-4) developed in our laboratory were irradiated by single dose X-rays and plated either in agar or on plastic. D0 values were the same within 95% confidence intervals for cells from the human melanoma cell strains C8146C, C8161, and R83-4 but were dissimilar for the murine cell line CCL 53.1 Dq values were different for all cells studied. The shape of the survival curve for all four melanomas was not identical for cells assayed in soft agar versus cells grown on plastic. This would indicate that apparent radiosensitivity was influenced by the method of assay although there were no apparent consistent differences between the curves generated by monolayer or bilayer soft agar assays. PMID:3348949

  7. Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate to murine macrophages and its effect on hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide induction.

    PubMed

    Bonacorsi, C; Raddi, M S G; Carlos, I Z

    2004-02-01

    Chlorhexidine, even at low concentrations, is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells; however, its effects on host immune cells are not well known. We evaluated in vitro chlorhexidine-induced cytotoxicity and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediate induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Thioglycollate-induced cells were obtained from Swiss mice by peritoneal lavage with 5 ml of 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, washed twice and resuspended (10(6) cells/ml) in appropriate medium for each test. Cell preparations contained more than 95% macrophages. The cytotoxicity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. The midpoint cytotoxicity values for 1- and 24-h exposures were 61.12 +/- 2.46 and 21.22 +/- 2.44 microg/ml, respectively. Chlorhexidine did not induce synthesis or liberation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates. When macrophages were treated with various sub-toxic doses for 1 h (1, 5, 10, and 20 microg/ml) and 24 h (0.5, 1, and 5 microg/ml) and stimulated with 200 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) solution, the H2O2 production was not altered; however, the NO production induced by 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) solution varied from 14.47 +/- 1.46 to 22.35 +/- 1.94 micromol/l and 13.50 +/- 1.42 to 20.44 +/- 1.40 micromol/l (N = 5). The results showed that chlorhexidine has no immunostimulating activity and sub-toxic concentrations did not affect the response of macrophages to the soluble stimulus PMA but can interfere with the receptor-dependent stimulus LPS.

  8. Dissociation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible gene expression in murine macrophages pretreated with smooth LPS versus monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, B E; Manthey, C L; Perera, P Y; Hamilton, T A; Vogel, S N

    1993-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the nontoxic derivative of lipid A, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), were employed to assess the relationship between expression of LPS-inducible inflammatory genes and the induction of tolerance to LPS in murine macrophages. Both LPS and MPL induced expression (as assessed by increased steady-state mRNA levels) of a panel of seven "early" inflammatory genes including the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta, type 2 TNF receptor (TNFR-2), IP-10, D3, D8, and D2 genes (the last four represent LPS-inducible early genes whose functions remain unknown). In addition, LPS and MPL were both capable of inducing tolerance to LPS. The two stimuli differed in the relative concentration required to induce various outcome measures, with LPS being 100- to 1,000-fold more potent on a mass concentration basis. Characterization of the tolerant state identified three distinct categories of responsiveness. Two genes (IP-10 and D8) exhibited strong desensitization in macrophages pretreated with tolerance-inducing concentrations of either LPS or MPL. In macrophages rendered tolerant by pretreatment with LPS or MPL, a second group of inducible mRNAs (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and D3) showed moderate suppression of response to secondary stimulation by LPS. The third category of inducible genes (TNFR-2 and D2) showed increased expression in macrophages pretreated with tolerance-inducing concentrations of either LPS or MPL. All of the LPS-inducible genes examined exhibited modest superinduction with less than tolerance-inducing concentrations of either stimulus, suggesting a priming effect of these adjuvants at low concentration. The differential behavior of the members of this panel of endotoxin-responsive genes thus offers insight into molecular events associated with acquisition of transient tolerance to LPS. PMID:8388859

  9. Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Ine M J; Stöger, J Lauran; Goossens, Pieter; Pöttgens, Chantal; Gijbels, Marion J J; Wijnands, Erwin; van der Vorst, Emiel P C; van Gorp, Patrick; Beckers, Linda; Engel, David; Biessen, Erik A L; Kraal, Georg; van Die, Irma; Donners, Marjo M P C; de Winther, Menno P J

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven inflammatory disease of the vessel wall, characterized by the chronic activation of macrophages. We investigated whether the helminth-derived antigens [soluble egg antigens (SEAs)] could modulate macrophage inflammatory responses and protect against atherosclerosis in mice. In bone marrow-derived macrophages, SEAs induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, typified by high levels of IL-10 and reduced secretion of proinflammatory mediators. In hyperlipidemic LDLR(-/-) mice, SEA treatment reduced plaque size by 44%, and plaques were less advanced compared with PBS-injected littermate controls. The atheroprotective effect of SEAs was found to be mainly independent of cholesterol lowering and T-lymphocyte responses but instead could be attributed to diminished myeloid cell activation. SEAs reduced circulating neutrophils and inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes, and macrophages showed high IL-10 production. In line with the observed systemic effects, atherosclerotic lesions of SEA-treated mice showed reduced intraplaque inflammation as inflammatory markers [TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and CD68], neutrophil content, and newly recruited macrophages were decreased. We show that SEA treatment protects against atherosclerosis development by dampening inflammatory responses. In the future, helminth-derived components may provide novel opportunities to treat chronic inflammatory diseases, as they diminish systemic inflammation and reduce the activation of immune cells.

  10. Escherichia coli O157:H7 survives within human macrophages: global gene expression profile and involvement of the Shiga toxins.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Katherine; Faucher, Sébastien P; Béland, Maxime; Brousseau, Roland; Gannon, Victor; Martin, Christine; Harel, Josée; Daigle, France

    2008-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that specifically binds to the follicle-associated epithelium in the intestine, which rapidly brings this bacterial pathogen in contact with underlying human macrophages. Very little information is available about the interaction between E. coli O157:H7 and human macrophages. We evaluated the uptake and survival of strain EDL933 during infection of human macrophages. Surprisingly, EDL933 survived and multiplied in human macrophages at 24 h postinfection. The global gene expression profile of this pathogen during macrophage infection was determined. Inside human macrophages, upregulation of E. coli O157:H7 genes carried on O islands (such as pagC, the genes for both of the Shiga toxins, and the two iron transport system operons fit and chu) was observed. Genes involved in acid resistance and in the SOS response were upregulated. However, genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement or genes involved in peroxide resistance were not differentially expressed. Many genes with putative or unknown functions were upregulated inside human macrophages and may be newly discovered virulence factors. As the Shiga toxin genes were upregulated in macrophages, survival and cytotoxicity assays were performed with isogenic Shiga toxin mutants. The initial uptake of Shiga toxins mutants was higher than that of the wild type; however, the survival rates were significantly lower at 24 h postinfection. Thus, Shiga toxins are implicated in the interaction between E. coli O157:H7 and human macrophages. Understanding the molecular mechanisms used by E. coli to survive within macrophages may help in the identification of targets for new therapeutic agents.

  11. Metformin Inhibits Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages Partly through AMPK Activation and RAGE/NFκB Pathway Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong'e; Tang, Yong; Chen, Chengjun; Lu, Yi; Liu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major inflammatory mediators in diabetes, affecting atherosclerosis progression via macrophages. Metformin slows diabetic atherosclerosis progression through mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study of murine bone marrow derived macrophages showed that (1) AGEs enhanced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) mRNA expression, RAGE expression, and NFκB activation; (2) metformin pretreatment inhibited AGEs effects and AGEs-induced cluster designation 86 (CD86) (M1 marker) expression, while promoting CD206 (M2 marker) surface expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) mRNA expression; and (3) the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, attenuated metformin effects. In conclusion, metformin inhibits AGEs-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages partly through AMPK activation and RAGE/NFκB pathway suppression. PMID:27761470

  12. Metformin Inhibits Advanced Glycation End Products-Induced Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages Partly through AMPK Activation and RAGE/NFκB Pathway Suppression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong'e; Tang, Yong; Jin, Xian; Chen, Chengjun; Lu, Yi; Liu, Liang; Shen, Chengxing

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are major inflammatory mediators in diabetes, affecting atherosclerosis progression via macrophages. Metformin slows diabetic atherosclerosis progression through mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated. The present study of murine bone marrow derived macrophages showed that (1) AGEs enhanced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) mRNA expression, RAGE expression, and NFκB activation; (2) metformin pretreatment inhibited AGEs effects and AGEs-induced cluster designation 86 (CD86) (M1 marker) expression, while promoting CD206 (M2 marker) surface expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) mRNA expression; and (3) the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, attenuated metformin effects. In conclusion, metformin inhibits AGEs-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages partly through AMPK activation and RAGE/NFκB pathway suppression.

  13. Myelopoietic Efficacy of Orlistat in Murine Hosts Bearing T Cell Lymphoma: Implication in Macrophage Differentiation and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Shiva; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2013-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FASN), acts as an antitumor agent by blocking de novo fatty acid synthesis of tumor cells. Although, myelopoiesis also depends on de novo fatty acid synthesis, the effect of orlistat on differentiation of macrophages, which play a central role in host’s antitumor defence, remains unexplored in a tumor-bearing host. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of orlistat administration on macrophage differentiation in a T cell lymphoma bearing host. Administration of orlistat (240 mg/kg/day/mice) to tumor-bearing mice resulted in a decline of tumor load accompanied by an augmentation of bone marrow cellularity and survival of bone marrow cells (BMC). The expression of apoptosis regulatory caspase-3, Bax and Bcl2 was modulated in the BMC of orlistat-administered tumor-bearing mice. Orlistat administration also resulted in an increase in serum level of IFN-γ along with decreased TGF-β and IL-10. BMC of orlistat-administered tumor-bearing mice showed augmented differentiation into macrophages accompanied by enhanced expression of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor (M-CSFR). The macrophages differentiated from BMC of orlistat-administered mice showed characteristic features of M1 macrophage phenotype confirmed by expression of CD11c, TLR-2, generation of reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, tumor cell cytotoxicity, production of IL-1,TNF-α and nitric oxide. These novel findings indicate that orlistat could be useful to support myelopoesis in a tumor-bearing host. PMID:24349275

  14. Oncolytic viral therapy with a combination of HF10, a herpes simplex virus type 1 variant and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for murine ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Goshima, Fumi; Esaki, Shinichi; Luo, Chenhong; Kamakura, Maki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

    2014-06-15

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of gynecological cancer-related mortality as a majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage with intraperitoneal dissemination because of the absence of initial symptoms. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays an important role in the maturation of specialized antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we utilized a herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon expressing murine GM-CSF combined with HF10 (mGM-CSF amplicon), a highly attenuated HSV type 1 strain functioning as a helper virus to strengthen anti-tumor immune response, for the treatment of ovarian cancer with intraperitoneal dissemination. A mouse ovarian cancer cell line, OV2944-HM-1 (HM-1), was intraperitoneally injected, following which HF10 only or the mGM-CSF amplicon was injected intraperitoneally three times. HF10 injection prolonged survival and decreased intraperitoneal dissemination, but to a lesser extent than the mGM-CSF amplicon. Although HF10 replication was not observed in HM-1 cells, expression of VP5, a late gene coding the major capsid protein of HSV, was detected. Moreover, mGM-CSF production was detected in transfected HM-1 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the infiltration of CD4- and CD8-positive cells into the peritoneal tumor(s). A significantly increased CD4+ T cell concentration was observed in the spleen. Murine splenic cells after each treatment were stimulated with HM-1 cells, and the strongest immune response was observed in the mice that received mGM-CSF amplicon injections. These results suggested that the mGM-CSF amplicon is a promising agent for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with intraperitoneal dissemination. © 2013 UICC.

  15. microRNA-146a promotes mycobacterial survival in macrophages through suppressing nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wang, Jinli; Fang, Yimin; Gong, Sitang; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Lai, Xiaomin; Zeng, Gucheng; Wang, Yi; Yang, Kun; Huang, Xi

    2016-03-30

    Macrophages play a crucial role in host innate anti-mycobacterial defense, which is tightly regulated by multiple factors, including microRNAs. Our previous study showed that a panel of microRNAs was markedly up-regulated in macrophages upon mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the biological function of miR-146a during mycobacterial infection. miR-146a expression was induced both in vitro and in vivo after Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection. The inducible miR-146a could suppress the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and NO generation, thus promoting mycobacterial survival in macrophages. Inhibition of endogenous miR-146a increased NO production and mycobacterial clearance. Moreover, miR-146a attenuated the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways during BCG infection, which in turn repressed iNOS expression. Mechanistically, miR-146a directly targeted tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) at post-transcriptional level. Silencing TRAF6 decreased iNOS expression and NO production in BCG-infected macrophages, while overexpression of TRAF6 reversed miR-146a-mediated inhibition of NO production and clearance of mycobacteria. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel role of miR-146a in the modulation of host defense against mycobacterial infection by repressing NO production via targeting TRAF6, which may provide a promising therapeutic target for tuberculosis.

  16. Macrophage-mediated inflammatory response decreases mycobacterial survival in mouse MSCs by augmenting NO production

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Yongjian; Xie, Heping; Li, Miao; Ming, Siqi; Li, Liyan; Li, Meiyu; Wu, Minhao; Gong, Sitang; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular microbe, which escapes host immune attack during latent infection. Recent studies reveal that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide a protective niche for MTB to maintain latency. However, the regulation of mycobacterial residency in MSCs in the infectious microenvironment remains largely unknown. Here, we found that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during MTB infection facilitated the clearance of bacilli residing in mouse MSCs. Higher inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were observed in mouse MSCs under macrophage-mediated inflammatory circumstance. Blocking NO production in MSCs increased the survival of intracellular mycobacteria, indicating NO-mediated antimycobacterial activity. Moreover, both nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathways were involved in iNOS expression and NO production in inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β could trigger NO production in MSCs and exert anti-mycobacterial activity via NF-κB signaling pathway. Neutralization of interleukin-1β in macrophage-mediated inflammatory microenvironment dampened the ability of mouse MSCs to produce NO. Together, our findings demonstrated that macrophage-mediated inflammatory response during mycobacterial infection promotes the clearance of bacilli in mouse MSCs by increasing NO production, which may provide a better understanding of latent MTB infection. PMID:27251437

  17. The Type VI Secretion System Encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 19 Is Required for Salmonella enterica Serotype Gallinarum Survival within Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Carlos J.; Jiménez, Juan C.; Leiva, Lorenzo E.; Álvarez, Sergio A.; Pinto, Bernardo I.; Contreras, Francisca; Pezoa, David; Santiviago, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid, a disease characterized by high morbidity and mortality that causes major economic losses in poultry production. We have reported that S. Gallinarum harbors a type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 19 (SPI-19) that is required for efficient colonization of chicks. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the SPI-19 T6SS functionality and to investigate the mechanisms behind the phenotypes previously observed in vivo. Expression analyses revealed that SPI-19 T6SS core components are expressed and produced under in vitro bacterial growth conditions. However, secretion of the structural/secreted components Hcp1, Hcp2, and VgrG to the culture medium could not be determined, suggesting that additional signals are required for T6SS-dependent secretion of these proteins. In vitro bacterial competition assays failed to demonstrate a role for SPI-19 T6SS in interbacterial killing. In contrast, cell culture experiments with murine and avian macrophages (RAW264.7 and HD11, respectively) revealed production of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of VgrG soon after Salmonella uptake. Furthermore, infection of RAW264.7 and HD11 macrophages with deletion mutants of SPI-19 or strains with genes encoding specific T6SS core components (clpV and vgrG) revealed that SPI-19 T6SS contributes to S. Gallinarum survival within macrophages at 20 h postuptake. SPI-19 T6SS function was not linked to Salmonella-induced cytotoxicity or cell death of infected macrophages, as has been described for other T6SS. Our data indicate that SPI-19 T6SS corresponds to a novel tool used by Salmonella to survive within host cells. PMID:23357385

  18. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Esseili, Malak A; Saif, Linda J; Farkas, Tibor; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves.

  19. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Esseili, Malak A.; Saif, Linda J.; Farkas, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  20. Bacillus anthracis phospholipases C facilitate macrophage-associated growth and contribute to virulence in a murine model of inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Brian J; Thomason, Brendan; Herring-Palmer, Amy; Shaughnessy, Lee; McDonald, Rod; Fisher, Nathan; Huffnagle, Gary B; Hanna, Philip

    2006-07-01

    Several models of anthrax pathogenesis suggest that early in the infectious process Bacillus anthracis endospores germinate and outgrow into vegetative bacilli within phagocytes before being released into the blood. Here, we define the respective contributions of three phospholipases C (PLCs) to the pathogenesis of B. anthracis. Genetic deletions of the PLCs were made in the Sterne 7702 background, resulting in the respective loss of their activities. The PLCs were redundant both in tissue culture and in murine models of anthrax. Deletion of all three PLC genes was required for attenuation of virulence in mice after intratracheal inoculation. This attenuation may be attributed to the inability of the PLC-null strain to grow in association with the macrophage. Complementation of these defects in both models of anthrax was achieved by expression of the PLC genes in trans. The functional redundancy between PLCs in the virulence of B. anthracis implies that their activities are important for anthrax pathogenesis.

  1. Bacillus anthracis Phospholipases C Facilitate Macrophage-Associated Growth and Contribute to Virulence in a Murine Model of Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Brian J.; Thomason, Brendan; Herring-Palmer, Amy; Shaughnessy, Lee; McDonald, Rod; Fisher, Nathan; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Hanna, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Several models of anthrax pathogenesis suggest that early in the infectious process Bacillus anthracis endospores germinate and outgrow into vegetative bacilli within phagocytes before being released into the blood. Here, we define the respective contributions of three phospholipases C (PLCs) to the pathogenesis of B. anthracis. Genetic deletions of the PLCs were made in the Sterne 7702 background, resulting in the respective loss of their activities. The PLCs were redundant both in tissue culture and in murine models of anthrax. Deletion of all three PLC genes was required for attenuation of virulence in mice after intratracheal inoculation. This attenuation may be attributed to the inability of the PLC-null strain to grow in association with the macrophage. Complementation of these defects in both models of anthrax was achieved by expression of the PLC genes in trans. The functional redundancy between PLCs in the virulence of B. anthracis implies that their activities are important for anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:16790747

  2. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  3. In vitro time-dependent vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced free radical generation and status of antioxidant enzymes in murine peritoneal macrophage.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and pneumonia. The immune cells use reactive oxygen species (ROS) for carrying out their normal functions, while an excess amount of ROS can attack cellular components that lead to cell damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the free radical generation and status of the antioxidant enzymes in murine peritoneal macrophage during in vitro vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) treatment with different time intervals. Peritoneal macrophages were treated with 5 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL VRSA cell suspension in vitro for different time intervals (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h), and superoxide anion generation, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation, antioxidant enzyme status, and components of glutathione cycle were analyzed. Superoxide anion generation, NADPH oxidase activity, MPO activity, and NO generation got peak at 3 h indicates maximum free radical generation through activation of NADPH oxidase in murine peritoneal macrophages during VRSA infection. Reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activity were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing time of VRSA infection. But the oxidized glutathione level was time-dependently increased significantly (P < 0.05) in murine peritoneal macrophages. All the changes in peritoneal macrophages after 3 h in vitro VRSA treatment had no significant difference. From this study, it may be summarized that in vitro VRSA infection not only generates excess free radical but also affects the antioxidant status and glutathione cycle in murine peritoneal macrophages.

  4. Mycobacterium avium subspecies induce differential expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in a murine macrophage model: evidence for enhanced pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Geffers, Robert; Weiss, Siegfried; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies (ssp.) paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic, non-treatable granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. MAP is the only mycobacterium affecting the intestinal tract, which is of interest since it is presently the most favoured pathogen linked to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans due to its frequent detection in CD tissues. MAP is genetically closely related to other M. avium ssp. such as M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) and M. avium ssp. hominissuis (MAH) which can cause mycobacteriosis in animals and immunocompromised humans. We have recently shown that murine macrophage cell lines represent suitable systems to analyse M. avium ssp. patho-mechanisms and could show that MAP, but not MAA, specifically inhibited the antigen-specific stimulatory capacity for CD4(+) T-cells. In the present study, we compared gene expression profiles of murine RAW264.7 macrophages in response to infections with MAP or MAA using murine high-density oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarrays. A comparison of MAP and MAA infection revealed 17 differentially expressed genes. They were expressed at a much lower level in MAP-infected macrophages than in MAA-infected macrophages. Among these were the genes for IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, CXCL2, PTGS2 (COX2), lipocalin (LCN2) and TNF, which are important pro-inflammatory factors. The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and, by protein array analyses and ELISA. Similar to MAA, infection with MAH also showed robust induction of IL-1beta, CXCL2, COX2, LCN2 and TNF. Taken together, our results from M. avium ssp.-infected murine macrophages provide evidence that MAP in contrast to MAA and MAH specifically suppresses the pro-inflammatory defence mechanisms of infected macrophages.

  5. Fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in peroxidase-loaded resting murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Aguilar, Melby Dessiré; Arce-Paredes, Patricia; Aquino-Vega, Mayda; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and a halide represent an efficient microbicidal mechanism of phagocytic cells. MPO is abundant in neutrophils which also respond to infection by producing large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MPO, ROS and halide constitute a very toxic antimicrobial system (called the Klebanoff system or KS). Resting mature macrophages do not contain granular MPO and thus are unable to kill pathogenic mycobacteria and some other microorganisms by this system. Under the hypothesis that transforming macrophages into peroxidase-positive (PO(+)) cells, these cells would be able to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in this study, mature macrophages were loaded with exogenous peroxidase and were tested for their capacity to kill the Mycobacterium in the presence or in the absence of hydrogen peroxide. It was found that PO-loaded macrophages eagerly ingest M. tuberculosis, but do not show a significant mycobactericidal activity on this microorganism despite that it is highly susceptible to the Klebanoff system in vitro. Failure of PO-loaded macrophages to kill M. tuberculosis may obey either to an inappropriate location of the exogenous PO in these cells or more likely, to the presence of efficient detoxifying mechanisms in the bacteria. On the contrary, MPO-loaded or unloaded macrophages efficiently killed Listeria monocytogenes. The lack of granular MPO in mature macrophages, and the predilection of mycobacteria to infect these cells are two situations that favor the development of tuberculosis and related diseases, such as leprosy and Buruli ulcer. Copyright © 2012 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise-induced stimulation of murine macrophage chemotaxis: role of corticosterone and prolactin as mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, E; Forner, M A; Barriga, C

    1997-01-01

    1. Exercise provokes changes in the immune system, including macrophage activity. Chemotaxis is a necessary function of macrophages if they are to reach the focus of infection and strenuous acute exercise may modulate chemotaxis. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. 2. Three experiments were performed in the present study. (1) The effect of strenuous acute exercise (swimming until exhaustion) on the chemotactic capacity of macrophages was evaluated. (2) Peritoneal macrophages from control mice were incubated with plasma from exercised mice or control (no exercise) mice. The differences in the resulting chemotactic capacity were measured. (3) Changes in the concentration of plasma corticosterone and prolactin after exercise were also measured, and the effect of incubation with the post-exercise levels of plasma corticosterone and prolactin on the chemotactic capacity of the peritoneal macrophages was then studied in vitro. 3. Exercise induced an increase in the macrophage chemotaxis index (103 +/- 8 vs. 47 +/- 11 in controls). Incubation with plasma from exercised mice led to an increased level of chemotaxis (68 +/- 18 vs. 40 +/- 6 with plasma from controls). Incubation with concentrations of corticosterone and prolactin similar to those observed in plasma immediately after exercise (corticosterone, 0.72 mumol l-1; prolactin, 88 pmol l-1) raised the chemotactic capacity with respect to that following incubation with the basal concentrations of the hormones in control animals (90 +/- 9 vs. 37 +/- 4 for corticosterone; 72 +/- 9 vs. 41 +/- 4 for prolactin). 4. It is concluded that corticosterone and prolactin may mediate the increased chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages induced by exercise. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9051584

  7. SufC may promote the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Qi, Lin; Xiao, Yan; Wang, Min; Qin, Chenhao; Zhang, Haifang; Sheng, Yongmei; Du, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The sufC gene of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is required for the biogenesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster under oxidative stress conditions. In order to investigate the roles of sufC in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), isogenic S. Typhi strain GIFU10007 harboring a non-polar mutation of sufC (ΔsufC) was constructed and the results showed that the sufC deleted mutant grew more slowly than the wild type strain when encounter oxidative stresses. Moreover, the deletion of sufC gene decreased S. Typhi survival within macrophages. After macrophages infected by sufC deleted mutant and wild type strain, we detected IL-6 and TNF-α released into the supernatant, and found the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α decreased in the supernatant of sufC deleted mutant infected groups than the wild type strain infected ones. In summary, our results showed that SufC may promote S. Typhi coping oxidative stress and help S. Typhi survival in macrophages.

  8. Effect of acidic solutions on the microhardness of dentin and set OrthoMTA and their cytotoxicity on murine macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Won-Jun; Lee, Woocheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage. Materials and Methods OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage. Results Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%). Conclusions Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA. PMID:26877986

  9. Internalization of Libby amphibole asbestos and induction of oxidative stress in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Blake, David J; Bolin, Celeste M; Cox, David P; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Pfau, Jean C

    2007-09-01

    The community members of Libby, MT, have experienced significant asbestos exposure and developed numerous asbestos-related diseases including fibrosis and lung cancer due to an asbestos-contaminated vermiculite mine near the community. The form of asbestos in the contaminated vermiculite has been characterized in the amphibole family of fibers. However, the pathogenic effects of these fibers have not been previously characterized. The purpose of this study is to determine the cellular consequences of Libby amphibole exposure in macrophages compared to another well-characterized amphibole fiber; crocidolite asbestos. Our results indicate that Libby asbestos fibers are internalized by macrophages and localize to the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vacuoles similar to crocidolite fibers. Libby asbestos fiber internalization generates a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by dichlorofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidine fluorescence indicating that the superoxide anion is the major contributing ROS generated by Libby asbestos. Elevated superoxide levels in macrophages exposed to Libby asbestos coincide with a significant suppression of total superoxide dismutase activity. Both Libby and crocidolite asbestos generate oxidative stress in exposed macrophages by decreasing intracellular glutathione levels. Interestingly crocidolite asbestos, but not Libby asbestos, induces significant DNA damage in macrophages. This study provides evidence that the difference in the level of DNA damage observed between Libby and crocidolite asbestos may be a combined consequence of the distinct chemical compositions of each fiber as well as the activation of separate cellular pathways during asbestos exposure.

  10. Autoantibodies from mice exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos bind SSA/Ro52 – enriched apoptotic blebs of murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Blake, David J.; Wetzel, Scott A.; Pfau, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is associated with increased autoimmune responses in humans. For example, in Libby, MT where significant asbestos exposure has occurred due to an asbestos contaminated vermiculite mine near the community, residents have developed increased autoimmune responses compared to an unexposed population. However, the exact mechanism by which Libby amphibole asbestos generates autoimmune responses is unclear. A murine model of amphibole asbestos-induced autoimmunity was recently established, and one of the targets of the autoantibodies was the SSA/Ro52 autoantigen. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the SSA/Ro52 autoantigen is exposed at the surface of cells as a result of asbestos exposure as a possible mechanism leading to antigenicity. Our results indicate that Libby asbestos induces apoptosis in murine macrophages as determined by phosphatidylserine exposure, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and morphological changes such as nuclear condensation. Moreover, asbestos induced apoptosis results in the formation of apoptotic cell surface blebs enriched in SSA/Ro52 as determined by confocal microscopy. Most importantly, apoptotic cell surface blebs are recognized by autoantibodies from mice exposed to amphibole asbestos suggesting that these cell surface structures may be antigenic when presented in a pro-inflammatory context. This study supports the hypothesis that the induction of apoptosis plays a key role in environmentally-induced autoimmunity through cell surface exposure of a known autoantigen. PMID:18295955

  11. Icodextrin enhances survival in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer murine model utilizing gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rocconi, Rodney P; Numnum, Michael T; Zhu, Zeng B; Lu, Baogen; Wang, Minghui; Rivera, Angel A; Stoff-Khalili, Mariam; Alvarez, Ronald D; Curiel, David T; Makhija, Sharmila

    2006-12-01

    Icodextrin, a novel glucose polymer solution utilized for peritoneal dialysis, has been demonstrated to have prolonged intraperitoneal (IP) instillation volumes in comparison to standard PBS solutions. In an animal model of ovarian cancer, we explored whether a survival advantage exists utilizing icodextrin rather than PBS as a delivery solution for an infectivity enhanced virotherapy approach. Initial experiments evaluated whether icodextrin would adversely affect replication of a clinical grade infectivity enhanced conditionally replicative adenovirus (Delta24-RGD). Virus was added to prepared blinded solutions of PBS or icodextrin (20%) and then evaluated in vitro in various human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3.ip1, PA-1, and Hey) and in vivo in a SKOV3.ip1 human ovarian cancer IP murine model. Viral replication was measured by detecting adenovirus E4 gene levels utilizing QRT-PCR. Survival was subsequently evaluated in a separate SKOV3.ip1 ovarian cancer IP murine model. Cohorts of mice were treated in blinded fashion with PBS alone, icodextrin alone, PBS+Delta24-RGD, or icodextrin+Delta24-RGD. Survival data were plotted on Kaplan-Meier curve and statistical calculations performed using the log-rank test. There was no adverse affect of icodextrin on vector replication in the ovarian cancer cell lines nor murine model tumor samples evaluated. Median survival in the IP treated animal cohorts was 23 days for the PBS group, 40 days for the icodextrin group, 65 days for the PBS+Delta24-RGD group, and 105 days for icodextrin+Delta24-RGD (p=0.023). Of note, 5 of the 10 mice in the icodextrin+Delta24-RGD group were alive at the end of the study period, all without evidence of tumor (120 days). These experiments suggest that the use of dialysates such as icodextrin may further enhance the therapeutic effects of novel IP virotherapy and other gene therapy strategies for ovarian cancer. Phase I studies utilizing icodextrin-based virotherapy for ovarian cancer are

  12. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and lipopolysaccharide induce different transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the IRG1 gene in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Basler, Tina; Jeckstadt, Sabine; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Goethe, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic enteritis in ruminants. In addition, MAP is presently the most favored pathogen linked to Crohn's disease. In this study, we were interested in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of macrophage activation or deactivation after infection with MAP. By subtractive hybridization of cDNAs, we identified the immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1), which was expressed substantially higher in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated than in MAP-infected murine macrophage cell lines. A nuclear run-on transcription assay revealed that the IRG1 gene was activated transcriptionally in LPS-stimulated and MAP-infected macrophages with higher expression in LPS-stimulated cells. Analysis of post-transcriptional regulation demonstrated that IRG1 mRNA stability was increased in LPS-stimulated but not in MAP-infected macrophages. Furthermore, IRG1 gene expression of macrophages infected with the nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis differed from those of LPS-stimulated and MAP-infected macrophages. At 2 h postinfection, M. smegmatis-induced IRG1 gene expression was as low as in MAP-infected, and 8 h postinfection, it increased nearly to the level in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Transient transfection experiments revealed similar IRG1 promoter activities in MAP- and M. smegmatis-infected cells. Northern analysis demonstrated increased IRG1 mRNA stability in M. smegmatis-infected macrophages. IRG1 mRNA stabilization was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent. Inhibition of protein synthesis revealed that constitutively expressed factors seemed to be responsible for IRG1 mRNA destabilization. Thus, our data demonstrate that transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for a differential IRG1 gene expression in murine macrophages treated with LPS, MAP, and M. smegmatis.

  13. Killing of Leishmania parasites in activated murine macrophages is based on an L-arginine-dependent process that produces nitrogen derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Maul, J.R.; Ransijn, A.; Buchmueller-Rouiller, Y. )

    1991-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were aimed at determining whether L-arginine (L-arg)-derived nitrogen oxidation products (nitric oxide, nitrous acid, nitrites) are involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania parasites by activated murine macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal or bone marrow-derived macrophages were infected with L. enriettii or L. major, then activated by exposure to recombinant murine interferon-gamma or to macrophage activating factor (MAF)-rich media in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Activation of macrophages in regular (i.e., arginine-containing) culture medium led to complete destruction of the microorganisms within 24 h (L. enriettii) or 48 h (L. major), concomitant with accumulation of nitrites (NO2-) in the culture fluids. When macrophage activation was carried out in L-arg-free medium, however, neither parasite killing nor NO2- production was obtained. A similar inhibition of macrophage leishmanicidal activity and of NO2- release was observed using media treated with arginase (which converts L-arg to urea and ornithine), or supplemented with NG-monomethyl-L-arg or guanidine (which inhibit the conversion of L-arg to nitrogen oxidation products). In all these situations, an excellent correlation between the levels of NO2- production by macrophages and intracellular killing of Leishmania was observed, whereas no strict correlation was detectable between leishmanicidal activity and superoxide production. Intracellular parasite killing by activated macrophages could be prevented by addition of iron salts to the incubation fluids. Incubation of free parasites with NaNO2 at acid pH led to immobilisation, multiplication arrest, and morphological degeneration of the microorganisms. Similarly, exposure of infected cells to NaNO2 led to killing of the intracellular parasite without affecting macrophage viability.

  14. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid induced suppression of phagocytosis in murine peritoneal macrophage cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoids suppress phagocytosis of heat killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae in macrophage cultures. In order to determine the mechanisms by which this response occurs, this investigation was initiated to examine whether the suppression of phagocytosis is mediated by a steroid induced phagocytosis inhibitory protein (PIP). Furthermore, it is postulated that these suppressive effects may be associated with alterations in macrophage phospholipid metabolism. To assess the association between phospholipid metabolism and phagocytosis, control and 1 ..mu..M dexamethasone treated macrophages were exposed to the phospholipase inhibitor bromophenacylbromide. The enzyme inhibitor suppressed phagocytosis in a time and dose dependent manner. However, supplying dexamethasone treated cultures with arachidonate did not reverse the steroid induced suppression of phagocytosis, whether the arachidonate was supplied alone or together with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Control cells, prelabeled with /sup 3/H-arachidonate, exhibited an increased percentage of the radiolabeled fatty acid in neutral lipids following phagocytosis, with a corresponding decrease in the percentage associated with phosphatidylcholine.

  15. Nitric Oxide Participation in the Fungicidal Mechanism of Gamma Interferon-Activated Murine Macrophages against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Conidia

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angel; de Gregori, Waldemar; Velez, Diana; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz E.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis restricted to Latin America and produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is probably acquired by inhalation of conidia produced by the mycelial form. The macrophage (Mφ) represents the major cell defense against this pathogen; when activated with gamma interferon (IFN-γ), murine Mφs kill the fungus by an oxygen-independent mechanism. Our goal was to determine the role of nitric oxide in the fungicidal effect of Mφs on P. brasiliensis conidia. The results revealed that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs inhibited the conidium-to-yeast transformation process in a dose-dependent manner; maximal inhibition was observed in Mφs activated with 50 U/ml and incubated for 96 h at 37°C. When Mφs were activated with 150 to 200 U of cytokine per ml, the number of CFU was 70% lower than in nonactivated controls, indicating that there was a fungicidal effect. The inhibitory effect was reversed by the addition of anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibodies. Activation by IFN-γ also enhanced Mφ nitric oxide production, as revealed by increasing NO2 values (8 ± 3 μM in nonactivated Mφs versus 43 ± 13 μM in activated Mφs). The neutralization of IFN-γ also reversed nitric oxide production at basal levels (8 ± 5 μM). Additionally, we found that there was a significant inverse correlation (r = −0.8975) between NO2− concentration and transformation of P. brasiliensis conidia. Additionally, treatment with any of the three different nitric oxide inhibitors used (arginase, NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, and aminoguanidine), reverted the inhibition of the transformation process with 40 to 70% of intracellular yeast and significantly reduced nitric oxide production. These results show that IFN-γ-activated murine Mφs kill P. brasiliensis conidia through the l-arginine–nitric oxide pathway. PMID:10768942

  16. Transcription of innate immunity genes and cytokine secretion by canine macrophages resistant or susceptible to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; da Costa, Luciana Fachini; Romão, Everton de Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2015-01-15

    In this study we assessed the basal transcription of genes associated with innate immunity (i.e. Nramp1, NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR7, and TLR9) in canine monocyte-derived macrophages from Leishmania-free dogs. Additionally, secretion of cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and nitric oxide in culture supernatants of macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of Leishmania infantum was also measured. Constitutive transcription of TLR9 and NOD2 were negligible; NOD1, TLR1, and TLR7 had low levels of transcription, whereas Nramp1 and TLR2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 had higher levels of constitutive transcription in canine monocyte-derived macrophages. There were no significant differences in transcription between macrophages with higher or lower resistance to intracellular survival of L. infantum. Secretion of TNF-α was higher in more resistant macrophages (designated as resistant) at 24h after infection when compared to less resistant macrophages (designated as susceptible), as well as the secretion of IFN-γ at 72 h post infection. Secretion of IL-10 was lower in resistant macrophages at 24h after infection. No detectable production of nitric oxide was observed. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between NOD2 transcript levels and intracellular survival of L. infantum in resistant macrophages. This study demonstrated that decreased intracellular survival of L. infantum in canine macrophages was associated with increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased production of IL-10; and that constitutive transcription of Nramp1, TLR and NLR does not interfere in intracellular survival of L. infantum.

  17. Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom Interferes With Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Cruz, Anselmo; Z. Mendonça, Ronaldo; L. Petricevich, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt) is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells, especially at high concentrations. However its effects on host immune cells are not well known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cdt on functional status and the mediators production in peritoneal macrophages. The effects of Cdt were analyzed in vitro and were detected using functional status of macrophages as determined by the H2O2 release, spreading percentage, phagocytic index, vacuole formation, and mediators production. Several functional bioassays were employed: cytotoxicity was determined by taking the lyses percentage and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in macrophages, using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatants of macrophages by the Griess reaction. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity was detected by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L929 cells, and the production the level of other cytokines was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro studies revealed that Cdt produced (a) a discrete increase in the release of H2O2 and vacuole formation; (b) a decrease in spreading percentage and in the phagocytic index; and (c) an increment in the mediators production. More pronounced increments of IL-6 and TNF were observed after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Maximum levels of IFN-γ and NO were observed after 96 hours. Interestingly, levels of all mediators presented a discreet decrease, as the amount of Cdt was increased. In contrast, the IL-10 levels observed for all doses studied here did not alter. The IL-6/IL-10 ratio may possibly reflect the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be manifested in the inflammatory status during the envenoming processes. Taken together, these data indicate that Cdt have a differential effect on macrophage activation and that this venom is a potent inhibitor of anti-inflammatory response. PMID

  18. Effect of the native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate on murine peritoneal macrophage modulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamassaki, F T; Lenzi, R M; Campestrini, L H; Bovo, F; Seyfried, M; Soldera-Silva, A; Stevan-Hancke, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Pettolino, F A; Bacic, A; Maurer, J B B

    2015-07-10

    The native polysaccharide of cashew-nut tree gum exudate (CNTG) and its arabinogalactan-protein component (CNTG-AGP) were tested by using immuno-stimulant and anti-inflammatory in vitro assays of murine peritoneal macrophage activities. In the assay for immuno-stimulant activity (without previous treatment with lipopolysaccharide; LPS), CNTG increased the production of interleukin (IL)-10 and both CNTG and CNTG-AGP decreased the concentrations of IL6. When the macrophages were incubated in the presence of LPS and CNTG a decrease in the levels of nitric oxide (NO(·)) and IFN-γ was observed. The results could explain the popular use of CNTG as an anti-inflammatory. In addition, CNTG is the main component of the cashew-nut tree gum exudate, which has been considered a versatile polymer with potential pharmaceutical and food industry applications. These data may contribute to the study of the immunomodulation activity of plant polysaccharides, as well as encourage future experiments in the field of cashew-nut tree gum exudate applications.

  19. Effects of resveratrol and ethanol on production of pro-inflammatory factors from endotoxin activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-Hong; Zou, Jian-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2002-11-01

    To study the interaction of resveratrol and ethanol on the production of pro-inflammatory factors from activated murine peritoneal macrophages (MPM). NO production was measured with Griess assay; IL-1 production was measured through thymocyte co-stimulating assay; IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected by ELISA method. Resveratrol (6.25, 12.5, 25 micromol/L) and ethanol (0.2 %, 0.8 %) synergistically inhibited the 24 h production of NO from lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/L) and IFN-gamma (5 kU/L) stimulated MPM; resveratrol at higher dose (25 micromol/L) also inhibited IL-6 production. Ethanol additively strengthened this effect. Ethanol had no significant influence on 24 h MPM IL-1 production, but it promoted the ability of resveratrol on enhancing the IL-1 release from activated MPM. Low doses of ethanol inhibited 24 h production of TNF-alpha, however, both dose of ethanol enhanced the promoting effect of resveratrol on TNF-alpha production. Resveratrol and ethanol can interact to influence the production of macrophage function molecules, which is noteworthy in evaluating the health-care effect of wine consumption.

  20. Recombinant murine gamma interferon stimulates macrophages of the RAW cell line to inhibit intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, L T; Wu-Hsieh, B A; Howard, D H

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages of the RAW 264.7 cell line, activated by pretreatment with recombinant murine gamma interferon, inhibit the intracellular growth of Histoplasma capsulatum. Growth inhibition occurred by a mechanism that was operative only when L-Arg metabolism was allowed to occur. When activated macrophages were cultured in the absence of L-Arg or in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-Arg, a competitive inhibitor of L-Arg metabolism, activation to the antihistoplasma growth-inhibitory state did not occur. An increase in levels of NO2-, an end product of L-Arg metabolism, was detected only after activation of RAW 264.7 cells to the growth-inhibitory state. In contrast, only baseline levels of NO2- were detected when L-Arg was excluded or when NG-monomethyl-L-Arg was added to the culture medium. Nitric oxide (NO.), a reactive intermediate product of L-Arg metabolism, was implicated as the relevant antihistoplasma effector molecule. When H. capsulatum yeast cells were cultured for 24 to 28 h in a system designed to generate soluble NO., a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect was observed. PMID:8300224

  1. Ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® decreases LPS-induced IL-6 release from murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Michels, J; Runkel, F; Gokorsch, S; Häberlein, H

    2016-03-01

    IL-6 plays a key role in the course of inflammatory processes as well as in the regulation of immune responses by the release of different cytokines. IL-6 is produced e.g. by macrophages recruited to the airways in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli like allergens and respiratory viruses. Patients with inflammatory airway diseases therefore may benefit from therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway, e.g. reduction of the IL-6 release. Within this context, we tested the influence of the ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® on the LPS-induced release of IL-6 from murine macrophages (J774.2). One point seven µg/ml (5 µM) corticosterone served as positive control and was able to reduce LPS-induced IL-6 release by 46 ± 4%. EA 575® was tested in concentrations between 40 and 400 µg/ml. EA 575® decreased the LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and statistically significant by 25 ± 4%, 32 ± 4%, and 40 ± 7% in concentrations of 80, 160, and 400 µg/ml, respectively. The present data suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of EA 575® used in therapy of chronic- and acute inflammatory airway diseases accompanied with cough.

  2. Role of actin cytoskeleton in LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and nitric oxide production in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M; Pareek, Vidhi; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria and is known to cause actin cytoskeleton reorganization in a variety of cells including macrophages. Actin cytoskeleton dynamics influence many cell signaling pathways including the NF-kappaB pathway. LPS is also known to induce the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes via the NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we have investigated the role of actin cytoskeleton in LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and signaling leading to the expression of iNOS and nitric oxide production. Using murine macrophages, we show that disruption of actin cytoskeleton by either cytochalasin D (CytD) or latrunculin B (LanB) does not affect LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and the expression of iNOS, a NF-kappaB target gene. However, disruption of actin cytoskeleton caused significant reduction in LPS-induced nitric oxide production indicating a role of actin cytoskeleton in the post-translational regulation of iNOS.

  3. Leishmania eukaryotic initiation factor (LeIF) inhibits parasite growth in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koutsoni, Olga; Barhoumi, Mourad; Guizani, Ikram; Dotsika, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    The leishmaniases constitute neglected global public health problems that require adequate control measures, prophylactic clinical vaccines and effective and non-toxic drug treatments. In this study, we explored the potential of Leishmania infantum eukaryotic initiation factor (LieIF), an exosomal protein, as a novel anti-infective therapeutic molecule. More specifically, we assessed the efficacy of recombinant LieIF, in combination with recombinant IFN-γ, in eliminating intracellular L. donovani parasites in an in vitro macrophage model. J774A.1 macrophages were initially treated with LieIF/IFN-γ prior to in vitro infection with L. donovani stationary phase promastigotes (pre-infection treatment), and resistance to infection was observed 72 h after infection. J774A.1 macrophages were also treated with LieIF/IFN-γ after L. donovani infection (post-infection treatment), and resistance to infection was also observed at both time points tested (19 h and 72 h) after infection. To elucidate the LieIF/IFN-γ-induced mechanism(s) that mediate the reduction of intracellular parasite growth, we examined the generation of potent microbicidal molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), within infected macrophages. Furthermore, macrophages pre-treated with LieIF/IFN-γ showed a clear up-regulation in macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression. However, significant different protein levels were not detected. In addition, macrophages pre-treated with LieIF/IFN-γ combined with anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody produced significantly lower amounts of ROS. These data suggest that during the pre-treatment state, LieIF induces intramacrophage parasite growth inhibition through the production of TNF-α, which induces microbicidal activity by stimulating NO and ROS production. The mechanisms of NO and ROS production when macrophages are treated with LieIF after infection are probably different

  4. Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L; Fitts, Eric C; Huante, Matthew B; Endsley, Janice J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized the Δlpp Δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The Δlpp Δpla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the Δlpp Δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the Δpla single and the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the Δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the Δlpp Δpla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the Δlpp Δpla double mutant of Y. pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune

  5. Modulation of functional characteristics of resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal murine macrophages by a recombinant banana lectin

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Emilija; Djokic, Radmila; Lukic, Ivana; Filipovic, Ana; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Kosanovic, Dejana; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Stojanovic, Marijana

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated that a recombinant banana lectin (rBanLec), which structural characteristics and physiological impacts highly resemble those reported for its natural counterparts, binds murine peritoneal macrophages and specifically modulates their functional characteristics. By using rBanLec in concentrations ranging from 1 μg to 10 μg to stimulate resident (RMs) and thioglycollate-elicited (TGMs) peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, we have shown that effects of rBanLec stimulation depend on its concentration but also on the functional status of macrophages and their genetic background. rBanLec, in a positive dose-dependent manner, promotes the proliferation of TGMs from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, while its mitogenic influence on RMs is significantly lower (BALB/c mice) or not detectable (C57BL/6 mice). In all peritoneal macrophages, irrespective of their type and genetic background, rBanLec, in a positive dose dependent manner, enhances the secretion of IL-10. rBanLec stimulation of RMs from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 resulted in a positive dose-dependent promotion of proinflammatory phenotype (enhancement of NO production and IL-12 and TNFα secretion, reduction of arginase activity). Positive dose-dependent skewing toward proinflammatory phenotype was also observed in TGMs from C57BL/6 mice. However, the enhancement of rBanLec stimulation promotes skewing of TGMs from BALB/c mice towards anti-inflammatory profile (reduction of NO production and IL-12 secretion, enhancement of arginase activity and TGFβ and IL-4 secretion). Moreover, we established that rBanLec binds oligosaccharide structures of TLR2 and CD14 and that blocking of signaling via these receptors significantly impairs the production of TNFα and NO in BALB/c macrophages. Since the outcome of rBanLec stimulation depends on rBanLec concentration as well as on the functional characteristics of its target cells and their genetic background, further studies are needed to investigate

  6. Modulation of functional characteristics of resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal murine macrophages by a recombinant banana lectin.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Emilija; Djokic, Radmila; Lukic, Ivana; Filipovic, Ana; Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Kosanovic, Dejana; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Stojanovic, Marijana

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated that a recombinant banana lectin (rBanLec), which structural characteristics and physiological impacts highly resemble those reported for its natural counterparts, binds murine peritoneal macrophages and specifically modulates their functional characteristics. By using rBanLec in concentrations ranging from 1 μg to 10 μg to stimulate resident (RMs) and thioglycollate-elicited (TGMs) peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, we have shown that effects of rBanLec stimulation depend on its concentration but also on the functional status of macrophages and their genetic background. rBanLec, in a positive dose-dependent manner, promotes the proliferation of TGMs from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, while its mitogenic influence on RMs is significantly lower (BALB/c mice) or not detectable (C57BL/6 mice). In all peritoneal macrophages, irrespective of their type and genetic background, rBanLec, in a positive dose dependent manner, enhances the secretion of IL-10. rBanLec stimulation of RMs from both BALB/c and C57BL/6 resulted in a positive dose-dependent promotion of proinflammatory phenotype (enhancement of NO production and IL-12 and TNFα secretion, reduction of arginase activity). Positive dose-dependent skewing toward proinflammatory phenotype was also observed in TGMs from C57BL/6 mice. However, the enhancement of rBanLec stimulation promotes skewing of TGMs from BALB/c mice towards anti-inflammatory profile (reduction of NO production and IL-12 secretion, enhancement of arginase activity and TGFβ and IL-4 secretion). Moreover, we established that rBanLec binds oligosaccharide structures of TLR2 and CD14 and that blocking of signaling via these receptors significantly impairs the production of TNFα and NO in BALB/c macrophages. Since the outcome of rBanLec stimulation depends on rBanLec concentration as well as on the functional characteristics of its target cells and their genetic background, further studies are needed to investigate

  7. Transcriptional analysis of murine macrophages infected with different Toxoplasma strains identifies novel regulation of host signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mariane B; Nguyen, Quynh P; Cordeiro, Cynthia; Hassan, Musa A; Yang, Ninghan; McKell, Renée; Rosowski, Emily E; Julien, Lindsay; Butty, Vincent; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Katherine; Young, Lucy H; Saeij, Jeroen P J

    2013-01-01

    Most isolates of Toxoplasma from Europe and North America fall into one of three genetically distinct clonal lineages, the type I, II and III lineages. However, in South America these strains are rarely isolated and instead a great variety of other strains are found. T. gondii strains differ widely in a number of phenotypes in mice, such as virulence, persistence, oral infectivity, migratory capacity, induction of cytokine expression and modulation of host gene expression. The outcome of toxoplasmosis in patients is also variable and we hypothesize that, besides host and environmental factors, the genotype of the parasite strain plays a major role. The molecular basis for these differences in pathogenesis, especially in strains other than the clonal lineages, remains largely unexplored. Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response against T. gondii and are also the cell type preferentially infected in vivo. To determine if non-canonical Toxoplasma strains have unique interactions with the host cell, we infected murine macrophages with 29 different Toxoplasma strains, representing global diversity, and used RNA-sequencing to determine host and parasite transcriptomes. We identified large differences between strains in the expression level of known parasite effectors and large chromosomal structural variation in some strains. We also identified novel strain-specifically regulated host pathways, including the regulation of the type I interferon response by some atypical strains. IFNβ production by infected cells was associated with parasite killing, independent of interferon gamma activation, and dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptors in macrophages and the cytoplasmic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) in fibroblasts.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of Murine Macrophages Infected with Different Toxoplasma Strains Identifies Novel Regulation of Host Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mariane B.; Nguyen, Quynh P.; Cordeiro, Cynthia; Hassan, Musa A.; Yang, Ninghan; McKell, Renée; Rosowski, Emily E.; Julien, Lindsay; Butty, Vincent; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Katherine; Young, Lucy H.; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Most isolates of Toxoplasma from Europe and North America fall into one of three genetically distinct clonal lineages, the type I, II and III lineages. However, in South America these strains are rarely isolated and instead a great variety of other strains are found. T. gondii strains differ widely in a number of phenotypes in mice, such as virulence, persistence, oral infectivity, migratory capacity, induction of cytokine expression and modulation of host gene expression. The outcome of toxoplasmosis in patients is also variable and we hypothesize that, besides host and environmental factors, the genotype of the parasite strain plays a major role. The molecular basis for these differences in pathogenesis, especially in strains other than the clonal lineages, remains largely unexplored. Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response against T. gondii and are also the cell type preferentially infected in vivo. To determine if non-canonical Toxoplasma strains have unique interactions with the host cell, we infected murine macrophages with 29 different Toxoplasma strains, representing global diversity, and used RNA-sequencing to determine host and parasite transcriptomes. We identified large differences between strains in the expression level of known parasite effectors and large chromosomal structural variation in some strains. We also identified novel strain-specifically regulated host pathways, including the regulation of the type I interferon response by some atypical strains. IFNβ production by infected cells was associated with parasite killing, independent of interferon gamma activation, and dependent on endosomal Toll-like receptors in macrophages and the cytoplasmic receptor retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) in fibroblasts. PMID:24367253

  9. The abcEDCBA-Encoded ABC Transporter and the virB Operon-Encoded Type IV Secretion System of Brucella ovis Are Critical for Intracellular Trafficking and Survival in Ovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Auricelio A.; Silva, Ana P. C.; Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Luciana F.; Garcia, Luize N. N.; Araújo, Marcio S.; Martins Filho, Olindo A.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2015-01-01

    Brucella ovis infection is associated with epididymitis, orchitis and infertility in rams. Most of the information available on B. ovis and host cell interaction has been generated using murine macrophages or epithelial cell lines, but the interaction between B. ovis and primary ovine macrophages has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the B. ovis abcEDCBA-encoded ABC transporter and the virB operon-encoded Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) during intracellular survival of B. ovis in ovine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutant strains were unable to survive in the intracellular environment when compared to the WT B. ovis at 48 hours post infection (hpi). In addition, these mutant strains cannot exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, and their vacuoles do not acquire the endoplasmic reticulum marker calreticulin, which takes place in the WT B. ovis containing vacuole. Higher levels of nitric oxide production were observed in macrophages infected with WT B. ovis at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains. Conversely, higher levels of reactive oxygen species were detected in macrophages infected with the ΔabcBA or ΔvirB2 mutant strains at 48 hpi when compared to macrophages infected with the WT strain. Our results demonstrate that B. ovis is able to persist and multiply in ovine macrophages, while ΔabcBA and ΔvirB2 mutations prevent intracellular multiplication, favor phagolysosome fusion, and impair maturation of the B. ovis vacuole towards an endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartment. PMID:26366863

  10. Macrophage-mediated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell survival is independent of APRIL signaling

    PubMed Central

    van Attekum, MHA; Terpstra, S; Reinen, E; Kater, AP; Eldering, E

    2016-01-01

    Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is mainly driven by interactions within the lymph node (LN) microenvironment with bystander cells such as T cells or cells from the monocytic lineage. Although the survival effect by T cells is largely governed by the TNFR ligand family member CD40L, the exact mechanism of monocyte-derived cell-induced survival is not known. An important role has been attributed to the TNFR ligand, a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), although the exact mechanism remained unclear. Since we detected that APRIL was expressed by CD68+ cells in CLL LN, we addressed its relevance in various aspects of CLL biology, using a novel APRIL overexpressing co-culture system, recombinant APRIL, and APRIL reporter cells. Unexpectedly, we found, that in these various systems, APRIL had no effect on survival of CLL cells, and activation of NF-κB was not enhanced on APRIL stimulation. Moreover, APRIL stity mulation did not affect CLL proliferation, neither as single stimulus nor in combination with known CLL proliferation stimuli. Furthermore, the survival effect conveyed by macrophages to CLL cells was not affected by transmembrane activator and CAML interactor-Fc, an APRIL decoy receptor. We conclude that the direct role ascribed to APRIL in CLL cell survival might be overestimated due to application of supraphysiological levels of recombinant APRIL. PMID:27551513

  11. Innovative immunohistochemistry identifies MMP-9 expressing macrophages at the invasive front of murine HCC.

    PubMed

    Roderfeld, Martin; Rath, Timo; Lammert, Frank; Dierkes, Christian; Graf, Jürgen; Roeb, Elke

    2010-05-27

    To investigate the proteolytic contribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in tumor invasion, we analyzed whether TAM at the invasive front of small HCC in Abcb4(-/-)-mice show an enhanced expression of MMP-9. Liver cryosections of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasive front from 12 mo old Abcb4(-/-)-mice were stained for collagen type I and MMP-9 using Alexa488 and Alexa568 labeled secondary antibodies. Afterwards, the Alexa568 dye was bleached and the macrophage marker F4/80 was visualized using Alexa568 labeled secondary antibodies. Finally, photographs of the invasive tumor front were digitally overlaid and analyzed. After complete bleaching of the primary dye, specific fluorescence staining of a third antigen, here F4/80, was successfully performed on the same histological section. With this method, we were able to identify conglomerates of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) expressing macrophages within the tumor capsule of HCC. MMP-9 expressing macrophages are involved in matrix remodelling at the invasive tumor front of HCC. The described staining protocol provides a simple yet powerful extension of conventional immuno-histochemistry, facilitating visualization of at least three different antigens plus nuclei in one single histological section.

  12. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  13. Innovative immunohistochemistry identifies MMP-9 expressing macrophages at the invasive front of murine HCC

    PubMed Central

    Roderfeld, Martin; Rath, Timo; Lammert, Frank; Dierkes, Christian; Graf, Jürgen; Roeb, Elke

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the proteolytic contribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in tumor invasion, we analyzed whether TAM at the invasive front of small HCC in Abcb4-/--mice show an enhanced expression of MMP-9. METHODS: Liver cryosections of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasive front from 12 mo old Abcb4-/--mice were stained for collagen type I and MMP-9 using Alexa488 and Alexa568 labeled secondary antibodies. Afterwards, the Alexa568 dye was bleached and the macrophage marker F4/80 was visualized using Alexa568 labeled secondary antibodies. Finally, photographs of the invasive tumor front were digitally overlaid and analyzed. RESULTS: After complete bleaching of the primary dye, specific fluorescence staining of a third antigen, here F4/80, was successfully performed on the same histological section. With this method, we were able to identify conglomerates of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) expressing macrophages within the tumor capsule of HCC. CONCLUSION: MMP-9 expressing macrophages are involved in matrix remodelling at the invasive tumor front of HCC. The described staining protocol provides a simple yet powerful extension of conventional immuno-histochemistry, facilitating visualization of at least three different antigens plus nuclei in one single histological section. PMID:21160992

  14. STAT6−/− mice exhibit decreased cells with alternatively activated macrophage phenotypes and enhanced disease severity in murine neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Teale, Judy M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, using a murine model for neurocysticercosis, macrophage phenotypes and their functions were examined. Mesocestoides corti infection in the central nervous system (CNS) induced expression of markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) and a scarcity of iNOS, a classically activated macrophage marker. The infection in STAT6−/− mice resulted in significantly reduced accumulation of AAMs as well as enhanced susceptibility to infection coinciding with increased parasite burden and greater neuropathology. These results demonstrate that macrophages in the helminth infected CNS are largely of AAM phenotypes, particularly as the infection progresses, and that STAT6 dependent responses, possibly involving AAMs, are essential for controlling neurocysticercosis. PMID:21051093

  15. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  16. Real-time high-resolution magnetic resonance tracking of macrophage subpopulations in a murine inflammation model: a pilot study with a commercially available cryogenic probe.

    PubMed

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Luciani, Nathalie; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Mattar, Essam; Clement, Olivier; Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages present different polarization states exhibiting distinct functions in response to environmental stimuli. However, the dynamic of their migration to sites of inflammation is not fully elucidated. Here we propose a real-time in vivo cell tracking approach, using high-resolution (HR)-MRI obtained with a commercially available cryogenic probe (Cryoprobe™), to monitor trafficking of differently polarized macrophages after systemic injection into mice. Murine bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were differentiated ex vivo into nonpolarized M0, pro-inflammatory M1 and immunomodulator M2 macrophage subsets and labeled with citrate-coated anionic iron oxide nanoparticles (AMNP). These cells were subsequently intravenously injected to mice bearing calf muscle inflammation. Whole body migration dynamics of macrophage subsets was monitored by MRI at 4.7 T with a volume transmission/reception radiofrequency coil and macrophage infiltration to the inflamed paw was monitored with the cryogenic probe, allowing 3D spatial resolution of 50 µm with a scan time of only 10 min. Capture of AMNP was rapid and efficient regardless of macrophage polarization, with the highest uptake in M2 macrophages. Flow cytometry confirmed that macrophages preserved their polarization hallmarks after labeling. Migration kinetics of labeled cells differed from that of free AMNP. A preferential homing of M2-polarized macrophages to inflammation sites was observed. Our in vivo HR-MRI protocol highlights the extent of macrophage infiltration to the inflammation site. Coupled to whole body imaging, HR-MRI provides quantitative information on the time course of migration of ex vivo-polarized intravenously injected macrophages.

  17. Activation of murine macrophages by G1-4A, a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, in TLR4/MyD88 dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pramod Kumar; Rajan, M G R; Kulkarni, Savita

    2017-09-01

    Macrophages are centrally placed in the innate immune system and their activation is crucial to the generation of appropriate immune response in the event of any pathogenic invasion, tumorigenesis or other human diseases. Many plant derived polysaccharides are known to activate macrophages. In the present study, effects of G1-4A, a polysaccharide derived from Tinospora cordifolia, on the activation of macrophages were investigated. Our data demonstrated the up regulation of expression of TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ in RAW 264.7 cell line and peritoneal macrophages after G-14A treatment. Nitric oxide levels were also enhanced along with up-regulation of NOS2 expression in murine macrophages post G1-4A treatment. Further, G1-4A treatment up-regulated the surface expression of MHC-II and CD-86 in macrophages. Using siRNA against TLR4, MyD88 and anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies, we established that G1-4A activated macrophages by classical pathway in TLR4-MyD88 dependent manner. Additionally, G1-4A treatment activated p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in macrophages. Using pharmaceutical inhibitors of above MAPKs we concluded that G1-4A activates the macrophages by activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in RAW264.7 macrophages. Thus our data suggests the activation of macrophages by classical pathway after treatment of G1-4A. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor-associated macrophages promotes breast cancer cell survival by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jing; Lin, Yong; Xiang, Tingxiu; Wan, Jingyuan; Li, Hongyuan; Chouaib, Salem; Ren, Guosheng

    2015-10-06

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer cell survival, however, the mechanism of which remains elusive. In this study, we found that COX-2 was abundantly expressed in breast TAMs, which was correlated to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Ectopic over-expression of COX-2 in TAMs enhanced breast cancer cell survival both in vitro and in vivo. COX-2 in TAMs was determined to be essential for the induction and maintenance of M2-phenotype macrophage polarity. COX-2(+) TAMs promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by increasing Bcl-2 and P-gp and decreasing Bax in cancer cells. Furthermore, COX-2 in TAMs induced the expression of COX-2 in breast cancer cells, which in turn promoted M2 macrophage polarization. Inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in cancer cells suppressed COX-2(+) TAMs-induced cancer cell survival. These findings suggest that COX-2, functions as a key cancer promoting factor by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells, which could be exploited for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

  19. Inhibition of Macrophage Functions by the C-Terminus of Murine S100A9 Is Dependent on B-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Rosana Lima; Moraes, Natassja Foizer; De Lorenzo, Beatriz Helena; Coccuzzo Sampaio, Sandra; Mariano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The protein S100A9 plays a key role in the control of inflammatory response. The C-terminus of the murine S100A9 protein (mS100A9p) downregulates the spreading and phagocytic activity of adherent peritoneal cells. Murine peritoneal cells are constituted by macrophages and B-1 cells, and the latter exert an inhibitory effect on macrophage functions by secreting interleukin- (IL-) 10. Here, we investigated the influence of B-1 cells on the inhibitory effect evoked by mS100A9p on macrophages. mS100A9p did not alter spreading and phagocytosis either by peritoneal macrophages obtained from mice deprived of B-1 cells or by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMϕ). Nevertheless, when BMDMϕ were cocultivated by direct or indirect contact with B-1 cells treated with mS100A9p, the phagocytosis by BMDMϕ was decreased, showing that the effect of mS100A9p on macrophages was modulated by B-1 cells and/or their secretory compounds. Furthermore, the inhibitory action of mS100A9p on phagocytosis by adherent peritoneal cells was abolished in cells obtained from IL-10 knockout mice. Taken together, the results show that mS100A9p has no direct inhibitory effect on macrophages; however, mS100A9p modulates B-1 cells, which in turn downregulates macrophages, at least in part, via IL-10. These data contribute to the characterization of S100A9 functions involving B-1 cells in the regulation of the inflammatory process. PMID:25276056

  20. Effect of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor in irradiated murine recipients of T-cell-depleted allogeneic or non-depleted syngeneic bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed

    Blazar, B R; Aukerman, S L; Vallera, D A

    1992-03-15

    Recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rM-CSF), which reacts exclusively with cells of monocyte lineage, was evaluated in the murine bone marrow (BM) transplant setting for in vivo effects on recipient survival, hematologic recovery, and engraftment. Two types of fully allogeneic donors were selected based on the expression (BALB/c), or lack of expression (DBA/1), of hybrid hematopoietic histocompatibility (Hh1) antigens. These antigens are established targets for monocyte and/or natural killer (NK) cell-mediated graft rejection. Irradiated C57BL/6 mice were used as recipients for all experiments. Recipients of T-cell-depleted (TCD) BALB/c BM and a 14-day continuous subcutaneous infusion of 16.8 micrograms/d rM-CSF (n = 30) showed a significant decrease in donor cell engraftment as compared with recipients of donor BM administered pumps delivering saline. These mice administered rM-CSF also displayed significantly reduced levels of circulating leukocytes (predominantly lymphocytes) on day 14 posttransplant (compared with saline controls). Neither engraftment effects nor leukocyte effects were observed when C57BL/6 recipients were administered Hh1 nonexpressing TCD DBA/1 BM cells (n = 30), suggesting that the monocyte/macrophage population is important in long-term alloengraftment in certain donor-recipient strain combinations in which donor Hh1 antigens can serve as target antigens for host effector cells, but are not important in strain combinations in which they are not recognized. Circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) levels measured at two time periods during rM-CSF infusion were not elevated. Thus, the reduction in alloengraftment is not likely to be directly related to TNF alpha. However, in vivo elimination of NK cells in the BALB/c into C57BL/6 model prevented the impairment of engraftment mediated by rM-CSF. Thus, rM-CSF-mediated inhibition of alloengraftment is contingent on the presence of host NK cells with antidonor reactivity

  1. HIV-related proteins prolong macrophage survival through induction of Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhihong; Fan, Xian; Staitieh, Bashar; Bedi, Chetna; Spearman, Paul; Guidot, David M; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2017-01-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1(TREM-1) is a member of the superimmunoglobulin receptor family. We have previously shown that TREM-1 prolongs survival of macrophages treated with lipoolysaccharide through Egr2-Bcl2 signaling. Recent studies suggest a role for TREM-1 in viral immunity. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) targets the monocyte/macrophage lineage at varying stages of infection. Emerging data suggest that macrophages are key reservoirs for latent HIV even in individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Here, we investigated the potential role of TREM-1 in HIV latency in macrophages. Our data show that human macrophages infected with HIV show an increased expression of TREM-1. In parallel, direct exposure to the HIV-related proteins Tat or gp120 induces TREM-1 expression in macrophages and confers anti-apoptotic attributes.NF-κB p65 silencing identified that these proteins induce TREM-1 in p65-dependent manner. TREM-1 silencing in macrophages exposed to HIV-related proteins led to increased caspase 3 activation and reduced Bcl-2 expression, rendering them susceptible to apotosis. These novel data reveal that TREM-1 may play a critical role in establishing HIV reservoir in macrophages by inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, targeting TREM-1 could be a novel therapeutic approach to enhance clearance of the HIV reservoir, at least within the macrophage pools. PMID:28181540

  2. Gremlin-1 inhibits macrophage migration inhibitory factor-dependent monocyte function and survival.

    PubMed

    Müller, Iris I; Chatterjee, Madhumita; Schneider, Martina; Borst, Oliver; Seizer, Peter; Schönberger, Tanja; Vogel, Sebastian; Müller, Karin A L; Geisler, Tobias; Lang, Florian; Langer, Harald; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2014-10-20

    Monocyte migration and their differentiation into macrophages critically regulate vascular inflammation and atherogenesis and are governed by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Gremlin-1 binds to MIF. Current experimental evidences present Gremlin-1 as a potential physiological agent that might counter-regulate the inflammatory attributes of MIF. We found that Gremlin-1 inhibited MIF-dependent monocyte migration and adhesion to activated endothelial cells in flow chamber perfusion assay in vitro and to the injured carotid artery of WT and ApoE-/- mice in vivo as deciphered by intravital microscopy. Intravenous administration of Gremlin-1, but not of control protein, significantly reduced leukocyte recruitment towards the inflamed carotid artery of ApoE-/- mice. Besides, leukocytes from MIF-/- when administered into ApoE-/- mice showed lesser adhesion as compared to wild type. In the presence of Gremlin-1 however, adhesion of wild type, but not of MIF-/- leukocytes, to the carotid artery was significantly inhibited as compared to control. Gremlin-1 also inhibited the MIF-induced differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Gremlin-1 substantially inhibited the anti-apoptotic impact of MIF on monocytes against BH3 mimetic ABT-737-induced apoptosis as verified by Annexin V-binding, caspase 3 activity, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore Gremlin-1 can modulate MIF dependent monocyte adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Notch1 regulated autophagy controls survival and suppressor activity of activated murine T-regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Nimi; Sarin, Apurva

    2016-01-01

    Cell survival is one of several processes regulated by the Notch pathway in mammalian cells. Here we report functional outcomes of non-nuclear Notch signaling to activate autophagy, a conserved cellular response to nutrient stress, regulating survival in murine natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), an immune subset controlling tolerance and inflammation. Induction of autophagy required ligand-dependent, Notch intracellular domain (NIC) activity, which controlled mitochondrial organization and survival of activated Tregs. Consistently, NIC immune-precipitated Beclin and Atg14, constituents of the autophagy initiation complex. Further, ectopic expression of an effector of autophagy (Atg3) or recombinant NIC tagged to a nuclear export signal (NIC-NES), restored autophagy and suppressor function in Notch1-/- Tregs. Furthermore, Notch1 deficiency in the Treg lineage resulted in immune hyperactivity, implicating Notch activity in Treg homeostasis. Notch1 integration with autophagy, revealed in these experiments, holds implications for Notch regulated cell-fate decisions governing differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14023.001 PMID:27267497

  4. Dendritic cell immunotherapy combined with gemcitabine chemotherapy enhances survival in a murine model of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghansah, Tomar; Vohra, Nasreen; Kinney, Kathleen; Weber, Amy; Kodumudi, Krithika; Springett, Gregory; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari

    2013-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice have multiple immunoregulatory subsets including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that may limit the effectiveness of anti-tumor immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer. It is possible that modulating these subsets will enhance anti-tumor immunity. The goal of this study was to explore depletion of immunoregulatory cells to enhance dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy in a murine model of pancreatic cancer. Flow cytometry results showed an increase in both Tregs and MDSC in untreated pancreatic cancer-bearing mice compared with control. Elimination of Tregs alone or in combination with DC-based vaccination had no effect on pancreatic tumor growth or survival. Gemcitabine (Gem) is a chemotherapeutic drug routinely used for the treatment for pancreatic cancer patients. Treatment with Gem led to a significant decrease in MDSC percentages in the spleens of tumor-bearing mice, but did not enhance overall survival. However, combination therapy with DC vaccination followed by Gem treatment led to a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival in pancreatic cancer-bearing mice. Increased MDSC were measured in the peripheral blood of patients with pancreatic cancer. Treatment with Gem also led to a decrease of this population in pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting that combination therapy with DC-based cancer vaccination and Gem may lead to improved treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  5. Streptolysin O and NAD-glycohydrolase prevent phagolysosome acidification and promote group A Streptococcus survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bastiat-Sempe, Benedicte; Love, John F; Lomayesva, Natalie; Wessels, Michael R

    2014-09-16

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is an ongoing threat to human health as the agent of streptococcal pharyngitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and life-threatening conditions such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In animal models of infection, macrophages have been shown to contribute to host defense against GAS infection. However, as GAS can resist killing by macrophages in vitro and induce macrophage cell death, it has been suggested that GAS intracellular survival in macrophages may enable persistent infection. Using isogenic mutants, we now show that the GAS pore-forming toxin streptolysin O (SLO) and its cotoxin NAD-glycohydrolase (NADase) mediate GAS intracellular survival and cytotoxicity for macrophages. Unexpectedly, the two toxins did not inhibit fusion of GAS-containing phagosomes with lysosomes but rather prevented phagolysosome acidification. SLO served two essential functions, poration of the phagolysosomal membrane and translocation of NADase into the macrophage cytosol, both of which were necessary for maximal GAS intracellular survival. Whereas NADase delivery to epithelial cells is mediated by SLO secreted from GAS bound to the cell surface, in macrophages, the source of SLO and NADase is GAS contained within phagolysosomes. We found that transfer of NADase from the phagolysosome to the macrophage cytosol occurs not by simple diffusion through SLO pores but rather by a specific translocation mechanism that requires the N-terminal translocation domain of NADase. These results illuminate the mechanisms through which SLO and NADase enable GAS to defeat macrophage-mediated killing and provide new insight into the virulence of a major human pathogen. Macrophages constitute an important element of the innate immune response to mucosal pathogens. They ingest and kill microbes by phagocytosis and secrete inflammatory cytokines to recruit and activate other effector cells. Group A Streptococcus (GAS

  6. Nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy improves survival in a murine glioma model.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily S; Thompson, Patrick A; Zhang, Linna; Lewinski, Nastassja A; Ahmed, Nabil; Drezek, Rebekah A; Blaney, Susan M; West, Jennifer L

    2011-08-01

    We are developing a novel treatment for high-grade gliomas using near infrared-absorbing silica-gold nanoshells that are thermally activated upon exposure to a near infrared laser, thereby irreversibly damaging cancerous cells. The goal of this work was to determine the efficacy of nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy in vivo in murine xenograft models. Tumors were induced in male IcrTac:ICR-Prkdc(SCID) mice by subcutaneous implantation of Firefly Luciferase-labeled U373 human glioma cells and biodistribution and survival studies were performed. To evaluate nanoparticle biodistribution, nanoshells were delivered intravenously to tumor-bearing mice and after 6, 24, or 48 h the tumor, liver, spleen, brain, muscle, and blood were assessed for gold content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and histology. Nanoshell concentrations in the tumor increased for the first 24 h and stabilized thereafter. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by delivering saline or nanoshells intravenously and externally irradiating tumors with a near infrared laser 24 h post-injection. Success of treatment was assessed by monitoring tumor size, tumor luminescence, and survival time of the mice following laser irradiation. There was a significant improvement in survival for the nanoshell treatment group versus the control (P < 0.02) and 57% of the mice in the nanoshell treatment group remained tumor free at the end of the 90-day study period. By comparison, none of the mice in the control group survived beyond 24 days and mean survival was only 13.3 days. The results of these studies suggest that nanoshell-mediated photothermal therapy represents a promising novel treatment strategy for malignant glioma.

  7. Effects of fly ash inhalation on murine immune function: changes in macrophage-mediated activities

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkower, A.; Eskew, M.L.; Scheuchenzuber, W.J.; Graham, J.A.

    1982-10-01

    Mice were exposed to fly ash particles (<2.1 ..mu..m diameter) by inhalation for variable amounts of time at concentrations ranging from 535 to 2221 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. This fine fraction was approximately 32% by weight of the total dust generated. The effects of these exposures were assessed on macrophage-mediated functions. Phagocytosis of bacterial cells by the alveolar macrophages was depressed in the fly ash-exposed animals as was the ability to enhance T-cell mitogenesis. Fly ash exposure failed to produce a significant change in the cellular immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction) to antigenic challenge in the lungs of sensitized animals.

  8. Guardians of the Gut – Murine Intestinal Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Mor; Salame, Tomer-Meir; Jung, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mononuclear phagocytes find themselves in a unique environment, most prominently characterized by its constant exposure to commensal microbiota and food antigens. This anatomic setting has resulted in a number of specializations of the intestinal mononuclear phagocyte compartment that collectively contribute the unique steady state immune landscape of the healthy gut, including homeostatic innate lymphoid cells, B, and T cell compartments. As in other organs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate in addition the immune defense against pathogens, both in lymph nodes and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Here, we will discuss origins and functions of intestinal DCs and macrophages and their respective subsets, focusing largely on the mouse and cells residing in the lamina propria. PMID:26082775

  9. Matricellular protein CCN1 activates a proinflammatory genetic program in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tao; Chen, Chih-Chiun; Lau, Lester F

    2010-03-15

    CCN1 (CYR61) is a matricellular protein that is highly expressed at sites of inflammation and wound repair. In these contexts, CCN1 can modify the activities of specific cytokines, enabling TNF-alpha to be cytotoxic without blocking NF-kappaB activity and enhancing the apoptotic activity of Fas ligand and TRAIL. In this paper, we show that CCN1 supports the adhesion of macrophages through integrin alpha(M)beta(2) and syndecan-4, activates NFkappaB-mediated transcription, and induces a proinflammatory genetic program characteristic of classically activated M1 macrophages that participates in Th1 responses. The effects of CCN1 include upregulation of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12b), chemokines (MIP-1alpha; MCP-3; growth-related oncogenes 1 and 2; and inflammatory protein 10), and regulators of oxidative stress and complement (inducible NO synthase and C3) and downregulation of specific receptors (TLR4 and IL-10Rbeta) and anti-inflammatory factors (TGF-beta1). CCN1 regulates this genetic program through at least two distinct mechanisms: an immediate-early response resulting from direct activation of NF-kappaB by CCN1, leading to the synthesis of cytokines including TNF-alpha and inflammatory protein 10; and a delayed response resulting from CCN1-induced TNF-alpha, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine mediator to activate the expression of other cytokines including IL-1beta and IL-6. These results identify CCN1 as a novel component of the extracellular matrix that activates proinflammatory genes in macrophages, implicating its role in regulating macrophage function during inflammation.

  10. Analysis of the transcriptional networks underpinning the activation of murine macrophages by inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Sobia; Barnett, Mark W.; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Amit, Ido; Hume, David A.; Freeman, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages respond to the TLR4 agonist LPS with a sequential transcriptional cascade controlled by a complex regulatory network of signaling pathways and transcription factors. At least two distinct pathways are currently known to be engaged by TLR4 and are distinguished by their dependence on the adaptor molecule MyD88. We have used gene expression microarrays to define the effects of each of three variables—LPS dose, LPS versus IFN-β and -γ, and genetic background—on the transcriptional response of mouse BMDMs. Analysis of correlation networks generated from the data has identified subnetworks or modules within the macrophage transcriptional network that are activated selectively by these variables. We have identified mouse strain-specific signatures, including a module enriched for SLE susceptibility candidates. In the modules of genes unique to different treatments, we found a module of genes induced by type-I IFN but not by LPS treatment, suggesting another layer of complexity in the LPS-TLR4 signaling feedback control. We also observe that the activation of the complement system, in common with the known activation of MHC class 2 genes, is reliant on IFN-γ signaling. Taken together, these data further highlight the exquisite nature of the regulatory systems that control macrophage activation, their likely relevance to disease resistance/susceptibility, and the appropriate response of these cells to proinflammatory stimuli. PMID:24721704

  11. Pirfenidone ameliorates murine chronic GVHD through inhibition of macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Paz, Katelyn; Flynn, Ryan; Vulic, Ante; Robinson, Tara M; Lineburg, Katie E; Alexander, Kylie A; Meng, Jingjing; Roy, Sabita; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Loschi, Michael; Hill, Geoffrey R; Serody, Jonathan S; Maillard, Ivan; Miklos, David; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey S; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; MacDonald, Kelli P; Schacker, Timothy W; Luznik, Leo; Blazar, Bruce R

    2017-03-02

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is hampered by chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) resulting in multi-organ fibrosis and diminished function. Fibrosis in lung and skin leads to progressive bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and scleroderma, respectively, for which new treatments are needed. We evaluated pirfenidone, a FDA approved drug for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for its therapeutic effect in cGVHD mouse models with distinct pathophysiology. In a full MHC-mismatched, multi-organ system model with BO, donor T cell responses that support pathogenic antibody production are required for cGVHD development. Pirfenidone treatment beginning one month post-transplant restored pulmonary function and reversed lung fibrosis, which was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and TGF-β production. Pirfenidone dampened splenic germinal center B cell and T follicular helper cell frequencies that collaborate to produce antibody. In both a minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched as well as a MHC-haploidentical model of sclerodermatous cGVHD, pirfenidone significantly reduced macrophages in the skin, although clinical improvement of scleroderma was only seen in one model. In vitro chemotaxis assays demonstrated that pirfenidone impaired macrophage migration to MCP-1 as well as IL-17A, that has been linked to cGVHD generation. Taken together, our data suggest that pirfenidone is a potential therapeutic agent to ameliorate fibrosis in cGVHD.

  12. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Rodrigues, Ana Paula D; Farias, Luis Henrique S; Hage, Amanda Anastácia P; Do Nascimento, Jose Luiz M; Silva, Edilene O

    2014-10-03

    The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent.

  13. Physalis angulata induces in vitro differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bone marrow is a hematopoietic tissue that, in the presence of cytokines and growth factors, generates all of the circulating blood cells. These cells are important for protecting the organism against pathogens and for establishing an effective immune response. Previous studies have shown immunomodulatory effects of different products isolated from plant extracts. This study aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aqueous Physalis angulata (AEPa) extract on the differentiation of bone marrow cells. Results Increased cellular area, higher spreading ability and several cytoplasmatic projections were observed in the treated cells, using optical microscopy, suggesting cell differentiation. Furthermore, AEPa did not promote the proliferation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, however promotes increased the number of macrophages in the culture. The ultrastructural analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy of treated cells showed spreading ability, high number of cytoplasmatic projections and increase of autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, a high level of LC3b expression by treated cells was detected by flow cytometry, suggesting an autophagic process. Cell surface expression of F4/80 and CD11b also indicated that AEPa may stimulate differentiation of bone marrow cells mainly into macrophages. In addition, AEPa did not differentiate cells into dendritic cells, as assessed by CD11c analysis. Furthermore, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the cells treated with AEPa. Conclusion Results demonstrate that AEPa promotes the differentiation of bone marrow cells, particularly into macrophages and may hold promise as an immunomodulating agent. PMID:25281406

  14. Analysis of the transcriptional networks underpinning the activation of murine macrophages by inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Raza, Sobia; Barnett, Mark W; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Amit, Ido; Hume, David A; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages respond to the TLR4 agonist LPS with a sequential transcriptional cascade controlled by a complex regulatory network of signaling pathways and transcription factors. At least two distinct pathways are currently known to be engaged by TLR4 and are distinguished by their dependence on the adaptor molecule MyD88. We have used gene expression microarrays to define the effects of each of three variables--LPS dose, LPS versus IFN-β and -γ, and genetic background--on the transcriptional response of mouse BMDMs. Analysis of correlation networks generated from the data has identified subnetworks or modules within the macrophage transcriptional network that are activated selectively by these variables. We have identified mouse strain-specific signatures, including a module enriched for SLE susceptibility candidates. In the modules of genes unique to different treatments, we found a module of genes induced by type-I IFN but not by LPS treatment, suggesting another layer of complexity in the LPS-TLR4 signaling feedback control. We also observe that the activation of the complement system, in common with the known activation of MHC class 2 genes, is reliant on IFN-γ signaling. Taken together, these data further highlight the exquisite nature of the regulatory systems that control macrophage activation, their likely relevance to disease resistance/susceptibility, and the appropriate response of these cells to proinflammatory stimuli.

  15. Isolation of nine gene sequences induced by silica in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Segade, F.; Claudio, E.; Wrobel, K.; Ramos, S.; Lazo, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Macrophage activation by silica is the initial step in the development of silicosis. To identify genes that might be involved in silica-mediated activation, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were treated with silica for 48 h, and a subtracted cDNA library enriched for silica-induced genes (SIG) was constructed and differently screened. Nine cDNA clones (designated SIG-12, -14, -20, -41, -61, -81, -91, and -111) were partially sequenced and compared with sequences in GenBank/EMBL databases. SIG-12, -14, and -20 corresponded to the genes for ribosomal proteins L13A, L32, and L26, respectively. SIG-61 is the mouse homologue of p21 RhoC. SIG-91 is identical to the 67-kDa high-affinity laminin receptor. Four genes were not identified and are novel. All of the mRNAs corresponding to the nine cloned cDNAs were inducible by silica. Steady-state levels of mRNAs in RAW 264.7 cells treated with various macrophage activators and inducers of signal transduction pathways were determined. A complex pattern of induction and repression was found, indicating that upon phagocytosis of silica particles, many regulatory mechanisms of genes expression are simultaneously triggered. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Morin hydrate augments phagocytosis mechanism and inhibits LPS induced autophagic signaling in murine macrophage.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Rekha; Paul, Souren; Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-10-01

    Morin, a natural flavonoid that is the primary bioactive constituent of the family Moraceae, has been found to be associated with many therapeutic properties. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of increasing concentration of morin hydrate in vitro. Three different concentrations of morin hydrate (5, 10, and 15μM) were used to evaluate their effect on splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic activity of macrophages, cytokine secretion and complement inhibition. We also evaluated the role of morin hydrate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced autophagy. Our study demonstrated that morin hydrate elicited a significant increase in splenocyte proliferation, phagocytic capacity and suppressed the production of cytokines and nitric oxide in activated macrophages. Humoral immunity measured by anti-complement activity showed an increase in inhibition of the complement system after the addition of morin hydrate, where morin hydrate at 15μM concentration induced a significant inhibition. Depending on our results, we can also conclude that morin hydrate protects macrophages from LPS induced autophagic cell death. Our findings suggest that morin hydrate represents a structurally diverse class of flavonoid and this structural variability can profoundly affect its cell-type specificity and its biological activities. Supplementation of immune cells with morin hydrate has an upregulating and immunoprotective effect that shows potential as a countermeasure to the immune dysfunction and suggests an interesting use in inflammation related diseases.

  17. "In vivo" murine macrophages activation by a dichloromethane extract of Tilia x viridis.

    PubMed

    Davicino, Roberto; Micucci, Patricia; Zettler, Gabriela; Ferraro, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    Macrophages are involved in the host defense against infectious pathogens and tumors. Tilia species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, previously it was demonstrated that a dichloromethane (DM) extract possess antiproliferative action "in vitro" on a lymphoma cell line. The aim of this work was to study the "in vivo" effect of DM extract upon mice peritoneal macrophages. DM extract-activated macrophages phagocytosis through hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production (phagocytosis (%): basal 16.93 +/- 0.18, DM extract 25.93 +/- 2.8; H(2)O(2) (M): basal 0.0022 +/- 0.00016, DM extract 0.0036 +/- 0.0005; NO (mM): basal 0.0052 +/- 0.0007, DM extract 0.0099 +/- 0.0004). These actions were mediated by cell superoxide dismutase activation. On the other hand, DM extract decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha but increased interleukin-10 in serum. These results suggest that the modulation activity exerted by the extract on immune system cells could be an important mechanism to acquire resistance to tumors and infectious diseases.

  18. Cryptococcus neoformans Thermotolerance to Avian Body Temperature Is Sufficient For Extracellular Growth But Not Intracellular Survival In Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Simon A.; Voelz, Kerstin; May, Robin C.

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fatal fungal pathogen of humans that efficiently parasitises macrophages. Birds can be colonised by cryptococci and can transmit cryptococcosis to humans via inhalation of inoculated bird excreta. However, colonisation of birds appears to occur in the absence of symptomatic infection. Here, using a pure population of primary bird macrophages, we demonstrate a mechanism for this relationship. We find that bird macrophages are able to suppress the growth of cryptococci seen in mammalian cells despite C. neoformans being able to grow at bird body temperature, and are able to escape from bird macrophages by vomocytosis. A small subset of cryptococci are able to adapt to the inhibitory intracellular environment of bird macrophages, exhibiting a large cell phenotype that rescues growth suppression. Thus, restriction of intracellular growth combined with survival at bird body temperature explains the ability of birds to efficiently spread C. neoformans in the environment whilst avoiding systemic disease. PMID:26883088

  19. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  20. Taurine Chloramine Stimulates Efferocytosis Through Upregulation of Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Murine Macrophages: Possible Involvement of Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonki; Kim, Hoon-Ui; Lee, Ha-Na; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Chaekyun; Cha, Young-Nam; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Jang, Jaebong; Kim, Kyeojin; Suh, Young-Ger; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Jin Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2015-07-10

    To examine the pro-resolving effects of taurine chloramine (TauCl). TauCl injected into the peritoneum of mice enhanced the resolution of zymosan A-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, when the macrophages obtained from peritoneal exudates were treated with TauCl, their efferocytic ability was elevated. In the murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells exposed to TauCl, the proportion of macrophages engulfing the apoptotic neutrophils was also increased. In these macrophages treated with TauCl, expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was elevated along with increased nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). TauCl binds directly to Kelch-like ECH association protein 1 (Keap1), which appears to retard the Keap1-driven degradation of Nrf2. This results in stabilization and enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulation of HO-1 expression. TauCl, when treated to peritoneal macrophages isolated from either Nrf2 or HO-1 wild-type mice, stimulated efferocytosis (phagocytic engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages), but not in the macrophages from Nrf2 or HO-1 knockout mice. Furthermore, transcriptional expression of some scavenger receptors recognizing the phosphatidylserines exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells was increased in RAW264.7 cells treated with TauCl. Pharmacologic inhibition of HO-1 activity or knockdown of HO-1 gene in RAW264.7 cells abolished the TauCl-induced efferocytosis, whereas both overexpression of HO-1 and treatment with carbon monoxide (CO), the product of HO, potentiated the efferocytic activity of macrophages. This work provides the first evidence that TauCl stimulates efferocytosis by macrophages. The results of this study suggest the therapeutic potential of TauCl in the management of inflammatory disorders. TauCl can facilitate resolution of inflammation by increasing the efferocytic activity of macrophages through Nrf2-mediated HO-1 upregulation and subsequent production of CO.

  1. DDT inhibits the functional activation of murine macrophages and decreases resistance to infection by Mycobacterium microti.

    PubMed

    Nuñez G, María Andrea; Estrada, Iris; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2002-06-05

    DDT is still widely used in several parts of the world to control malaria, typhoid and dengue vectors, even though its use was banned in many countries based on toxicity data in wild life species. DDT has been shown to have immunotoxic effects in mice and to increase susceptibility to intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Activated macrophages play an important defensive role against intracellular pathogens, therefore our objective was to evaluate the effect of in vitro exposure to technical grade DDT (a mixture of three forms: 1,1,1-thricloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) (85%), o,p'-DDT (15%) and o,o'-DDT (trace amounts)), p,p'-DDT, 1,1-dicloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane on the functional activation of J774A.1 macrophages and their capability to limit growth of intracellular pathogens, using Mycobacterium microti as a model. We evaluated cytotoxicity and the effect on cell proliferation of 2.5, 5.0 and 10 microg/ml of DDT compounds. Functional macrophage activity (NO(*) and O(2)(-) production, and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and iNO synthase) and the ability of treated cells to limit infection by M. microti in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages were evaluated in cells exposed to 2.5 microg/ml of DDT compounds. Doses of 5 and 10 microg/ml induced direct cytotoxic effects precluding meaningful analysis of the above parameters, whereas 2.5 microg/ml of all DDT compounds inhibited macrophage activity and reduced their ability to limit the intracellular growth of M. microti without inducing cytotoxicity. Technical grade DDT and p,p'-DDE were the more potent compounds. Therefore, exposure to DDT compounds could represent an important risk for infection development by those intracellular pathogens against which NO(*) and/or O(2)(-) production represent the main immune protective mechanism.

  2. Activation of TGF-beta by Leishmania chagasi: importance for parasite survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Kira R; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Rodriguez, Nilda; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Nascimento, Eliana T; Goldman, Todd L; Recker, Thomas J; Miller, Melissa A; Wilson, Mary E

    2003-03-01

    TGF-beta is a potent regulatory cytokine that suppresses expression of inducible NO synthase and IFN-gamma, and suppresses Th1 and Th2 cell development. We examined whether functionally active TGF-beta is present in the local environment surrounding the invading protozoan Leishmania chagasi. Our prior data showed that TGF-beta levels are significantly increased in L. chagasi-infected mice. In the current study, we found TGF-beta was also abundant in bone marrows of humans with acute visceral leishmaniasis but not in those of uninfected controls. Furthermore, L. chagasi infection caused an increase in biologically active TGF-beta in human macrophage cultures without changing the total TGF-beta. Therefore, we investigated the means through which leishmania could augment activated but not total TGF-beta. Incubation of latent TGF-beta with Leishmania sp. promastigotes caused active TGF-beta to be released from the latent complex. In contrast, the nonpathogenic protozoan Crithidia fasciculata could not activate TGF-beta. TGF-beta activation by leishmania was prevented by inhibitors of cysteine proteases and by the specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA074. Physiologic concentrations of TGF-beta inhibited killing of intracellular L. chagasi in macrophages, although the phagocytosis-induced respiratory burst remained intact. In contrast, supraphysiologic concentrations of TGF-beta had no effect on parasite survival. We hypothesize that the combined effect of abundant TGF-beta stores at extracellular sites during infection, and the ability of the parasite to activate TGF-beta in its local environment, leads to high levels of active TGF-beta in the vicinity of the infected macrophage. Locally activated TGF-beta could, in turn, enhance parasite survival through its effects on innate and adaptive immune responses.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Two Probiotic Bacterial Strains on Metabolism and Innate Immunity in the RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Biswaranjan; Guha, Dipanjan; Ray, Pratikshya; Das, Debashmita; Aich, Palok

    2016-06-01

    Probiotic and potential probiotic bacterial strains are routinely prescribed and used as supplementary therapy for a variety infectious diseases, including enteric disorders among a wide range of individuals. While there are an increasing number of studies defining the possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, a great deal remains unknown regarding the diverse modes of action attributed to these therapeutic agents. More precise information is required to support the appropriate application of probiotics. To address this objective, we selected two probiotics strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus MTCC-10307 (LA) and Bacillus clausii MTCC-8326 (BC) that are frequently prescribed for the treatment of intestinal disorders and investigated their effects on the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results reveal that LA and BC are potent activators of both metabolic activity and innate immune responses in these cells. We also observed that LA and BC possessed similar activity in preventing infection simulated in vitro in murine macrophages by Salmonella typhimurium serovar enterica.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Perturbs Acquisition of Lysosomal Enzymes and Requires Phagosomal Acidification for Survival inside Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tranchemontagne, Zachary R.; Camire, Ryan B.; O'Donnell, Vanessa J.; Baugh, Jessfor

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes invasive, drug-resistant skin and soft tissue infections. Reports that S. aureus bacteria survive inside macrophages suggest that the intramacrophage environment may be a niche for persistent infection; however, mechanisms by which the bacteria might evade macrophage phagosomal defenses are unclear. We examined the fate of the S. aureus-containing phagosome in THP-1 macrophages by evaluating bacterial intracellular survival and phagosomal acidification and maturation and by testing the impact of phagosomal conditions on bacterial viability. Multiple strains of S. aureus survived inside macrophages, and in studies using the MRSA USA300 clone, the USA300-containing phagosome acidified rapidly and acquired the late endosome and lysosome protein LAMP1. However, fewer phagosomes containing live USA300 bacteria than those containing dead bacteria associated with the lysosomal hydrolases cathepsin D and β-glucuronidase. Inhibiting lysosomal hydrolase activity had no impact on intracellular survival of USA300 or other S. aureus strains, suggesting that S. aureus perturbs acquisition of lysosomal enzymes. We examined the impact of acidification on S. aureus intramacrophage viability and found that inhibitors of phagosomal acidification significantly impaired USA300 intracellular survival. Inhibition of macrophage phagosomal acidification resulted in a 30-fold reduction in USA300 expression of the staphylococcal virulence regulator agr but had little effect on expression of sarA, saeR, or sigB. Bacterial exposure to acidic pH in vitro increased agr expression. Together, these results suggest that S. aureus survives inside macrophages by perturbing normal phagolysosome formation and that USA300 may sense phagosomal conditions and upregulate expression of a key virulence regulator that enables its intracellular survival. PMID:26502911

  5. TGF-beta 1 inhibits both endotoxin-induced prostaglandin synthesis and expression of the TIS10/prostaglandin synthase 2 gene in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S T; Gilbert, R S; Xie, W; Luner, S; Herschman, H R

    1994-02-01

    Activated macrophages produce substantial quantities of paracrine mediators, including cytokines, nitric oxide, and prostaglandins. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta) is a potent modulator of immune function. TGF-beta inhibits the cytotoxic activity of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage cell lines and primary macrophage cultures, reducing their expression of cytokines and nitric oxide. In this report we demonstrate that TGF-beta also attenuates the LPS-induced synthesis and secretion of prostaglandin E2 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Macrophage activation also induces accumulation of the recently described ligand-responsive prostaglandin synthase (PGS) TIS10/PGS-2. While TGF-beta alone has no effect on expression from the TIS10/PGS-2 gene, this cytokine inhibits LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 protein accumulation and synthesis, as well as LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells. TGF-beta concentrations in the range of 0.1-1.0 ng/ml (4-40 pM) maximally inhibit LPS-induced TIS10/PGS-2 message accumulation. In contrast, neither LPS nor TGF-beta has any effect on the level of PGS-1 (EC 1.14.99.1) message. TGF-beta also attenuates LPS-induced accumulation of unspliced TIS10/PGS-2 transcripts in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that this cytokine exerts its effects on TIS10/PGS-2 expression at the transcriptional level. TGF-beta inhibits the LPS-induced accumulation of TIS10/PGS-2 protein and message in cultured murine peritoneal macrophages, as well as in macrophage cell lines.

  6. The receptor tyrosine kinase MerTK activates phospholipase C γ2 during recognition of apoptotic thymocytes by murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Todt, Jill C.; Hu, Bin; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic leukocytes must be cleared efficiently by macrophages (Mø). Apoptotic cell phagocytosis by Mø requires the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) MerTK (also known as c-Mer and Tyro12), the phosphatidylserine receptor (PS-R), and the classical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform βII, which translocates to Mø membrane and cytoskeletal fractions in a PS-R-dependent fashion. How these molecules cooperate to induce phagocytosis is unknown. Because the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase (PI-PLC) PLC γ2 is downstream of RTKs in some cell types and can activate classical PKCs, we hypothesized that MerTK signals via PLC γ2. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interaction of MerTK and PLC γ2 in resident murine PMø and in the murine Mø cell line J774A.1 (J774) following exposure to apoptotic thymocytes. We found that, as with PMø, J774 phagocytosis of apoptotic thymocytes was inhibited by antibody against MerTK. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation showed that exposure to apoptotic cells produced three time-dependent changes in PMø and J774: (1) tyrosine phosphorylation of MerTK; (2) association of PLC γ2 with MerTK; and (3) tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC γ2. Phosphorylation of PLC γ2 and its association with MerTK was also induced by cross-linking MerTK using antibody. A PI-PLC appears to be required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells because the PI-PLC inhibitor Et-18-OCH3 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, but not the inactive control U73343, blocked phagocytosis without impairing adhesion. On apoptotic cell adhesion to Mø, MerTK signals at least in part via PLC γ2. PMID:14704368

  7. Survival advantage of heterozygous fV Leiden carriers in murine sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kerschen, Edward; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Maas, Matthias; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The high allelic frequency of the prothrombotic Leiden polymorphism in human blood coagulation factor V (fV) has been speculated to reflect positive selection during evolution. Heterozygous Leiden carriers enrolled in the placebo arm of the PROWESS sepsis trial, and heterozygous Leiden mice challenged with endotoxin both showed reduced mortality, whereas homozygous Leiden mice were not protected from lethal endotoxemia. Follow-up analyses of clinical outcomes, and of mouse models of infection with various pathogens remained inconclusive. Objective To establish whether aPC-resistance of fV Leiden modifies the outcome of bacterial infection in murine sepsis models. Methods Homozygous and heterozygous fV Leiden mice were subjected to gram-positive (S.aureus) or gram-negative (Y.pestis; E.coli) septic peritonitis, or polymicrobial, focal septic peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); and the effect of fV Leiden on 7-day survival and bacterial dissemination was assessed. Outcomes were compared to the sepsis survival of mice with genetically impaired hemostasis (hemophilia A, thrombocytopenia, thrombin receptor PAR4 deficiency, protein C receptor ProcR/EPCR-deficiency). Results Heterozygous, but not homozygous Leiden mice were protected from lethal infection with highly virulent S.aureus and Y.pestis strains. FV Leiden did not affect the outcome of sepsis induced by CLP, staphylokinase-deficient S.aureus, Pla-deficient Y.pestis, or E.coli. Thrombocytopenia, deficiency of PAR1 or PAR4 did not affect S.aureus sepsis survival, whereas hemophilia A increased mortality. ProcR-deficiency selectively abolished the survival advantage of heterozygous Leiden mice. Conclusions In mice, heterozygous fV Leiden carriers are protected from sepsis mortality after infection with clinically relevant human bacterial pathogens. PMID:25690763

  8. Survival advantage of heterozygous factor V Leiden carriers in murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Kerschen, E; Hernandez, I; Zogg, M; Maas, M; Weiler, H

    2015-06-01

    The high allelic frequency of the prothrombotic Leiden polymorphism in human blood coagulation factor V (FV) has been speculated to reflect positive selection during evolution. Heterozygous Leiden carriers enrolled in the placebo arm of the PROWESS sepsis trial and heterozygous Leiden mice challenged with endotoxin both showed reduced mortality, whereas homozygous Leiden mice were not protected from lethal endotoxemia. Follow-up analyses of clinical outcomes and of mouse models of infection with various pathogens remained inconclusive. To establish whether activated protein C resistance of FV Leiden modifies the outcome of bacterial infection in murine sepsis models. Homozygous and heterozygous FV Leiden mice were subjected to gram-positive (S. aureus) or gram-negative (Y. pestis; E. coli) septic peritonitis or polymicrobial, focal septic peritonitis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The effect of FV Leiden on 7-day survival and bacterial dissemination was assessed. Outcomes were compared with the sepsis survival of mice with genetically impaired hemostasis (hemophilia A, thrombocytopenia, thrombin receptor PAR4 [protease activated receptor 4] deficiency, endothelial protein C receptor [ProcR/EPCR] deficiency). Heterozygous, but not homozygous, Leiden mice were protected from lethal infection with highly virulent S. aureus and Y. pestis strains. FV Leiden did not affect the outcome of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, staphylokinase-deficient S. aureus, Pla-deficient Y. pestis, or E. coli. Thrombocytopenia, deficiency of PAR1 or PAR4 did not affect S. aureus sepsis survival, whereas hemophilia A increased mortality. ProcR deficiency selectively abolished the survival advantage of heterozygous Leiden mice. In mice, heterozygous FV Leiden carriers are protected from sepsis mortality after infection with clinically relevant human bacterial pathogens. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  9. Effects of Phenotype of Retinal Macrophages on the Features of Angiogenesis of Murine Retina.

    PubMed

    Lyamina, S V; Komova, O Yu; Gavrilova, N A; Malyshev, I Yu

    2016-12-01

    The period of forming of superficial vascular plexus during physiological retinal angiogenesis was shorter in C57Bl/6 mice. Experiments on the model of oxygen-induced retinopathy showed that avascular and vascularized zones in BALB/c mice on day 17 are smaller than in C57Bl/6 mice are by 5 and 1.5 times, respectively. The obtained results confirmed the importance of phenotype of retinal macrophages in the regulation of processes of both physiological and pathological retinal angiogenesis.

  10. The Anti-inflammatory Effects of Water Extract from Cordyceps militaris in Murine Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Wol Soon; Choi, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyoun Ji; Lee, Jae Yun; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Lee, Jae Dong; Lee, Sang Wha; Seo, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of hot water extract from Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies (CMWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of macrophages with various concentrations of hot CMWE significantly reduced LPS-induced production as well as NO, TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CMWE have potent inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators. PMID:23956624

  11. Sonicated Protein Fractions of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Induce Inflammatory Responses and Differential Gene Expression in a Murine Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Birhanu, Biruk Tesfaye; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-12-28

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is known to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), an important disease in swine production. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sonicated protein fractions of M. hyopneumoniae on inflammatory response and gene expression in the murine alveolar macrophage MH-S cell line. The effects of sonicated protein fractions and intact M. hyopneumoniae on the gene expression of cytokines and iNOS were assessed using RT-PCR. The Annealing Control Primer (ACP)-based PCR method was used to screen differentially expressed genes. Increased transcription of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, COX-2, and iNOS mRNA was observed after exposure to the supernatant (SPT), precipitant (PPT), and intact M. hyopneumoniae protein. A time-dependent analysis of the mRNA expression revealed an upregulation after 4 h for IL-6 and iNOS and after 12 h for IL-1β and TNF-α, for both SPT and PPT; the fold change in COX-2 expression was less. A dose- and time-dependent correlation was observed in nitrite (NO) production for both protein fractions; however, there was no significant difference between the effects of the two protein fractions. In a differential gene analysis, PCR revealed differential expression for nine gene bands after 3 h of stimulation - only one gene was downregulated, while the remaining eight were upregulated. The results of this study provide insights that help improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of and macrophage defenses against M. hyopneumoniae assault, and suggest targets for future studies on therapeutic interventions for M. hyopneumoniae infections.

  12. Chitosan coated Ag/ZnO nanocomposite and their antibiofilm, antifungal and cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Thaya, Rajagopalan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Jeyasekar, Raja; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Ramasamy, Palaniappan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, chitosan coated Ag/ZnO (CS/Ag/ZnO) nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive (B. licheniformis and B. cereus) bacteria at 8 μg mL(-1) compared to Gram negative (V. parahaemolyticus. and P. vulgaris) bacteria. CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite effectively inhibited the biofilm growth of Gram positive bacteria compared to Gram negative bacteria at 30 μg mL(-1). The hydrophobicity index and EPS (extracellular polysaccharide) production of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was decreased after treatment with 30 μg mL(-1) of CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite. CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite showed effective control of fungal C. albicans biofilm (92%) at 50 μg mL(-1). The inhibition of bacterial and fungal biofilms was clearly visualized under light and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed to be non toxic to RAW264.7 murine macrophages and no changes in the morphology of macrophages was observed under phase contrast microscopy. The study concludes that CS/Ag/ZnO nanocomposite is the promising candidate to be used as biomaterial against bacterial and fungal infections without any toxicity risk.

  13. Metformin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages via Activating Transcription Factor-3 (ATF-3) Induction*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyoung; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Yun-Seung; Rhee, Sang Dahl; Kim, Kwang Rok; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, a well known antidiabetic agent that improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, also elicits anti-inflammatory actions, but its mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of metformin action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. Metformin inhibited LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner and in parallel induction of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), a transcription factor and member of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein family. ATF-3 knockdown abolished the inhibitory effects of metformin on LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production accompanied with reversal of metformin-induced suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Conversely, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NF-κB suppression by metformin were unaffected by ATF-3 knockdown. ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that LPS-induced NF-κB enrichments on the promoters of IL-6 and TNF-α were replaced by ATF-3 upon metformin treatment. AMPK knockdown blunted all the effects of metformin (ATF-3 induction, proinflammatory cytokine inhibition, and MAPK inactivation), suggesting that AMPK activation by metformin is required for and precedes ATF-3 induction. Oral administration of metformin to either mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia or ob/ob mice lowered the plasma and tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased ATF-3 expression in spleen and lungs. These results suggest that metformin exhibits anti-inflammatory action in macrophages at least in part via pathways involving AMPK activation and ATF-3 induction. PMID:24973221

  14. Metformin suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in murine macrophages via activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) induction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Yun-Seung; Rhee, Sang Dahl; Kim, Kwang Rok; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2014-08-15

    Metformin, a well known antidiabetic agent that improves peripheral insulin sensitivity, also elicits anti-inflammatory actions, but its mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of metformin action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. Metformin inhibited LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner and in parallel induction of activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), a transcription factor and member of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein family. ATF-3 knockdown abolished the inhibitory effects of metformin on LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production accompanied with reversal of metformin-induced suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Conversely, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NF-κB suppression by metformin were unaffected by ATF-3 knockdown. ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that LPS-induced NF-κB enrichments on the promoters of IL-6 and TNF-α were replaced by ATF-3 upon metformin treatment. AMPK knockdown blunted all the effects of metformin (ATF-3 induction, proinflammatory cytokine inhibition, and MAPK inactivation), suggesting that AMPK activation by metformin is required for and precedes ATF-3 induction. Oral administration of metformin to either mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia or ob/ob mice lowered the plasma and tissue levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and increased ATF-3 expression in spleen and lungs. These results suggest that metformin exhibits anti-inflammatory action in macrophages at least in part via pathways involving AMPK activation and ATF-3 induction. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Mastoparan, a G protein agonist peptide, differentially modulates TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signaling in human endothelial cells and murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lentschat, Arnd; Karahashi, Hisae; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Thomas, Lisa S; Zhang, Wenxuan; Vogel, Stefanie N; Arditi, Moshe

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role for heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling in B cells, monocytes, and macrophages stimulated with LPS and have shown that G proteins coimmunoprecipitate with membrane-bound CD14. In this study, we have extended these observations in human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HMEC) that lack membrane-bound CD14 and in murine macrophages to define further the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in TLR signaling. Using the wasp venom-derived peptide, mastoparan, to disrupt G protein-coupled signaling, we identified a G protein-dependent signaling pathway in HMEC stimulated with TLR4 agonists that is necessary for the activation of p38 phosphorylation and kinase activity, NF-kappaB and IL-6 transactivation, and IL-6 secretion. In contrast, HMEC activation by TLR2 agonists, TNF-alpha, or IL-1beta was insensitive to mastoparan. In the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and in primary murine macrophages, G protein dysregulation by mastoparan resulted in significant inhibition of LPS-induced signaling leading to both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent gene expression, while TLR2-mediated gene expression was not significantly inhibited. In addition to inhibition of TLR4-mediated MAPK phosphorylation in macrophages, mastoparan blunted IL-1R-associated kinase-1 kinase activity induced by LPS, but not by TLR2 agonists, yet failed to affect phosphorylation of Akt by phosphoinositol-3-kinase induced by either TLR2- or TLR4-mediated signaling. These data confirm the importance of heterotrimeric G proteins in TLR4-mediated responses in cells that use either soluble or membrane-associated CD14 and reveal a level of TLR and signaling pathway specificity not previously appreciated.

  16. Group B streptococcus-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophages is CR3 (CD11b/CD18) dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, K J; McCormick, L L; Schneider, B

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by murine macrophages in response to cytokines and/or gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide. NO induction by gram-positive bacteria such as group B streptococci (GBS), the major etiologic agents of neonatal pneumonia and meningitis, has received little study. GBS as well as two other gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were found to stimulate NO production in thioglycolate-elicited murine macrophages and in the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 in the presence of gamma interferon. Serotype Ia and III GBS were both stimulatory, as were asialo- and type antigen-deficient mutant strains of type III GBS. NO production was dose dependent, inhibitable by L-arginine analogs, and unaffected by polymyxin B. Since phagocytosis by murine and human phagocytes of GBS is dependent on complement receptor type 3 (CR3), the role of CR3 in the NO response to GBS was tested in the CR3-deficient myelomonocytic cell line WEHI-3. GBS did not induce NO, whereas S. aureus or lipopolysaccharide did induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. S. epidermidis, whose nonopsonic phagocytosis is also CR3 dependent, failed to induce NO in WEHI-3 cells. Monoclonal anti-CR3 (anti-CD11b or anti-CD18) in the presence of interferon also induced NO production in thioglycolate-elicited macrophages and in J774A.1 cells but not in WEHI-3 cells. This evidence suggests that ligated CR3 and gamma interferon act synergistically to induce NO production and that CR3 mediates the GBS-induced signal for NO production in interferon-treated macrophages. PMID:8039877

  17. Cell-intrinsic regulation of murine dendritic cell function and survival by prereceptor amplification of glucocorticoid.

    PubMed

    Soulier, Annelise; Blois, Sandra M; Sivakumaran, Shivajanani; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Henderson, Stephen; Flutter, Barry; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G; Bennett, Clare; Curnow, S John; Chakraverty, Ronjon

    2013-11-07

    Although the inhibitory effects of therapeutic glucocorticoids (GCs) on dendritic cells (DCs) are well established, the roles of endogenous GCs in DC homeostasis are less clear. A critical element regulating endogenous GC concentrations involves local conversion of inactive substrates to active 11-hydroxyglucocorticoids, a reduction reaction catalyzed within the endoplasmic reticulum by an enzyme complex containing 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). In this study, we found that this GC amplification pathway operates both constitutively and maximally in steady state murine DC populations and is unaffected by additional inflammatory stimuli. Under physiologic conditions, 11βHSD1-H6PDH increases the sensitivity of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) to GC-induced apoptosis and restricts the survival of this population through a cell-intrinsic mechanism. Upon CpG activation, the effects of enzyme activity are overridden, with pDCs becoming resistant to GCs and fully competent to release type I interferon. CD8α(+) DCs are also highly proficient in amplifying GC levels, leading to impaired maturation following toll-like receptor-mediated signaling. Indeed, pharmacologic inhibition of 11βHSD1 synergized with CpG to enhance specific T-cell responses following vaccination targeted to CD8α(+) DCs. In conclusion, amplification of endogenous GCs is a critical cell-autonomous mechanism for regulating the survival and functions of DCs in vivo.

  18. Mannuronan enhances survival of lethally irradiated mice and stimulates murine haematopoiesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Halaas, O; Olsen, W M; Veiby, O P; Løvhaug, D; Skjåk-Braek, G; Vik, R; Espevik, T

    1997-10-01

    Mannuronan (poly-beta-(1-->4)-D-mannuronate or poly-M), produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a mucoid exopolysaccharide, has previously been shown to exhibit immunostimulating activity. The authors investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of mannuronan on murine haematopoiesis. In vivo, prophylactic (-24 h, intraperitoneal) administration of mannuronan enhanced survival of lethally irradiated mice from zero day 40 survivors (NaCl) to 20, 80 and 70% survival at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg bw mannuronan, respectively. In vitro, primary stromal cultures stimulated with mannuronan produced high levels of interleukin(IL)-1, IL-6 and colony stimulating activity. Mannuronan alone did not have any colony stimulating activity on GM-CFC, BFU-E, Mix-CFC or HPP-CFC progenitors in clonogenic assays, but acted synergistically with suboptimal amounts of growth factors on GM-CFC, Mix-CFC and HPP-CFC colony formation. Limiting dilution analysis showed that 1 of 423 bone marrow cells formed colonies in response to suboptimal GM-CSF plus mannuronan compared to 1 of 592 for suboptimal GM-CSF alone. The primitive Lin-Sca-1+ haematopoietic progenitors showed increased day 10 colony size in the presence of mannuronan in single cells assays. These stimulating effects of mannuronan on haematopoiesis may prove to have clinical importance.

  19. The Ornithine Decarboxylase Gene Is Essential for Cell Survival during Early Murine Development

    PubMed Central

    Pendeville, Hélène; Carpino, Nick; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Takahashi, Yutaka; Muller, Marc; Martial, Joseph A.; Cleveland, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Overexpression and inhibitor studies have suggested that the c-Myc target gene for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the enzyme which converts ornithine to putrescine, plays an important role in diverse biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis. To explore the physiological function of ODC in mammalian development, we generated mice harboring a disrupted ODC gene. ODC-heterozygous mice were viable, normal, and fertile. Although zygotic ODC is expressed throughout the embryo prior to implantation, loss of ODC did not block normal development to the blastocyst stage. Embryonic day E3.5 ODC-deficient embryos were capable of uterine implantation and induced maternal decidualization yet failed to develop substantially thereafter. Surprisingly, analysis of ODC-deficient blastocysts suggests that loss of ODC does not affect cell growth per se but rather is required for survival of the pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass. Therefore, ODC plays an essential role in murine development, and proper homeostasis of polyamine pools appears to be required for cell survival prior to gastrulation. PMID:11533243

  20. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases survival and reduces neuronal apoptosis in a murine model of cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Lothar; Hempel, Casper; Penkowa, Milena; Kirkby, Nikolai; Kurtzhals, Jørgen AL

    2008-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria (CM) is an acute encephalopathy with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and localized ischaemia. In children CM induces cognitive impairment in about 10% of the survivors. Erythropoietin (Epo) has – besides of its well known haematopoietic properties – significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects in various brain disorders. The neurobiological responses to exogenously injected Epo during murine CM were examined. Methods Female C57BL/6j mice (4–6 weeks), infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, were treated with recombinant human Epo (rhEpo; 50–5000 U/kg/OD, i.p.) at different time points. The effect on survival was measured. Brain pathology was investigated by TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labelling), as a marker of apoptosis. Gene expression in brain tissue was measured by real time PCR. Results Treatment with rhEpo increased survival in mice with CM in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced apoptotic cell death of neurons as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. This neuroprotective effect appeared to be independent of the haematopoietic effect. Conclusion These results and its excellent safety profile in humans makes rhEpo a potential candidate for adjunct treatment of CM. PMID:18179698

  1. Identification of a Novel Gene Product That Promotes Survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Assunta; Smith, Danielle; Brammananth, Rajini; Topolska, Agnieszka; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; Nagley, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae include significant human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae. Drug resistance in mycobacteria is increasingly common making identification of new antimicrobials a priority. Mycobacteria replicate intracellularly, most commonly within the phagosomes of macrophages, and bacterial proteins essential for intracellular survival and persistence are particularly attractive targets for intervention with new generations of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We have identified a novel gene that, when inactivated, leads to accelerated death of M. smegmatis within a macrophage cell line in the first eight hours following infection. Complementation of the mutant with an intact copy of the gene restored survival to near wild type levels. Gene disruption did not affect growth compared to wild type M. smegmatis in axenic culture or in the presence of low pH or reactive oxygen intermediates, suggesting the growth defect is not related to increased susceptibility to these stresses. The disrupted gene, MSMEG_5817, is conserved in all mycobacteria for which genome sequence information is available, and designated Rv0807 in M. tuberculosis. Although homology searches suggest that MSMEG_5817 is similar to the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase of Brevibacterium linens suggesting a possible role in glyoxylate metabolism, enzymatic assays comparing activity in wild type and mutant strains demonstrated no differences in the capacity to metabolize glyoxylate. Conclusions/Significance MSMEG_5817 is a previously uncharacterized gene that facilitates intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Interference with the function of MSMEG_5817 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for control of mycobacterial pathogens by assisting the host immune system in clearance of persistent intracellular bacteria. PMID:22363734

  2. 5-lipoxygenase-dependent recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages by eotaxin-stimulated murine eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ricardo Alves; Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; de Luca, Bianca; Masid-de-Brito, Daniela; Cauduro, Priscila Soares; Arcanjo, Luiz Carlos Gondar; dos Santos, Ana Carolina Cordeiro Faria; de Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Maria; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez Capella

    2014-01-01

    The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.

  3. [Role of the parasitophorous vacuole of murine macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis in molecule acquisition].

    PubMed

    Cortázar, Tania M; Hernández, Joselín; Echeverry, María Clara; Camacho, Marcela

    2006-10-01

    Leishmania are intracellular parasites of macrophages, confined into compartments known as parasitophorous vacuoles. The permeability of this compartment depends on its interaction with the endocytic pathway and transport proteins present on its membrane. The membrane permeability of the parasitophorous vacuole was studied in J774.A1-macrophage like cells infected with Leishmania amazonensis, in situ and on isolated compartments. The parasitophorous vacuoles were isolated by density gradients. Fluorescent probe distribution and electrophysiological recordings were used to determine parasitophorous vacuole membrane permeability. Proton transport was evaluated indirectly by acridine orange staining. Probenecid sensitive ABC transporters were detected using the fluorescent probes lucifer yellow and calcein. For the first time ion currents were recorded on the membrane of isolated parasitophorous vacuoles using the patch clamp technique. The parasitophorous vacuole stains red with acridine orange indicating an acidic compartment. It concentrates lucifer yellow by means of a probenecid sensitive transporter but excludes calcein. Isolated vacuoles stained red with acridine orange and concentrated lucifer yellow by means of a probenecid sensitive transporter. These vacuoles excluded calcein and showed an ion current in their membrane which is activated at potentials close to 60 mV with a mean conductance of 46 +/- 3 pS. Isolated parasitophorous vacuoles with permeability properties preserving transport mechanisms similar to those found in situ can be purified. A poorly selective ion current on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane is reported for the first time.

  4. Continuous electrochemical monitoring of nitric oxide production in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Pekarova, Michaela; Kralova, Jana; Kubala, Lukas; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Gregor, Cenek; Hrbac, Jan

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we realized the continual and long-term electrochemical detection of NO production by stimulated macrophages using modified porphyrinic microsensor. The NO release from RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide started 5 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. After reaching its maximum at the sixth hour, the stable level of NO production was observed between the seventh and 12th hour of the experiment. This phase was followed by a gradual decline in NO production. A close correlation between the NO signal detected with microelectrode and nitrite accumulation, which had been determined in supernatants removed from stimulated cells, was observed. This finding was utilized for the calibration of the electrochemical experiment. The presence of iNOS enzyme, which constitutes a main requirement for NO production by stimulated macrophages, was confirmed by Western blot analysis of iNOS protein expression at key time points of the corresponding electrochemical experiment. The capability of our microsensor to instantaneously monitor the changes in the NO production by stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was demonstrated by the immediate decrease in the signal due to NO as a response to the addition of iNOS inhibitor into the cell culture medium.

  5. Mycobacterium leprae-induced Insulin-like Growth Factor I attenuates antimicrobial mechanisms, promoting bacterial survival in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Batista-Silva, L. R.; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Vivarini, Aislan de Carvalho; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; Mattos, Katherine Antunes de; Costa, Maria Renata Sales Nogueira; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Toledo-Pinto, T. G.; Dias, André Alves; Moura, Danielle Fonseca; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (ML), the etiologic agent of leprosy, can subvert macrophage antimicrobial activity by mechanisms that remain only partially understood. In the present study, the participation of hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in this phenomenum was investigated. Macrophages from the dermal lesions of the disseminated multibacillary lepromatous form (LL) of leprosy expressed higher levels of IGF-I than those from the self-limited paucibacillary tuberculoid form (BT). Higher levels of IGF-I secretion by ML-infected macrophages were confirmed in ex vivo and in vitro studies. Of note, the dampening of IGF-I signaling reverted the capacity of ML-infected human and murine macrophages to produce antimicrobial molecules and promoted bacterial killing. Moreover, IGF-I was shown to inhibit the JAK/STAT1-dependent signaling pathways triggered by both mycobacteria and IFN-γ most probably through its capacity to induce the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). Finally, these in vitro findings were corroborated by in vivo observations in which higher SOCS3 expression and lower phosphorylation of STAT1 levels were found in LL versus BT dermal lesions. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that IGF-I contributes to the maintenance of a functional program in infected macrophages that suits ML persistence in the host, reinforcing a key role for IGF-I in leprosy pathogenesis. PMID:27282338

  6. Effects of age and macrophage lineage on intracellular survival and cytokine induction after infection with Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Londa J; Giguère, Steeve; Sturgill, Tracy L

    2014-07-15

    Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes life-threatening pneumonia in foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. As a basis for this study, we hypothesized that macrophage lineage and age would affect intracellular survival of R. equi and cytokine induction after infection. Monocyte-derived and bronchoalveolar macrophages from 10 adult horses and from 10 foals (sampled at 1-3 days, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months of age) were infected ex vivo with virulent R. equi. Intracellular R. equi were quantified and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p40, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was measured. Intracellular replication of R. equi was significantly (P<0.001) greater in bronchoalveolar than in monocyte-derived macrophages, regardless of age. Regardless of the macrophage lineage, replication of R. equi was significantly (P=0.002) higher in 3-month-old foals than in 3-day old foals, 2-week-old foals, 1-month-old foals, and adult horses. Expression of IL-4 mRNA was significantly higher in monocyte-derived macrophages whereas expression of IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α was significantly higher in bronchoalveolar macrophages. Induction of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12 p40, and IL-8 mRNA in bronchoalveolar macrophages of 1-3-day old foals was significantly higher than in older foals or adult horses. Preferential intracellular survival of R. equi in bronchoalveolar macrophages of juvenile horses may play a role in the pulmonary tropism of the pathogen and in the window of age susceptibility to infection.

  7. Sex-associated expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and accessory molecules, PDL-1, PDL-2 and MHC-II, in F480+ macrophages during murine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Togno-Peirce, Cristián; Nava-Castro, Karen; Terrazas, Luis Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are critically involved in the interaction between T. crassiceps and the murine host immune system. Also, a strong gender-associated susceptibility to murine cysticercosis has been reported. Here, we examined the sex-associated expression of molecules MHC-II, CD80, CD86, PD-L1, and PD-L2 on peritoneal F4/80(hi) macrophages of BALB/c mice infected with Taenia crassiceps. Peritoneal macrophages from both sexes of mice were exposed to T. crassiceps total extract (TcEx). BALB/c Females mice recruit higher number of macrophages to the peritoneum. Macrophages from infected animals show increased expression of PDL2 and CD80 that was dependent from the sex of the host. These findings suggest that macrophage recruitment at early time points during T. crassiceps infection is a possible mechanism that underlies the differential sex-associated susceptibility displayed by the mouse gender.

  8. Nucleoside uptake in macrophages from various murine strains: a short-time and a two-step stimulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Busolo, F.; Conventi, L.; Grigolon, M.; Palu, G. )

    1991-06-28

    Kinetics of (3H)-uridine uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages (pM phi) is early altered after exposure to a variety of stimuli. Alterations caused by Candida albicans, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) were similar in SAVO, C57BL/6, C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, and were not correlated with an activation process as shown by the amount of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) being released. Short-time exposure to all stimuli resulted in an increased nucleoside uptake by SAVO pM phi, suggesting that the tumoricidal function of this cell either depends from the type of stimulus or the time when the specific interaction with the cell receptor is taking place. Experiments with priming and triggering signals confirmed the above findings, indicating that the increase or the decrease of nucleoside uptake into the cell depends essentially on the chemical nature of the priming stimulus. The triggering stimulus, on the other hand, is only able to amplify the primary response.

  9. GC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics approach to study the cellular immunotoxicity of deoxynivalenol on murine macrophage ANA-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Sun, Jiadi; Pi, Fuwei; Zhang, Shuang; Sun, Chao; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-08-25

    Gas chromatography-time of fly/mass spectrum (GC-TOF/MS) based complete murine macrophage ANA-1 cell metabolome strategy, including the endo-metabolome and the exo-metabolome, ANA-1 cell viability assays and apoptosis induced by diverse concentrations of DON were evaluated for selection of an optimized dose for in-depth metabolomic research. Using the optimized chromatography and mass spectrometry parameters, the metabolites detected by GC-TOF/MS were identified and processed with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal componentanalysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis. The data sets were screened with a t-test (P) value < 0.05, VIP value > 1, similarity value > 500, leaving 16 exo-metabolite variables and 11 endo-metabolite variables for further pathway analysis. Implementing the integration of key metabolic pathways, the metabolism pathways were categorized into two dominating types, metabolism of amino acid and glycometabolism. Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were the significant amino acids affected by the metabolic pathways, indicating statistically significant fold changes including pyruvate, serine, glycine, lactate and threonine. Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism, belonging to glycometabolism, were the pathways that were found to be primarily affected, resulting in abnormal metabolites such as glucose-1P, Glucose, gluconic acid, myo-inositol, sorbitol and glycerol.

  10. Regulation of cytosolic COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 production by nitric oxide in activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Patel, R; Attur, M G; Dave, M; Abramson, S B; Amin, A R

    1999-04-01

    Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) when stimulated with LPS show 90% distribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the nuclear fraction and approximately 10% in the cytosolic fraction. Further analysis of this cytosolic fraction at 100,000 x g indicates that the COX-2 is distributed both in the 100,000 x g soluble fraction and membrane fraction. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS in the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA at concentrations that inhibit nitrite accumulation by /=85% with higher concentrations of L-NMMA shows 1) up-regulation of PGE2 production, 2) accumulation of COX-2 protein in the 100,000 x g soluble and membrane fractions of the cytosolic fraction, and 3) with no significant effects on the accumulation of COX-2 mRNA. These experiments suggest that low concentrations of nitric oxide (10-15% of the total) attenuate PGE2 production in response to LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibition is, in part, due to decreased expression of cytosolic COX-2 protein.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of Saururus chinensis aerial parts in murine macrophages via induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue; Kim, Inhye; Jeong, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-02-01

    Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill. is a perennial plant distributed throughout Northeast Asia and its roots have been widely used as a traditional medicine for hepatitis, asthma, pneumonia, and gonorrhea. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an extract of S. chinensis of the aerial parts (rather than the root), and the signaling pathway responsible for this effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. The subfraction 4 (SCF4) from the n-hexane layer of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. chinensis exhibited the highest nitrite-inhibitory activity. SCF4 significantly inhibited the production of nitrite and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. SCF4 caused significant phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt, which subsequently induced the nuclear translocation of p-p65 nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2. SCF4 also suppressed the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1). The heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin attenuated the inhibitory effect of SCF4 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitrite production and expression of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and p-STAT1. We identified sauchinone as the active compound in S. chinensis extract and SCF4. Sauchinone was shown to significantly inhibit nitrite production and inflammatory mediators expression via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. These results suggest that S. chinensis extract, SCF4, and its active compound, sauchinone, could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  12. Group B Streptococcus GAPDH Is Released upon Cell Lysis, Associates with Bacterial Surface, and Induces Apoptosis in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Liliana; Madureira, Pedro; Andrade, Elva Bonifácio; Bouaboud, Abdelouhab; Morello, Eric; Ferreira, Paula; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2012-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) are cytoplasmic glycolytic enzymes that, despite lacking identifiable secretion signals, have been detected at the surface of several prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms where they exhibit non-glycolytic functions including adhesion to host components. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a human commensal bacterium that has the capacity to cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia in newborns. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated the surface localization of GAPDH in GBS. By addressing the question of GAPDH export to the cell surface of GBS strain NEM316 and isogenic mutant derivatives of our collection, we found that impaired GAPDH presence in the surface and supernatant of GBS was associated with a lower level of bacterial lysis. We also found that following GBS lysis, GAPDH can associate to the surface of many living bacteria. Finally, we provide evidence for a novel function of the secreted GAPDH as an inducer of apoptosis of murine macrophages. PMID:22291899

  13. Effect of pecan phenolics on the release of nitric oxide from murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Katherine S; Greenspan, Phillip; Pegg, Ronald B

    2016-12-01

    Inflammation is linked to numerous chronic disease states. Phenolic compounds have attracted attention because a number of these compounds possess anti-inflammatory properties. A phenolic crude extract was prepared from pecans and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography into low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW/HMW) fractions. Anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored after 3 different experimental protocols: (1) pre-treatment with Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) pre-treatment with a pecan crude extract and its fractions; and (3) co-incubation of LPS with a pecan crude extract and its fractions. The LMW fraction displayed a dose-dependent decrease in NO production and a significant decrease from the LPS control in ROS production when cells were either co-incubated with or pre-treated with LPS. The phenolics were characterized by HPLC to help identify those responsible for the observed effect.

  14. Effects of Litchi chinensis fruit isolates on prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in J774 murine macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Litchi chinensis is regarded as one of the 'heating' fruits in China, which causes serious inflammation symptoms to people. Methods In the current study, the effects of isolates of litchi on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production in J774 murine macrophage cells were investigated. Results The AcOEt extract (EAE) of litchi was found effective on stimulating PGE2 production, and three compounds, benzyl alcohol, hydrobenzoin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfurolaldehyde (5-HMF), were isolated and identified from the EAE. Benzyl alcohol caused markedly increase in PGE2 and NO production, compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as positive control, and in a dose-dependent manner. Hydrobenzoin and 5-HMF were found in litchi for the first time, and both of them stimulated PGE2 and NO production moderately in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and NF-κB (p50) activation might be involved in mechanism of the stimulative process. Conclusion The study showed, some short molecular compounds in litchi play inflammatory effects on human. PMID:22380404

  15. Efficient identification of murine M2 macrophage peptide targeting ligands by phage display and next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gary W.; Livesay, Brynn R.; Kacherovsky, Nataly A.; Cieslewicz, Maryelise; Lutz, Emi; Waalkes, Adam; Jensen, Michael C.; Salipante, Stephen J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide ligands are used to increase the specificity of drug carriers to their target cells and to facilitate intracellular delivery. One method to identify such peptide ligands, phage display, enables high-throughput screening of peptide libraries for ligands binding to therapeutic targets of interest. However, conventional methods for identifying target binders in a library by Sanger sequencing are low-throughput, labor-intensive, and provide a limited perspective (< 0.01%) of the complete sequence space. Moreover, the small sample space can be dominated by non-specific, preferentially amplifying “parasitic sequences” and plastic-binding sequences, which may lead to the identification of false positives or exclude the identification of target-binding sequences. To overcome these challenges, we employed next-generation Illumina sequencing to couple high-throughput screening and high-throughput sequencing, enabling more comprehensive access to the phage display library sequence space. In this work, we define the hallmarks of binding sequences in next-generation sequencing data, and develop a method that identifies several target-binding phage clones for murine, alternatively-activated (M2) macrophages with a high (100%) success rate: sequences and binding motifs were reproducibly present across biological replicates; binding motifs were identified across multiple unique sequences; and an unselected, amplified library accurately filtered out parasitic sequences. In addition, we validate the Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation tool as an efficient and principled means of discovering binding sequences. PMID:26161996

  16. Dectin-1 is required for miR155 upregulation in murine macrophages in response to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Agustinho, Daniel Paiva; de Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Tavares, Aldo Henrique; Derengowski, Lorena; Stolz, Valentina; Guilhelmelli, Fernanda; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Kuchler, Karl; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2017-01-02

    The commensal fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a leading cause of lethal systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. One of the main mechanisms of host immune evasion and virulence by this pathogen is the switch from yeast form to hyphal growth morphologies. Micro RNAs (miRNAs), a small regulatory non-coding RNA, has been identified as an important part of the immune response to a wide variety of pathogens. In general, miRNAs act by modulating the intensity of inflammatory responses. miRNAs act by base-paring binding to specific sequences of target mRNAs, generally causing their silencing through mRNA degradation or translational repression. To study the impact of C. albicans cell morphology upon host miRNA expression, we investigated the differential modulation of 9 different immune response-related miRNAs in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) exposed to either yeasts or hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Here, we show that the different growth morphologies induce distinct miRNA expression patterns in BMDMs. Interestingly, our data suggest that the C-Type lectin receptor Dectin-1 is a major PRR that orchestrates miR155 upregulation in a Syk-dependent manner. Our results suggest that PRR-mediating signaling events are key drivers of miRNA-mediated gene regulation during fungal pathogenesis.

  17. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  18. Discovery of Salmonella Virulence Factors Translocated via Outer Membrane Vesicles to Murine Macrophages.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2011-06-01

    We have previously shown that the regulators SpvR, FruR, IHF, PhoP/PhoQ, SsrA/SsrB, SlyA, Hnr, RpoE, SmpB, CsrA, RpoS, Crp, OmpR/EnvZ, and Hfq are essential for Salmonella Typhimurium virulence in mice. Here we use quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics profiling of in-frame deletion mutants of these 14 regulators to identify proteins that are coordinately regulated by these virulence regulators and are thus presumably novel factors contributing to Salmonella pathogenesis. Putative candidate proteins from proteomics analysis were determined, which exhibited similar abundance profiles to those of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 type III secretion system (TTSS) proteins. A subset of 5 proteins including STM0082, STM1548, PdgL, STM1633, and STM3595 was selected for further analysis. All 5 proteins were expressed inside macrophage cells and STM0082 (SrfN) was secreted into host cytoplasm. Furthermore, deletion of STM0082 attenuated virulence in mice when administered intraperitoneally as determined by competitive index. srfN transcription was positively regulated by SsrAB, however, secretion was independent of SPI-2 TTSS as well as SPI-1 TTSS and flagella. Proteins including PagK and STM2585A, which are positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ, have sec signal peptides as predicted for SrfN and were secreted into macrophage cytoplasm regardless of SPI-2 TTSS. Isolation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) revealed the presence of SrfN, PagK, and STM2585A inside vesicle compartments. This result is the first case showing delivery of virulence effectors via OMVs in S. Typhimurium. Moreover, Hfq regulation of SrfN translation suggests that small non-coding RNAs may be responsible for regulating effector protein expression.

  19. Citral and eugenol modulate DNA damage and pro-inflammatory mediator genes in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marilia de Paula; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Luperini, Bruno Cesar Ottoboni; Bachiega, Tatiana Fernanda; de Castro Marcondes, João Paulo; Sforcin, José Maurício; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2014-11-01

    Citral and eugenol have been broadly studied because of their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiparasitic potentials. In this study, the effects of citral (25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) and eugenol (0.31, 0.62, 1.24 and 2.48 µg/mL) on the expression (RT-PCR) of the pro-inflammatory mediator genes NF-κB1, COX-2 and TNF-α were evaluated in mouse peritoneal macrophages with or without activation by a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, the genotoxic potentials of two compounds and their capacities to modulate the DNA damage induced by doxorubicin (DXR) were investigated using the comet assay. The data revealed that neither citral nor eugenol changed COX-2, NF-κB1 or TNF-α expression in resting macrophages. However, in LPS-activated cells, citral induced the hypoexpression of COX-2 (100 µg/mL) and TNF-α (50 and 100 µg/mL). Hypoexpression of TNF-α was also detected after cellular exposure to eugenol at the highest concentration (2.48 µg/mL). Both compounds exhibited genotoxic potential (citral at 50 and 100 µg/mL and eugenol at all concentrations) but also showed chemopreventive effects, in various treatment protocols. Both citral and eugenol might modulate inflammatory processes and DXR-induced DNA damage, but the use of these compounds must be viewed with caution because they are also able to induce primary DNA lesions.

  20. Adherence and intracellular survival within human macrophages of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from coastal marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Raffaella; Di Cesare, Andrea; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Vignaroli, Carla; Citterio, Barbara; Amiri, Mehdi; Rossi, Luigia; Magnani, Mauro; Mauro, Alessandro; Biavasco, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiota and an important nosocomial pathogen. It can be found in the marine environment, where it is also employed as a fecal indicator. To assess the pathogenic potential of marine E. faecalis, four strains isolated from marine sediment were analyzed for their ability to survive in human macrophages. Escherichia coli DH5α was used as a negative control. The number of adherent and intracellular bacteria was determined 2.5 h after the infection (T0) and after further 24h (T24) by CFU and qPCR counts. At T24 adherent and intracellular enterococcal CFU counts were increased for all strains, the increment in intracellular bacteria being particularly marked. No CFU of E. coli DH5α were detected. In contrast, qPCR counts of intracellular enterococcal and E. coli bacteria were similar at both time points. These findings suggest that whereas E. coli was killed within macrophages (no CFU, positive qPCR), the E. faecalis isolates not only escaped killing, but actually multiplied, as demonstrated by the increase in the viable cell population. These findings support earlier data by our group, further documenting that marine sediment can be a reservoir of pathogenic enterococci.

  1. A novel spontaneous mutation in the TAP2 gene unravels its role in macrophage survival.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Antonio; Omar, Ibrahim; Berger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    We report a new mouse strain with a single point mutation in the type 2 transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP2). This strain randomly arose in one of our C57BL/6J mouse colonies and was initially discovered because of the lack of CD8(+) T cells in the periphery. Following our observation, we subsequently revealed a lack of cell surface MHC-I expression, derived from TAP2 protein deficiency. Our strain, named eightless, has a C to T substitution in exon 5 resulting in a glutamine to stop codon substitution at position 285 in the TAP2 protein. Interestingly, in addition to the expected lack of CD8(+) T cell phenotype, eightless mice have a diminished number of macrophages in their peritoneum. Moreover, following peritoneal inflammation, elicited eightless macrophages showed impaired survival both in vivo and ex vivo. Our study describes the first ever TAP2 complete knockout mouse strain and provides a possible explanation for why patients with TAP2 deficiency syndrome present clinical manifestations that would suggest a phagocyte defect rather than a lack of CD8(+) T cells.

  2. Nerve growth factor is an autocrine factor essential for the survival of macrophages infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Garaci, E; Caroleo, M C; Aloe, L; Aquaro, S; Piacentini, M; Costa, N; Amendola, A; Micera, A; Caliò, R; Perno, C F; Levi-Montalcini, R

    1999-11-23

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin with the ability to exert specific effects on cells of the immune system. Human monocytes/macrophages (M/M) infected in vitro with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) are able to produce substantial levels of NGF that are associated with enhanced expression of the high-affinity NGF receptor (p140 trkA) on the M/M surface. Treatment of HIV-infected human M/M with anti-NGF Ab blocking the biological activity of NGF leads to a marked decrease of the expression of p140 trkA high-affinity receptor, a concomitant increased expression of p75(NTR) low-affinity receptor for NGF, and the occurrence of apoptotic death of M/M. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for NGF as an autocrine survival factor that rescues human M/M from the cytopathic effect caused by HIV infection.

  3. Recovery optimization and survival of human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus and murine norovirus on carpet.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-09-01

    Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface. Carpet surface charge was negative between relevant pH values (7 - 9). Additionally, wool could absorb ca. 2X more liquid than nylon. Percent recovery efficiency with the MSC ranged from 4.34 to 20.89% and 30.71 to 54.14% for FCV and MNV on carpet fibers, respectively, after desiccation. Overall, elution buffer type did not significantly affect recovery. Infectious FCV or MNV survived between <1 and 15 or 3 and 15 days, respectively. However, MNV survived longer under some conditions and at significantly (P <0.05) higher titers compared to FCV. Albeit, surrogates followed similar survival trends, i.e. both survived longest on wool then nylon and glass while 30% RH provided a more hospitable environment compared to 70% RH. RT-qPCR signals for both surrogates were detectable for the entire study but FCV genomic copies experienced significantly higher reductions (<3.80 log10 copies) on all surfaces compared to MNV (<1.10 log10 copies).IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Classical symptoms of illness include vomiting and diarrhea which could lead to severe dehydration and death. HuNoV are transmitted by the fecal-oral or vomitus-oral route via person-to-person, food, water, and/or environmental surfaces. Published laboratory

  4. High-polarity Mycobacterium avium-derived lipids interact with murine macrophage lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-García, G; Chico-Ortiz, M; Lopez-Marin, L M; Sánchez-García, F J

    2004-11-01

    Cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) are widely recognized as portals for pathogenic micro-organisms. A growing body of evidence demonstrates mobilization of host plasma cell membrane lipid rafts towards the site of contact with several pathogens as well as a strict dependence on cholesterol for appropriate internalization. The fate of lipid rafts once the pathogen has been internalized and the nature of the pathogen components that interact with them is however less understood. To address both these issues, infection of the J774 murine cell line with Mycobacterium avium was used as a model. After demonstrating that M. avium induces lipid raft mobilization and that M. avium infects J774 by a cholesterol-dependent mechanism, it is shown here that mycobacterial phagosomes harbour lipid rafts, which are, at least in part, of plasma cell membrane origin. On the other hand, by using latex microbeads coated with any of the three fractions of M. avium-derived lipids of different polarity, we provide evidence that high-polarity, in contrast to low-polarity and intermediate-polarity, mycobacterial lipids or uncoated latex beads have a strong capacity to induce lipid raft mobilization. These results suggest that high-polarity mycobacterial lipid(s) interact with host cell cholesterol-enriched microdomains which may in turn influence the course of infection.

  5. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zago, María Paola; Hosakote, Yashoda M; Koo, Sue-Jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A; Robello, Carlos; Garg, Nisha J

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO(-)]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. TcI Isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi Exploit the Antioxidant Network for Enhanced Intracellular Survival in Macrophages and Virulence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosakote, Yashoda M.; Koo, Sue-jie; Dhiman, Monisha; Piñeyro, María Dolores; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Basombrio, Miguel A.; Robello, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi species is categorized into six discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) of which TcI is most abundantly noted in the sylvatic transmission cycle and considered the major cause of human disease. In our study, the TcI strains Colombiana (COL), SylvioX10/4 (SYL), and a cultured clone (TCC) exhibited different biological behavior in a murine model, ranging from high parasitemia and symptomatic cardiomyopathy (SYL), mild parasitemia and high tissue tropism (COL), to no pathogenicity (TCC). Proteomic profiling of the insect (epimastigote) and infective (trypomastigote) forms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, followed by functional annotation of the differential proteome data sets (≥2-fold change, P < 0.05), showed that several proteins involved in (i) cytoskeletal assembly and remodeling, essential for flagellar wave frequency and amplitude and forward motility of the parasite, and (ii) the parasite-specific antioxidant network were enhanced in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Western blotting confirmed the enhanced protein levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidases and their substrate (tryparedoxin) and iron superoxide dismutase in COL and SYL (versus TCC) trypomastigotes. Further, COL and SYL (but not TCC) were resistant to exogenous treatment with stable oxidants (H2O2 and peroxynitrite [ONOO−]) and dampened the intracellular superoxide and nitric oxide response in macrophages, and thus these isolates escaped from macrophages. Our findings suggest that protein expression conducive to increase in motility and control of macrophage-derived free radicals provides survival and persistence benefits to TcI isolates of T. cruzi. PMID:27068090

  7. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605).

    PubMed

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Albelda, Steven M; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605) in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs) were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm²) and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP). We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM) 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001), time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%-88% and 41%-73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

  8. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605)

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A.; Velalopoulou, Anastasia; Albelda, Steven M.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of asbestos fibers with macrophages generates harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative cell damage that are key processes linked to malignancy. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a non-toxic, flaxseed-derived pluripotent compound that has antioxidant properties and may thus function as a chemopreventive agent for asbestos-induced mesothelioma. We thus evaluated synthetic SDG (LGM2605) in asbestos-exposed, elicited murine peritoneal macrophages as an in vitro model of tissue phagocytic response to the presence of asbestos in the pleural space. Murine peritoneal macrophages (MFs) were exposed to crocidolite asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2) and evaluated at various times post exposure for cytotoxicity, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), and levels of 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α (8-isoP). We then evaluated the ability of LGM2605 to mitigate asbestos-induced oxidative stress by administering LGM2605 (50 µM) 4-h prior to asbestos exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.0001), time-dependent increase in asbestos-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and the release of MDA and 8-iso Prostaglandin F2α, markers of lipid peroxidation, which increased linearly over time. LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, while decreasing levels of MDA and 8-isoP by 71%–88% and 41%–73%, respectively. Importantly, exposure to asbestos fibers induced cell protective defenses, such as cellular Nrf2 activation and the expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes, HO-1 and Nqo1 that were further enhanced by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 boosted antioxidant defenses, as well as reduced asbestos-induced ROS generation and markers of oxidative stress in murine peritoneal macrophages, supporting its possible use as a chemoprevention agent in the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. PMID:26938529

  9. Pro-inflammatory effects of a litchi protein extract in murine RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Hu, Xiaorong; Yan, Huiqing; Ma, Zhaocheng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that the consumption of litchi often causes symptoms characterized by itching or sore throat, gum swelling, oral cavity ulcers and even fever and inflammation, which significantly impair the quality of life of a large population. Using the RAW264.7 cell line, a step-by-step strategy was used to screen for the components in litchi fruits that elicited adverse reactions. The adverse reaction fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and analyzed using the SMART program, and a sequence alignment of the homologous proteins was performed. MTT tests were used to determine the cytotoxicity of a litchi protein extract in RAW264.7 macrophages, and real-time PCR was applied to analyze the expression of inflammatory genes in the RAW264.7 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide or the litchi protein extract. The results showed that the litchi water-soluble protein extract could increase the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β, iNOS and COX-2, and the anti-inflammatory mediator HO-1 in the RAW264.7 cell line. The 14-3-3-like proteins GF14 lambda, GF14 omega and GF14 upsilon were likely the candidate proteins that caused the adverse effects. PMID:27195125

  10. A homology-derived structural model of the murine macrophage inflammatory protein, MIP-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    McKie, J H; Douglas, K T

    1994-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), a monocyte cytokine, has roles postulated for it in neutrophil chemoattraction, the inflammatory response and the control of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation. The three-dimensional structure of MIP-1 alpha has been modelled structurally, based on its sequence similarity to interleukin-8 and related proteins. The predicted dimeric form of MIP-1 alpha contains two symmetry-related antiparallel alpha-helices lying at an angle across a beta-sheet. The interhelical region and the beta-sheet flooring it are discussed as the potential receptor-binding site in terms of the distribution of negatively charged amino-acid side-chains, which contrasts remarkably with the corresponding positively-charged locations for IL-8. The general topographical features of this (alpha + beta) structural family of cytokines and related proteins (including HLA-A2, PF-4) are discussed. The members of this cytokine family fall into two structural groups as the antiparallel helices (N to C directed) mounted across the beta-sheet platform can be located in a clockwise (e.g. HLA-A2) or anticlockwise (e.g. MIP-1 alpha) sense with respect to the beta-floor).

  11. Effect of amorphous silica nanoparticles on in vitro RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (nSP) have been used as a polishing agent and/or as a remineralization promoter for teeth in the oral care field. The present study investigates the effects of nSP on osteoclast differentiation and the relationship between particle size and these effects. Our results revealed that nSP exerted higher cytotoxicity in macrophage cells compared with submicron-sized silica particles. However, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the number of osteoclast cells (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells) were not changed by nSP treatment in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) at doses that did not induce cytotoxicity by silica particles. These results indicated that nSP did not cause differentiation of osteoclasts. Collectively, the results suggested that nanosilica exerts no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, although a detailed mechanistic examination of the nSP70-mediated cytotoxic effect is needed. PMID:21777482

  12. Proteomic expression profiles of virulent and avirulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is able to survive and proliferate within macrophages. In the current study, the ability of three L. monocytogenes strains (serovar 1/2a strain EGDe, serovar 4b strain F2365, and serovar 4a strain HCC23) to proliferate in the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 was analyzed. We...

  13. Gene Therapy Prolongs Survival and Restores Function in Murine and Canine Models of Myotubular Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Martin K; Joubert, Romain; Poulard, Karine; Moal, Christelle; Grange, Robert W; Doering, Jonathan A; Lawlor, Michael W; Rider, Branden E.; Jamet, Thibaud; Danièle, Nathalie; Martin, Samia; Rivière, Christel; Soker, Thomas; Hammer, Caroline; Van Wittenberghe, Laetitia; Lockard, Mandy; Guan, Xuan; Goddard, Melissa; Mitchell, Erin; Barber, Jane; Williams, J. Koudy; Mack, David L; Furth, Mark E; Vignaud, Alban; Masurier, Carole; Mavilio, Fulvio; Moullier, Philippe; Beggs, Alan H; Buj-Bello, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1) cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal, congenital pediatric disease that affects the entire skeletal musculature. Systemic administration of a single dose of a recombinant serotype-8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing murine myotubularin to Mtm1-deficient knockout mice at the onset or at late stages of the disease resulted in robust improvement in motor activity and contractile force, corrected muscle pathology and prolonged survival throughout a 6-month study. Similarly, single-dose intravascular delivery of a canine AAV8-MTM1 vector in XLMTM dogs markedly improved severe muscle weakness and respiratory impairment, and prolonged lifespan to more than one year in the absence of toxicity, humoral and cell-mediated immune response. These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of AAV-mediated gene therapy for myotubular myopathy in small and large animal models, and provide proof of concept for future clinical trials in XLMTM patients. PMID:24452262

  14. Gene therapy prolongs survival and restores function in murine and canine models of myotubular myopathy.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; Joubert, Romain; Poulard, Karine; Moal, Christelle; Grange, Robert W; Doering, Jonathan A; Lawlor, Michael W; Rider, Branden E; Jamet, Thibaud; Danièle, Nathalie; Martin, Samia; Rivière, Christel; Soker, Thomas; Hammer, Caroline; Van Wittenberghe, Laetitia; Lockard, Mandy; Guan, Xuan; Goddard, Melissa; Mitchell, Erin; Barber, Jane; Williams, J Koudy; Mack, David L; Furth, Mark E; Vignaud, Alban; Masurier, Carole; Mavilio, Fulvio; Moullier, Philippe; Beggs, Alan H; Buj-Bello, Anna

    2014-01-22

    Loss-of-function mutations in the myotubularin gene (MTM1) cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a fatal, congenital pediatric disease that affects the entire skeletal musculature. Systemic administration of a single dose of a recombinant serotype 8 adeno-associated virus (AAV8) vector expressing murine myotubularin to Mtm1-deficient knockout mice at the onset or at late stages of the disease resulted in robust improvement in motor activity and contractile force, corrected muscle pathology, and prolonged survival throughout a 6-month study. Similarly, single-dose intravascular delivery of a canine AAV8-MTM1 vector in XLMTM dogs markedly improved severe muscle weakness and respiratory impairment, and prolonged life span to more than 1 year in the absence of toxicity or a humoral or cell-mediated immune response. These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of AAV-mediated gene therapy for myotubular myopathy in small- and large-animal models, and provide proof of concept for future clinical trials in XLMTM patients.

  15. Immune Modulatory Effects of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin on Dendritic Cells Supporting Fetal Survival in Murine Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dauven, Dominique; Ehrentraut, Stefanie; Langwisch, Stefanie; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Schumacher, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in the determination of immunity vs. tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during pregnancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is involved in DC regulation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified or recombinant hCG (rhCG) preparations. Subsequently, BMDC maturation was assessed. Cytokine secretion of activated BMDCs and their capability to enforce TH1, TH2, TH17, or Treg cell differentiation was determined after rhCG treatment. Moreover, the in vivo potential of hCG-modulated BMDCs to influence pregnancy outcome, Treg cell number, and local cytokine expression was evaluated after adoptive transfer in a murine abortion-prone model before and after conception. Both hCG preparations impaired the maturation process of BMDCs. rhCG treatment did neither alter cytokine secretion by BMDCs nor their ability to drive TH1, TH2, or TH17 differentiation. rhCG-treated BMDCs augmented the number of Treg cells within the T cell population. Adoptive transfer of rhCG-treated BMDCs after conception did not influence pregnancy outcome. However, transfer of hCG-treated BMDCs prior to mating had a protective effect on pregnancy. This positive effect was accompanied by increased Treg cell numbers and decidual IL-10 and TGF-β expression. Our results unveil the importance of hCG in retaining DCs in a tolerogenic state, thereby promoting Treg cell increment and supporting fetal survival. PMID:27895621

  16. Chemical and physical effects on the adhesion, maturation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and foreign body giant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Terry Odell, III

    Injury caused by biomedical device implantation initiates inflammatory and wound healing responses. Cells migrate to the site of injury to degrade bacteria and toxins, create new vasculature, and form new and repair injured tissue. Blood-proteins rapidly adsorb onto the implanted material surface and express adhesive ligands which mediate cell adhesion on the material surface. Monocyte-derived macrophages and multi-nucleated foreign body giant cells adhere to the surface and degrade the surface of the material. Due to the role of macrophage and foreign body giant cell on material biocompatibility and biostability, the effects of surface chemistry, surface topography and specific proteins on the maturation and survival of monocytes, macrophages and foreign body giant cells has been investigated. Novel molecularly designed materials were used to elucidate the dynamic interactions which occur between inflammatory cells, proteins and surfaces. The effect of protein and protein adhesion was investigated using adhesive protein depleted serum conditions on RGD-modified and silane modified surfaces. The effects of surface chemistry were investigated using temperature responsive surfaces of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and micropatterned surfaces of N-(2 aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane regions on an interpenetrating polymer network of polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol). The physical effects were investigated using polyimide scaffold materials and polyurethane materials with surface modifying end groups. The depletion of immunoglobulin G caused decreased levels of macrophage adhesion, foreign body giant cell formation and increased levels of apoptosis. The temporal nature of macrophage adhesion was observed with changing effectiveness of adherent cell detachment with time, which correlated to increased expression of beta1 integrin receptors on detached macrophages with time. The limited ability of the micropatterned surface, polyimide scaffold and surface

  17. F4/80+ Host Macrophages Are a Barrier to Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hematopoietic Progenitor Engraftment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Heather L.; van Rooijen, Nico; McLelland, Bryce T.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how embryonic stem cells and their derivatives interact with the adult host immune system is critical to developing their therapeutic potential. Murine embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic progenitors (ESHPs) were generated via coculture with the bone marrow stromal cell line, OP9, and then transplanted into NOD.SCID.Common Gamma Chain (NSG) knockout mice, which lack B, T, and natural killer cells. Compared to control mice transplanted with adult lineage-negative bone marrow (Lin− BM) progenitors, ESHP-transplanted mice attained a low but significant level of donor hematopoietic chimerism. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that macrophages might contribute to the low engraftment of ESHPs in vivo. Enlarged spleens were observed in ESHP-transplanted mice and found to contain higher numbers of host F4/80+ macrophages compared to BM-transplanted controls. In vivo depletion of host macrophages using clodronate-loaded liposomes improved the ESHP-derived hematopoietic chimerism in the spleen but not in the BM. F4/80+ macrophages demonstrated a striking propensity to phagocytose ESHP targets in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that macrophages are a barrier to both syngeneic and allogeneic ESHP engraftment in vivo. PMID:27872864

  18. In vivo ingestion of heavy metal particles of Se, Hg and W by murine macrophages. A study using scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Cherdwongcharoensuk, Duangrudee; Cunha, Elisabete M; Upatham, Suchart; Pereira, António Sousa; Oliveira, Maria João R; Aguas, Artur P

    2002-09-01

    Several heavy metals that are currently employed in industry may become polluters of work and natural environments. As particulate matter, heavy metals are suitable for entering the human body through the respiratory and digestive systems. They often end up inside phagocytes; the size of the microscopic particles modulates both their phagocytosis, and the physiology of macrophages. Here we have adopted an experimental model to investigate the ingestion of particles of three industrial heavy metals (Se, Hg, W) by murine peritoneal macrophages in vivo. The phagocytes were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray elemental microanalysis (SEM-XRM), a method that allows specific identification of Se, W and Hg in cells at high resolution. We found that Hg that was taken up by macrophages was organized into small, round particles (0.31 +/- 0.14 microm). This was in contrast with the larger size of intracellular particles of Se (2.37 +/- 1.84 microm) or W (1.75 +/- 1.34 microm). Ingested particles of Se and W, but not Hg, often caused bulging of the cell surface of macrophages. We conclude that particulate matters of Se, W and Hg are organized in particles of different size inside macrophages. This size difference is likely to be associated with distinct phlogistic activities of these heavy metals, Se and W causing a milder inflammatory reaction than Hg.

  19. The Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase is required for optimal resistance to oxidative killing by murine macrophages and wild-type virulence in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Gee, Jason M; Valderas, Michelle Wright; Kovach, Michael E; Grippe, Vanessa K; Robertson, Gregory T; Ng, Wai-Leung; Richardson, John M; Winkler, Malcolm E; Roop, R Martin

    2005-05-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of cell lysates from Brucella abortus 2308 and the isogenic hfq mutant Hfq3 revealed that the RNA binding protein Hfq (also known as host factor I or HF-I) is required for the optimal stationary phase production of the periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase SodC. An isogenic sodC mutant, designated MEK2, was constructed from B. abortus 2308 by gene replacement, and the sodC mutant exhibited much greater susceptibility to killing by O(2)(-) generated by pyrogallol and the xanthine oxidase reaction than the parental 2308 strain supporting a role for SodC in protecting this bacterium from O(2)(-) of exogenous origin. The B. abortus sodC mutant was also found to be much more sensitive to killing by cultured resident peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6J mice than 2308, and the attenuation displayed by MEK2 in cultured murine macrophages was enhanced when these phagocytes were treated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The attenuation displayed by the B. abortus sodC mutant in both resting and IFN-gamma-activated macrophages was alleviated, however, when these host cells were treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Consistent with its increased susceptibility to killing by cultured murine macrophages, the B. abortus sodC mutant also displayed significant attenuation in experimentally infected C57BL6J mice compared to the parental strain. These experimental findings indicate that SodC protects B. abortus 2308 from the respiratory burst of host macrophages. They also suggest that reduced SodC levels may contribute to the attenuation displayed by the B. abortus hfq mutant Hfq3 in the mouse model.

  20. Delineating the Importance of Serum Opsonins and the Bacterial Capsule in Affecting the Uptake and Killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei by Murine Neutrophils and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mulye, Minal; Bechill, Michael P.; Grose, William; Ferreira, Viviana P.; Lafontaine, Eric R.; Wooten, R. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Infection of susceptible hosts by the encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes melioidosis, with septic patients attaining mortality rates ≥40%. Due to its high infectivity through inhalation and limited effective therapies, Bp is considered a potential bioweapon. Thus, there is great interest in identifying immune effectors that effectively kill Bp. Our goal is to compare the relative abilities of murine macrophages and neutrophils to clear Bp, as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and neutrophils are inherently unable to clear either unopsonized Bp or the relatively-avirulent acapsular bacterium B. thailandensis (Bt). Opsonization of Bp and Bt with complement or pathogen-specific antibodies increases macrophage-uptake, but does not promote clearance, although antibody-binding enhances complement deposition. In contrast, complement opsonization of Bp and Bt causes enhanced uptake and killing by neutrophils, which is linked with rapid ROS induction against bacteria exhibiting a threshold level of complement deposition. Addition of bacteria-specific antibodies enhances complement deposition, but antibody-binding alone cannot elicit neutrophil clearance. Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-killing. Macrophages were observed to efficiently clear Bp only after pre-activation with IFNγ, which is independent of serum- and/or antibody-opsonization. These studies indicate that antibody-enhanced complement activation is sufficient for neutrophil-clearance of Bp, whereas macrophages are ineffective at clearing serum-opsonized Bp unless pre-activated with IFNγ. This suggests that effective immune therapies would need to elicit both antibodies and Th1-adaptive responses for successful prevention/eradication of melioidosis. PMID:25144195

  1. Delineating the importance of serum opsonins and the bacterial capsule in affecting the uptake and killing of Burkholderia pseudomallei by murine neutrophils and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mulye, Minal; Bechill, Michael P; Grose, William; Ferreira, Viviana P; Lafontaine, Eric R; Wooten, R Mark

    2014-08-01

    Infection of susceptible hosts by the encapsulated Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) causes melioidosis, with septic patients attaining mortality rates ≥ 40%. Due to its high infectivity through inhalation and limited effective therapies, Bp is considered a potential bioweapon. Thus, there is great interest in identifying immune effectors that effectively kill Bp. Our goal is to compare the relative abilities of murine macrophages and neutrophils to clear Bp, as well as determine the importance of serum opsonins and bacterial capsule. Our findings indicate that murine macrophages and neutrophils are inherently unable to clear either unopsonized Bp or the relatively-avirulent acapsular bacterium B. thailandensis (Bt). Opsonization of Bp and Bt with complement or pathogen-specific antibodies increases macrophage-uptake, but does not promote clearance, although antibody-binding enhances complement deposition. In contrast, complement opsonization of Bp and Bt causes enhanced uptake and killing by neutrophils, which is linked with rapid ROS induction against bacteria exhibiting a threshold level of complement deposition. Addition of bacteria-specific antibodies enhances complement deposition, but antibody-binding alone cannot elicit neutrophil clearance. Bp capsule provides some resistance to complement deposition, but is not anti-phagocytic or protective against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-killing. Macrophages were observed to efficiently clear Bp only after pre-activation with IFNγ, which is independent of serum- and/or antibody-opsonization. These studies indicate that antibody-enhanced complement activation is sufficient for neutrophil-clearance of Bp, whereas macrophages are ineffective at clearing serum-opsonized Bp unless pre-activated with IFNγ. This suggests that effective immune therapies would need to elicit both antibodies and Th1-adaptive responses for successful prevention/eradication of melioidosis.

  2. Leishmania panamensis infection and antimonial drugs modulate expression of macrophage drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes: impact on intracellular parasite survival

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Maria Adelaida; Navas, Adriana; Márquez, Ricardo; Rojas, Laura Jimena; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Blanco, Victor Manuel; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Treatment failure is multifactorial. Despite the importance of host cell drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the accumulation, distribution and metabolism of drugs targeting intracellular pathogens, their impact on the efficacy of antileishmanials is unknown. We examined the contribution of pharmacologically relevant determinants in human macrophages in the antimony-mediated killing of intracellular Leishmania panamensis and its relationship with the outcome of treatment with meglumine antimoniate. Methods Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who failed (n = 8) or responded (n = 8) to treatment were recruited. Gene expression profiling of pharmacological determinants in primary macrophages was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and correlated to the drug-mediated intracellular parasite killing. Functional validation was conducted through short hairpin RNA gene knockdown. Results Survival of L. panamensis after exposure to antimonials was significantly higher in macrophages from patients who failed treatment. Sixteen macrophage drug-response genes were modulated by infection and exposure to meglumine antimoniate. Correlation analyses of gene expression and intracellular parasite survival revealed the involvement of host cell metallothionein-2A and ABCB6 in the survival of Leishmania during exposure to antimonials. ABCB6 was functionally validated as a transporter of antimonial compounds localized in both the cell and phagolysosomal membranes of macrophages, revealing a novel mechanism of host cell-mediated regulation of intracellular drug exposure and parasite survival within phagocytes. Conclusions These results provide insight into host cell mechanisms regulating the intracellular exposure of Leishmania to antimonials and variations among individuals that impact parasite survival. Understanding of host cell determinants of intracellular pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics opens new avenues to improved drug efficacy for intracellular

  3. The Matrine Derivate MASM Prolongs Survival, Attenuates Inflammation, and Reduces Organ Injury in Murine Established Lethal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Ke-Qi; Xu, Wei-Heng; Li, Ying-Hua; Qi, Yang; Wu, Hong-Yuan; Li, Jian-Zhong; He, Zhi-Gao; Hu, Hong-Gang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2016-12-01

     MASM, a novel derivative of matrine, has inhibitory effects on activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, and hepatic stellate cells and binds to ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of MASM on murine-established lethal sepsis and its mechanisms.  Mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells that were infected with recombinant lentiviruses encoding shRPS5 were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of MASM in vitro. Endotoxemia induced by LPS injection and sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture was followed by MASM treatment.  MASM markedly attenuated LPS-induced release and messenger RNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and NO/inducible NO synthase in murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, MASM inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor κB and MAPK pathways. Consistently, RPS5 suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory responses and at least in part mediated the antiinflammatory effect of MASM in vitro. Remarkably, delayed administration of MASM could significantly reduce mortality in mouse sepsis models, which was associated with the reduction in the inflammatory response, the attenuation in multiple organ injury, and the enhanced bacterial clearance.  MASM could be further explored for the treatments of sepsis, especially for administration later after the onset of sepsis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Protectin DX increases survival in a mouse model of sepsis by ameliorating inflammation and modulating macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xia, Haifa; Chen, Lin; Liu, Hong; Sun, Zhipeng; Yang, Wen; Yang, Yiyi; Cui, Shunan; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Yaxin; Song, Limin; Abdelgawad, Amro Fayez; Shang, You; Yao, Shanglong

    2017-12-01

    Recently, a serial of studies have demonstrated that lipid mediators derived from Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid have pro-resolving or anti-inflammatory effects in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we sought to evaluate whether Protectin DX (PDX, an isomer of Protecin D1), a newly identified lipid mediator, could protect mice against sepsis and explore the underling mechanism. Animal model of sepsis was established by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that PDX increased overall survival rate within eight days and attenuated multiple organ injury in septic mice. In addition, PDX reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial load 24 h after CLP. Moreover, PDX promoted phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages and increased the percentage of M2 macrophages in peritoneum of septic mice. In vitro, M2 macrophage markers (Arg1 and Ym1) and its transcriptional regulator (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, PPAR-γ) were upregulated in Raw264.7 macrophages challenged with PDX. GW9662 (a PPAR-γ inhibitor) and PPAR-γ siRNA abrogated the induction of Arg1 and Ym1 by PDX in Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that PDX is able to promote M2 polarization, enhance phagocytosis activity of macrophage and accelerate resolution of inflammation, finally leading to increased survival rate of septic mice.

  5. Comparison of the toxicity of sintered and unsintered indium-tin oxide particles in murine macrophage and epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Nicole S; Morris, Anna M; Barber, Tabatha Lynn; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Kashon, Michael L; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cummings, Kristin J; Leonard, Stephen S

    2017-09-15

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to produce flat panel displays and several other technology products. Composed of 90% indium oxide (In2O3) and 10% tin oxide (SnO2) by weight, ITO is synthesized under conditions of high heat via a process known as sintering. Indium lung disease, a recently recognized occupational illness, is characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema. Murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and epidermal (JB6) cells stably transfected with AP-1 to study tumor promoting potential, were used to differentiate between the toxicological profiles of sintered ITO (SITO) and unsintered mixture (UITO). We hypothesized that sintering would play a key role in free radical generation and cytotoxicity. Exposure of cells to both UITO and SITO caused a time and dose dependent decrease of the viability of cells. Intracellular ROS generation was inversely related to the dose of both UITO and SITO, a direct reflection of the decreased number of viable RAW 264.7 and JB6/AP-1 cells observed at higher concentrations. Electron spin resonance showed significantly increased hydroxyl radical (OH) generation in cells exposed to UITO compared to SITO. This is different from LDH release, which showed that SITO caused significantly increased damage to the cell membrane compared to UITO. Lastly, the JB6/AP-1 cell line did not show activation of the AP-1 pathway. Our results highlight both the differences in the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and the consistent adverse effects associated with UITO and SITO exposure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Comparison of use of Vero cell line and suspension culture of murine macrophage to attenuation of virulence of Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Khordadmehr, Monireh; Namavari, Mehdi; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Mansourian, Maryam; Rahimian, Abdollah; Daneshbod, Yahya

    2013-10-01

    In this study the tachyzoite yields of Neospora caninum were compared in two cell lines: Vero (African Green Monkey Kidney) and suspension culture of murine macrophage (J774) cell lines. Then, N. caninum were continuously passaged in these cell lines for 3 months and the effect of host cells on virulence of tachyzoites was assessed by broiler chicken embryonated eggs. Inoculation was performed in the chorioallantoic (CA) liquid of the embryonated eggs with different dilutions (0.5 × 10(4), 1.0 × 10(4), 1.5 × 10(4)) of tachtzoites isolated from these cell cultures. The mortality pattern and pathological changes of the dead embryos and hatched chickens were noted. Tissue samples of brain, liver and heart were examined by histopathological and detection of DNA of parasite by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, consecutive sections of the tissues examined histologically were used for immunohistochemical (IHC) examination. Embryos inoculated with tachyzoites derived from Vero cell line (group V) showed a higher mortality rate (100%) than the embryos that received tachyzoites derived from J774 cell line (group J) (10% mortality rate). The results of this study indicated that the culture of N. caninum in J774 cell led to a marked increase in the number of tachyzoite yields and rapid attenuation in comparison to Vero, so the results were confirmed by IHC and PCR. This study is the first report of the significant effect of host cell on the attenuation of virulence of N. caninum tachyzoites. These findings could potentially provide a practical approach in the mass production of N. caninum tachyzoites, and also in producing live attenuated vaccine.

  7. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes in the murine macrophage.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yong-Joo; Jarvis, Bruce; Pestka, James

    2003-02-28

    The satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by Stachybotrys, a mold that is often found in water-damaged dwellings and office buildings. To test the potential immunomodulatory effects of these mycotoxins, RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were treated with various concentrations of satratoxin G (SG), isosatratoxin F (iSF), satratoxin H (SH), roridin A (RA), and verrucarin A (VA) for 48 h in the presence or absence of suboptimal concentra-tion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In LPS-stimulated cultures, TNF-alpha supernatant concentrations were significantly increased in the presence of 2.5, 2.5, and 1 ng/ml of SG, SH, and RA, respectively, whereas IL-6 concentrations were not affected by the same concentrations these macrocyclic trichothecenes. When cells that were treated with LPS and SG (2.5 ng/ml) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),TNF-alpha mRNA was found to increase at 24, 36, and 48 h compared to control cells. At higher concentrations, cytokine production and cell viability were markedly impaired in LPS-stimulated cells. Without LPS stimulation, neither TNF-alpha, nor IL-6 was induced. These results indicate that low concentrations of macrocyclic trichothecenes superinduce expression of TNF-alpha, whereas higher concentrations of these toxins are cytotoxic and concurrently reduce cytokine production. The capacity of satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes to alter cytokine production may play an etiologic role in outbreaks of Stachybotrys-associated human illnesses.

  8. Jeju seaweeds suppress lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory response in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Moon, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang Suk; Yang, Kyong-Wol; Lee, Wook Jae; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju seaweeds on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Methods Ethyl acetate fractions were prepared from five different types of Jeju seaweeds, Dictyopteris divaricata (D. divaricata), Dictyopteris prolifera (D. prolifera), Prionitis cornea (P. cornea), Grateloupia lanceolata (G. lanceolata), and Grateloupia filicina (G. filicina). They were screened for inhibitory effects on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results Our results revealed that D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina potently inhibited LPS-stimulated NO production (IC50 values were 18.0, 38.36, 38.43, 32.81 and 37.14 µg/mL, respectively). Consistent with these findings, D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, and G. filicina also reduced the LPS-induced and prostaglandin E2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Expectedly, they suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 cells, as determined by western blotting. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, released into the medium, were also reduced by D. divaricata, D. prolifera, P. cornea, G. lanceolata, and G. filicina in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 values for TNF-α were 16.11, 28.21, 84.27, 45.52 and 74.75 µg/mL, respectively; IC50 values for IL-6 were 37.35, 80.08, 103.28, 62.53 and 84.28 µg/mL, respectively). The total phlorotannin content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as phloroglucinol equivalents. The content was 92.0 µg/mg for D. divaricata, 151.8 µg/mg for D. prolifera, 57.2 µg/mg for P. cornea, 53.0 µg/mg for G. lanceolata, and 40.2 µg/mg for G. filicina. Conclusions Thus, these findings suggest that Jeju seaweed extracts have potential therapeutic applications for

  9. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Yang, Jeng-Je; Chuang, Wen-I; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-08-11

    Bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum mainly include polysaccharides (PS-G) and immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8). These components may have diverse regulatory functions in the immune system. However, the PS-G preparations from different procedures still contained partial LZ-8 residue, indicating that the specific target and regulating function of PS-G and LZ-8 were not fully understood. In the present study, PS-G was subjected to 15% TCA for removing proteins and the LZ-8 detection using anti-LZ-8 monoclonal antibodies showed a remarkable 89.7% protein reduction of the deproteinized PS-G (dpPS-G). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expressed recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) without glycosylation was generated and then compared with dpPS-G in the induction toward murine primary macrophage and T lymphocytic cells. The peritoneal macrophages from TLR4-deficient and wild type mice revealed that TLR4 was a putative receptor of dpPS-G, mediating the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 cytokine production and CD86, MHC II expression on macrophages, while rLZ-8 enhanced the production of IL-1beta, IL-12p70, CD86, and MHC II expression by another obscure route. rLZ-8-treated macrophages enhanced the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, whereas dpPS-G treatment did not enhance the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2. Furthermore, although the direct rLZ-8-treatment conduced dramatic CD154, CD44 expression on CD3(+) T cells and increased IL-2, IFN-gamma secretion on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the dpPS-G was incapable of priming CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells unitarily. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. The role of macrophage lineage cells in kidney graft rejection and survival.

    PubMed

    Rowshani, Ajda Tahereh; Vereyken, Elly Johanna Francisca

    2012-08-27

    Large numbers of macrophage lineage cells are present in transplants undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury and rejection, and their presence correlates with a high probability of rejection. However, the extent to which monocytes and macrophages contribute to kidney graft rejection is poorly understood. The heterogeneity of the monocyte/macrophage lineage cells could be one of the reasons why these cells have been neglected up to now. Circulating monocytes can be divided into various subsets, which are able to give rise to tissue macrophages and dendritic cells. Macrophages are believed to be highly plastic cells that can respond to environmental signals by changing their phenotype and function. Macrophages have established roles in early and late kidney graft inflammation, tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. In kidney transplantation, macrophages are believed to play a role in both damage and repair of the graft, depending on the type of macrophages involved, the environmental drive, and the time after transplantation. The heterogeneity and plasticity of monocytes and macrophages are obstacles to translating the functional relevance of this cell lineage to diagnostic and prognostic clinical parameters and to defining specific, macrophage-related, therapeutic targets. Recent evidence has indicated an immunomodulatory role for the so-called regulatory macrophages in induction of tolerance in kidney transplant recipients. In this article, we summarize current views on monocyte/macrophage immunobiology in kidney transplantation. Key issues for ongoing research are discussed.

  11. The increase in mannose receptor recycling favors arginase induction and Trypanosoma cruzi survival in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Vanina V; Dulgerian, Laura R; Stempin, Cinthia C; Cerbán, Fabio M

    2011-01-01

    The macrophage mannose receptor (MR) is a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system that binds to microbial structures bearing mannose, fucose and N-acetylglucosamine on their surface. Trypanosoma cruzi antigen cruzipain (Cz) is found in the different developmental forms of the parasite. This glycoprotein has a highly mannosylated C-terminal domain that participates in the host-antigen contact. Our group previously demonstrated that Cz-macrophage (Mo) interaction could modulate the immune response against T. cruzi through the induction of a preferential metabolic pathway. In this work, we have studied in Mo the role of MR in arginase induction and in T. cruzi survival using different MR ligands. We have showed that pre-incubation of T. cruzi infected cells with mannose-Bovine Serum Albumin (Man-BSA, MR specific ligand) biased nitric oxide (NO)/urea balance towards urea production and increased intracellular amastigotes growth. The study of intracellular signals showed that pre-incubation with Man-BSA in T. cruzi J774 infected cells induced down-regulation of JNK and p44/p42 phosphorylation and increased of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results are coincident with previous data showing that Cz also modifies the MAPK phosphorylation profile induced by the parasite. In addition, we have showed by confocal microscopy that Cz and Man-BSA enhance MR recycling. Furthermore, we studied MR behavior during T. cruzi infection in vivo. MR was up-regulated in F4/80+ cells from T. cruzi infected mice at 13 and 15 days post infection. Besides, we investigated the effect of MR blocking antibody in T. cruzi infected peritoneal Mo. Arginase activity and parasite growth were decreased in infected cells pre-incubated with anti-MR antibody as compared with infected cells treated with control antibody. Therefore, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, Cz may contact with MR, increasing MR recycling which leads to arginase activity up-regulation and intracellular

  12. Functional Validation of ABCA3 as a Miltefosine Transporter in Human Macrophages: IMPACT ON INTRACELLULAR SURVIVAL OF LEISHMANIA (VIANNIA) PANAMENSIS.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Luuk C T; Navas, Adriana; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Gregory, David J; Kip, Anke; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Gomez, Maria Adelaida

    2016-04-29

    Within its mammalian host, Leishmania resides and replicates as an intracellular parasite. The direct activity of antileishmanials must therefore depend on intracellular drug transport, metabolism, and accumulation within the host cell. In this study, we explored the role of human macrophage transporters in the intracellular accumulation and antileishmanial activity of miltefosine (MLF), the only oral drug available for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Membrane transporter gene expression in primary human macrophages infected in vitro with Leishmania Viannia panamensis and exposed to MLF showed modulation of ABC and solute liquid carrier transporters gene transcripts. Among these, ABCA3, a lipid transporter, was significantly induced after exposure to MLF, and this induction was confirmed in primary macrophages from CL patients. Functional validation of MLF as a substrate for ABCA3 was performed by shRNA gene knockdown (KD) in THP-1 monocytes. Intracellular accumulation of radiolabeled MLF was significantly higher in ABCA3(KD) macrophages. ABCA3(KD) resulted in increased cytotoxicity induced by MLF exposure. ABCA3 gene expression inversely correlated with intracellular MLF content in primary macrophages from CL patients. ABCA3(KD) reduced parasite survival during macrophage infection with an L. V. panamensis strain exhibiting low in vitro susceptibility to MLF. Confocal microscopy showed ABCA3 to be located in the cell membrane of resting macrophages and in intracellular compartments in L. V. panamensis-infected cells. These results provide evidence of ABCA3 as an MLF efflux transporter in human macrophages and support its role in the direct antileishmanial effect of this alkylphosphocholine drug. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Survival of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus in different types of manure and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2010-08-01

    Noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are common causes of foodborne disease. They are usually shed in feces and have been found in sewage water, biosolids, and animal manures. With the wide application of manure and biosolids on agricultural lands, there is an increasing interest in investigating virus survival in manure and biosolids. In this study, Murine norovirus-1 (MNV) and HAV were inoculated into different types of animal manure and three types of differently treated biosolids at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C for up to 60 days. Both HAV and MNV viral genomes degraded immediately in high pH biosolids type 2 and 3 at time zero. For other types of manure and biosolids, HAV RNA was significantly reduced in biosolids type 1 and in liquid dairy manure (DM) after 60 days stored at 20 degrees C, but was stable in all types of manure and biosolids type 1 at 4 degrees C. MNV RNA was unstable in pelletized poultry litter and biosolids type 1 at 20 degrees C, and less stable in liquid DM at both temperatures. For MNV infectivity, there was no significant difference among pelletized poultry litter, alum-treated poultry litter, raw poultry litter, and swine manure at either 20 degrees C or 4 degrees C after 60 days of storage. However, HAV stored in swine manure and raw poultry litter had significantly higher infectivity levels than HAV stored in alum-treated poultry litter at both 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C. Overall, both viruses were inactivated rapidly in alkaline pH biosolids and unstable in liquid DM, but alum added in poultry litter had different effects on the two viruses: alum inactivated some HAV at both temperatures but had no effect on MNV.

  14. Induction of necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in mice in vivo and in murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole blood cells in vitro by Micrococcus luteus teichuronic acids.

    PubMed

    Monodane, T; Kawabata, Y; Yang, S; Hase, S; Takada, H

    2001-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that Micrococcus luteus cells and cell walls induced anaphylactoid reactions leading to death, in some instances within 1 h, in C3H/HeN mice primed with muramyl dipeptide (MDP). They also induced serum cytokines in the surviving mice. The present study investigated the structural components responsible for these activities. Teichuronic acids, a component of M. luteus cell walls, induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in MDP-primed C3H/HeN mice. Peptidoglycans had little effect on the cytokine-inducing activities. Reducing teichuronic acids, i.e., teichuronic acids whose carboxyl groups had been reduced, lost their cytokine-inducing activities. Neither peptidoglycans nor teichuronic acids induced anaphylactoid reactions in the MDP-primed mice. Purified teichuronic acids also induced TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in C3H/HeN murine peritoneal macrophages and human whole-blood cells in the culture, but reduced teichuronic acids did not. The purified teichuronic acids induced no TNF-alpha and only low levels of IL-6 in MDP-primed C3H/HeJ mice, and neither cytokine in peritoneal macrophage cultures from C3H/HeJ mice with a single point of mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. These findings suggest that induction of cytokines by teichuronic acids is mainly TLR4-dependent.

  15. Differences in the effects of four TRPV1 channel antagonists on lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production and COX-2 expression in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yuki; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-11

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of gram-negative bacteria, and cytokine production via LPS-induced macrophage activation is deeply involved in its pathogenesis. Effective therapy of sepsis has not yet been established. However, it was reported that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist capsazepine (CPZ; a capsaicin analogue) attenuates sepsis in a murine model [Ang et al., PLoS ONE 6(9) (2011) e24535; J. Immunol. 187 (2011) 4778-4787]. Here, we profiled the effects of four TRPV1 channel antagonists, AMG9810, SB366791, BCTC and CPZ, on the release of IL-6, IL-1β and IL-18, and on expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment of murine macrophage J774.1 cells or BALB/c mouse-derived intraperitoneal immune cells with LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production and COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with AMG9810 or CPZ significantly suppressed the release of IL-6, IL-1β and IL-18, and COX-2 expression, whereas SB366791 and BCTC were less effective. These results support a role of TRPV1 channel in macrophage activation, but also indicate that only a subset of TRPV1 channel antagonists may be effective in suppressing inflammatory responses. These results suggest that at least some TRPV1 channel antagonists, such as AMG9810 and CPZ, may be candidate anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary nitrate excretion in relation to murine macrophage activation. Influence of dietary L-arginine and oral NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Broadnax, L M

    1991-02-15

    Murine macrophage oxidation of L-arginine guanidino nitrogen to nitrite/nitrate yields an intermediate effector, possibly nitric oxide, with antimicrobial activity. Total body nitrogen oxidation metabolism (NOM) was measured in vivo by determining the urinary nitrate excretion of mice ingesting a chemically defined nitrite/nitrate-free diet. As reported previously, mycobacterial infection with bacillus Calmétte-Guerin led to a large increase in urinary nitrate excretion. This increase was temporally related to macrophage activation in vivo. The substrate for macrophage nitrogen oxidation metabolism in vitro, L-arginine, was deleted from the diet without ameliorating the urinary nitrate excretion response induced by BCG. This suggested that L-arginine was synthesized endogenously because there are no other known natural substrates for NOM. A competitive inhibitor of NOM, the L-arginine analog, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was fed to mice in their drinking water. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ingestion blocked both basal and bacillus Calmétte-Guerin-induced urinary nitrate excretion over a 2-4 week time span. These experimental conditions should prove useful for further investigation on the role of macrophage NOM in host defense against intracellular microorganisms.

  17. Transplantation of allogeneic islets of Langerhans in the rat liver: effects of macrophage depletion on graft survival and microenvironment activation.

    PubMed

    Bottino, R; Fernandez, L A; Ricordi, C; Lehmann, R; Tsan, M F; Oliver, R; Inverardi, L

    1998-03-01

    Early impairment of islet function and graft los