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Sample records for muscarinic cholinergic receptor

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in pancreatic acinar carcinoma of rat.

    PubMed

    Taton, G; Delhaye, M; Swillens, S; Morisset, J; Larose, L; Longnecker, D S; Poirier, G G

    1985-04-15

    The active enantiomer of tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H(-)QNB) was used as a ligand to evaluate the muscarinic receptors. The 3H(-)QNB binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors obtained from normal and neoplastic tissues were studied to determine changes in receptor properties during neoplastic transformation. Saturable and stereospecific binding sites for 3H(-)QNB are present in homogenates of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The proportions of high- and low-affinity agonist binding sites are similar for neoplastic and normal tissues. The density of muscarinic receptors is higher in neoplastic (200 femtomoles/mg protein) than in normal pancreatic homogenates (80 femtomoles/mg protein). The muscarinic binding sites of the neoplastic and fetal pancreas show similar KD values which are higher than those observed for normal pancreas. PMID:2580801

  2. Cholinergic muscarinic receptors in rat cochlea.

    PubMed

    van Megen, Y J; Klaassen, A B; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; Kuijpers, W

    1988-11-22

    Specific 3H-1-quinuclidinylbenzilate (3H-1-QNB) binding to rat cochlea homogenates occurs to a homogeneous class of binding sites with Kd = 0.13 +/- 0.01 nM and Bmax = 0.57 +/- 0.07 fmol per cochlea. Binding is stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Dexetimide was more effective than levetimide in displacing 3H-1-QNB from its binding sites (Ki = 4 x 10(-10) M and 6.5 x 10(-6) M, respectively). Pirenzepine inhibits 3H-1-QNB binding with low affinity (Ki = 2 x 10(-6) M), classifying the binding sites as muscarinic M2 receptors. PMID:3214711

  3. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-03-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 ..mu..M, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 ..mu..M) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

  4. Novel alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridine muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Shannon, H E; Bymaster, F P; Hendrix, J C; Quimby, S J; Mitch, C H

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to compare a novel series of alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridines (A-OXTPs) as muscarinic receptor antagonists. The affinity of these compounds for muscarinic receptors was determined by inhibition of [3H]pirenzepine to M1 receptors in hippocampus, [3H]QNB to M2 receptors in brainstem, and [3H]oxotremorine-M to high affinity muscarinic agonist binding sites in cortex. All of the compounds had higher affinity for [3H]pirenzepine than for [3H]QNB or [3H]oxotremorine-M labeled receptors, consistent with an interpretation that they are relatively selective M1 receptor antagonists, although none were as selective as pirenzepine. In addition, dose-response curves were determined for antagonism of oxotremorine-induced salivation (mediated by M3 receptors) and tremor (mediated by non-M1 receptors) in mice. In general, the A-OXTPs were equipotent and equieffective in antagonizing both salivation and tremor, although there were modest differences for some compounds. Dose-response curves also were determined on behavior maintained under a spatial-alternation schedule of food presentation in rats as a measure of effects on working memory. The A-OXTPs produced dose-related decreases in percent correct responding at doses three- to ten-fold lower than those which decreased rates of responding. However, only one compound, MB-OXTP, produced effects on percent correct responding consistent with a selective effect on memory as opposed to non-memory variables. The present results provide evidence that these alkoxy-oxazolyl-tetrahydropyridines are a novel series of modestly M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists, and that one member of the series, MB-OXTP, appears to be more selective in its effects on memory than previously studies muscarinic antagonists. PMID:7753969

  5. Differentiation of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human cortex and pons - Implications for anti-motion sickness therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, Bruce G.; Peroutka, Stephen J.

    1988-01-01

    Radioligand binding studies were used to analyze muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes in human cortex and pons. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors were labeled by H-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (H-3-QNB). Scopolamine was equipotent in both brain regions and did not discriminate subtypes of H-3-QNB binding. By contrast, the M1 selective antagonist pirenzepine was approximately 33-fold more potent in human cortex than pons. Carbachol, a putative M2 selective agonist, was more than 100-fold more potent in human pons than cortex. These results demonstrate that the human pons contains a relatively large proportion of carbachol-sensitive muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Drugs targeted to this subpopulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors may prove to be effective anti-motion sickness agents with less side effects than scopolamine.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [125I]- and [123I]-4-iododexetimide, a potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Ravert, H T; Frost, J J; Wagner, H N

    1989-05-01

    A series of halogenated racemic analogues of dexetimide (1) was synthesized and their affinity for the muscarinic cholinergic receptor measured. One analogue, 4-iododexetimide (21), was efficiently labeled with 125I and 123I at high specific activity. In vitro binding studies and in vivo biodistribution studies suggest that 123I-labeled 21 may be useful for imaging muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the living human brain with single photon emission computed tomography. PMID:2785211

  7. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors in murine atria: phosphatidylinositol breakdown and receptor interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Upon stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, there is a decrease in the force of contraction rate of firing in heart, while stimulation of ..cap alpha.. adrenergic receptors causes an increase in the force of contraction with no change in the heart rate. Yet both receptors stimulate the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol (PI). Therefore, the breakdown of PI was examined to determine how the process differed between the two receptor systems. Murine atria, prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)inositol, were stimulated with the muscarinic cholinergic agonists, carbamylcholine (CARB), and oxotremorine (OXO); and with the ..cap alpha.. adrenergic agonists, norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE); either singly or in combination. Breakdown of PI was assessed by measurement of individual inositol phosphates by anion exchange chromatography. Binding of CARB to atrial muscarinic receptors was measured by competition with (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate.

  8. Affinities of brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and terfenadine at the five human muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, S U; Yasuda, R P

    1999-04-01

    Anticholinergic effects are presumed to be the mechanism for the efficacy of chlorpheniramine in symptomatic relief of the common cold. Terfenadine, a second-generation antihistamine, reportedly lacks anticholinergic side effects. We evaluated affinities of two commonly used over-the-counter antihistamines, brompheniramine and chlorpheniramine, as well as terfenadine in comparison with atropine at the five human muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes using CHO cells stably transfected with the individual subtypes. Atropine was more potent than all three drugs at m1-m5 (p<0.01). No significant difference was observed between chlorpheniramine and brompheniramine. Atropine, brompheniramine, and chlorpheniramine could not discriminate between m1-m5. Terfenadine demonstrated subtype selectivity at m3. In vitro comparisons in human muscarinic receptor subtypes could potentially be used to predict clinical anticholinergic effects of antihistamines and to target receptor-specific effects of such agents.

  9. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, M.H.; Pollard, H.B.; Heldman, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, the authors found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca{sup 2+} dependent, and both agonists induced {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that ({sup 3}H)Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a K{sub d} value of 3.08 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. They propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features.

  10. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shirvan, M H; Pollard, H B; Heldman, E

    1991-01-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, we found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca2+ dependent, and both agonists induced 45Ca2+ uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that [3H]Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a Kd value of 3.08 x 10(-8) M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. We propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features. Images PMID:2052567

  11. Role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in an experimental model of epilepsy-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Carvalho, Andressa Daiane; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibrahim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2004-10-01

    The blockade of GABA-mediated Cl(-) influx with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used in the present work to induce seizures in animals. The neurotransmission in the postictal period has been the focus of many studies, and there is evidence suggesting antinociceptive mechanisms following tonic-clonic seizures in both animals and men. The aim of this work was to study the involvement of acetylcholine in the antinociception induced by convulsions elicited by peripheral administration of PTZ (64 mg/kg). Analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test in eight albino Wistar rats per group. Convulsions were followed by significant increases in tail-flick latencies (TFLs) at least for 120 min of the postictal period. Peripheral administration of atropine (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the TFL in seizing animals, as compared to controls. These data were corroborated by peripheral administration of mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker, at the same doses (0.25, 1 and 4 mg/kg) used for the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist. The recruitment of the muscarinic receptor was made 10 min postconvulsions and in subsequent periods of postictal analgesia, whereas the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor was implicated only after 30 min postseizures. The cholinergic antagonists caused a minimal reduction in body temperature, but did not impair baseline TFL, spontaneous exploration or motor coordination in the rotarod test at the maximal dose of 4 mg/kg. These results indicate that acetylcholine may be involved as a neurotransmitter in postictal analgesia.

  12. Alterations in alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in rat brain following nonionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, V.C.; Ross, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave radiation produces hyperthermia. The mammalian thermoregulatory system defends against changes in temperature by mobilizing diverse control mechanisms. Neurotransmitters play a major role in eliciting thermoregulatory responses. The involvement of adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors was investigated in radiation-induced hyperthermia. Rats were subjected to radiation at 700 MHz frequency and 15 mW/cm/sup 2/ power density and the body temperature was raised by 2.5 degrees C. Of six brain regions investigated only the hypothalamus showed significant changes in receptor states, confirming its pivotal role in thermoregulation. Adrenergic receptors, studied by (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding, showed a 36% decrease in binding following radiation after a 2.5 degrees C increase in body temperature, suggesting a mechanism to facilitate norepinephrine release. Norepinephrine may be speculated to maintain thermal homeostasis by activating heat dissipation. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors, studied by (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, showed a 65% increase in binding at the onset of radiation. This may be attributed to the release of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus in response to heat cumulation. The continued elevated binding during the period of cooling after radiation was shut off may suggest the existence of an extra-hypothalamic heat-loss pathway.

  13. Cholinergic stimulation of pancreatic amylase release and muscarinic receptors: effect of ionophore A23187

    SciTech Connect

    Larose, L.; Morisset, J.

    1985-07-22

    Dispersed rat pancreatic acini were incubated in 0.5 mM calcium medium with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine, with or without the ionophore A23187 (10/sup -6/M). Addition of the ionophore reduced maximal amylase release, increased the maximal effective concentration of carbamylcholine and dramatically impaired the agonist's capacity to induce enzyme secretion at low concentration. The ionophore also abolished the inhibition of secretion observed at high carbamylcholine concentrations. These effects of the ionophore on the cholinergic secretory response cannot be explained by interaction at the muscarinic receptor since neither the Bmax, the affinity of the receptor for the (/sup 3/H)QNB nor the binding of carbamylcholine were affected by the ionophore. It is suggested that for the conditions studied, the ionophore can interact with the secretory process at one or several points ulterior to the initial recognition site of carbamylcholine on its receptor. 30 references, 3 figures.

  14. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  15. Concanavalin A amplifies both beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Singh, K J; Hines, D K; Honbo, N Y; Karliner, J S

    1991-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) is a tetrameric plant lectin that disrupts plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interactions and alters plasma membrane fluidity. We used Con A as a probe to explore beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor-mediated regulation of cAMP in intact neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Preincubation with Con A, 0.5 micrograms/ml, attenuated 1 microM (-)-norepinephrine (NE)-induced downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptors and resulted in a 50% augmentation of cAMP accumulation stimulated by 1 microM NE. Con A also augmented forskolin (1-10 microM)-stimulated cAMP accumulation by an average of 37% (P less than 0.05); however, Con A preincubation had no effect on basal or cholera toxin-stimulated cAMP content. The muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol (1-100 microM) decreased 1 microM NE-stimulated cAMP generation by an average of 32% (n = 7, P less than 0.05); preincubation with Con A further enhanced the inhibitory effect of carbachol by 18% (n = 7, P less than 0.05). Carbachol (1 microM) for 2 h decreased muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in whole cells by 33%; preincubation with Con A prevented this receptor downregulation. Con A pretreatment did not affect (-)-isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in cell homogenates, suggesting that an intact cytoarchitecture is necessary for Con A to augment cAMP formation. We conclude that Con A, through its modulation of beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor signaling, amplifies both stimulatory and inhibitory adenylate cyclase-linked pathways in intact neonatal ventricular myocytes. These data suggest the possibility that plasma membrane-cytoskeletal interaction is an important regulator of transmembrane signaling because interference with this interaction results in alterations in cAMP accumulation mediated by both beta-adrenergic- and muscarinic cholinergic-adenylate cyclase pathways. PMID:1653274

  16. Local heating of human skin causes hyperemia without mediation by muscarinic cholinergic receptors or prostanoids.

    PubMed

    Golay, Sandrine; Haeberli, Christian; Delachaux, Anne; Liaudet, Lucas; Kucera, Paul; Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

    2004-11-01

    Local changes in surface temperature have a powerful influence on the perfusion of human skin. Heating increases local skin blood flow, but the mechanisms and mediators of this response (thermal hyperemia response) are incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we examined the possible dependence of the thermal hyperemia response on stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and on production of vasodilator prostanoids. In 13 male healthy subjects aged 20-30 yr, a temperature-controlled chamber was positioned on the volar face of one forearm and used to raise surface temperature from 34 to 41 degrees C. The time course of the resulting thermal hyperemia response was recorded with a laser-Doppler imager. In one experiment, each of eight subjects received an intravenous bolus of the antimuscarinic agent glycopyrrolate (4 microg/kg) on one visit and saline on the other. The thermal hyperemia response was determined within the hour after the injections. Glycopyrrolate effectively inhibited the skin vasodilation induced by iontophoresis of acetylcholine but did not influence the thermal hyperemia response. In a second experiment, conducted in five other subjects, 1 g of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin administered orally totally abolished the vasodilation induced in the skin by anodal current but also failed to modify the thermal hyperemia response. The present study excludes the stimulation of muscarinic receptors and the production of vasodilator prostaglandins as essential and nonredundant mechanisms for the vasodilation induced by local heating in human forearm skin. PMID:15247159

  17. Affinities of pirenzepine for muscarinic cholinergic receptors in membranes isolated from bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, J.M.; Jones, C.A.; Tom-Moy, M.; Brown, J.K.

    1987-03-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been classified into subtypes based on their high (M-1 subtype) or low (M-2 subtype) affinities for the nonclassic antagonist pirenzepine, and this classification has important experimental and therapeutic implications. Because muscarinic receptors are abundant in the airways where they mediate several different cellular responses, the goal of this study was to characterize the affinities of pirenzepine for the muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle. After isolating membrane particulates from mucosa and smooth muscle, as well as from bovine cerebral cortex (a known source of M-1 receptors), we used /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate to label muscarinic receptors in the particulates and performed competition radioligand binding assays in the presence of either atropine or pirenzepine. Receptors from all 3 tissues (mucosa, smooth muscle, and cerebral cortex) were of a relatively uniform affinity for atropine (range of KI values: 0.8 +/- 0.4 X 10(-9) to 2.4 +/- 1.7 X 10(-9) M), as would be predicted for this classic muscarinic antagonist. By contrast, affinities for pirenzepine differed depending on the tissue. In cerebral cortex, the majority of receptors were of high affinity for pirenzepine (KI = 1.8 +/- 1.4 X 10(-8) M). In both mucosa and smooth muscle, receptors were of low affinity for pirenzepine (Kl = 4.8 +/- 0.4 to 6.9 +/- 3.8 X 10(-7) M). We conclude that muscarinic cholinergic receptors in bovine tracheal mucosa and smooth muscle are predominantly of the M-2 subtype.

  18. Synthesis of radiotracers for studying muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the living human brain using positron emission tomography: [11C]dexetimide and [11C]levetimide.

    PubMed

    Dannals, R F; Långström, B; Ravert, H T; Wilson, A A; Wagner, H N

    1988-01-01

    Dexetimide (Fig. 1a), a potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, and levetimide (Fig. 1b), its pharmacologically inactive enantiomer, were labeled with 11C for non-invasive in vivo studies of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain using positron emission tomography. The syntheses were completed in approximately 32 min using [alpha-11C]benzyl iodide as the precursor. The synthesis, purification, characterization and determination of specific activity are presented and discussed. PMID:2838435

  19. Nipecotic acid ethyl ester: a cholinergic agonist that may differentiate muscarinic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, S.H.; Duman, R.S.; Enna, S.J.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.; Micheletti, R.; Giraldo, E.; Giachetti, A.

    1986-03-05

    Reports indicate that nipecotic acid ethyl ester (NAEE) displays cholinomimetic properties in vivo. In the present study a series of physiological and biochemical tests were conducted to characterize this action. NAEE had a negative inotropic effect on the guinea pig atrium, and stimulated contraction of the guinea pig ileum and isolated mouse stomach strip at concentrations similar to bethanechol (BCH). The atrial and ilial effects were reversed by atropine. Unlike BCH, NAEE had no effect on basal acid secretion in the isolated mouse stomach at concentrations < 100 ..mu..M. NAEE was more potent than carbachol (CCH) in displacing /sup 3/H-ONB binding from rat brain membranes. The potency of NAEE to inhibit antagonist binding in rat heart membranes was enhanced by Mg/sup + +/ (Hill coefficient < 1.0) and reduced by Gpp(NH)p. Like CCH, NAEE inhibited GTP-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat brain striatal membranes. As compared to CCH, NAEE had little effect (< 5%) as a stimulator of inositol phosphate (IP) production in rat brain slices. The results indicate that NAEE is a direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonist. Moreover, its differential effects on acid secretion, IP accumulation, and adenylate cyclase suggest that it may be useful for defining cholinergic receptor subclasses.

  20. Characterization of cholinergic muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain from immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Balduini, W.; Murphy, S.D.; Costa, L.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides elicited by stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors has been studied in brain from neonatal (7-day-old) rats in order to determine: (1) whether the neonatal rat could provide a good model system to study this signal-transduction pathway; and (2) whether potential differences with adult nerve tissue would explain the differential, age-related effects of cholinergic agonists. Accumulation of (3H) inositol phosphates in (3H)inositol prelabeled slices from neonatal and adult rats was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Full (acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol) and partial (oxotremorine, bethanechol) agonists had qualitatively similar, albeit quantitatively different, effects in neonatal and adult rats. Atropine and pirenzepine effectively blocked the carbachol-induced response with inhibition constants of 1.2 and 20.7 nM, respectively. In all brain areas, response to all agonists was higher in neonatal than adult rats, and in hippocampus and cerebral cortex the response was higher than in cerebellum or brainstem. The relative intrinsic activity of partial agonists was higher in the latter two areas (0.6-0.7) than in the former two (0.3-0.4). Carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in brain areas correlated well with the binding of (3H)QNB (r2 = 0.627) and, particularly, with (3H)pirenzepine (r2 = 0.911). In cerebral cortex the effect of carbachol was additive to that of norepinephrine and glutamate. The presence of calcium (250-500 microM) was necessary for maximal response to carbachol to be elicited; the EC50 value for Ca2+ was 65.4 microM. Addition of EDTA completely abolished the response. Removal of sodium ions from the incubation medium reduced the response to carbachol by 50%.

  1. Imaging muscarinic cholinergic receptors using I-123-paraiododexetimide and emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.J.; Wilson, A.A.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Smith, A.C.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Dexetimide is a high affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MR) antagonist which binds preferentially to MR in vivo. The corresponding optical isomer of dexetimide is levetimide (LEV) which binds to MR with a thousand-fold lower affinity. Paraiododexetimide (IDEX) has an affinity slightly less than dexetimide (KD = 2.7 nM). Following the administration of I-125 IDEX (10 ..mu..g/kg,IV) to mice high radioactivity concentrations in the striatum and cerebral cortex and a low radioactivity concentration in the cerebellum were observed; this distribution corresponds to the known distribution of MR in the brain. Following the injection of I-125-ILEV a low and uniform radioactivity concentration was observed throughout the brain. Preliminary imaging studies using an Anger camera and I-123-IDEX in a baboon showed high radioactivity in the brain and parotid gland. The radioactivity in the parotid gland diminished with time whereas the radioactivity in the brain increased over the 90 min. imaging period, which suggests high affinity binding to MR in the brain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of imaging MR using single photon emission computed tomography and I-123-IDEX.

  2. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments.

  3. Dorsal raphe nucleus acetylcholine-mediated neurotransmission modulates post-ictal antinociception: The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-01-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key structure of the endogenous pain inhibitory system. Although the DRN is rich in serotoninergic neurons, cholinergic neurons are also found in that nucleus. Both ictal and inter-ictal states are followed by post-ictal analgesia. The present study investigated the role of cholinergic mechanisms in postictal antinociceptive processes using microinjections of atropine and mecamylamine, muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists, respectively, in the DRN of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) (at 64mg/kg) caused tonic and tonic-clonic seizures. The convulsive motor reactions were followed by an increase in pain thresholds, a phenomenon known as post-ictal analgesia. Pre-treatment of the DRN with atropine or mecamylamine at 1µg, 3µg and 5µg/0.2µL decreased the post-ictal antinociceptive phenomenon. The present results showed that the post-ictal analgesia was mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the DRN, a structure crucially involved in the neural network that organises post-ictal hypoalgesia. PMID:26620541

  4. Primary structure of rat cardiac beta-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors obtained by automated DNA sequence analysis: further evidence for a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gocayne, J; Robinson, D A; FitzGerald, M G; Chung, F Z; Kerlavage, A R; Lentes, K U; Lai, J; Wang, C D; Fraser, C M; Venter, J C

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, lambda RHM-MF and lambda RHB-DAR, encoding the muscarinic cholinergic receptor and the beta-adrenergic receptor, respectively, have been isolated from a rat heart cDNA library. The cDNA clones were characterized by restriction mapping and automated DNA sequence analysis utilizing fluorescent dye primers. The rat heart muscarinic receptor consists of 466 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 51,543. The rat heart beta-adrenergic receptor consists of 418 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 46,890. The two cardiac receptors have substantial amino acid homology (27.2% identity, 50.6% with favored substitutions). The rat cardiac beta receptor has 88.0% homology (92.5% with favored substitutions) with the human brain beta receptor and the rat cardiac muscarinic receptor has 94.6% homology (97.6% with favored substitutions) with the porcine cardiac muscarinic receptor. The muscarinic cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptors appear to be as conserved as hemoglobin and cytochrome c but less conserved than histones and are clearly members of a multigene family. These data support our hypothesis, based upon biochemical and immunological evidence, that suggests considerable structural homology and evolutionary conservation between adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors. To our knowledge, this is the first report utilizing automated DNA sequence analysis to determine the structure of a gene. Images PMID:2825184

  5. Selective increase of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat cerebral cortex after chronic haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Pazo, J H; Levi de Stein, M; Jerusalinsky, D; Novas, M L; Raskovsky, S; Tumilasci, O R; Medina, J H; De Robertis, E

    1987-06-30

    The effect of chronic administration of haloperidol on alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenoceptors, cholinergic muscarinic, GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors in the cerebral cortex of the rat was investigated. Doses of 0.3 and 2 mg/kg of haloperidol during 7 days increased markedly the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors without changes in affinity. The alpha 2- and beta-adrenoceptors were not modified after neuroleptic administration. The number of muscarinic receptors were also increased after haloperidol treatment (2 mg/kg/day). However, the GABAA and benzodiazepine binding sites remained unchanged. In the brainstem an increment in the alpha 1-, but not the beta-adrenoceptors was observed. The well known increase in the dopamine receptors in the striatum was confirmed. These observations demonstrate a multireceptor effect of haloperidol in the cerebral cortex.

  6. The cholinergic immune regulation mediated by a novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor through TNF pathway in oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Dong, Wenjing; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2016-12-01

    Muscarinic receptors, which selectively take muscarine as their ligand, are critical for the immunological and physiological processes in animals. In the present study, the open region frame (ORF) of a homologue of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (mAChR) was amplified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (named as CgmAChR-1), whose full length was 1983 bp and the protein it encoded contained 660 amino acids with a seven transmembrane region. Phylogeny analysis suggested that CgmAChR-1 shared homology with M5 muscarinic receptor found in invertebrates including Habropoda laboriosa, Acromyrmex echinatior and Echinococcus granulosus. After cell transfection of CgmAChR-1 into HEK293T cells and ACh incubation, the level of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP increased significantly (p < 0.05). Such trend could be reverted with the addition of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptor antagonists DAMP and DAR. The CgmAChR-1 transcripts were ubiquitously detectable in seven different tissues with the maximal expression level in adductor muscle. When the oysters received LPS stimulation, CgmAChR-1 mRNA expression in haemocyte was increased to the highest level (6.05-fold, p < 0.05) at 24 h, while blocking CgmAChR-1 using receptor antagonists before LPS stimulation promoted the expression of oyster TNF, resulting in the increase of haemocyte apoptosis index. These results suggested that CgmAChR-1 was the key molecule in cholinergic neuroendocrine-immune system contributing to the regulation of TNF expression and apoptosis process. PMID:27394930

  7. Modulation of muscarinic and micotinic cholinergic receptor mediated catecholamine secretion in guinea pig chromaffin cells by phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiredo, J.C.; Fisher, S.K.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-05-01

    Isolated guinea pig chromaffin cells possess both nicotinic (nAChR) and muscarinic (mAChR) cholinergic receptors that are positively coupled to catecholamine (CA) release. Sixty to 70% of CA release is mediated by nAChRs and 30-40% by mAChRs. In the absence of added calcium, nAChR mediated CA release was reduced by 65% whereas the muscarinic response was unaffected. The addition of 100nM 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), also resulted in an increased CA release. Temporally and quantitatively, this response resembled that of mAChR activation. Addition of optimal concentrations of nicotine (50..mu..M) and TPA (100nM) induced a synergistic increase in CA release. Addition of muscarine (1mM) and TPA resulted in an additive response despite a 40-60% inhibition of mAChR mediated inositol phosphate release by TPA. Thus, in guinea pig chromaffin cells, it appears that PKC activation alone is a sufficient stimulus for CA release and that activation of both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors may further increase this enzyme's activity.

  8. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors (MR3) in saliva of patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Mohammadpour, Neda

    2016-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common, chronic, and inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Xerostomia is also a common complaint of most OLP patients. Considering the significant role of M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R) in secretion of saliva, this study sought to compare the level of this receptor in saliva between OLP patients and healthy controls. Forty OLP patients and 40 healthy controls filled out two questionnaires regarding xerostomia to assess its degree of severity. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were obtained of both groups and the stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were calculated. Salivary level of M3 muscarinic receptors was measured using the ELISA kit. Data were analyzed and compared using unpaired student's t test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates and M3 muscarinic receptors levels were significantly lower but degree of xerostomia was significantly higher in OLP patients compared to healthy controls. Salivary M3 muscarinic receptor seems to be low in the patients with OLP and these patients suffer from xerostomia and reduced salivary flow rate. PMID:27371099

  9. Positron emission tomographic investigations of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors with three isomers of [76Br]BrQNP.

    PubMed

    Strijckmans, V; Bottlaender, M; Luo, H; Ottaviani, M; McPherson, D W; Loc'h, C; Fuseau, C; Knapp, F F; Mazière, B

    1997-05-01

    We studied the potential of three radiobrominated isomers of BrQNP, (Z(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP, E(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP and E(-,+)-[76Br]BrQNP), as suitable radioligands for imaging of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain. These radioligands were stereospecifically prepared by electrophilic radiobromodestannylation of the respective tributylstannyl precursors using no-carrier-added [76Br]BrNH4 and peracetic acid. Preliminary pharmacological characterizations were determined by biodistribution, autoradiography, competition, displacement and metabolite studies in rats. The (-,-)-configuration presented important specific uptakes in brain muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-rich structures and in heart, low metabolization rates and an apparent M2 selectivity. The (-,+)-configuration revealed more rapid clearance, lower uptake, a higher metabolization rate and an apparent M1 selectivity. Reversibility of the binding was confirmed for the three radiotracers. Positron emission tomography in the living baboon brain revealed high and rapid uptake in the brain and accumulation in the mAChR-rich structures studied. At 30 min p.i., the E(-,-)-radiotracer reached a plateau in cortex, pons and thalamus with concentrations of 29%, 24% and 19% ID/l, respectively. Z(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP also accumulated in these structures, reaching a maximal uptake (27% ID/l) in the cortex 2 h p.i. At 5 min p.i. a plateau (17% ID/l) was only observed in the cortex for the E(-, +)-[76Br]BrQNP; by contrast, the other structures showed slow washout. After 3 weeks, the (-,-)-radiotracers were studied in the same baboon pretreated with dexetimide (1 mg/kg), a well-known muscarinic antagonist. In all the mAChR structures, the highly reduced uptake observed after this preloading step indicates that these radiotracers specifically bind to muscarinic receptors. Z(-, -)-[76Br]BrQNP, which is displaced in higher amounts from M2 mAChR-enriched structures, reveals an M2 affinity. The two isomers

  10. Parallel maturation of the pancreatic secretory response to cholinergic stimulation and the muscarinic receptor population.

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Y.; Larose, L.; Morisset, J.; Poirier, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    1 The appearance of pancreatic muscarinic receptors during development has been measured by use of the specific ligand [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB). 2 QNB binding sites are present in foetal pancreas; their maximal concentration is attained at the age of 30 days and a significant decrease is observed in one year old animals. 3 Affinity of [3H]-QNB for the muscarinic receptor does not change with age. 4 An evaluation of the pancreatic secretory response to a cholinoceptor agonist as a function of age indicates that the development of this response parallels that of the receptor population. 5 It is suggested that, at all ages from 3 days after birth onwards, the maximal secretory response of the exocrine pancreas to a cholinoceptor agonist mobilizes the same proportion of the total population of QNB binding sites. PMID:6165420

  11. Bilateral injection of fasciculin into the amygdala of rats: effects on two avoidance tasks, acetylcholinesterase activity, and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, J; Raskovsky, S; Dalmaz, C; Dias, M; Huang, C; Netto, C A; Schneider, F; Izquierdo, I; Medina, J H; Silveira, R

    1990-11-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the bilateral injection of fasciculin-2 (FAS), a natural acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory peptide, into the amygdala of rats on acquisition and retention of two avoidance behaviors. Intraamygdala injection of FAS (150 ng/amygdala) produced a pronounced and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity: 85% and 74% on day 2 and day 5, respectively. After 48 hr, FAS-treated animals showed no changes in training or test session performance in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (training-test interval was 24 hr). In a 2-way shuttle avoidance task, intraamygdala FAS slightly reduced retention test performance without modifying training session scores. Two and five days after FAS injections into the amygdala, the density of muscarinic receptor decreased about 50% as measured by the specific bindings of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and 3H-oxotremorine. No alterations were observed in the apparent dissociation constants. On the other hand, the central-type benzodiazepine receptor population of the amygdala remained unchanged, suggesting that FAS microinjection did not produce damage to neuronal components of these nuclei. In conclusion, the results presented have indicated that a clear-cut and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity in the amygdala is not accompanied by a facilitation of learning and memory of two different avoidance tasks. Compensation of the increased cholinergic activity by a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors could account for these findings.

  12. Kinetics of in vivo binding of antagonist to muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human heart studied by Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Syrota, A.; Paillotin, G.; Davy, J.M.; Aumont, M.C.

    1984-08-27

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used to analyze in vivo antagonist binding to human myocardial muscarinic cholinergic receptor. The methiodide salt of the muscarinic antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (MQNB), was labeled with the positron emitter, Carbon-11, and injected intravenously to 8 normal subjects. /sup 11/C-MQNB concentration was determined in vivo in the ventricular septum from 40 cross-sectional images acquired at the same transverse level over a period of 70 minutes. In 4 subjects, various amounts of unlabeled atropine were rapidly injected at 20 minutes to study whether atropine competitively inhibited MQNB. The kinetics of binding of /sup 11/C-MQNB were not the same in vivo and in vitro. The apparent dissociation rate of /sup 11/C-MQNB in vivo was much slower (by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude) than that observed in vitro with /sup 3/H-QNB. After atropine injection, /sup 11/C-MQNB dissociated from its binding sites at a rate that apparently depended on the amount of atropine present. /sup 11/C-MQNB kinetics were analyzed with a mathematical model which assumes the existence of a boundary layer containing free ligand in the vicinity of the binding sites. The dissociation rate of the radioligand depends on the probability of its rebinding to a free receptor site. 11 references, 1 table.

  13. Neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological approaches to postictal antinociception-related prosencephalic neurons: the role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Bolognesi, Luana Iacovelo; Twardowschy, André; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar; Sibson, Nicola R; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested the involvement of the hippocampus in the elaboration of epilepsy. There is evidence that suggests the hippocampus plays an important role in the affective and motivational components of nociceptive perception. However, the exact nature of this involvement remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the dorsal hippocampus (dH) in the organization of postictal analgesia. In a neuroanatomical study, afferent connections were found from the somatosensory cortex, the medial septal area, the lateral septal area, the diagonal band of Broca, and the dentate gyrus to the dH; all these areas have been suggested to modulate convulsive activity. Outputs to the dH were also identified from the linear raphe nucleus, the median raphe nucleus (MdRN), the dorsal raphe nucleus, and the locus coeruleus. All these structures comprise the endogenous pain modulatory system and may be involved either in postictal pronociception or antinociception that is commonly reported by epileptic patients. dH-pretreatment with cobalt chloride (1.0 mmol/L CoCl2/0.2 μL) to transiently inhibit local synapses decreased postictal analgesia 10 min after the end of seizures. Pretreatment of the dH with either atropine or mecamylamine (1.0 μg/0.2 μL) attenuated the postictal antinociception 30 min after seizures, while the higher dose (5.0 μg/0.2 μL) decreased postictal analgesia immediately after the end of seizures. These findings suggest that the dH exerts a critical role in the organization of postictal analgesia and that muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor-mediated mechanisms in the dH are involved in the elaboration of antinociceptive processes induced by generalized tonic-clonic seizures. PMID:23785660

  14. [3H]AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart.

    PubMed

    Wang, J X; Roeske, W R; Gulya, K; Wang, W; Yamamura, H I

    1987-10-01

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist [3H]AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of [3H]AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25 degrees C (2.74 and 2.70 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for K+1; 0.87 and 0.93 min-1 for k-1) but 20-40 times slower at 0-4 degrees C (0.13 and 0.096 X 10(7) min-1 M-1 for k+1; 0.031 and 0.022 min-1 for k-1 in cerebral cortical and cardiac membranes, respectively). Kinetic dissociation constants (Kds) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25 degrees C; 23.1 nM and 0-4 degrees C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, [3H]AF-DX 116 labeled 29 percent of the total [3H](-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87 percent in the cardiac membranes, with Kd values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine greater than dexetimide greater than AF-DX 116 greater than PZ greater than levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/[3H]AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/[3H]AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. Carbachol and oxotremorine produced shallow inhibition curves against [3H]AF-DX 116 binding in both tissues. Regional distribution studies with [3H](-)QNB, [3H]PZ and [3H]AF-DX 116 showed that most of the muscarinic receptors in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and corpus striatum are of the M1 subtype while those in the brainstem, cerebellum and other lower brain regions are of the M2 subtype. These results indicate that [3H]AF-DX 116 is a useful probe for the study of heterogeneity of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. PMID:3657382

  15. A comparison of β-adrenoceptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in tissues of brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the black river and old woman creek, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steevens, Jeffery A.; Baumann, Paul C.; Jones, Susan B.

    1996-01-01

    β-Adrenoceptors (βARs) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors were measured in brain, gill, and heart tissues of brown bullhead catfish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Black River, Ohio, USA, and were compared to values from Old Woman Creek, Ohio, a reference site. A decreased number of βARs were found in the gill from Black River fish, possibly indicating a compensatory response subsequent to chemical stress.

  16. A comparison of {beta}-adrenoceptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in tissues of brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Black River and Old Woman Creek, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Steevens, J.A.; Baumann, P.C.; Jones, S.B.

    1996-09-01

    {beta}-Adrenoceptors ({beta}ARs) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors were measured in brain, gill, and heart tissues of brown bullhead catfish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Black River, Ohio, USA, and were compared to values from Old Woman Creek, Ohio, a reference site. A decreased number of {beta}ARs were found in the gill from Black River fish, possibly indicating a compensatory response subsequent to chemical stress.

  17. Psychopharmacological evidences for the involvement of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors on sweet substance-induced analgesia in Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Irusta, A E; Savoldi, M; Kishi, R; Resende, G C; Freitas, R L; Carvalho, A D; Coimbra, N C

    2001-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l) for 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex) were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The index (mean +/- SEM, N = 8) for the groups receiving sucrose solution plus saline (NaCl; 0.9%) for 14 days was 0.70 +/- 0.01. Atropine (1 and 2 mg/kg)-treated rats (N = 8) after intake of sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.39 +/- 0.09 and 0.39 +/- 0.08, respectively, while mecamylamine (1 and 2 mg/kg)-treated rats (N = 10) after intake of sucrose had an index of -0.02 +/- 0.07 and 0.03 +/- 0.07, respectively. These results indicate that the effect of sucrose intake on nociceptive thresholds is controlled by neurotransmission of acetylcholine and depends on the nicotinic cholinergic receptors for its major analgesic effect, although muscarinic receptors were also involved in this antinociceptive process.

  18. Imaging muscarinic cholinergic receptors in human brain in vivo with Spect, [123I]4-iododexetimide, and [123I]4-iodolevetimide.

    PubMed

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N; Frost, J J

    1992-07-01

    A method to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic receptors) noninvasively in human brain in vivo was developed using [123I]4-iododexetimide ([123I]IDex), [123I]4-iodolevetimide ([123I]ILev), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). [123I]IDex is a high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist. [123I]ILev is its pharmacologically inactive enantiomer and measures nonspecific binding of [123I]IDex in vitro. Regional brain activity after tracer injection was measured in four young normal volunteers for 24 h. Regional [123I]IDex and [123I]ILev activities were correlated early after injection, but not after 1.5 h. [123I]IDex activity increased over 7-12 h in neocortex, neostriatum, and thalamus, but decreased immediately after the injection peak in cerebellum. [123I]IDex activity was highest in neostriatum, followed in rank order by neocortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. [123I]IDex activity correlated with muscarinic receptor concentrations in matching brain regions. In contrast, [123I]ILev activity decreased immediately after the injection peak in all brain regions and did not correspond to muscarinic receptor concentrations. [123I]IDex activity in neocortex and neostriatum during equilibrium was six to seven times higher than [123I]ILev activity. The data demonstrate that [123I]IDex binds specifically to muscarinic receptors in vivo, whereas [123I]ILev represents the nonspecific part of [123I]IDex binding. Subtraction of [123I]ILev from [123I]IDex images on a pixel-by-pixel basis therefore reflects specific [123I]IDex binding to muscarinic receptors. Owing to its high specific binding, [123I]IDex has the potential to measure small changes in muscarinic receptor characteristics in vivo with SPECT. The use of stereoisomerism directly to measure nonspecific binding of [123I]IDex in vivo may reduce complexity in modeling approaches to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human brain. PMID:1618935

  19. Axonal transport of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat vagus nerve: high and low affinity agonist receptors move in opposite directions and differ in nucleotide sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zarbin, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1982-07-01

    The presence and transport of muscarinic cholinergic binding sites have been detected in the rat vagus nerve. These binding sites accumulate both proximal and distal to ligatures in a time-dependent manner. The results of double ligature and colchicine experiments are compatible with the notion that the anterogradely transported binding sites move by fast transport. Most of the sites accumulating proximal to ligatures bind the agonist carbachol with high affinity, while most of the sites accumulating distally bind carbachol with a low affinity. Also, the receptors transported in the anterograde direction are affected by a guanine nucleotide analogue (GppNHp), while those transported in the retrograde direction are less, or not, affected. The bulk of the sites along the unligated nerve trunk bind carbachol with a low affinity and are less sensitive to GppNHp modulation than the anterogradely transported sites. These results suggest that some receptors in the vagus may undergo axonal transport in association with regulatory proteins and that receptor molecules undergo changes in their binding and regulatory properties during their life cycle. These data also support the notion that the high and low affinity agonist form of the muscarinic receptor represent different modulated forms of a single receptor molecule.

  20. Effect of partial volume correction on muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, M; Hufnagel, A; Ziemons, K; Griessmeier, M; Sonnenberg, F; Hackländer, T; Langen, K J; Holschbach, M; Elger, C E; Müller-Gärtner, H

    1997-09-01

    Animal experiments and preliminary results in humans have indicated alterations of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often present with a reduction in hippocampal volume. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hippocampal atrophy on the quantification of mAChR with single photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral uptake of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist [123I]4-iododexetimide (IDex) was investigated by SPET in patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy of unilateral (n=6) or predominantly unilateral (n=1) onset. Regions of interest were drawn on co-registered magnetic resonance images. Hippocampal volume was determined in these regions and was used to correct the SPET results for partial volume effects. A ratio of hippocampal IDex binding on the affected side to that on the unaffected side was used to detect changes in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density. Before partial volume correction a decrease in hippocampal IDex binding on the focus side was found in each patient. After partial volume no convincing differences remained. Our results indicate that the reduction in hippocampal IDex binding in patients with epilepsy is due to a decrease in hippocampal volume rather than to a decrease in receptor concentration. PMID:9283110

  1. The involvement of ventral tegmental area cholinergic muscarinic receptors in classically conditioned fear expression as measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    PubMed

    Greba, Q; Munro, L J; Kokkinidis, L

    2000-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contribute to the complex amygdala-based neurocircuitry that mediates fear-motivated behaviors. Because of acetylcholine's (ACh) role in DA neuronal activation, the involvement of VTA cholinergic muscarinic receptors in Pavlovian conditioned fear responding was evaluated in the present study. Fear-potentiated startle was used to assess the effects of intraVTA infused methylscopolamine on conditioned fear performance in laboratory rats. Application of this nonspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist to VTA neurons was observed to inhibit the ability of a conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with footshock to enhance the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex. Doses of methylscopolamine that blocked conditioned fear expression did not alter baseline sensorimotor responding. These results identify ACh neurotransmission in the VTA as a potential excitatory mechanism underlying the fear-arousing properties of threatening environmental stimuli.

  2. Pharmacological approaches to targeting muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Matera, Carlo; Tata, Ada M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of cholinergic system markers and muscarinic receptor subtypes in several tissues also of nonneuronal type has been largely demonstrated. Acetylcholine, synthesized in the nervous system, can locally contribute to modulate cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Considering that the cholinergic system functions are impaired in a number of disorders, the identification of new drugs regulating these functions appears of great clinical relevance. The possible involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in different pathologies has been proposed in recent years and is becoming an important area of study. However, the lack of selective muscarinic receptor ligands has for long time limited the therapeutic treatment based on muscarinic receptors as targets. To date, some muscarinic ligands such as xanomeline (patent, US5980933) or cevimeline (patents US4855290, US5571918) have been developed for the treatment of several pathologies (Alzheimer's and Sjogren's diseases). The present review will be focused on the potential effects produced by muscarinic receptor activation in different pathologies, including tumors. In fact, the potential use of muscarinic ligands in therapeutic protocols in cancer therapy will be discussed, considering that several muscarinic antagonists, already used in the treatment of genitourinary diseases (e.g. darifenacin, patent, US5096890, US6106864), have also been demonstrated to arrest the tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to analgesia is also reviewed. Finally, some of the most significant achievements in the field of bitopic/dualsteric ligands will be discussed and the molecules patented so far will be presented.

  3. [Regional distribution of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human brain studied with 11C-benztropine and PET using an anatomical standardization technique].

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Kawashima, R; Ito, H; Koyama, M; Goto, R; Inoue, K; Sato, K; Fujiwara, T; Meguro, K; Yanai, K; Sasaki, H; Ido, T; Ito, M; Fukuda, H

    1996-07-01

    We measured regional distribution of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the normal human brain with 11C-benztropine (BZT) and positron emission tomography (PET) using an anatomical standardization technique. Seven normal volunteers who gave informed consents were involved in this study. Immediately after intravenous injection of 11C-BZT into the subjects, we started dynamic PET scanning and serial frequent arterial blood sampling. Analyses of plasma metabolites were also performed at selected time points and plasma time activity curves (TAC) of unmetabolized ligand were generated. From these PET and TAC data, we obtained Patlak plot slope calculation images. Using the HBA (human brain atlas) system, the Patlak plot slope calculation image of each subject was transformed into the shape of the standard brain. Mean and standard deviation (SD) calculation images were generated from those anatomically standardized images. On these mean and SD images, we placed regions of interest which were previously outlined on a MR image of the standard brain. From those data, we found the highest receptor distribution in the striatum and occipital cortex, as well as high distribution in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices, which were consistent with previous reports. These results suggested that anatomical standardization of PET receptor images with 11C-BZT will be useful for delineating the physiological or pathological alterations of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human brain.

  4. Cholinergic Neurotransmission in the Posterior Insular Cortex Is Altered in Preclinical Models of Neuropathic Pain: Key Role of Muscarinic M2 Receptors in Donepezil-Induced Antinociception

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Jérémy; Bayet-Robert, Mathilde; Dalmann, Romain; El Guerrab, Abderrahim; Aissouni, Youssef; Graveron-Demilly, Danielle; Chalus, Maryse; Pinguet, Jérémy; Eschalier, Alain; Richard, Damien; Daulhac, Laurence; Balayssac, David

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most debilitating pain conditions, yet no therapeutic strategy has been really effective for its treatment. Hence, a better understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms is necessary to identify new pharmacological targets. Here, we report important metabolic variations in brain areas involved in pain processing in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy using HRMAS 1H-NMR spectroscopy. An increased concentration of choline has been evidenced in the posterior insular cortex (pIC) of neuropathic animal, which was significantly correlated with animals' pain thresholds. The screening of 34 genes mRNA involved in the pIC cholinergic system showed an increased expression of the high-affinity choline transporter and especially the muscarinic M2 receptors, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis in oxaliplatin-treated rats and the spared nerve injury model (SNI). Furthermore, pharmacological activation of M2 receptors in the pIC using oxotremorine completely reversed oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistently, systemic treatment with donepezil, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, prevented and reversed oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia as well as social interaction impairment. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed a lower level of acetylcholine in the pIC of oxaliplatin-treated rats, which was significantly increased by donepezil. Finally, the analgesic effect of donepezil was markedly reduced by a microinjection of the M2 antagonist, methoctramine, within the pIC, in both oxaliplatin-treated rats and spared nerve injury rats. These findings highlight the crucial role of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission as a critical mechanism of neuropathic pain, and suggest that targeting insular M2 receptors using central cholinomimetics could be used for neuropathic pain treatment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study describes a decrease in cholinergic neurotransmission in the posterior insular

  5. In vitro and in vivo evidence for the existence of presynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Consolo, S; Wang, J X; Fusi, R; Vinci, R; Forloni, G; Ladinsky, H

    1984-08-20

    The intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid cleared 50% of muscarinic receptors and favored the detection of a further 20% loss in hippocampal presynaptic muscarinic receptors produced by electrolytic lesion of the medial septal nucleus as determined by Scatchard analysis of the saturation isotherms of [3H]dexetimide binding. In accordance, a decrease of about 20% in the in vivo accumulation of [3H]dexetimide in the hippocampus was found in animals lesioned in the medial septal nucleus. This effect occurred at both the dose of 5 micrograms/kg and at the saturating dose of 100 micrograms/kg of [3H]dexetimide. The results suggest that the loss was due to decreased receptor number rather than decreased receptor affinity. PMID:6488003

  6. In vivo biodistribution of two ( sup 18 F)-labelled muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands: 2-( sup 18 F)- and 4-( sup 18 F)-fluorodexetimide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.A.; Scheffel, U.A.; Dannals, R.F.; Stathis, M.; Ravert, H.T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Two ({sup 18}F)-labelled analogues of the potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) antagonist, dexetimide, were evaluated as potential ligands for imaging m-AChR by positron emission tomography (PET). Intravenous administration of both 2-({sup 18}F)- or 4-({sup 18}F)-fluorodexetimide resulted in high brain uptake of radioactivity in mice. High binding levels were observed in m-AChR rich areas, such as cortex and striatum, with low levels in the receptor-poor cerebellum. Uptake of radioactivity was saturable and could be blocked by pre-administration of dexetimide or atropine. Drugs with different sites of action were ineffective at blocking receptor binding. The results indicate that both radiotracers are promising candidates for use in PET studies.

  7. In vivo biodistribution of two [18F]-labelled muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands: 2-[18F]- and 4-[18F]-fluorodexetimide.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A A; Scheffel, U A; Dannals, R F; Stathis, M; Ravert, H T; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    Two [18F]-labelled analogues of the potent muscarinic cholinergic receptor (m-AChR) antagonist, dexetimide, were evaluated as potential ligands for imaging m-AChR by positron emission tomography (PET). Intravenous administration of both 2-[18F]- or 4-[18F]-fluorodexetimide resulted in high brain uptake of radioactivity in mice. High binding levels were observed in m-AChR rich areas, such as cortex and striatum, with low levels in the receptor-poor cerebellum. Uptake of radioactivity was saturable and could be blocked by pre-administration of dexetimide or atropine. Drugs with different sites of action were ineffective at blocking receptor binding. The results indicate that both radiotracers are promising candidates for use in PET studies. PMID:2008155

  8. Simultaneous modulation of retrieval by dopaminergic D(1), beta-noradrenergic, serotonergic-1A and cholinergic muscarinic receptors in cortical structures of the rat.

    PubMed

    Barros, D M; Mello e Souza, T; De David, T; Choi, H; Aguzzoli, A; Madche, C; Ardenghi, P; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2001-09-28

    Retrieval of inhibitory avoidance has been recently shown to require intact glutamate receptors, protein kinases A and C and mitogen-activated protein kinase in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus and in the entorhinal, posterior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex. These enzymatic activities are known to be modulated by dopamine D(1), beta-noradrenergic, 5HT1A and cholinergic muscarinic receptors. Here we study the effect on retrieval of this task of well-known agonists and antagonists of these receptors infused in the same brain cortical regions and into the basolateral amygdala, in rats. The drugs used were SKF38393 (D(1) agonist), noradrenaline, 8-HO-DPAT (5HT1A agonist), oxotremorine (muscarinic agonist), SCH23390 (D(1) antagonist), timolol (beta antagonist), NAN-190 (5HT1A antagonist) and scopolamine (muscarinic antagonist). All were studied at two different dose levels. The localised infusion of SKF38393, noradrenaline, NAN-190 and oxotremorine into any of the cortical structures mentioned 10 min prior to a 24-h retention test session of one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance enhanced retention test performance. SCH2330, timolol, 8-HO-DPAT and scopolamine hindered retention test performance. In the basolateral amygdala only an enhancing effect of noradrenaline and an inhibitory effect of timolol were seen. Three hours after the infusions, retention test performance returned to normal in all cases. None of the treatments affected locomotion or rearing in an open field or behaviour in the elevated plus maze. Therefore, their effects on retention testing can be attributed to an influence on retrieval. In conclusion, memory retrieval of this apparently simple task requires the participation of CA1, entorhinal, posterior parietal and anterior cingulate cortex, and is strongly modulated by, dopaminergic D(1), beta-noradrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic and 5HT1A receptors in the four areas. The first three types of receptor enhance, and the latter inhibits

  9. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-25

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  10. (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine selectively identifies a high affinity population of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.; Roeske, W.R.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1982-11-01

    The specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine was investigated in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex, and heart. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine in the cerebral cortex as defined by displacement with atropine sulfate (1..mu..M) was of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 4-10 nM, receptor density = 1.06 pmoles/mg protein), stereoselective, and competitive with drugs specific for the muscarinic receptor. In contrast, few (/sup 3/H)pirenzepine binding sites were demonstrated in cerebellar and heart homogenates.

  11. Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists differentially mediate acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preference and quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Francis M; Olsson, Kerstin; Vig, Vishal; Yenko, Ira; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Kohen, Ilanna; Aminov, Alon; Dindyal, Trisha; Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Rats display both conditioned flavor preference (CFP) for fructose, and conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA) following sweet adulteration with quinine. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that fructose-CFP expression was significantly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 antagonists, but not NMDA or opioid antagonists. Fructose-CFP acquisition was significantly reduced by DA D1, DA D2 or NMDA antagonists, but not opioid antagonists. Quinine-CFA acquisition was significantly enhanced and prolonged by DA D1, NMDA or opioid, but not DA D2 antagonists. Cholinergic interneurons and projections interact with DA systems in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Further, both muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor signaling have been implicated in sweet intake and development of food-related preferences. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic administration of muscarinic (scopolamine: SCOP) or nicotinic (mecamylamine: MEC) cholinergic receptor antagonists mediated fructose-CFP expression, fructose-CFP acquisition and quinine-CFA acquisition. For fructose-CFP expression, rats were trained over 10 sessions with a CS+ flavor in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin and a CS- flavor in 0.2% saccharin. Two-bottle choice tests with CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 0.2% saccharin occurred following vehicle, SCOP (0.1-10mg/kg) and MEC (1-8mg/kg). For fructose-CFP acquisition, six groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg), MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) or a limited intake vehicle control 0.5h prior to 10 CS+ and CS- training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS+ and CS- choice tests in 0.2% saccharin. For quinine-CFA acquisition, five groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg) or MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) 0.5h prior to 8 one-bottle CS- (8% fructose+0.2% saccharin: FS) and CS+ (fructose+saccharin+quinine (0.030%: FSQ) training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS- and CS+ choice tests in fructose-saccharin solutions. Fructose-CFP expression was

  12. Low-level exposure to methylmercury modifies muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding characteristics in rat brain and lymphocytes: physiologic implications and new opportunities in biologic monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Coccini, T; Randine, G; Candura, S M; Nappi, R E; Prockop, L D; Manzo, L

    2000-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) affects several parameters of cholinergic function. These alterations are thought to play a role in MeHg neurotoxicity. In vitro experiments have indicated that MeHg acts as a strong competitive inhibitor of radioligand binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) in rat brain. Furthermore, rat brain mAChRs share several pharmacologic characteristics of similar receptors present on lymphocytes. Using the muscarinic antagonist [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) to label receptors, we investigated the in vivo interactions of MeHg with rat brain mAChRs. We also investigated whether MeHg-induced central mAChR changes are reflected by similar alterations in splenic lymphocytes. Exposure to low doses of MeHg--0.5 or 2 mg/kg/day in drinking water--for 16 days significantly increased (20-44% of control) mAChRs density (B(max)) in the hippocampus and cerebellum without affecting receptor affinity (K(d)). The effect of MeHg did not occur immediately; it was not apparent until 2 weeks after the termination of treatment. No significant changes in [(3)H]QNB binding were observed in the cerebral cortex. In splenic lymphocytes, mAChR density was remarkably increased (95-198% of control) by day 14 of MeHg exposure and remained enhanced 14 days after the cessation of treatment. These results suggest up-regulation of mAChRs in selected brain regions (hippocampus and cerebellum) after prolonged low-level ingestion of MeHg in rats. These cerebral effects are delayed in onset and are preceded by a marked increase in density of mAChRs on lymphocytes. In chronic MeHg exposure, peripheral lymphocytes may represent a sensitive target for the interaction of MeHg with mAChRs and, therefore, may be predictive indicators of later adaptive response involving cerebral mAChRs. Additionally, the effect of MeHg on lymphocyte mAChRs in vivo indicates that this receptor system should be investigated further as a possible target for MeHg immunotoxicity. Images Figure 1

  13. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 4 is essential for cholinergic stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice - relationship to D cell/somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kita, K; Takahashi, K; Aihara, E; Hayashi, S

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the roles of muscarinic (M) acetylcholine receptor subtype in the cholinergic stimulation of duodenal HCO3(-) secretion using knockout (KO) mice. Wild-type and M1-M5 KO C57BL/6J mice were used. The duodenal mucosa was mounted on an Ussing chamber, and HCO3(-) secretion was measured at pH 7.0 using a pH-stat method in vitro. Carbachol (CCh) or other agents were added to the serosal side. CCh dose-dependently stimulated HCO3(-) secretion in wild-type mice, and this effect was completely inhibited in the presence of atropine. The HCO3(-) response to CCh in wild-type mice was also inhibited by pirenzepine (M1 antagonist), 4DAMP (M3 antagonist), and tropicamide (M4 antagonist), but not by methoctramine (M2 antagonist). CCh stimulated HCO3(-) secretion in M2 and M5 KO animals as effectively as in WT mice; however, this stimulatory effect was significantly attenuated in M1, M3, and M4 KO mice. The decrease observed in the CCh-stimulated HCO3(-) response in M4 KO mice was reversed by the co-application of CYN154806, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SST2) antagonist. Octreotide (a somatostatin analogue) decreased the basal and CCh-stimulated secretion of HCO3(-) in wild-type mice. The co-localized expression of somatostatin and M4 receptors was confirmed immunohistologically in the duodenum. We concluded that the duodenal HCO3(-) response to CCh was directly mediated by M1/M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. The activation of M4 receptors was assumed to inhibit the release of somatostatin from D cells and potentiate the HCO3(-) response by removing the negative influence of somatostatin via the activation of SST2 receptors.

  14. Electron microscopic localization of M2-muscarinic receptors in cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine nuclei of the rat mesopontine tegmentum.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Miguel; Pickel, Virginia M

    2016-10-15

    Muscarinic m2 receptors (M2Rs) are implicated in autoregulatory control of cholinergic output neurons located within the pedunculopontine (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental (LTD) nuclei of the mesopontine tegmentum (MPT). However, these nuclei contain many noncholinergic neurons in which activation of M2R heteroceptors may contribute significantly to the decisive role of the LTD and PPT in sleep-wakefulness. We examined the electron microscopic dual immunolabeling of M2Rs and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAchT) in the MPT of rat brain to identify the potential sites for M2R activation. M2R immunogold labeling was predominately seen in somatodendritic profiles throughout the PPT/LTD complex. In somata, M2R immunogold particles were often associated with Golgi lamellae and cytoplasmic endomembrannes, but were rarely in contact with the plasma membrane, as was commonly seen in dendrites. Approximately 36% of the M2R-labeled somata and 16% of the more numerous M2R-labeled dendrites coexpressed VAchT. M2R and M2R/VAchT-labeled dendritic profiles received synapses from inhibitory- and excitatory-type axon terminals, over 88% of which were unlabeled and others contained exclusively M2R or VAchT immunoreactivity. In axonal profiles M2R immunogold was localized to plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic regions and showed a similar distribution in many VAchT-negative glial profiles. These results provide ultrastructural evidence suggestive of somatic endomembrane trafficking of M2Rs, whose activation serves to regulate the postsynaptic excitatory and inhibitory responses in dendrites of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in the MPT. They also suggest the possibility that M2Rs in this brain region mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the release of other neurotransmitters and on glial signaling. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3084-3103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Electron microscopic localization of M2-muscarinic receptors in cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental and pedunculopontine nuclei of the rat mesopontine tegmentum.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Miguel; Pickel, Virginia M

    2016-10-15

    Muscarinic m2 receptors (M2Rs) are implicated in autoregulatory control of cholinergic output neurons located within the pedunculopontine (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental (LTD) nuclei of the mesopontine tegmentum (MPT). However, these nuclei contain many noncholinergic neurons in which activation of M2R heteroceptors may contribute significantly to the decisive role of the LTD and PPT in sleep-wakefulness. We examined the electron microscopic dual immunolabeling of M2Rs and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAchT) in the MPT of rat brain to identify the potential sites for M2R activation. M2R immunogold labeling was predominately seen in somatodendritic profiles throughout the PPT/LTD complex. In somata, M2R immunogold particles were often associated with Golgi lamellae and cytoplasmic endomembrannes, but were rarely in contact with the plasma membrane, as was commonly seen in dendrites. Approximately 36% of the M2R-labeled somata and 16% of the more numerous M2R-labeled dendrites coexpressed VAchT. M2R and M2R/VAchT-labeled dendritic profiles received synapses from inhibitory- and excitatory-type axon terminals, over 88% of which were unlabeled and others contained exclusively M2R or VAchT immunoreactivity. In axonal profiles M2R immunogold was localized to plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic regions and showed a similar distribution in many VAchT-negative glial profiles. These results provide ultrastructural evidence suggestive of somatic endomembrane trafficking of M2Rs, whose activation serves to regulate the postsynaptic excitatory and inhibitory responses in dendrites of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in the MPT. They also suggest the possibility that M2Rs in this brain region mediate the effects of acetylcholine on the release of other neurotransmitters and on glial signaling. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3084-3103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038330

  16. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 Is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion: Relation to D Cell/Somatostatin

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji; Endoh, Takuya; Hayashi, Shusaku; Aihara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1∼M5), and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1∼M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh) stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT) and M1–M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 μg/kg) was given subcutaneously (s.c.) to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analog) was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist) was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analog, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect of

  17. Activation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtype 4 Is Essential for Cholinergic Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion: Relation to D Cell/Somatostatin

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji; Endoh, Takuya; Hayashi, Shusaku; Aihara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in five subtypes (M1∼M5), and they are widely expressed in various tissues to mediate diverse autonomic functions, including gastric secretion. In the present study, we demonstrated, using M1∼M5 KO mice, the importance of M4 receptors in carbachol (CCh) stimulation of acid secretion and investigated how the secretion is modulated by the activation of M4 receptors. Methods: C57BL/6J mice of wild-type (WT) and M1–M5 KO were used. Under urethane anesthesia, acid secretion was measured in the stomach equipped with an acute fistula. CCh (30 μg/kg) was given subcutaneously (s.c.) to stimulate acid secretion. Atropine or octreotide (a somatostatin analog) was given s.c. 20 min before the administration of CCh. CYN154806 (a somatostatin SST2 receptor antagonist) was given i.p. 20 min before the administration of octreotide or CCh. Results: CCh caused an increase of acid secretion in WT mice, and the effect was totally inhibited by prior administration of atropine. The effect of CCh was similarly observed in the animals lacking M1, M2 or M5 receptors but significantly decreased in M3 or M4 KO mice. CYN154806, the SST2 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently and significantly reversed the decreased acid response to CCh in M4 but not M3 KO mice. Octreotide, the somatostatin analog, inhibited the secretion of acid under CCh-stimulated conditions in WT mice. The immunohistochemical study showed the localization of M4 receptors on D cells in the stomach. Serum somatostatin levels in M4 KO mice were higher than WT mice under basal conditions, while those in WT mice were significantly decreased in response to CCh. Conclusions: These results suggest that under cholinergic stimulation the acid secretion is directly mediated by M3 receptors and indirectly modified by M4 receptors. It is assumed that the activation of M4 receptors inhibits the release of somatostatin from D cells and minimizes the acid inhibitory effect of

  18. In vitro and in vivo characterization of 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Uno, Y; Scheffel, U; Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    4-[125I]iododexetimide binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) was evaluated in the rat heart. 4-[125I]iododexetimide displayed high in vitro affinity (Kd = 14.0 nM) for rat myocardial mAChR. In vivo, there was high accumulation of 4-[125I]iododexetimide in the rat atrium and ventricle which could be blocked by approximately 60% by preinjection of atropine. In contrast, accumulation of the radiolabeled stereoisomer, 4-[125I]iodolevetimide, was 63% lower than 4-[125I]iodolevetimide and was not blocked by atropine. The blood clearance of 4-[125I]iododexetimide was rapid, providing heart-to-blood ratios of up to 14:1; however, heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver ratios were below unity. The data indicate that 4-[125I]iododexetimide binds potently to rat mAChR. However, since nonspecific binding is relatively high, it is not clear whether iododexetimide labeled with 123I will be useful in SPECT imaging studies of myocardial mAChR. Further studies in humans are indicated. PMID:1988640

  19. Ascorbate deficiency impairs the muscarinic-cholinergic and ss-adrenergic receptor signaling systems in the guinea pig submandibular salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Sawiris, P G; Enwonwu, C O

    2000-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is preferentially concentrated in the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands. Its level in the acini of salivary glands is relatively high. We therefore hypothesized that ascorbate may have a role in salivary gland function. Ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had lower stimulated whole salivary flow rates than well-fed, age-matched controls (P: < 0.005). Total salivary protein concentration was also markedly (P: < 0.005) reduced in the deficient guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE and densitometric quantification of protein bands confirmed significant reduction in specific salivary proteins (e.g., amylase, proline-rich proteins) in the saliva samples of malnourished guinea pigs. Some protein bands not seen in control saliva were detected in the saliva of malnourished guinea pigs. Ascorbate deficiency also produced a significant (P: < 0.005) reduction in the ss-adrenergic receptor density (subtype 1; 95 +/- 19 fmol/mg protein compared with 179 +/- 27 fmol/mg protein for the controls). No significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the ss-adrenergic receptor subtype 2. Additionally, ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs had significantly lower muscarinic-cholinergic receptor densities (50 +/- 5 vs. 74 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein for controls). Our data support the conclusion that diminished membrane receptors might impair the capacity of the transmembrane signaling system, resulting in salivary gland hypofunction in ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs. Without implying extrapolation of our findings in experimental animals to humans, it is perhaps relevant that many conditions often associated with salivary gland hypofunction in humans (e.g., smoking or drug ingestion) deplete cellular ascorbate. PMID:11110840

  20. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions. PMID:25514862

  1. (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labels subsets of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.X.; Roeske, W.R.; Gulya, K.; Wang, W.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-10-05

    The in vitro binding properties of the novel muscarinic antagonist (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 were studied using a rapid filtration technique. Association and dissociation rates of (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding were rapid at 25/sup 0/C but 20-40 times slower at 0-4/sup 0/C. Kinetic dissociation constants (K/sub d/s) were estimated to be 31.8 nM and 30.9 nM at 25/sup 0/C; 23.1 nM and 22.9 nM at 0-4/sup 0/C for the cerebral cortex and heart, respectively. In saturation studies, (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 labeled 29% of the total (/sup 3/H)(-)QNB binding sites in the cerebral cortical membranes and 87% in the cardiac membranes, with K/sub d/ values of 28.9 nM and 17.9 nM, respectively. Muscarinic antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 binding in a rank order of potency of atropine > dexetimide > AF-DX 116 > PZ > levetimide in both tissues. Except for PZ/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 and AF-DX 116/(/sup 3/H)AF-DX 116 in the cerebral cortex, all the antagonist competition curves had Hill coefficients close to one. 19 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Decreased hippocampal muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding measured by 123I-iododexetimide and single-photon emission computed tomography in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Gärtner, H W; Mayberg, H S; Fisher, R S; Lesser, R P; Wilson, A A; Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N; Uematsu, S; Frost, J J

    1993-08-01

    Regional binding of 123I-iododexetimide, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, was measured in vivo in the temporal lobes of 4 patients with complex partial seizures using single-photon emission computed tomography. In the anterior hippocampus ipsilateral to the electrical focus, 123I-iododexetimide binding was decreased by 40 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD, p < 0.01) compared with the contralateral hippocampus; 123I-iododexetimide binding in other temporal lobe regions was symmetrical. The data indicate a regionally specific change of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in anterior hippocampus in complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin. PMID:8338348

  3. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on rat pancreatic acini by N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding. Their relationship with calcium 45 efflux and amylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Dehaye, J P; Winand, J; Poloczek, P; Christophe, J

    1984-01-10

    N-[3H]Methylscopolamine (NMS) binding, amylase secretion, and 45Ca efflux from dispersed rat pancreatic acini were investigated in parallel, in the presence or absence of 4 muscarinic agonists and 3 muscarinic antagonists. Scatchard analysis of [3H]NMS saturation isotherms gave a KD of 0.9 nM and an average binding capacity of 24,000 sites per cell. Binding competition curves with the antagonists atropine, dexetimide, and NMS gave KD values of 3.5, 3.5, and 0.5 nM, respectively. With the 3 full agonists oxotremorine, muscarine, and carbamylcholine, the receptor population could be divided into two classes of binding sites: a minor one (15%) with high affinity (KD = 20-35 nM) and a major one (85%) with low affinity (KD = 3-65 microM). There was a receptor reserve of about 50% with respect to carbamylcholine-stimulated amylase secretion. Further analysis of dose-effect curves suggests that low affinity binding sites were involved in the secretory response to muscarinic stimulation. Pilocarpine, like muscarinic antagonists, recognized all binding sites with the same affinity but acted as a partial agonist on amylase secretion and 45Ca efflux. PMID:6200472

  4. Modulation of neuritogenesis by astrocyte muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Marina; Moore, Nadia H; Giordano, Gennaro; Costa, Lucio G

    2008-11-14

    Astrocytes have been shown to release factors that have promoting or inhibiting effects on neuronal development. However, mechanisms controlling the release of such factors from astrocytes are not well established. Astrocytes express muscarinic receptors whose activation stimulates a robust intracellular signaling, although the role of these receptors in glial cells is not well understood. Acetylcholine and acetylcholine receptors are present in the brain before synaptogenesis occurs and are believed to be involved in neuronal maturation. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether stimulation of muscarinic receptors in astrocytes would modulate neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. Rat hippocampal neurons, co-cultured with rat cortical astrocytes previously exposed to the cholinergic agonist carbachol, displayed longer neurites. The effect of carbachol in astrocytes was due to the activation of M3 muscarinic receptors. Exposure of astrocytes to carbachol increased the expression of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and laminin-1 in these cells. This effect was mediated in part by an increase in laminin-1 and fibronectin mRNA levels and in part by the up-regulation of the production and release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, an inhibitor of the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix. The inhibition of fibronectin activity strongly reduced the effect of carbachol on the elongation of all the neurites, whereas inhibition of laminin-1 activity reduced the elongation of minor neurites only. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 also induced neurite elongation through a direct effect on neurons. Taken together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic muscarinic stimulation of astrocytes induces the release of permissive factors that accelerate neuronal development.

  5. alpha-Adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are not involved in the modulation of the parasympathetic baroreflex by the medial prefrontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Resstel, L B M; Fernandes, K B P; Corrêa, F M A

    2005-08-12

    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is involved in cardiovascular control and baroreflex modulation. Recent studies indicated that stimulation of MPFC muscarinic receptors causes hypotensive responses whereas stimulation of alpha1- but not of alpha2-adrenoceptors causes pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. It has also been shown that the MPFC is involved in the modulation of the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex in rats. We report that bilateral injections of CoCl2 in the ventral portion of the MPFC (vMPFC) reduced the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex, thus confirming the involvement of local synapses. We further evaluated the effect of the pharmacologic block of vMPFC alpha1- or alpha2-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors on the vMPFC-related modulation of the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex in unanesthetized rats. Bilateral microinjections of 10 nmol of the selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 or 10 nmol of the selective alpha2-adrenoceptors antagonist RX821002 into the MPFC did not affect the baroreflex. Bilateral microinjections of 9 nmol of the muscarinic antagonist atropine also did not affect baroreflex activity. The present results indicate that although vMPFC alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors are involved in cardiovascular regulation, they do not mediate the vMPFC-related modulation of the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex. PMID:15894338

  6. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation. PMID:11578817

  7. Memory improving actions of gabapentin in mice: possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Acosta, G B; Baratti, C M

    2001-10-01

    Male CF-1 mice were tested 48 h after training on a one trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately post-training, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the antiepileptic gabapentin (1-(aminomethyl) cyclohexaneacetic acid) (GBP, 10 mg/kg) enhanced retention performance. The effect was prevented by atropine, a central muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered after training but 10 min prior to GBP treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training GBP on retention performance. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administered immediately after training, and GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.), given 10 min after training, significantly enhanced retention performance. The effects of GBP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Considered together, these findings suggest a disinhibitory action of GBP on the activity of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are involved in memory consolidation.

  8. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  9. Muscarinic signaling influences the patterning and phenotype of cholinergic amacrine cells in the developing chick retina

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Jennifer J; Lehman, Bret; Fischer, Andy J

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies in the vertebrate retina have characterized the differentiation of amacrine cells as a homogenous class of neurons, but little is known about the genes and factors that regulate the development of distinct types of amacrine cells. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to characterize the development of the cholinergic amacrine cells and identify factors that influence their development. Cholinergic amacrine cells in the embryonic chick retina were identified by using antibodies to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Results We found that as ChAT-immunoreactive cells differentiate they expressed the homeodomain transcription factors Pax6 and Islet1, and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27kip1. As differentiation proceeds, type-II cholinergic cells, displaced to the ganglion cell layer, transiently expressed high levels of cellular retinoic acid binding protein (CRABP) and neurofilament, while type-I cells in the inner nuclear layer did not. Although there is a 1:1 ratio of type-I to type-II cells in vivo, in dissociated cell cultures the type-I cells (ChAT-positive and CRABP-negative) out-numbered the type-II cells (ChAT and CRABP-positive cells) by 2:1. The relative abundance of type-I to type-II cells was not influenced by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), but was affected by compounds that act at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition, the abundance and mosaic patterning of type-II cholinergic amacrine cells is disrupted by interfering with muscarinic signaling. Conclusion We conclude that: (1) during development type-I and type-II cholinergic amacrine cells are not homotypic, (2) the phenotypic differences between these subtypes of cells is controlled by the local microenvironment, and (3) appropriate levels of muscarinic signaling between the cholinergic amacrine cells are required for proper mosaic patterning. PMID:18254959

  10. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala in muscarinic cholinergic modulation of extinction memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Baratti, Carlos M; McGaugh, James L

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that drugs affecting neuromodulatory systems within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), including drugs affecting muscarinic cholinergic receptors, modulate the consolidation of many kinds of training, including contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The present experiments investigated the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic influences within the BLA in modulating the consolidation of CFC extinction memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats implanted with unilateral cannula aimed at the BLA were trained on a CFC task, using footshock stimulation, and 24 and 48 h later were given extinction training by replacing them in the apparatus without footshock. Following each extinction session they received intra-BLA infusions of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine (10 ng). Immediate post-extinction BLA infusions significantly enhanced extinction but infusions administered 180 min after extinction training did not influence extinction. Thus the oxotremorine effects were time-dependent and not attributable to non-specific effects on retention performance. These findings provide evidence that, as previously found with original CFC learning, cholinergic activation within the BLA modulates the consolidation of CFC extinction. PMID:18706510

  11. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala in muscarinic cholinergic modulation of extinction memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Baratti, Carlos M; McGaugh, James L

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that drugs affecting neuromodulatory systems within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), including drugs affecting muscarinic cholinergic receptors, modulate the consolidation of many kinds of training, including contextual fear conditioning (CFC). The present experiments investigated the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic influences within the BLA in modulating the consolidation of CFC extinction memory. Male Sprague Dawley rats implanted with unilateral cannula aimed at the BLA were trained on a CFC task, using footshock stimulation, and 24 and 48 h later were given extinction training by replacing them in the apparatus without footshock. Following each extinction session they received intra-BLA infusions of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine (10 ng). Immediate post-extinction BLA infusions significantly enhanced extinction but infusions administered 180 min after extinction training did not influence extinction. Thus the oxotremorine effects were time-dependent and not attributable to non-specific effects on retention performance. These findings provide evidence that, as previously found with original CFC learning, cholinergic activation within the BLA modulates the consolidation of CFC extinction.

  12. Characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo, E.; Martos, F.; Gomez, A.; Garcia, A.; Vigano, M.A.; Ladinsky, H.; Sanchez de La Cuesta, F.

    1988-01-01

    The affinities of selective, pirenzepine and AF-DX 116, and classical, N-methylscopolamine and atropine, muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists were investigated in displacement binding experiments with (/sup 3/H)Pirenzepine and (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine in membranes from human autoptic tissues (forebrain, cerebellum, atria, ventricle and submaxillary salivary glands). Affinity estimates of N-methylscopolamine and atropine indicated a non-selective profile. Pirenzepine showed differentiation between the M/sub 1/ neuronal receptor of the forebrain and the receptors in other tissues while AF-DX 116 clearly discriminated between muscarinic receptors of heart and glands. The results in human tissues confirm the previously described selectivity profiles of pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 in rat tissues. These findings thus reveal the presence also in man of three distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes: the neuronal M/sub 1/, the cardiac M/sub 2/ and the glandular M/sub 3/.

  13. Distinct Roles of Bulbar Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Olfactory Discrimination Learning

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; de Almeida, Licurgo

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex receive dense cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain. Cholinergic modulation within the piriform cortex has long been proposed to serve important functions in olfactory learning and memory. We here investigate how olfactory discrimination learning is regulated by cholinergic modulation of the OB inputs to the piriform cortex. We examined rats' performance on a two-alternative choice odor discrimination task following local, bilateral blockade of cholinergic nicotinic and/or muscarinic receptors in the OB. Results demonstrate that acquisition, but not recall, of novel discrimination problems is impaired following blockade of OB cholinergic receptors, although the relative contribution of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors depends on task difficulty. Blocking muscarinic receptors impairs learning for nearly all odor sets, whereas blocking nicotinic receptors only affects performance for perceptually similar odors. This pattern of behavioral effects is consistent with predictions from a model of cholinergic modulation in the OB and piriform cortex (de Almeida et al., 2013). Model simulations suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic receptors may serve complementary roles in regulating coherence and sparseness of the OB network output, which in turn differentially regulate the strength and overlap in cortical odor representations. Overall, our results suggest that muscarinic receptor blockade results in a bona fide learning impairment that may arise because cortical neurons are activated less often. Behavioral impairment following nicotinic receptor blockade may not be due to the inability of the cortex to learn, but rather arises because the cortex is unable to resolve highly overlapping input patterns. PMID:25143606

  14. Basic and modern concepts on cholinergic receptor: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Prashant; Dwivedi, Shubhangi; Singh, Mukesh Pratap; Mishra, Rahul; Chandy, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic system is an important system and a branch of the autonomic nervous system which plays an important role in memory, digestion, control of heart beat, blood pressure, movement and many other functions. This article serves as both structural and functional sources of information regarding cholinergic receptors and provides a detailed understanding of the determinants governing specificity of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor to researchers. The study helps to give overall information about the fundamentals of the cholinergic system, its receptors and ongoing research in this field.

  15. Effects of beta-amyloid protein on M1 and M2 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the medial septum-diagonal band complex of the rat: relationship with cholinergic, GABAergic, and calcium-binding protein perikarya.

    PubMed

    González, Iván; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Sanz-Anquela, José Miguel; Gonzalo-Ruiz, Alicia

    2007-06-01

    Cortical cholinergic dysfunction has been correlated with the expression and processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein. However, it remains unclear as to how cholinergic dysfunction and beta-amyloid (Abeta) formation and deposition might be related to one another. Since the M1- and M2 subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are considered key molecules that transduce the cholinergic message, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of the injected Abeta peptide on the number of M1mAchR- and M2mAChR-immunoreactive cells in the medial septum-diagonal band (MS-nDBB) complex of the rat. Injections of Abeta protein into the retrosplenial cortex resulted in a decrease in M1mAChR and M2mAChR immunoreactivity in the MS-nDBB complex. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant reduction in the number of M1mAChR- and M2mAChR-immunoreactive cells in the medial septum nucleus (MS) and in the horizontal nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) as compared to the corresponding hemisphere in control animals and with that seen in the contralateral hemisphere, which corresponds to the PBS-injected side. Co-localization studies showed that the M1mAChR protein is localized in GABA-immunoreactive cells of the MS-nDBB complex, in particular those of the MS nucleus, while M2mAChR protein is localized in both the cholinergic and GABAergic cells. Moreover, GABAergic cells containing M2mAChR are mainly localized in the MS nucleus, while cholinergic cells containing M2mAChR are localized in the MS and the HDB nuclei. Our findings suggest that Abeta induces a reduction in M1mAChR- and M2mAChR-containing cells, which may contribute to impairments of cholinergic and GABAergic transmission in the MS-nDBB complex.

  16. Alterations of muscarinic receptor subtypes in pathways relating to memory: Effects of lesions and transplants

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been classified pharmacologically into two distinct populations designated muscarinic type-one (M-1) and mscarinic type-two (M-2). The semiquantitative technique of receptor autoradiography was used to examine the anatomical and cellular distribution, and densities of M-1 and M-2 receptors in the rate brain. Muscarinic receptors were labeled with the classical antagonist ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Differentiation of the muscarinic subtypes was accomplished by competition studies of ({sup 3}H)QNB against the relatively selective M-1 antagonist pirenzepine (PZ), and the relatively selective M-2 antagonist, AFDX-116. In addition, M-1 and M-2 receptors were directly labeled with ({sup 3}H)PZ and ({sup 3}H)AFDX-116, respectively. Cholinergic pathways from the large cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) to the cortex and from the medial septum (MS) to the hippocampus were examined by lesioning with the selective cholinergic neurotoxin, AF64A. Bilateral cerebral cortical infarction was performed in order to analyze potential changes in muscarinic receptor populations in subcortical structures that are sensitive to cortical infarction. Finally, the response of muscarinic receptors to fetal septodiagonal band transplants in the deafferentated hippocampus was examined.

  17. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  18. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    SciTech Connect

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  19. Activation of muscarinic receptors by non-neuronal acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Wessler, Ignaz Karl; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2012-01-01

    The biological role of acetylcholine and the cholinergic system is revisited based particularly on scientific research early and late in the last century. On the one hand, acetylcholine represents the classical neurotransmitter, whereas on the other hand, acetylcholine and the pivotal components of the cholinergic system (high-affinity choline uptake, choline acetyltransferase and its end product acetylcholine, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and esterase) are expressed by more or less all mammalian cells, i.e. by the majority of cells not innervated by neurons at all. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that acetylcholine and "cholinergic receptors" are expressed in non-neuronal organisms such as plants and protists. Acetylcholine is even synthesized by bacteria and algae representing an extremely old signalling molecule on the evolutionary timescale. The following article summarizes examples, in which non-neuronal acetylcholine is released from primitive organisms as well as from mammalian non-neuronal cells and binds to muscarinic receptors to modulate/regulate phenotypic cell functions via auto-/paracrine pathways. The examples demonstrate that non-neuronal acetylcholine and the non-neuronal cholinergic system are vital for various types of cells such as epithelial, endothelial and immune cells.

  20. Down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 following chronic muscarinic receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, S D; Linseman, D A; Fisher, S K

    1998-04-01

    To determine whether prolonged activation of a phospholipase C-coupled receptor can lead to a down-regulation of its effector enzyme, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were incubated for 24 h with the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M. Under these conditions, significant reductions (46-53%) in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density, G(alphaq/11) and phospholipase C-beta1 (but not the beta3-or gamma1 isoforms) were observed. These results suggest that a selective down-regulation of phospholipase C-beta1 may play a role in adaptation to chronic muscarinic receptor activation. PMID:9617763

  1. Involvement of HCN Channel in Muscarinic Inhibitory Action on Tonic Firing of Dorsolateral Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Kang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Haitao; Ma, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Shuzhuo; Zheng, Jianquan; Wang, Liyun; Wei, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is the most prominent nucleus in the basal ganglia and plays an important role in motor movement regulation. The cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in striatum are involved in the motion regulation by releasing acetylcholine (ACh) and modulating the output of striatal projection neurons. Here, we report that muscarinic ACh receptor (M receptor) agonists, ACh and Oxotremorine (OXO-M), decreased the firing frequency of ChIs by blocking the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. Scopolamine (SCO), a nonselective antagonist of M receptors, abolished the inhibition. OXO-M exerted its function by activating the Gi/o cAMP signaling cascade. The single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (scRT-PCR) revealed that all the five subtypes of M receptors and four subtypes of HCN channels were expressed on ChIs. Among them, M2 receptors and HCN2 channels were the most dominant ones and expressed in every single studied cholinergic interneuron (ChI).Our results suggest that ACh regulates not only the output of striatal projection neurons, but also the firing activity of ChIs themselves by activating presynaptic M receptors in the dorsal striatum. The activation of M2 receptors and blockage of HCN2 channels may play an important role in ACh inhibition on the excitability of ChIs. This finding adds a new G-protein coupled receptor mediated regulation on ChIs and provides a cellular mechanism for control of cholinergic activity and ACh release in the dorsal striatum. PMID:27047336

  2. Chronic decentralization of the heart differentially remodels canine intrinsic cardiac neuron muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, F M; McGuirt, A S; Hoover, D B; Armour, J A; Ardell, J L

    2001-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine if chronic interruption of all extrinsic nerve inputs to the heart alters cholinergic-mediated responses within the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICN). Extracardiac nerve inputs to the ICN were surgically interrupted (ICN decentralized). Three weeks later, the intrinsic cardiac right atrial ganglionated plexus (RAGP) was removed and intrinsic cardiac neuronal responses were evaluated electrophysiologically. Cholinergic receptor abundance was evaluated using autoradiography. In sham controls and chronic decentralized ICN ganglia, neuronal postsynaptic responses were mediated by acetylcholine, acting at nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Muscarine- but not nicotine-mediated synaptic responses that were enhanced after chronic ICN decentralization. After chronic decentralization, muscarine facilitation of orthodromic neuronal activation increased. Receptor autoradiography demonstrated that nicotinic and muscarinic receptor density associated with the RAGP was unaffected by decentralization and that muscarinic receptors were tenfold more abundant than nicotinic receptors in the right atrial ganglia in each group. After chronic decentralization of the ICN, intrinsic cardiac neurons remain viable and responsive to cholinergic synaptic inputs. Enhanced muscarinic responsiveness of intrinsic cardiac neurons occurs without changes in receptor abundance.

  3. Muscarinic M1 receptor partially modulates higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death in primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: A cholinesterase variants dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Javier; Zeballos, Gabriela; Anadon, María José; Díaz, María Jesús; Moyano, Paula; Díaz, Gloria Gómez; García, Jimena; Lobo, Margarita; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Cadmium is a toxic compound reported to produce cognitive dysfunctions, though the mechanisms involved are unknown. In a previous work we described how cadmium blocks cholinergic transmission and induces greater cell death in primary cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain. It also induces cell death in SN56 cholinergic neurons from the basal forebrain through M1R blockage, alterations in the expression of AChE variants and GSK-3β, and an increase in Aβ and total and phosphorylated Tau protein levels. It was observed that the silencing or blockage of M1R altered ChAT activity, GSK-3β, AChE splice variants gene expression, and Aβ and Tau protein formation. Furthermore, AChE-S variants were associated with the same actions modulated by M1R. Accordingly, we hypothesized that cholinergic transmission blockage and higher sensitivity to cadmium-induced cell death of primary basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is mediated by M1R blockage, which triggers this effect through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. To prove this hypothesis, we evaluated, in primary culture from the basal forebrain region, whether M1R silencing induces greater cell death in cholinergic neurons than cadmium does, and whether in SN56 cells M1R mediates the mechanisms described so as to play a part in the cadmium induction of cholinergic transmission blockage and cell death in this cell line through alteration of the expression of AChE variants. Our results prove that M1R silencing by cadmium partially mediates the greater cell death observed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Moreover, all previously described mechanisms for blocking cholinergic transmission and inducing cell death on SN56 cells after cadmium exposure are partially mediated by M1R through the alteration of AChE expression. Thus, our results may explain cognitive dysfunctions observed in cadmium toxicity. PMID:27377441

  4. Contractions of the mouse prostate elicited by acetylcholine are mediated by M(3) muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    White, Carl W; Short, Jennifer L; Haynes, John M; Matsui, Minoru; Ventura, Sabatino

    2011-12-01

    Increased smooth muscle tone in the human prostate contributes to the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In the mouse prostate gland, cholinergic innervation is responsible for a component of the nerve-mediated contractile response. This study investigates the muscarinic receptor subtype responsible for the cholinergic contractile response in the mouse prostate gland. To characterize the muscarinic receptor subtype, mouse prostates taken from wild-type or M(3) muscarinic receptor knockout mice were mounted in organ baths. The isometric force that tissues developed in response to electrical-field stimulation or exogenously applied cholinergic agonists in the presence or absence of a range of muscarinic receptor antagonists was evaluated. Carbachol elicited reproducible and concentration-dependent contractions of the isolated mouse prostate, which were antagonized by the presence of muscarinic receptor antagonists. Calculation of antagonist affinities (pA(2) values) indicated a rank order of antagonist potencies in the mouse prostate of: darifenacin (9.08) = atropine (9.07) = 1,1-dimethyl-4-diphenylacetoxypiperidinium iodide (9.02) > cyclohexyl-hydroxy-phenyl-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.85) > cyclohexyl-(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-(3-piperidin-1-ylpropyl)silane (7.39) > himbacine (7.19) > pirenzipine (6.88) > methoctramine (6.20). Furthermore, genetic deletion of the M(3) muscarinic receptor inhibited prostatic contractions to electrical-field stimulation or exogenous administration of acetylcholine. In this study we identified that the cholinergic component of contraction in the mouse prostate is mediated by the M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype. Pharmacological antagonism of the M(3) muscarinic receptor may be a beneficial additional target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the human prostate gland.

  5. [Probable mechanism of recognition of cholinergic ligands by acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Demushkin, V P; Kotelevtsev, Iu V; Pliashkevich, Iu G; Khramtsov, N V

    1982-01-01

    Dryding's models were used for the conformational analysis of compounds affecting muscarin-specific acetylcholine receptor and nicotin-specific acetylcholine receptor. Ammonium group and ether oxygen (3.6 A apart from the ammonium group) specifically oriented to each other were shown to be necessary structural elements to reveal muscarin-type cholinergic activity. Ammonium group along with carbonyl oxygen or its substituent (5 A distance) are the necessary structural units providing nicotin-type cholinergic activity. The presence of two hydrophobic substituents (one in the ammonium area and the other neighbouring the second active grouping) is the additional factor. The developed principles were justified by the use of a series of synthetic samples. The compounds were obtained likely favouring affinitive modification of acetylcholine receptor (dissociation constants of acetylcholine receptor complexes equalling to 10(-4)--10(-7) M-1). PMID:7070378

  6. Endosulfan and cholinergic (muscarinic) transmission: effect on electroencephalograms and (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in pigeon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Agrawal, A.K.; Gopal, K.; Sur, R.N.; Seth, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    Single exposure of endosulfan (5 mg/kg) to pigeons (Columbia livia) caused neuronal hyperexcitability as evidence by spike discharges of 200-500 ..mu..V in the electroencephalograms (EEG) from the telencephalon and hyperstriatum, but there was not effect on the ectostriatal area. Cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding study using (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) as a specific ligand indicated that a single exposure to 5 mg/kg of endosulfan caused a significant increase in (/sup 3/H)QNB binding to the striatal membrane. Behavior study further indicated that a single dose of 200 ..mu..g/kg of oxotremorine produced a significant induction in the tremor in endosulfan-pretreated pigeons. The results of this behavioral and biochemical study indicate the involvement of a cholinergic (muscarinic) transmitter system in endosulfan-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Distribution and effects of the muscarinic receptor subtypes in the primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Groleau, Marianne; Kang, Jun Il; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate the activity and plasticity of the visual cortex. Muscarinic receptors are divided into five subtypes that are not homogeneously distributed throughout the cortical layers and cells types. This distribution results in complex action of the muscarinic receptors in the integration of visual stimuli. Selective activation of the different subtypes can either strengthen or weaken cortical connectivity (e.g., thalamocortical vs. corticocortical), i.e., it can influence the processing of certain stimuli over others. Moreover, muscarinic receptors differentially modulate some functional properties of neurons during experience-dependent activity and cognitive processes and they contribute to the fine-tuning of visual processing. These functions are involved in the mechanisms of attention, maturation and learning in the visual cortex. This minireview describes the anatomo-functional aspects of muscarinic modulation of the primary visual cortex’s (V1) microcircuitry. PMID:26150786

  8. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage. PMID:7857246

  9. Memory-improving actions of glucose: involvement of a central cholinergic muscarinic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Baratti, C M

    1994-11-01

    Post-training intraperitoneal administration of alpha-D[+]-glucose (10-300 mg/kg) facilitated 24-h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. Glucose did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The effect of glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by glucose (30 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to glucose treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training glucose on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of glucose (10 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the memory facilitation induced by post-training administration of glucose could result from an enhancement of brain acetylcholine synthesis and/or its release that, in turn, might modulate the activity of muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms that are critically involved in memory storage.

  10. Cholinergic innervation and receptors in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, D; Ruigrok, T J; Caffé, R; Cozzari, C; Levey, A I; Mugnaini, E; Voogd, J

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the source and ultrastructural characteristics of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers in the cerebellum of the rat, and the distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the cerebellum of the rat, rabbit, cat and monkey, in order to define which of the cerebellar afferents may use ACh as a neurotransmitter, what target structures are they, and which cholinergic receptor mediate the actions of these pathways. Our data confirm and extend previous observations that cholinergic markers occur at relatively low density in the cerebellum and show not only interspecies variability, but also heterogeneity between cerebellar lobules in the same species. As previously demonstrated by Barmack et al. (1992a,b), the predominant fiber system in the cerebellum that might use ACh as a transmitter or a co-transmitter is formed by mossy fibers originating in the vestibular nuclei and innervating the nodulus and ventral uvula. Our results show that these fibers innervate both granule cells and unipolar brush cells, and that the presumed cholinergic action of these fibers most likely is mediated by nicotinic receptors. In addition to cholinergic mossy fibers, the rat cerebellum is innervated by beaded ChAT-immunoreactive fibers. We have demonstrated that these fibers originate in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus (LPGi), and to a lesser extent in various raphe nuclei. In both the cerebellar cortex and the cerebellar nuclei these fibers make asymmetric synaptic junctions with small and medium-sized dendritic profiles. Both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor could mediate the action of these diffuse beaded fibers. In the cerebellar nuclei the beaded cholinergic fibers form a moderately dense network, and could in principle have a significant effect on neuronal activity. For instance, the cholinergic fibers arising in the PPTg may modulate the excitability of the cerebellonuclear neurons in relation to sleep and arousal (e

  11. Stimulation of brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors acutely reverses radiogenic hypodipsia

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    A sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation produces changes in water consumption. However, the direction, durations, and physiological substrates of these alterations remain in question. Here we report a 5-d hypodipsia in rats exposed to 600 rads /sup 60/Co but a more transient, albeit larger, reduction in drinking after 1000 /sup 60/Co. Brain cholinergic neurons have been implicated as mediators of thirst. Therefore, we explored the role of hypothalamic muscarinic receptors in the production of radiation-induced hypodipsia. This was accomplished through the intrahypothalamic injection of carbachol (a muscarinic agonist) or atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) in irradiated rats. Intracranial carbachol produced acute reversal of radiogenic hypodipsia while atropine potentiated the hypodipsia. These post-irradiation drug-induced behaviors were similar to those observed after the same drug treatments before irradiation. Since cholinergic neuronal functions persist and are labile (can be pharmacologically stimulated and blocked) after irradiation, this suggests that other neuronal systems and/or neurochemicals may be more prominently involved in radiogenic hypodipsia.

  12. Muscarinic receptor occupancy by biperiden in living human brain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Y; Suhara, T; Suzuki, K; Okubo, Y; Yoshikawa, K; Uchida, S; Sassa, T; Okauchi, T; Sasaki, Y; Matsushita, M

    1999-01-01

    Anticholinergic drug is often used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. We measured muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) occupancy by the oral administration of biperiden in eight healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate (NMPB). After the baseline scan each subject underwent one or two post-dose PET scans. mAchR occupancy was 10-45% in the frontal cortex three hours after the oral administration of 4 mg of biperiden. The occupancy correlated with the plasma concentration of biperiden in a curvilinear manner.

  13. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    HAGA, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which comprise five subtypes (M1-M5 receptors), are expressed in both the CNS and PNS (particularly the target organs of parasympathetic neurons). M1-M5 receptors are integral membrane proteins with seven transmembrane segments, bind with acetylcholine (ACh) in the extracellular phase, and thereafter interact with and activate GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the intracellular phase: M1, M3, and M5 receptors interact with Gq-type G proteins, and M2 and M4 receptors with Gi/Go-type G proteins. Activated G proteins initiate a number of intracellular signal transduction systems. Agonist-bound muscarinic receptors are phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases, which initiate their desensitization through uncoupling from G proteins, receptor internalization, and receptor breakdown (down regulation). Recently the crystal structures of M2 and M3 receptors were determined and are expected to contribute to the development of drugs targeted to muscarinic receptors. This paper summarizes the molecular properties of muscarinic receptors with reference to the historical background and bias to studies performed in our laboratories. PMID:23759942

  14. Genetic deletion of muscarinic M4 receptors is anxiolytic in the shock-probe burying model.

    PubMed

    Degroot, Aldemar; Nomikos, George G

    2006-02-15

    We used muscarinic M2 and M4 receptor knockout (KO) mice to further explore the role of the cholinergic system in anxiety. Using the shock-probe burying model we were able to both assess anxiety and cognition. In this paradigm, an anxiolytic response is reflected by decreased burying behavior. In addition, retention latency depicts long-term memory performance. Whereas muscarinic M2 receptor KO mice did not differ behaviorally from wild-type mice, muscarinic M4 receptor KO mice showed increased anxiolysis, but normal long-term memory compared to wild-type mice. Therefore, muscarinic M4 receptors are of particular significance in anxiety modulation that seems dissociated from changes in long-term memory.

  15. Immunochemical studies of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    André, C; Marullo, S; Guillet, J G; Convents, A; Lauwereys, M; Kaveri, S; Hoebeke, J; Strosberg, A D

    1987-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors have been purified from calf forebrain plasma cell membranes by affinity chromatography on a dexetimide-agarose gel. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a single 70 kDa band. Monoclonal antibodies have been prepared against these affinity purified 70 kDa protein(s). One antibody, M-35, immunoprecipitated up to 80% of digitonin-solubilized muscarinic receptors. M-35 had agonist-like effects on guinea-pig myometrium: it increased the intracellular cyclic GMP content, decreased prostaglandin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and caused muscle contractions. The two first effects were inhibited by atropine. M-35 was used to visualize muscarinic receptors at the surface of human fibroblastic cells. In the particular cell line used, the receptors have a low affinity for pirenzepine, were negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and mediated increase in the phosphatidyl-inositol breakdown. PMID:3040987

  16. Muscarinic receptor subtypes as potential targets to modulate oligodendrocyte progenitor survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Federica; Bernardo, Antonietta; Magnaghi, Valerio; Minghetti, Luisa; Tata, Ada Maria

    2012-05-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major neurotransmitter but also an important signaling molecule in neuron-glia interactions. Expression of ACh receptors has been reported in several glial cell populations, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Nonetheless, the characterization of muscarinic receptors in these cells, as well as the description of the cholinergic effects at different stages of OL development, is still incomplete. In this study, we characterized the pattern of expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes in primary cultures of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and mature OLs, at both mRNA and protein levels. We found that muscarinic receptor expression is developmentally regulated. M1, M3, and M4 receptors were the main subtypes expressed in OPC, whereas all receptor subtypes were expressed at low levels in mature OLs. Exposure of OPC to muscarine enhanced cell proliferation, an effect mainly due to M1, M3, and M4 receptor subtypes as demonstrated by pharmacological competition with selective antagonists. Conversely, M2 receptor activation impaired OPC survival. In line with the mitogenic activity, muscarinic receptor activation increased the expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor α. Muscarine stimulation increased CX32 and myelin basic protein expression, left unaffected that of myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), and decreased member of the family of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ErbB3/ErbB4 receptor expression indicating a predominant role of muscarinic receptors in OPC. These findings suggest that ACh may contribute to the maintenance of an immature proliferating progenitor pool and impair the progression toward mature stage. This hypothesis is further supported by increased expression of Notch-1 in OL on muscarinic activation.

  17. Influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[125I]iododexetimide to muscarinic brain receptors.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, M; Fixmann, A; Holschbach, M; Müller-Gärtner, H W

    1998-11-01

    The distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain in vivo has been successfully characterized using radiolabeled tracers and emission tomography. The effect of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft on receptor binding of these tracers has not yet been investigated. The present study examined the influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[125I]iododexetimide to muscarinic cholinergic receptors of porcine brain synaptosomes in vitro. 4-Iododexetimide is a subtype-unspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist with high affinity. Acetylcholine competed with 4-[125I]iododexetimide in a dose-dependent manner. A concentration of 500 microM acetylcholine inhibited 50% of total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding to synaptosomes when both substances were given simultaneously. An 800 microM acetylcholine solution reduced total specific 4-[125I]iododexetimide binding by about 35%, when acetylcholine was given 60 min after incubation of synaptosomes with 4-[125I]iododexetimide. Variations in the synaptic acetylcholine concentration might influence muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in vivo using 4-[123I]iododexetimide. Conversely, 4-[123I]iododexetimide might be an appropriate molecule to investigate alterations of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography. PMID:9863566

  18. Chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding increases muscarinic receptor (mAChR) density in esophagus without parallel change in dose response (D-R) to cholinergic agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gordon, J.H.; Urban, G.; Fields, J.Z. VA Hospital, Hines, IL )

    1991-03-11

    The mAChR/effector pathway for signal transduction is important in the physiology of esophagus and mAChR alterations are involved in EtOH induced changes in several organs. To see if EtOH-induced increases in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) are due to upregulation of mAChR, the authors evaluated mAChR binding and D-R curves for bethanechol (IV) induced increases in LESP, and compared these values to changes in LESP after acute and chronic EtOH. EtOH was given to cats acutely or chronically. The number of mAChR sites (Bmax) in esophagus was lowered by acute EtOH, withdrawal from chronic EtOH raised Bmax. Acute injection of EtOH to cats in withdrawal reversed this increase in mAChR density. These changes correlated with the earlier data on EtOH-induced changes in LESP. In contrast, the D-R curve for bethanechol shifted to the right. Thus, the withdrawal-associated increase in Bmax is more likely to be a compensatory response to deficits distal to the receptor recognition site than to proximal deficits and doesn't cause LESP hyperactivity. Also, receptor binding changes do not necessarily translate into physiological changes.

  19. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  20. Synaptic muscarinic response types in hippocampal CA1 interneurons depend on different levels of presynaptic activity and different muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bell, L Andrew; Bell, Karen A; McQuiston, A Rory

    2013-10-01

    Depolarizing, hyperpolarizing and biphasic muscarinic responses have been described in hippocampal inhibitory interneurons, but the receptor subtypes and activity patterns required to synaptically activate muscarinic responses in interneurons have not been completely characterized. Using optogenetics combined with whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute slices, we measured muscarinic responses produced by endogenously released acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic medial septum/diagonal bands of Broca inputs in hippocampal CA1. We found that depolarizing responses required more cholinergic terminal stimulation than hyperpolarizing ones. Furthermore, elevating extracellular ACh with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine had a larger effect on depolarizing versus hyperpolarizing responses. Another subpopulation of interneurons responded biphasically, and periodic release of ACh entrained some of these interneurons to rhythmically burst. M4 receptors mediated hyperpolarizing responses by activating inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, whereas the depolarizing responses were inhibited by the nonselective muscarinic antagonist atropine but were unaffected by M1, M4 or M5 receptor modulators. In addition, activation of M4 receptors significantly altered biphasic interneuron firing patterns. Anatomically, interneuron soma location appeared predictive of muscarinic response types but response types did not correlate with interneuron morphological subclasses. Together these observations suggest that the hippocampal CA1 interneuron network will be differentially affected by cholinergic input activity levels. Low levels of cholinergic activity will preferentially suppress some interneurons via hyperpolarization and increased activity will recruit other interneurons to depolarize, possibly because of elevated extracellular ACh concentrations. These data provide important information for understanding how cholinergic therapies will affect hippocampal network function

  1. Cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the vestibular epithelia.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, R A

    1991-10-01

    Receptor binding studies specific for nicotinic cholinergic receptors have been carried out on isolated vestibular epithelia of the frogs Rana catesbiana and Rana temporaria. Evidence is presented for the presence of nicotinic-like cholinergic receptors specifically associated with the sensory areas. PMID:1797345

  2. Muscarinic receptor subtypes mediating the mucosal response to neural stimulation of guinea pig ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, H.V.; Tien, X.Y.; Wallace, L.J.; Cooke, H.J.

    1987-09-01

    Muscarinic receptors involved in the secretory response evoked by electrical stimulation of submucosal neutrons were investigated in muscle-stripped flat sheets of guinea pig ileum set up in flux chambers. Neural stimulation produced a biphasic increase in short-circuit current due to active chloride secretion. Atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperadine methiodide (4-DAMP) (10/sup -7/ M) were more potent inhibitors of the cholinergic phase of the response than was pirenzepine. Dose-dependent increases in base-line short-circuit current were evoked by carbachol and bethanechol; 4-hydroxy-2-butynyl trimethylammonium chloride (McN A343) produced a much smaller effect. Tetrodotoxin abolished the effects of McN A343 but did not alter the responses of carbachol and bethanechol. McN A343 significantly reduced the cholinergic phase of the neurally evoked response and caused a rightward shift of the carbachol dose-response curve. All muscarinic compounds inhibited (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to membranes from muscosal scrapings, with a rank order of potency of 4-DAMP > pirenzepine > McN A343 > carbachol > bethanechol. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from submucosal neurons mediates chloride secretion by interacting with muscarinic cholinergic receptors that display a high binding affinity for 4-DAMP. Activation of neural muscarinic receptors makes a relatively small contribution to the overall secretory response.

  3. External Imaging of Cerebral Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, William C.; Reba, Richard C.; Rzeszotarski, Waclaw J.; Gibson, Raymond E.; Hill, Thomas; Holman, B. Leonard; Budinger, Thomas; Conklin, James J.; Eng, Robert; Grissom, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  4. External imaging of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eckelman, W.C.; Reba, R.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Hill, T.; Holman, B.L.; Budinger, T.; Conklin, J.J.; Eng, R.; Grissom, M.P.

    1984-01-20

    A radioiodinated ligand that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was shown to distribute in the brain by a receptor-mediated process. With single-photon-emission imaging techniques, radioactivity was detected in the cerebrum but not in the cerebellum, whereas with a flow-limited radiotracer, radioactivity was detected in cerebrum and cerebellum. Single-photon-emission computed tomography showed good definition of the caudate putamen and cortex in man.

  5. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  6. Acetylcholine and muscarinic receptor function in cerebral cortex of diabetic young and old male Wistar rats and the role of muscarinic receptors in calcium release from pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Balakrishnan; Joseph, Binoy; Peeyush Kumar, T; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    We investigated acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine and muscarinic M1, M3 receptors kinetics in the cerebral cortex of young and old streptozotocin induced and insulin treated diabetic rats. The role of muscarinic receptors in intracellular calcium release from pancreatic islets was studied in vitro. Wistar rats of 7 and 90-weeks old were used. All studies were done in cerebral cortex. AChE assay was done by spectrophotometric method. Radioreceptor binding assays were done for Acetylcholine, Muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors using specific ligands. Calcium imaging was done using fluo4-AM in pancreatic cells. Ninety-weeks old control rats showed significantly decreased Vmax and increased Km for AChE compared to 7-weeks old control rats. An increased Vmax observed in both 7 and 90-weeks old diabetic groups with significant decrease in Km. Scatchard analysis using specific agonists showed significant decrease in the B (max) and K (d) of acetylcholine and muscarinic M1 receptors in 90-weeks old control rats compared to 7-weeks old control. Binding studies for M3 receptors showed no significant change compared to 7-weeks old control. Acetylcholine, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor number significantly increased in 90-weeks old diabetic rat groups compared to their respective controls. Insulin treatment significantly reversed the binding parameters to near control compared to diabetic group. In vitro studies showed that acetylcholine through muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors' stimulated calcium release from the pancreatic islets. Thus our studies suggest that Insulin signaling play an important part in differentially regulating pancreatic cholinergic activity, and the diabetes mediated cortical dysfunctions with age.

  7. Homology modeling of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Trayder; McLean, Kimberley C; McRobb, Fiona M; Manallack, David T; Chalmers, David K; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2014-01-27

    We have developed homology models of the acetylcholine muscarinic receptors M₁R-M₅R, based on the β₂-adrenergic receptor crystal as the template. This is the first report of homology modeling of all five subtypes of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors with binding sites optimized for ligand binding. The models were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between muscarinic antagonists and decoy compounds using virtual screening using enrichment factors, area under the ROC curve (AUC), and an early enrichment measure, LogAUC. The models produce rational binding modes of docked ligands as well as good enrichment capacity when tested against property-matched decoy libraries, which demonstrates their unbiased predictive ability. To test the relative effects of homology model template selection and the binding site optimization procedure, we generated and evaluated a naïve M₂R model, using the M₃R crystal structure as a template. Our results confirm previous findings that binding site optimization using ligand(s) active at a particular receptor, i.e. including functional knowledge into the model building process, has a more pronounced effect on model quality than target-template sequence similarity. The optimized M₁R-M₅R homology models are made available as part of the Supporting Information to allow researchers to use these structures, compare them to their own results, and thus advance the development of better modeling approaches.

  8. Carbachol dimers as homobivalent modulators of muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Matucci, Rosanna; Nesi, Marta; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Bellucci, Cristina; Manetti, Dina; Ciuti, Elisa; Mazzolari, Angelica; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Vistoli, Giulio; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2016-05-15

    A series of homodimers of the well-known cholinergic agonist carbachol have been synthesized, showing the two agonist units symmetrically connected through a methylene chain of variable length. The new compounds have been tested on the five cloned muscarinic receptors (hM1-5) expressed in CHO cells by means of equilibrium binding studies, showing an increase in affinity by rising the number of methylene units up to 7 and 9. Functional experiments on guinea-pig ileum and assessment of ERK1/2 phosphorylation on hM1, hM2 and hM3 on CHO cells have shown that the new compounds are endowed with muscarinic antagonistic properties. Kinetic binding studies have revealed that some of the tested compounds are able to slow the rate of dissociation of NMS, suggesting a bitopic behavior. Docking simulations, performed on the hM1 and hM2 receptors, give a sound rationalization of the experimental data revealing how these compounds are able to interact with both orthosteric and allosteric binding sites depending on the length of their connecting chain. PMID:26996304

  9. The Role of Muscarinic Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Mood Disorders: A Potential Novel Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Won Je; Dean, Brian; Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The central cholinergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. An imbalance in central cholinergic neurotransmitter activity has been proposed to contribute to the manic and depressive episodes typical of these disorders. Neuropharmacological studies into the effects of cholinergic agonists and antagonists on mood state have provided considerable support for this hypothesis. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have shown that the pan-CHRM antagonist, scopolamine, produces rapid-acting antidepressant effects in individuals with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD), such as bipolar depression, contrasting the delayed therapeutic response of conventional mood stabilisers and antidepressants. This review presents recent data from neuroimaging, post-mortem and genetic studies supporting the involvement of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (CHRMs), particularly CHRM2, in the pathophysiology of MDD and BPD. Thus, novel drugs that selectively target CHRMs with negligible effects in the peripheral nervous system might produce more rapid and robust clinical improvement in patients with BPD and MDD. PMID:26630954

  10. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  11. Characterization of muscarinic receptors in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Blankesteijn, W M; Siero, H L; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; van Megen, Y J; Russel, F G

    1993-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors in mammalian kidney seem to be involved in diuresis. In this study we give a detailed characterization of receptors in rat kidney. Specific binding of [3H](-)-quinuclidinylbenzilate ([3H]QNB) to membranes of rat kidney cortex was saturable and of high affinity. A dissociation constant of 0.063 +/- 0.003 nM and a receptor density of 1.46 +/- 0.07 pmol/g wet weight were obtained. The dissociation kinetics could be best described by assuming a mono-exponential function (k-1 = (0.52 +/- 0.1) x 10(-4) s-1). The binding of [3H]QNB reached a maximum in 60 min at 0.6 nM at 37 degrees C. Competition experiments with the enantiomers of benzetimide confirmed the muscarinic nature of the [3H]QNB binding sites. The inhibition constants of pirenzepine (0.23 +/- 0.02 microM), (+-)-hexahydrosiladifenidol (0.040 +/- 0.002 microM), AF-DX 116 (1.45 +/- 0.07 microM), methoctramine (1.67 +/- 0.02 microM) and gallamine (78 +/- 3 microM) classified this receptor as an M3 receptor. Inhibition of [3H]QNB binding by the agonists methylfurtrethonium, arecoline, isoarecoline methiodide, arecaidine propargyl ester and McN-A-343 displayed monophasic inhibition curves. With (+/-)-cis-2-methyl-4-dimethylaminomethyl-1,3- dioxolane methiodide in two out of four experiments a small (11%) population of high affinity agonist sites could be detected. The potassium sparing diuretic amiloride inhibited [3H]QNB binding (36 +/- 3 microM). Although in a way related to the amiloride binding site, the muscarinic receptors in rat kidney are unlikely to be the primary target of diuretic action of this drug. PMID:8420789

  12. Role for M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Fink-Jensen, Anders; Fedorova, Irina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Woldbye, David P D; Rasmussen, Thøger; Thomsen, Morgane; Bolwig, Tom G; Knitowski, Karen M; McKinzie, David L; Yamada, Masahisa; Wess, Jürgen; Basile, Anthony

    2003-10-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors of the M5 subtype are expressed by dopamine-containing neurons of the ventral tegmentum. These M5 receptors modulate the activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which play an important role in mediating reinforcing properties of abused psychostimulants like cocaine. The potential role of M5 receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine was investigated using M5 receptor-deficient mice in a model of acute cocaine self-administration. The M5-deficient mice self-administered cocaine at a significantly lower rate than wild-type controls. In the conditioned place preference procedure, a classic test for evaluating the rewarding properties of drugs, M5-deficient mice spent significantly less time in the cocaine-paired compartment than control mice. Moreover, the severity of the cocaine withdrawal syndrome (withdrawal-associated anxiety measured in the elevated plus-maze) was significantly attenuated in mice lacking the M5 receptor. These results demonstrate that M5 receptors play an important role in mediating both cocaine-associated reinforcement and withdrawal.

  13. Enhanced muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the corpus striatum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gireesh, G; Kumar, T Peeyush; Mathew, Jobin; Paulose, CS

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), the first neurotransmitter to be identified, regulate the activities of central and peripheral functions through interactions with muscarinic receptors. Changes in muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many major diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Previous reports from our laboratory on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats showed down regulation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the brainstem, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pancreatic islets. In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ – diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. We observed that insulin treatment brought back the decreased maximal velocity (Vmax) of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease in maximal number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of total muscarinic receptors whereas muscarinic M1 receptors were increased with decrease in affinity in diabetic rats. We observed that, in all cases, the binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with insulin. Real-time PCR experiment confirmed the increase in muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression and a similar reversal with insulin treatment. These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors. PMID:19344500

  14. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells, the role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) to mucosal homeo...

  15. Muscarinic receptors of the vascular bed: radioligand binding studies on bovine splenic veins.

    PubMed

    Brunner, F; Kukovetz, W R

    1986-01-01

    Despite an obvious lack of parasympathetic innervation to the spleen, pharmacological evidence suggests the presence of cholinergic receptors in isolated bovine splenic veins. We therefore studied muscarinic cholinergic binding sites in a bovine splenic vein preparation by direct radioligand binding techniques using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) as radioactive probe. Saturation experiments indicated one homogeneous class of high-affinity binding sites, with a KD of 0.11 nM and a binding site density Bmax of 55 fmol/mg protein. The rate constants at 37 degrees C for formation and dissociation of the [3H]QNB receptor complex were 2.7 X 10(9) M-1 h-1 and 0.38 h-1, respectively, yielding a KD of 0.14 nM. The binding sites showed a high stereospecificity, which was evident from competition experiments with dexetimide (KI = 1.3 nM) and levetimide (KI = 4.6 microM). In competition experiments with muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists and some antidepressants, only one binding site was found, whereas with muscarinic agonists, two binding sites were detected. In the presence of 0.1 mM guanyl-imido-diphosphate, only one binding site could be identified with the muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine. The affinity of [3H]QNB, on the other hand, was slightly decreased, and Bmax values were unchanged. It is concluded that specific, saturable, high-affinity muscarinic binding sites in the bovine splenic vein have been identified and characterized that exhibit properties similar to cholinergic receptors of brain and peripheral tissues and probably mediate acetylcholine-induced relaxation of splenic veins. PMID:2427809

  16. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors via their allosteric binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubík, J; Bacáková, L; Lisá, V; el-Fakahany, E E; Tucek, S

    1996-01-01

    Ligands that bind to the allosteric-binding sites on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors alter the conformation of the classical-binding sites of these receptors and either diminish or increase their affinity for muscarinic agonists and classical antagonists. It is not known whether the resulting conformational change also affects the interaction between the receptors and the G proteins. We have now found that the muscarinic receptor allosteric modulators alcuronium, gallamine, and strychnine (acting in the absence of an agonist) alter the synthesis of cAMP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the M2 or the M4 subtype of muscarinic receptors in the same direction as the agonist carbachol. In addition, most of their effects on the production of inositol phosphates in CHO cells expressing the M1 or the M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes are also similar to (although much weaker than) those of carbachol. The agonist-like effects of the allosteric modulators are not observed in CHO cells that have not been transfected with the gene for any of the subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The effects of alcuronium on the formation of cAMP and inositol phosphates are not prevented by the classical muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate. These observations demonstrate for the first time that the G protein-mediated functional responses of muscarinic receptors can be evoked not only from their classical, but also from their allosteric, binding sites. This represents a new mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:8710935

  17. Cholinergic receptors in the upper respiratory system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, A B; Kuijpers, W; Scheres, H M; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; Beld, A J

    1986-04-01

    Radioligand receptor binding might give more detailed information on the innervation pattern of the nasal mucosa and the character of the various neuroreceptors involved. With respect to the cholinergic receptors, this technique reveals that specific binding of tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate to rat nasal mucosa homogenates occurs to a homogeneous class of binding sites, with a dissociation constant of 0.06 +/- 0.02 nM and a receptor density of 8 +/- 2 pmole/g of tissue. Binding is stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide hydrochloride enantiomers. Pirenzepine displacement (inhibition constant = 0.5 X 10(-6) M) classifies tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites as M2-muscarinic receptors. Methylfurthrethonium inhibits tritiated I-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding at high concentrations, pointing to the presence of low-affinity agonist binding sites, probably admixed with a small proportion of high-affinity agonist binding sites. These data obtained in the rat open new perspectives for studying muscarinic receptors in the human nose to elucidate the supposed disturbance of autonomic nerve regulation in nasal hyperreactivity. PMID:3511926

  18. Binding of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine to cholinergic receptors in bovine cerebral arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohama, S.; Tsukahara, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Fujiwara, M.

    1985-11-18

    Cholinergic receptor sites in bovine cerebral arteries were analyzed using radioligand binding techniques with the cholinergic agonist, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (ACh), as the ligand. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh to membrane preparations of bovine cerebral arteries was saturable, of two binding sites, with dissociation constant (K/sub D/) values of 0.32 and 23.7 nM, and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 67 and 252 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Specific binding of /sup 3/H-ACh was displaced effectively by muscarinic cholinergic agents and less effectively by nicotinic cholinergic agents. IC/sub 50/ values of cholinergic drugs for /sup 3/H-ACh binding were as follows: atropine, 38.5 nM; ACh, 59.8 nM; oxotremorine, 293 nM; scopolamine 474 nM; carbamylcholine, 990 nM. IC/sub 50/ values of nicotinic cholinergic agents such as nicotine, cytisine and ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin exceeded 50 ..mu..M. Choline acetyltransferase activity was 1.09 nmol/mg protein/hour in the cerebral arteries. These findings suggest that the cholinergic nerves innervate the bovine cerebral arteries and that there are at least two classes of ACh binding sites of different affinities on muscarinic reporters in these arteries. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  19. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  20. Central Muscarinic Cholinergic Activation Alters Interaction between Splenic Dendritic Cell and CD4+CD25- T Cells in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Valentin A.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is based on vagus nerve (VN) activity that regulates macrophage and dendritic cell responses in the spleen through alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR) signaling. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients present dysautonomia with decreased vagus nerve activity, dendritic cell and T cell over-activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether central activation of the CAP alters the function of dendritic cells (DCs) and sequential CD4+/CD25−T cell activation in the context of experimental colitis. Methods The dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model of experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice was used. Central, intracerebroventricular infusion of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist McN-A-343 was used to activate CAP and vagus nerve and/or splenic nerve transection were performed. In addition, the role of α7nAChR signaling and the NF-kB pathway was studied. Serum amyloid protein (SAP)-A, colonic tissue cytokines, IL-12p70 and IL-23 in isolated splenic DCs, and cytokines levels in DC-CD4+CD25−T cell co-culture were determined. Results McN-A-343 treatment reduced colonic inflammation associated with decreased pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 colonic and splenic cytokine secretion. Splenic DCs cytokine release was modulated through α7nAChR and the NF-kB signaling pathways. Cholinergic activation resulted in decreased CD4+CD25−T cell priming. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of central cholinergic activation was abolished in mice with vagotomy or splenic neurectomy. Conclusions Suppression of splenic immune cell activation and altered interaction between DCs and T cells are important aspects of the beneficial effect of brain activation of the CAP in experimental colitis. These findings may lead to improved therapeutic strategies in the treatment of IBD. PMID:25295619

  1. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  2. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  3. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  4. Antipsychotic-Like Effect of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist BuTAC in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P.; Felder, Christian C.; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  5. Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Soheil Keihan; Deli, Alev; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

  6. Attenuation of Cocaine's Reinforcing and Discriminative Stimulus Effects via Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptor StimulationS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig; Wess, Jürgen; Boon, Joon Y.; Fulton, Brian S.; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Caine, S. Barak

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus. More importantly, we tested the hypothesis that muscarinic receptor agonists with varied receptor subtype selectivity can blunt cocaine's discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects; we hypothesized a critical role for the M1 and/or M4 receptor subtypes in this modulation. Mice were trained to discriminate cocaine from saline, or to self-administer intravenous cocaine chronically. The nonselective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and methylscopolamine, the nonselective muscarinic agonists oxotremorine and pilocarpine, the M1/M4-preferring agonist xanomeline, the putative M1-selective agonist (4-hydroxy-2-butynyl)-1-trimethylammonium-3-chlorocarbanilate chloride (McN-A-343), and the novel M1-selective agonist 1-(1-2-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bipiperidin-4-yl)-1H benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (TBPB) were tested as substitution and/or pretreatment to cocaine. Both muscarinic antagonists partially substituted for cocaine and enhanced its discriminative stimulus. Conversely, muscarinic agonists blunted cocaine discrimination and abolished cocaine self-administration with varying effects on food-maintained behavior. Specifically, increasing selectivity for the M1 subtype (oxotremorine < xanomeline < TBPB) conferred lesser nonspecific rate-suppressing effects, with no rate suppression for TBPB. In mutant mice lacking M1 and M4 receptors, xanomeline failed to diminish cocaine discrimination while rate-decreasing effects were intact. Our data suggest that central M1 receptor activation attenuates cocaine's abuse-related effects, whereas non-M1/M4 receptors probably contribute to undesirable effects of muscarinic stimulation. These data provide the first demonstration of anticocaine

  7. [Allosteric effect of serotonin and mianserin on the kinetics of specific [3H]-ligand binding to adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in the rat cerebral cortex membranes].

    PubMed

    Manukhin, B N; Nesterova, L A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of serotonin receptor activation (by serotonin) and inhibition (by mianserin) on the properties of the α1-, α2-adrenoreceptors, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in subcellular membrane fractions from the rat cerebral cortex were studied. Experimental data on the kinetics of specific antagonists binding to adrenergic and muscarinic receptors were analyzed by graphical and mathematical methods. The results suggest the presence of allosteric (cross-talk) interaction. In the control, α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors were represented by a single pool, and muscarinic receptors, by two pools. Two pools of adrenoreceptors with different affinity were detected against the background of serotonin. It was found that mianserin induces the formation of two pools of only (α2-receptors and muscarinic receptors are represented by two pools differing in the main parameters, such as dissociation constants and adrenoreceptor concentrations, in the control and experimental groups. It was shown that the allosteric effect of serotonin and mianserin is manifested in the inhibition of muscarinic receptors. It was assumed that the adrenergic and cholinergic receptors exist as dimers. The interaction between the adrenergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic systems is likely to be implemented at the cell membrane level.

  8. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  9. Effects of acute administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic agonists and antagonists on performance in different cost–benefit decision making tasks in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ian A.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Alterations in cost–benefit decision making accompany numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Central cholinergic systems have been linked to the etiology and/or treatment of many of these conditions, but little is known about the role of cholinergic signaling in cost–benefit decision making. Objectives The goal of these experiments was to determine how cholinergic signaling is involved in cost–benefit decision making, using a behavioral pharmacological approach. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were trained in either “probability discounting” or “delay discounting” tasks, in which rats made discrete-trial choices between a small food reward and a large food reward associated with either varying probabilities of omission or varying delays to delivery, respectively. The effects of acute administration of different doses of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists were assessed in each task. Results In the probability discounting task, acute nicotine administration (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased choice of the large risky reward, and control experiments suggested that this was due to robust nicotine-induced impairments in behavioral flexibility. In the delay discounting task, the muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) and atropine (0.3 mg/kg) both significantly increased choice of the small immediate reward. Neither mecamylamine nor oxotremorine produced reliable effects on either of the decision making tasks. Conclusions These data suggest that cholinergic receptors play multiple roles in decision making contexts which include consideration of reward delay or probability. These roles should be considered when targeting these receptors for therapeutic purposes. PMID:22760484

  10. Effect of central muscarinic receptors on passive-avoidance learning deficits induced by prenatal pentylenetetrazol kindling in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pourmotabbed, A; Mahmoodi, G; Mahmoodi, S; Mohammadi-Farani, A; Nedaei, S E; Pourmotabbed, T; Pourmotabbed, T

    2014-10-24

    Occurrence of the epileptic seizures during gestation might affect the neurodevelopment of the fetus resulting in cognitive problems for the child later in life. We have previously reported that prenatal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling induces learning and memory deficits in the children born to kindled mothers, later in life but the mechanisms involved in this processes are unknown. The cholinergic system plays a major role in learning and memory. The present study was performed to investigate the possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors on learning and memory deficits induced by prenatal PTZ-kindling in male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were kindled by repetitive i.p. injection of 25mg/kg of PTZ on day 13 of their pregnancy. The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of scopolamine and pilocarpine, muscarinic cholinergic receptors antagonist and agonist, respectively on passive-avoidance learning of pups were tested at 12weeks of age using shuttle-box apparatus. Our data showed that the retention latencies of pups that received scopolamine (2 or 3μg) were significantly reduced compared to those received normal saline (p<0.05). Interestingly, post training ICV administration of pilocarpine (2μg) retrieved pups' memory deficits (p<0.001). These results demonstrate for the first time, the importance of the central muscarinic cholinergic receptors in learning and memory deficits in pups born to kindled dams and suggest a central mechanism for the cognitive and memory dysfunction, associated with seizures during pregnancy.

  11. An autoradiographic analysis of cholinergic receptors in mouse brain after chronic nicotine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pauly, J.R.; Marks, M.J.; Gross, S.D.; Collins, A.C. )

    1991-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic procedures were used to examine the effects of chronic nicotine infusion on the number of central nervous system nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Female DBA mice were implanted with jugular cannulas and infused with saline or various doses of nicotine (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg/hr) for 10 days. The animals were then sacrificed and the brains were removed and frozen in isopentane. Cryostat sections were collected and prepared for autoradiographic procedures as previously described. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were labeled with L-(3H)nicotine or alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin; (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to measure muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Chronic nicotine infusion increased the number of sites labeled by (3H)nicotine in most brain areas. However, the extent of the increase in binding as well as the dose-response curves for the increase were widely different among brain regions. After the highest treatment dose, binding was increased in 67 of 86 regions measured. Septal and thalamic regions were most resistant to change. Nicotinic binding measured by alpha-(125I)bungarotoxin also increased after chronic treatment, but in a less robust fashion. At the highest treatment dose, only 26 of 80 regions were significantly changes. Muscarinic binding was not altered after chronic nicotine treatment. These data suggest that brain regions are not equivalent in the mechanisms that regulate alterations in nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding after chronic nicotine treatment.

  12. Comparative peptide mapping of adrenergic and cholinergic neutrotransmitter receptors by reverse-HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlavage, A.R.; Fraser, C.M.; Venter, J.C.; Shreeve, S.M.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have developed a methodology for unambiguously identifying neutrotransmitter receptor proteins and comparing structural features of related receptors as well as those in different classes. These techniques have been applied to the study of the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-adrenergic receptors as well as the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The method involves comparative peptide mapping of total proteolytic digests of receptor proteins by microbore reverse-phase HPLC in conjunction with covalent modification by specific receptor ligands or (/sup 125/I)-labeling. Femtomole amounts of receptor can be analyzed. The maps of all the (/sup 125/I)-labeled receptors contain between 20 and 25 peaks and each receptor has a unique profile although all are similar in the very hydrophobic region of the map. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor from human platelets has a higher total percentage of hydrophilic peaks than either the guinea pig lung ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor or the porcine atria muscarinic receptor. Two forms of the muscarinic receptor have very similar but clearly distinct profiles. The nicotinic receptor subunits show a higher degree of homology by this method than was revealed by previous mapping studies which utilized SDS-PAGE or thin-layer techniques.

  13. Role of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptors on Synaptic Plasticity and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Marco; Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Arias, Hugo R

    2016-01-01

    The cholinergic activity in the brain is fundamental for cognitive functions. The modulatory activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is mediated by activating a variety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). Accumulating evidence indicates that both nAChR and mAChRs can modulate the release of several other neurotransmitters, modify the threshold of long-term plasticity, finally improving learning and memory processes. Importantly, the expression, distribution, and/or function of these systems are altered in several neurological diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss our current knowledge on cholinergic receptors and their regulating synaptic functions and neuronal network activities as well as their use as targets for the development of new and clinically useful cholinergic ligands. These new therapies involve the development of novel and more selective cholinergic agonists and allosteric modulators as well as selective cholinesterase inhibitors, which may improve cognitive and behavioral symptoms, and also provide neuroprotection in several brain diseases. The review will focus on two nAChR receptor subtypes found in the mammalian brain and the most commonly targeted in drug discovery programs for neuropsychiatric disorder, the ligands of α4β2 nAChR and α7 nAChRs. PMID:26818867

  14. A long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist increases the expression of muscarine cholinergic subtype‑3 receptors by activating the β2-adrenoceptor cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway in airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hua; Wu, Song-Ze; Wang, Gang; Huang, Ni-Wen; Liu, Chun-Tao

    2015-06-01

    The persistent administration of β2‑adrenergic (β2AR) agonists has been demonstrated to increase the risk of severe asthma, partly due to the induction of tolerance to bronchoprotection via undefined mechanisms. The present study investigated the potential effect of the long‑acting β2‑adrenergic agonist, formoterol, on the expression of muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) in rat airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Primary rat ASMCs were isolated and characterized following immunostaining with anti‑α‑smooth muscle actin antibodies. The protein expression levels of M3R and phospholipase C‑β1 (PLCβ1) were characterized by western blot analysis and the production of inositol 1,4,5‑trisphosphate (IP3) was determined using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. Formoterol increased the protein expression of M3R in rat ASMCs in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner, which was significantly inhibited by the β2AR antagonist, ICI118,551 and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inhibitor, SQ22,536. The increased protein expression of M3R was positively correlated with increased production of PLCβ1 and IP3. Furthermore, treatment with the glucocorticoid, budesonide, and the PLC inhibitor, U73,122, significantly suppressed the formoterol‑induced upregulated protein expression levels of M3R and PLCβ1 and production of IP3. The present study demonstrated that formoterol mediated the upregulation of M3R in the rat ASMCs by activating the β2AR‑cAMP signaling pathway, resulting in increased expression levels of PLCβ1 and IP3, which are key to inducing bronchoprotection tolerance. Administration of glucocorticoids or a PLC antagonist prevented formoterol‑induced bronchoprotection tolerance by suppressing the protein expression of M3R. PMID:25672589

  15. A long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist increases the expression of muscarine cholinergic subtype-3 receptors by activating the β2-adrenoceptor cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathway in airway smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN-HUA; WU, SONG-ZE; WANG, GANG; HUANG, NI-WEN; LIU, CHUN-TAO

    2015-01-01

    The persistent administration of β2-adrenergic (β2AR) agonists has been demonstrated to increase the risk of severe asthma, partly due to the induction of tolerance to bronchoprotection via undefined mechanisms. The present study investigated the potential effect of the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, formoterol, on the expression of muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) in rat airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Primary rat ASMCs were isolated and characterized following immunostaining with anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibodies. The protein expression levels of M3R and phospholipase C-β1 (PLCβ1) were characterized by western blot analysis and the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Formoterol increased the protein expression of M3R in rat ASMCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was significantly inhibited by the β2AR antagonist, ICI118,551 and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inhibitor, SQ22,536. The increased protein expression of M3R was positively correlated with increased production of PLCβ1 and IP3. Furthermore, treatment with the glucocorticoid, budesonide, and the PLC inhibitor, U73,122, significantly suppressed the formoterol-induced upregulated protein expression levels of M3R and PLCβ1 and production of IP3. The present study demonstrated that formoterol mediated the upregulation of M3R in the rat ASMCs by activating the β2AR-cAMP signaling pathway, resulting in increased expression levels of PLCβ1 and IP3, which are key to inducing bronchoprotection tolerance. Administration of glucocorticoids or a PLC antagonist prevented formoterol-induced bronchoprotection tolerance by suppressing the protein expression of M3R. PMID:25672589

  16. Cocaine treatment causes early and long-lasting changes in muscarinic and dopaminergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, D S; Correia, E E; Vasconcelos, S M M; Aguiar, L M V; Viana, G S B; Sousa, F C F

    2004-02-01

    1. The study of changes that persist after drug discontinuation could be fundamental to understand the mechanisms involved in craving and relapse. 2. In this work the changes occurring in muscarinic, D1- and D2-like receptors after 30 min (immediate), 1 day (early), 5 and 30 days (late) withdrawal periods were studied, in the striatum of rats treated once a day for 7 days with cocaine 20 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. 3. Binding assays were performed in 10% homogenates and ligands used were [3H]-N-methylscopolamine, [3H]-SCH 23390, and [3H]-spiroperidol for muscarinic (M1 + M2-like), D1-, and D2-like receptors, respectively. 4. Muscarinic receptors presented a downregulation at all doses and discontinuation times, while the dissociation constant (Kd) for this receptor decreased after 30 min, 5 and 30 days abstinence times. In relation to D1-like receptors we found an antagonistic effect with 100% increase in receptor number 30 min after the last cocaine injection, but after 1-day withdrawal a downregulation was observed with both doses that persisted up to 30 days, only with the higher dose. The dissociation constant value (Kd) for this receptor showed a decrease only with 5 and 30 days withdrawal. An increase occurred with D2-like receptors at all doses and withdrawal periods studied, while Kd increased in 30-min, 5, and 30 days withdrawal. 5. In this work we found that the subchronic cocaine treatment produces early and long-lasting modifications in cholinergic muscarinic as well in dopaminergic receptors that persist up to 30 days of cocaine withdrawal. PMID:15049517

  17. Participation of nitric oxide signaling system in the cardiac muscarinic cholinergic effect of human chagasic IgG.

    PubMed

    Sterin-Borda, L; Leiros, C P; Goin, J C; Cremaschi, G; Genaro, A; Echagüe, A V; Borda, E

    1997-07-01

    The possible role of altered humoral immune response in the pathogenesis of the chronic chagasic cardioneuromyopathy was examined by analyzing the interaction of IgG from T. cruzi infected patients with cardiac muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR). Human chagasic IgG by activating cardiac M2 mAChR, simulated the agonist actions triggering negative inotropic effect, inositol phosphate accumulation, nitric oxide synthase stimulation and increased production of cyclic GMP. Inhibitors of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin, nitric oxide synthase and guanylate cyclase activities; prevented chagasic IgG effects on signaling pathways involved in M2 mAChR activation. In addition, sodium nitroprusside or 8-bromo cyclic GMP, mimicked the chagasic IgG effect associated with cholinergic-mediated cellular transmembrane signals. Moreover, these chagasic IgG immunoprecipitated the mAChRs solubilized from cardiac membranes. By means of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis, chagasic sera recognized a band of 70-75 kDa. The major protein recognized by chagasic IgG had an Rf coincident with the peak of [3H] propylbenzilylcholine mustard with an apparent molecular weight similar to that of mAChRs, which disappeared in the presence of atropine. The specificity of this interaction was checked by immunoprecipitation of rat cardiac mAChR and immunoblotting of pure human M2 mAChRs. Chronic interaction of chagasic IgG with myocardial mAChRs, behaving as a muscarinic agonist, might lead to cell dysfunction or tissue damage. Also, these antibodies could produce desensitization, internalization or degradation of mAChRs; explaining the progressive blockade of mAChRs in myocardium with parasympathetic denervation, a phenomenon that has been described in the course of Chagas' cardioneuromyopathy. PMID:9236139

  18. Motor activity-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra is regulated by muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Daniel R; Björnsson, Evelina; Bergquist, Filip; Nissbrandt, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Nigro-striatal neurons release dopamine not only from their axon terminals in the striatum, but also from somata and dendrites in the substantia nigra. Somatodendritic dopamine release in the substantia nigra can facilitate motor function by mechanisms that may act independently of axon terminal dopamine release in the striatum. The dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra receive a cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine nucleus. Despite recent efforts to introduce this nucleus as a potential target for deep brain stimulation to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; and the well-known antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergic drugs; the cholinergic influence on somatodendritic dopamine release is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible regulation of locomotor-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra by endogenous acetylcholine release. In intact and 6-OHDA hemi-lesioned animals alike, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, when perfused in the substantia nigra, amplified the locomotor-induced somatodendritic dopamine release to approximately 200% of baseline, compared to 120-130% of baseline in vehicle-treated animals. A functional importance of nigral muscarinic receptor activation was demonstrated in hemi-lesioned animals, where motor performance was significantly improved by scopolamine to 82% of pre-lesion performance, as compared to 56% in vehicle-treated controls. The results indicate that muscarinic activity in the substantia nigra is of functional importance in an animal Parkinson's disease model, and strengthen the notion that nigral dopaminergic regulation of motor activity/performance is independent of striatal dopamine release.

  19. Circadian activity of corticosterone in an animal model of depression: response to muscarinic cholinergic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Arteaga-Silva, M; Hernández-González, M; Vázquez-Palacios, G

    2010-06-16

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats induces multiple behavioral alterations during adulthood that resemble certain symptoms of human depression, such as impairments of pleasure-seeking behaviors. CMI may also induce permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) to different stimuli; however, the endocrinal changes induced by this treatment are still a matter of debate. In the present study, we evaluated the levels of corticosterone in rats treated in the neonatal period with CMI in basal conditions (0, 6, 12 and 18 h after lights on) and after treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX; 5mg/kg for 14 days). To evaluate the response of the HPA axis to a cholinergic agonist, we analyzed the effect of oxotremorine administration (OXO; 0.4, 0.8 mg/kg) on plasma levels of corticosterone. Administration of OXO took place at the beginning of each one of the two phases of the light-dark cycle (time points 0 and 12h, respectively). Results showed an increase in basal plasma levels of corticosterone in CMI-treated rats at time point zero and at 6h after the onset of the light period. While treatment with FLX reversed the increase in corticosterone plasma levels in CMI-treated rats, the results regarding cholinergic stimulation indicate that those rats do not respond to the administration of a low dose of OXO (0.4 mg/kg) at the onset of the dark phase (time point 12h). In conclusion, this study supports the hypothesis that neonatal treatment with CMI induces a hypersecretion of corticosterone in adulthood that was reversed through treatment with the antidepressant FLX. The CMI-treated rats showed a hyporesponse to cholinergic stimulation with OXO at low doses and at the beginning of the dark phase. Thus, the present results do not support the assumption that an increased sensitivity of the muscarinic cholinergic system is one of the possible correlates of the behavioral alterations seen in CMI-treated rats.

  20. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  1. Pharmacological identification of cholinergic receptor subtypes on Drosophila melanogaster larval heart.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Cole A; Ritter, Kyle; Robinson, Jonathan; English, Connor; Cooper, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue. In insects, ACh is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter of sensory neurons and is also prominent in the CNS. A full understanding regarding the regulation of the Drosophila cardiac physiology by the cholinergic system remains poorly understood. Here we use semi-intact D. melanogaster larvae to study the pharmacological profile of cholinergic receptor subtypes, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), in modulating heart rate (HR). Cholinergic receptor agonists, nicotine and muscarine both increase HR, while nAChR agonist clothianidin exhibits no significant effect when exposed to an open preparation at concentrations as low as 100 nM. In addition, both nAChR and mAChR antagonists increase HR as well but also display capabilities of blocking agonist actions. These results provide evidence that both of these receptor subtypes display functional significance in regulating the larval heart's pacemaker activity.

  2. Stereoselective L-(3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, T.F.; Mpitsos, G.J.; Siebenaller, J.F.; Barker, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-(/sup 3/H)QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-(/sup 3/H)QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-(/sup 3/H)QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-(/sup 3/H)QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution.

  3. Stereoselective L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate-binding sites in nervous tissue of Aplysia californica: evidence for muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Murray, T F; Mpitsos, G J; Siebenaller, J F; Barker, D L

    1985-12-01

    The muscarinic antagonist L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (L-[3H]QNB) binds with a high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM) to a single population of specific sites (Bmax = 47 fmol/mg of protein) in nervous tissue of the gastropod mollusc, Aplysia. The specific L-[3H]QNB binding is displaced stereoselectively by the enantiomers of benzetimide, dexetimide, and levetimide. The pharmacologically active enantiomer, dexetimide, is more potent than levetimide as an inhibitor of L-[3H]QNB binding. Moreover, the muscarinic cholinergic ligands, scopolamine, atropine, oxotremorine, and pilocarpine are effective inhibitors of the specific L-[3H]QNB binding, whereas nicotinic receptor antagonists, decamethonium and d-tubocurarine, are considerably less effective. These pharmacological characteristics of the L-[3H]QNB-binding site provide evidence for classical muscarinic receptors in Aplysia nervous tissue. The physiological relevance of the dexetimide-displaceable L-[3H]QNB-binding site was supported by the demonstration of the sensitivity of the specific binding to thermal denaturation. Specific binding of L-[3H]QNB was also detected in nervous tissue of another marine gastropod, Pleurobranchaea californica. The characteristics of the Aplysia L-[3H]QNB-binding site are in accordance with studies of numerous vertebrate and invertebrate tissues indicating that the muscarinic cholinergic receptor site has been highly conserved through evolution. PMID:4078624

  4. Effects of selected muscarinic cholinergic antagonists on [3H]acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Pohorecki, R; Head, R; Domino, E F

    1988-01-01

    A number of cholinergic muscarinic (M) agonists and antagonists were studied for their ability to enhance tritiated acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release from electrically field-stimulated rat hippocampal slices. A Ca++-free medium and carbachol, but not nicotine, inhibited [3H]ACh release. Atropine, methylatropine and dexetimide produced concentration-dependent increases in [3H]ACh release to a maximum of about 50% above control. Aprophen and benactyzine produced a maximal response 25 to 35% above control. The selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine had the least effect on [3H]ACh release. Of the nonspecific M1-M2 antagonists studied, benactyzine produced the least amount of [3H]ACh release. The order of potency of the M antagonists in promoting a 15% increase in [3H]ACh release was aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than methylatropine greater than dexetimide greater than pirenzepine greater than atropine. However, the order of promoting maximal release of [3H]ACh was atropine greater than dexetimide greater than methylatropine greater than aprophen greater than benactyzine greater than pirenzepine. PMID:3335998

  5. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured guinea pig pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, S.R.; Brown, M.E.; Williams, J.A.; Logsdon, C.D.

    1986-07-01

    Regulation of muscarinic receptors in cultured guinea pig pancreatic acini was investigated by assessing the effects of cholinergic agonists on binding of (N-methyl-TH)scopolamine ((TH)NMS) and on amylase release. Freshly dispersed acini bound (TH)NMS with a K/sub d/ of 74 pM and a maximal binding level (B/sub max/) of 908 fmol/mg DNA. Carbachol (CCh) stimulated amylase secretion and inhibited (TH)NMS binding. Incubation of acini for 30 min with 0.1 mM CCh decreased the subsequent efficacy of CCh in stimulating amylase release by threefold but had no effect on its potency. In contrast, amylase release in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was not altered by CCh preincubation. (TH)NMS binding to acini was decreased only 15-20% after 30-min incubation with CCh. However, culture of acini with 0.1 mM CCh decreased (TH)NMS binding by 50% at 3-4 h and by 85-90% at 24 h. This decrease was attributable primarily to a reduction in B/sub max/ (TH)NMS binding also was decreased to a similar extent by the cholinergic agonists bethanechol and methacholine but not by other secretagogues. The decrease in antagonist binding induced by CCh was dose dependent, with the IC50, 5.8 M, approximating the EC50 for amylase release, 4.3 M. Cultured of acini for 24 h with CCh abolished subsequent amylase release in response to CCh but not to CCK-8. The results indicate that muscarinic receptor turnover in the pancreatic acinus is regulated by receptor activation and that both a decease in receptor numbers and sensitivity to agonists follows prolonged cholinergic agonist exposure.

  6. Characteristics of muscarinic receptors that selectively couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase or stimulation of phospholipase C on NG108-15 and 1321N1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to establish whether different muscarinic receptor proteins selectively couple to different second messenger response system. Although both second messenger response systems are fully functional in both cell lines, activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors only results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase in NG108-15 neuroblastoma {times} glioma cells and stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell types were covalently labeled with ({sup 3}H)Propylbenzilylcholine mustard (({sup 3}H)PBCM) and the mobilities of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cells were compared by SDS-PAGE. 1321N1 and NG108-15 cells each primarily expressed a single ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species with an apparent size of approximately 92,000 and 66,000 Da, respectively. ({sup 3}H)PBCM labelling was completely inhibited by 1 {mu}M atropine or by down-regulation of muscarinic receptors by an overnight incubation with carbachol. The apparent size of the ({sup 3}H)PBCM-labelled species of both cell lines was not altered by treatment with a series of protease inhibitors or by treatment with dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide. Another approach for determining differences in the muscarinic receptors of 2 cells lines was to study agonist-induced alteration of muscarinic receptor number. Exposure of both cell types to agonists resulted in rapid loss of muscarinic receptors from cell surface without change of total cellular muscarinic receptors followed by subsequently loss of receptors from cells. Muscarinic receptors on both cell lines were regulated by agonist with similar properties.

  7. Evidence for the pharmacological similarity between the central presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptor and postsynaptic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, D. M.; Marek, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty antagonist substances with varying potencies for central and peripheral postsynaptic muscarinic receptors have been examined for effects on the central presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptor. This has been monitored by measuring the stimulating effects of the substances on acetylcholine synthesis by rat neocortical tissue prisms. Dose-response curves for selected agents showed that maximal stimulation of synthesis was to 136-140% of the value without an antagonist. At a concentration of 1 microM, 17 of the substances caused a significant increase in synthesis, whilst at 0.01 microM significant stimulation occurred with only atropine, dexetimide, N-methyl-piperdin-4-yl (R)-2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxyl-2-phenylacetate, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and scopolamine. Linear regression analysis between synthesis values obtained with the substances and published data for the effects on either cholinoceptor-agonist induced contraction of guinea-pig ileum or the binding of [3H]-QNB to rat forebrain membranes gave correlation coefficients of r = 0.84 (P less than 0.01), and r = 0.75 (P less than 0.02) respectively. The results provide no indication of a pharmacological difference between the central presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptor and central and peripheral postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. PMID:7186824

  8. Facilitation of memory storage by the acetylcholine M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116.

    PubMed

    Baratti, C M; Opezzo, J W; Kopf, S R

    1993-07-01

    Post-training administration of the acetylcholine muscarinic M2 presynaptic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg, ip), facilitated 48 h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. AF-DX 116 did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The influence of AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to AF-DX 116 treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training AF-DX 116 on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the activation of a muscarinic cholinergic presynaptic inhibitory mechanism, probably by increasing brain acetylcholine release, may modulate the activity of post-training processes involved in memory storage. PMID:8216161

  9. Facilitation of memory storage by the acetylcholine M2 muscarinic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116.

    PubMed

    Baratti, C M; Opezzo, J W; Kopf, S R

    1993-07-01

    Post-training administration of the acetylcholine muscarinic M2 presynaptic receptor antagonist AF-DX 116 (0.1-10.0 mg/kg, ip), facilitated 48 h retention, in male Swiss mice, of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. The dose-response curve was an inverted U. AF-DX 116 did not increase the retention latencies of mice that had not received a footshock during training. The influence of AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) on retention was time-dependent, which suggests that the drug facilitated memory storage. The memory facilitation induced by AF-DX 116 (1 mg/kg, ip) was prevented by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip) administered after training, but 10 min prior to AF-DX 116 treatment. In contrast, neither methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, ip), a peripherally acting muscarinic receptor blocker, nor mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, ip) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, ip), two cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonists, prevented the effects of post-training AF-DX 116 on retention. Low subeffective doses of the central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip), given 10 min after training, acted synergistically to improve retention. The effects of AF-DX 116 (0.1 mg/kg, ip) were not influenced by the peripherally acting anticholinesterase neostigmine (35 micrograms/kg, ip). Considered together, these findings suggest that the activation of a muscarinic cholinergic presynaptic inhibitory mechanism, probably by increasing brain acetylcholine release, may modulate the activity of post-training processes involved in memory storage.

  10. Effect of paraoxon on muscarinic, dopamine and. gamma. -aminobutyric acid receptors of brain and sensitivity to muscarinic antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, J.C.R.; Hoskins, B.; Ho, I.K.

    1986-03-05

    Several acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors decrease muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptors in the brain, alteration of dopamine (DA) and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors after AChE inhibition was also reported. In view of the important interactions among DA, GABA and ACh systems, whether this is a common effect of AChE inhibitors should be established. They report the effect of the AChE inhibitor, paraoxon, on DA, GABA and mACh receptors in the rat. The binding of /sup 3/H-QNB (for mACh), /sup 3/H-spiperone (for DA) and /sup 3/H-muscimol (for GABA) to striatal and hippocampal membranes was analyzed. Also, behavioral sensitivity to atropine was studied. Twenty-four hr after a single dose (0.75 mg/kg, s.c.) of paraoxon, the density of mACh receptors in the striatum was decreased but, at 3 days, no change was seen. In the hippocampus, the mACh receptors were not affected. Repeated treatment with paraoxon (0.3 mg/kg, 48 hourly) for 2 weeks reduced the mACh receptor density in both regions. Neither single nor repeated paraoxon treatment had an effect on DA or GABA receptors. After single or repeated dosing with paraoxon, myoclonus induced by atropine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced. The results show rapid downregulation of mACh receptors by paraoxon. DA or GABA, however, appear not to be affected under these treatment regimens.

  11. Cellular and molecular basis of cholinergic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdall, M.J.; Hawthorne, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 105 selections. Some of the titles are: Functional correlates of brain nicotine receptors; Muscarinic receptor subclasses; Cholinergic innervation and levels of nerve growth factor and its mRNA in the central nervous system; Developmentally regulated neurontrophic activities of Torpedo electric organ tissue; and Association of a regulatory peptide with cholinergic neurons.

  12. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Novel Nortropane Derivatives as Potential Radiotracers for Muscarinic M2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Knol, Remco J. J.; van den Bos, Jan C.; Janssen, Anton G. M.; de Bruin, Kora; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Booij, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances of the cerebral cholinergic neurotransmitter system are present in neurodegenerative disorders. SPECT or PET imaging, using radiotracers that selectively target muscarinic receptor subtypes, may be of value for in vivo evaluation of such conditions. 6β-acetoxynortropane, a potent muscarinic M2 receptor agonist, has previously demonstrated nanomolar affinity and high selectivity for this receptor. Based on this compound we synthesized four nortropane derivatives that are potentially suitable for SPECT imaging of the M2 receptor. 6β-acetoxynortropane and the novel derivatives were tested in vitro for affinity to the muscarinic M1−3 receptors. The original 6β-acetoxynortropane displayed high affinity (Ki = 70–90 nM) to M2 receptors and showed good selectivity ratios to the M1 (65-fold ratio) and the M3 (70-fold ratio) receptors. All new derivatives showed reduced affinity to the M2 subtype and loss of subtype selectivity. It is therefore concluded that the newly synthesized derivatives are not suitable for human SPECT imaging of M2 receptors. PMID:21755053

  13. GABAA receptors are located in cholinergic terminals in the nucleus pontis oralis of the rat: implications for REM sleep control.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chang-Lin; Marks, Gerald A

    2014-01-16

    The oral pontine reticular formation (PnO) of rat is one region identified in the brainstem as a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep induction zone. Microinjection of GABA(A) receptor antagonists into PnO induces a long lasting increase in REM sleep, which is similar to that produced by cholinergic agonists. We previously showed that this REM sleep-induction can be completely blocked by a muscarinic antagonist, indicating that the REM sleep-inducing effect of GABA(A) receptor antagonism is dependent upon the local cholinergic system. Consistent with these findings, it has been reported that GABA(A) receptor antagonists microdialyzed into PnO resulted in increased levels of acetylcholine. We hypothesize that GABA(A) receptors located on cholinergic boutons in the PnO are responsible for the REM sleep induction by GABA(A) receptor antagonists through blocking GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release. Cholinergic, varicose axon fibers were studied in the PnO by immunofluorescence and confocal, laser scanning microscopy. Immunoreactive cholinergic boutons were found to be colocalized with GABA(A) receptor subunit protein γ2. This finding implicates a specific subtype and location of GABA(A) receptors in PnO of rat in the control of REM sleep. PMID:24141149

  14. Critical metabolic roles of β-cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Gautam, Dinesh; Jain, Shalini; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1–M5) regulate the activity of an extraordinarily large number of important physiological processes. We and others previously demonstrated that pancreatic β-cells are endowed with M3 mAChRs which are linked to G proteins of the Gq family. The activation of these receptors by ACh or other muscarinic agonists leads to the augmentation of glucose-induced insulin release via multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, in humans, ACh acting on human β-cell mAChRs is released from adjacent α-cells which express both choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT), indicative of the presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in human pancreatic islets. In order to shed light on the physiological roles of β-cell M3 receptors, we recently generated and analyzed various mutant mouse models. Specifically, we carried out studies with mice which overexpressed M3 receptors or mutant M3 receptors in pancreatic β-cells or which selectively lacked M3 receptors or M3-receptor-associated proteins in pancreatic β-cells. Our findings indicate that β-cell M3 receptors play a key role in maintaining proper insulin release and whole body glucose homeostasis and that strategies aimed at enhancing signaling through β-cell M3 receptors may prove useful to improve β-cell function for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). PMID:22525375

  15. Alkylating derivative of oxotremorine interacts irreversibly with the muscarinic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlert, F.J.; Jenden, D.J.; Ringdahl, B.

    1984-03-05

    A 2-chloroethylamine derivative of oxotremorine was studied in pharmacological experiments and muscarinic receptor binding assays. The compound, N-(4-(2-chloroethylmethylamino)-2-butynyl)-2-pyrrolidone (BM 123), forms an aziridinium ion in aqueous solution at neutral pH that stimulates contractions of guinea pig ileum with a potency similar to that of oxotremorine. Following the initial stimulation, there is a long lasting period of lack of sensitivity of the guinea pig ileum to muscarinic agonists. BM 123 also produces muscarinic effects in vivo. When homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex were incubated with BM 123 and assayed subsequently in muscarinic receptor binding assays, a loss of binding capacity for the muscarinic antagonist, (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/H)NMS), was noted without a change in affinity. Similar observations were made in (/sup 3/H)1-3-quinuclidinyl benzilate ((/sup 3/H)-QNB) binding assays on the forebrains of mice that had been injected with BM 123 24 hr earlier. The loss in receptor capacity for both (/sup 3/H)NMS and (/sup 3/H)-QNB was prevented by atropine treatment. Kinetic studies of the interaction of BM 123 with homogenates of the rat cerebral cortex in vitro showed that the half-time for the loss of (/sup 3/H)-QNB binding sites increased from 10 to 45 min as the concentration of BM 123 decreased from 10 to 1 ..mu..M. In contrast to the aziridinium ion, the parent 2-chloroethylamine compound and the alcoholic hydrolysis product were largely devoid of pharmacological and binding activity.

  16. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: Role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Gennaro; Guizzetti, Marina; Dao, Khoi; Mattison, Hayley A; Costa, Lucio G

    2011-12-01

    In an in vitro co-culture system of astrocytes and neurons, stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in astrocytes had been shown to cause neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons, and this effect was inhibited by ethanol. The present study sought to confirm these earlier findings in a more complex system, in vitro rat hippocampal slices in culture. Exposure of hippocampal slices to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (1mM for 24h) induced neurite outgrowth in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which was mediated by activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. Specifically, carbachol induced a >4-fold increase in the length of the longest neurite, and a 4-fold increase in the length of minor neurites and in the number of branches. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol (50mM) resulted in significant inhibition of the effects induced by carbachol on all parameters measured. Neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons is dependent on various permissive factors that are produced and released by glial cells. In hippocampal slices carbachol increased the levels of two extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and laminin-1, by 1.6-fold, as measured by Western blot. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol significantly inhibited these increases. Carbachol-induced increases in levels of extracellular matrix proteins were antagonized by a M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, function-blocking fibronectin or laminin-1 antibodies antagonized the effect of carbachol on neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that in hippocampal slices stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors induces neurite outgrowth, which is mediated by fibronectin and laminin-1, two extracellular matrix proteins released by astrocytes. By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol.

  17. Functional subtyping of muscarinic receptors on canine esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lad, R; Donoff, B; Rangachari, P K

    1991-09-01

    Serosal addition of muscarinic agonists elicited rapid changes in electrical parameters across the isolated canine esophageal epithelium set up in vitro. Both carbachol and the M1-selective agonist, McNeil A343 (McN), increased transmucosal potential differences (PDs), decreased transmucosal resistances (R), and increased short-circuit currents (Isc). Carbachol was more potent and more effective than McN. Muscarinic antagonists were used to define the muscarinic receptor involved. The pA2 values obtained with Schild plots were as follows: atropine 9.14, 4-DAMP 8.98, AFDX-116 6.71, and pirenzepine 7.12. Low concentrations of pirenzepine (10(-8) M), produced a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to McN, without inhibiting responses to carbachol. Thus the receptor subtype is clearly not an M2. As in other glandular systems, M3 receptors are present. Whether M1 receptors also exist requires better definition of receptor densities-reserves in this tissue. Carbachol induced net secretion of Na and Cl and converted a predominantly absorptive tissue to a secretory one. PMID:1716057

  18. Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves via Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Proskocil, Becky J.; Bruun, Donald A.; Thompson, Charles M.; Fryer, Allison D.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity. PMID:20479945

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Kühne, Sina; Bocksberger, Simone; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation. PMID:25421240

  20. Muscarinic receptors: evidence for a nonuniform distribution in tracheal smooth muscle and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Basbaum, C.B.; Grillo, M.A.; Widdicombe, J.H.

    1984-02-01

    Muscarinic receptor distribution in smooth muscle, exocrine glands, and epithelium of the ferret trachea was determined using (3H)propylbenzilylcholine mustard ((3H)PrBCM) binding and autoradiography. Specific, atropine-sensitive (3H)PrBCM binding was quantified autoradiographically in the trachealis muscle (approximately 21 binding sites/microns2), surface epithelium (approximately 6 binding sites/microns2), and submucosal glands (approximately 5 binding sites/microns2). Serous and mucous cells in the glands did not differ in receptor density. Binding sites on gland and epithelial cells were associated with basolateral membranes. In the trachealis muscle, a gradient in receptor density was observed, with outer layers of muscle containing 3 to 10 times more receptors per unit area than inner layers. Receptor distribution in both glands and muscle paralleled the distribution of cholinergic axons. However, at the light microscope level, there was no evidence for the presence of receptor ''hot spots'' related to the position of individual axons. The parallelism in the distribution of axons and receptors suggests the possibility of neural control of the genesis and/or maintenance of receptor distribution in these tissues.

  1. Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors and Na+,K+-ATPase in rats.

    PubMed

    Christian, Brandon; McConnaughey, Kenneth; Bethea, Elena; Brantley, Scott; Coffey, Amy; Hammond, Leigha; Harrell, Shelly; Metcalf, Kasee; Muehlenbein, Danielle; Spruill, Willie; Brinson, Leslie; McConnaughey, Mona

    2004-05-01

    This study demonstrated that chronic aspartame consumption in rats can lead to altered T-maze performance and increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor densities in certain brain regions. Control and treated rats were trained in a T-maze to a particular side and then periodically tested to see how well they retained the learned response. Rats that had received aspartame (250 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water for 3 or 4 months showed a significant increase in time to reach the reward in the T-maze, suggesting a possible effect on memory due to the artificial sweetener. Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label muscarinic cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine nonspecific binding in whole-brain preparations, aspartame-treated rats showed a 31% increase in receptor numbers when compared to controls. In aspartame-treated rats, there was a significant increase in muscarinic receptor densities in the frontal cortex, midcortex, posterior cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum of 80%, 60%, 61%, 65%, 66% and 60%, respectively. The midbrain was the only area where preparations from aspartame-treated rats showed a significant increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. It can be concluded from these data that long-term consumption of aspartame can affect T-maze performance in rats and alter receptor densities or enzymes in brain.

  2. Endogenous inhibition of the trigeminally evoked neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Gorini, C; Philbin, K; Bateman, R; Mendelowitz, D

    2010-10-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs.

  3. Distinct primary structures, ligand-binding properties and tissue-specific expression of four human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, E G; Ashkenazi, A; Winslow, J W; Smith, D H; Ramachandran, J; Capon, D J

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis for the diversity in muscarinic cholinergic function, we have isolated the genes encoding the human M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors (mAChR) as well as two previously undiscovered mAChR subtypes, designated HM3 and HM4. The amino acid sequence of each subtype reflects a structure consisting of seven, highly conserved transmembrane segments and a large intracellular region unique to each subtype, which may constitute the ligand-binding and effector-coupling domains respectively. Significant differences in affinity for muscarinic ligands were detected in individual mAChR subtypes produced by transfection of mammalian cells. Each subtype exhibited multiple affinity states for agonists; differences among subtypes in the affinities and proportions of such sites suggest the capacity of mAChR subtypes to interact differentially with the cellular effector-coupling apparatus. Subtype-specific mRNA expression was observed in the heart, pancreas and a neuronal cell line, indicating that the regulation of mAChR gene expression contributes to the differentiation of cholinergic activity. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3443095

  4. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Annual report No. 3, 1 May 85-30 Apr 86

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.

    1986-05-01

    We have compared the characteristics of the recognition sites for 3(H)acetylcholine and 3H(-)nicotine in rat brain and found that the pharmacology, distribution, disulfide bond requirement, and regulation by chronic administration of nicotine and soman are identical. From these studies we conclude that 3Hacetylcholine and 3H(-)nicotine recognize the same recognition site which has the characteristics expected of a nicotinic cholinergic receptor. We have also determined that 3Hacetylcholine of high specific radioactivity (80 Ci/mmol) is an excellent ligand with which to study muscarinic receptors that have high affinity for agonists. These receptors may represent a subtype of muscarinic receptors found in brain, heart, glands, an some smooth muscle. (JS)

  5. Role of dopamine receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blockade in the antiapomorphine action of neuroleptics

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Langel, Yu.L.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors analyze the role of dopamine and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocking components in the antistereotypic action of neuroleptics with different chemical structure. To determine dopamine-blocking activity in vitro, binding of /sup 3/H-spiperone with membranes of the rat striatum was measured. To study the blocking action of the substances on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate with brain membranes was chosen.

  6. Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Wen, Y.F.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rats to pulsed, circularly polarized microwaves (2,450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses at 500 pps, power density 1 mW/cm2, at an averaged, whole-body SAR of 0.6 W/kg) induced biphasic changes in the concentration of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions. These findings, which confirm earlier work in the authors' laboratory, were extended to include pretreatment of rats with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone (1 mg/kg, IP) before each session of exposure. The drug treatment blocked the microwave-induced changes in cholinergic receptors in the brain. These data further support the authors' hypothesis that endogenous opioids play a role in the effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems.

  7. Purification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    André, C; De Backer, J P; Guillet, J C; Vanderheyden, P; Vauquelin, G; Strosberg, A D

    1983-01-01

    Calf forebrain homogenates contain 2.8 pM muscarinic acetylcholine receptors per mg of protein. [3H]Antagonist saturation binding experiments under equilibrium conditions revealed a single class of sites with equilibrium dissociation constants of 0.82 nM for [3H]dexetimide and 0.095 nM for [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate. Displacement binding studies with agonists revealed the presence of low and high affinity sites. Here we describe the solubilization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with digitonin and their purification by affinity chromatography using an affinity gel which consisted of dexetimide coupled to Affi-Gel 10 (i.e., carboxy N-hydroxysuccinimide esters linked via a 1 nm spacer arm to agarose beads). Purified proteins were obtained by specific elution with muscarinic drugs, i.e., the antagonist atropine and the irreversible ligand propylbenzilylcholine mustard. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the radioiodinated purified preparations revealed a major 70-K protein. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6605245

  8. Muscarinic presynaptic modulation in GABAergic pallidal synapses of the rat.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Aceves, José J; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E; Hernández-Flores, Teresa; Hernández-González, Omar; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-02-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is central for basal ganglia processing. It expresses muscarinic cholinergic receptors and receives cholinergic afferents from the pedunculopontine nuclei (PPN) and other regions. The role of these receptors and afferents is unknown. Muscarinic M1-type receptors are expressed by synapses from striatal projection neurons (SPNs). Because axons from SPNs project to the GPe, one hypothesis is that striatopallidal GABAergic terminals may be modulated by M1 receptors. Alternatively, some M1 receptors may be postsynaptic in some pallidal neurons. Evidence of muscarinic modulation in any of these elements would suggest that cholinergic afferents from the PPN, or other sources, could modulate the function of the GPe. In this study, we show this evidence using striatopallidal slice preparations: after field stimulation in the striatum, the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine significantly reduced the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from synapses that exhibited short-term synaptic facilitation. This inhibition was associated with significant increases in paired-pulse facilitation, and quantal content was proportional to IPSC amplitude. These actions were blocked by atropine, pirenzepine, and mamba toxin-7, suggesting that receptors involved were M1. In addition, we found that some pallidal neurons have functional postsynaptic M1 receptors. Moreover, some evoked IPSCs exhibited short-term depression and a different kind of modulation: they were indirectly modulated by muscarine via the activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Thus pallidal synapses presenting distinct forms of short-term plasticity were modulated differently. PMID:25392165

  9. Extrasynaptic Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors on Neuronal Cell Bodies Regulate Presynaptic Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jason P.; Staab, Trisha A.; Wang, Han; Mazzasette, Chiara; Butte, Zara

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a potent neuromodulator in the brain, and its effects on cognition and memory formation are largely performed through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). mAChRs are often preferentially distributed on specialized membrane regions in neurons, but the significance of mAChR localization in modulating neuronal function is not known. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the M1/M3/M5 family of mAChRs, gar-3, is expressed in cholinergic motor neurons, and GAR-3-GFP fusion proteins localize to cell bodies where they are enriched at extrasynaptic regions that are in contact with the basal lamina. The GAR-3 N-terminal extracellular domain is necessary and sufficient for this asymmetric distribution, and mutation of a predicted N-linked glycosylation site within the N-terminus disrupts GAR-3-GFP localization. In transgenic animals expressing GAR-3 variants that are no longer asymmetrically localized, synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions is impaired and there is a reduction in the abundance of the presynaptic protein sphingosine kinase at release sites. Finally, GAR-3 can be activated by endogenously produced ACh released from neurons that do not directly contact cholinergic motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that humoral activation of asymmetrically localized mAChRs by ACh is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which ACh modulates neuronal function. PMID:23986249

  10. Physiological and biochemical studies of newly synthesized muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in embryonic chicken heart

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of either chicken embryos in ovo or cultured embryonic chicken cardiac cells in vitro to the muscarinic agonist carbachol results in a 70-90% decrease in the number of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) expressed in cardiac cells. Block of agonist-receptor interactions in ovo with the antagonist atropine or removal of the agonist in vitro results in a gradual increase in mAChR number, reaching the control level in 14 hr. Measurements of physiological sensitivity of atria or cultured cells show that, even after the complete recovery of receptor number, the sensitivity to agonist is reduced. The sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase is also decreased at this time. Newly synthesized mAChR which appear following affinity alkylation in cultured cells are also poorly coupled to the stimulation of /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux, indicating that decreased physiological sensitivity is not due to an unknown effect of long-term agonist exposure on general cellular function, but rather reflects an intrinsic property of newly synthesized mAChR. This increase in sensitivity is also not blocked by cycloheximide. The increase in sensitivity of the mAChR-mediated responses is due neither to a lack of expression of newly synthesized mAChR on the surface nor to reduced agonist affinity of the mAChR. The diminished sensitivity and subsequent maturation observed in cells containing newly synthesized receptors is due either to a small change in mAChR, or to a change in an as-yet-undefined component of the mAChR transduction system; this alteration represents a novel locus for modulation of cholinergic signals in the heart.

  11. Distribution of cholinergic receptors in the rat and human neocortex.

    PubMed

    Zilles, K; Schröder, H; Schröder, U; Horvath, E; Werner, L; Luiten, P G; Maelicke, A; Strosberg, A D

    1989-01-01

    Autoradiographic labelling of muscarinic (M1, M2, NMS binding sites) and nicotinic receptors shows an inhomogeneous distribution over architectonically identified cortical areas of the rat brain with highest concentrations in the medial prefrontal and frontal areas. Beside this general trend the areal patterns of different receptors are slightly varying. The laminar distribution of these receptors in the rat and human neocortex is characterized by two different patterns, one with highest receptor densities in the supragranular layers (M1 receptors, NMS binding sites), the other with a preferential labelling of layer IV and (with a lower intensity) layer V (M2 and nicotinic receptors). M1 receptors and NMS binding sites are codistributed at the laminar level with each other and with GABAA, D1, 5-HT1 and glutamate receptors; M2 receptors are codistributed only with nicotinic receptors. Immuno-histochemical studies with antibodies against muscarinic and nicotinic receptors demonstrate that these structures occur mainly in pyramidal and spiny stellate cells and to a lesser extent (13%) in a variety of interneurons. The immunoreactivity is visible in the perikaryon, dendrites and postsynaptic membranes. Neurons are found in the human neocortex, which react exclusively with one of the two antibodies, but a fraction of the neurons (about 30%) contains antigenic sites reacting with both antibodies. This is interpreted as colocalization of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in some cortical neurons.

  12. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  13. Activation Biosensor for G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A FRET-Based m1 Muscarinic Activation Sensor That Regulates Gq

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seungwoo; Ross, Elliott M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and validation of a fluorescence sensor to measure activation by agonist of the m1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor, a prototypical class I Gq-coupled receptor. The sensor uses an established general design in which Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from a circularly permuted CFP mutant to FlAsH, a selectively reactive fluorescein, is decreased 15–20% upon binding of a full agonist. Notably, the sensor displays essentially wild-type capacity to catalyze activation of Gαq, and the purified and reconstituted sensor displays appropriate regulation of affinity for agonists by Gq. We describe the strategies used to increase the agonist-driven change in FRET while simultaneously maintaining regulatory interactions with Gαq, in the context of the known structures of Class I G protein-coupled receptors. The approach should be generally applicable to other Class I receptors which include numerous important drug targets. PMID:23029161

  14. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies. PMID:26795565

  15. The Role of Hippocampal NMDA Receptors in Long-Term Emotional Responses following Muscarinic Receptor Activation.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Alexandre A; Costa, Ana Paula R; Bicca, Maíra A; Matheus, Filipe C; Lach, Gilliard; Spiga, Francesca; Lightman, Stafford L; Walz, Roger; Collingridge, Graham L; Bortolotto, Zuner A; de Lima, Thereza C M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates the influence of the cholinergic system on emotional processing. Previous findings provided new insights into the underlying mechanisms of long-term anxiety, showing that rats injected with a single systemic dose of pilocarpine--a muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist--displayed persistent anxiogenic-like responses when evaluated in different behavioral tests and time-points (24 h up to 3 months later). Herein, we investigated whether the pilocarpine-induced long-term anxiogenesis modulates the HPA axis function and the putative involvement of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) following mAChRs activation. Accordingly, adult male Wistar rats presented anxiogenic-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) after 24 h or 1 month of pilocarpine injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). In these animals, mAChR activation disrupted HPA axis function inducing a long-term increase of corticosterone release associated with a reduced expression of hippocampal GRs, as well as consistently decreased NMDAR subunits expression. Furthermore, in another group of rats injected with memantine--an NMDARs antagonist (4 mg/kg, i.p.)--prior to pilocarpine, we found inhibition of anxiogenic-like behaviors in the EPM but no further alterations in the pilocarpine-induced NMDARs downregulation. Our data provide evidence that behavioral anxiogenesis induced by mAChR activation effectively yields short- and long-term alterations in hippocampal NMDARs expression associated with impairment of hippocampal inhibitory regulation of HPA axis activity. This is a novel mechanism associated with anxiety-like responses in rats, which comprise a putative target to future translational studies.

  16. Cholinergic receptor blockade by scopolamine and mecamylamine exacerbates global cerebral ischemia induced memory dysfunction in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Ray, R S; Rai, S; Katyal, A

    2014-12-01

    Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCI/R) injury encompasses complex pathophysiological sequalae, inducing loss of hippocampal neurons and behavioural deficits. Progressive neuronal death and memory dysfunctions culminate from several different mechanisms like oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and cholinergic hypofunction. Experimental evidences point to the beneficial effects of cholinomimetic agents such as rivastigmine and galantamine in improving memory outcomes following GCI/R injury. However, the direct implications of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor blockade during global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury have not been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the relative involvement of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in spatial/associative memory functions and neuronal damage during global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The outcomes of present study support the idea that preservation of both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor functions is essential to alleviate hippocampal neuronal death in CA1 region following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:25168578

  17. The muscarinic receptor of chick embryo cells: correlation between ligand binding and calcium mobilization

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    In this report we characterize muscarinic cholinergic receptor on embryonic cells. We established dose-response curves by fluorometric measurement of Ca2+ mobilization in cell suspensions of whole chick embryos stage 23/24. Ca2+ mobilization was quantitated by standardization of chlorotetracycline (CTC) fluorescence changes after stimulation with muscarinic agonists. We determined ED50 values for the agonists acetylcholine and carbachol as 3.4 X 10(-6) and 2.7 X 10(-5) M, respectively. Pilocarpine and oxotremorine were found to act as reversible competitive antagonists with inhibition constants (Kl) of 5.0 X 10(-6) and 1.4 X 10(-6) M, respectively. Bethanechol, which induced only 23% of the maximal effect obtained by acetylcholine, was a partial agonist with an ED50 of 4.8 X 10(-4) M. Its antagonistic component is expressed by an inhibition constant of 1.9 X 10(-4) M. In parallel, binding studies were performed in a competition assay with [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate. For the agonists acetylcholine and carbachol, binding parameters were best fitted by a "two binding-sites model." Comparison with dose-response curves indicated that Ca2+ mobilization was triggered via the high-affinity binding site. The inhibition constants of antagonists derived from the shift of dose- response curves corresponded to the fitted KD values of the binding studies when a "one binding-site model" was applied. Combination of dose-response and binding data showed close proportionality between receptor occupancy and calcium mobilization. No spare receptors were present. PMID:2858487

  18. Differential effects of muscarinic receptor blockade in prelimbic cortex on acquisition and memory formation of an odor-reward task

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Márquez, Anna; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Boix-Trelis, Núria; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    The present experiments determined the consequences of blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors of the prelimbic (PL) cortex in the acquisition and retention of an odor-reward associative task. Rats underwent a training test (five trials) and a 24-h retention test (two retention trials and two relearning trials). In the first experiment, rats were bilaterally infused with scopolamine (20 or 5 μg/site) prior to training. Although scopolamine rats showed acquisition equivalent to PBS-injected controls, they exhibited weakened performance in the 24-h retention test measured by number of errors. In the second experiment, rats were injected with scopolamine (20 μg/site) immediately or 1 h after training and tested 24 h later. Scopolamine rats injected immediately showed severe amnesia detected in two performance measures (errors and latencies), demonstrating deficits in retention and relearning, whereas those injected 1 h later showed good 24-h test performance, similar to controls. These results suggest that muscarinic transmission in the PL cortex is essential for early memory formation, but not for acquisition, of a rapidly learned odor discrimination task. Findings corroborate the role of acetylcholine in consolidation processes and the participation of muscarinic receptors in olfactory associative tasks. PMID:17848501

  19. Decreased binding capacity (Bmax) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in fibroblasts from boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jessica; Landgren, Magnus; Fernell, Elisabeth; Lewander, Tommy; Venizelos, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    Monoaminergic dysregulation is implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate and amphetamines are the most frequently prescribed pharmacological agents for treating ADHD. However, it has recently been proposed that the core symptoms of the disorder might be due to an imbalance between monoaminergic and cholinergic systems. In this study, we used fibroblast cell homogenates from boys with and without ADHD as an extraneural cell model to examine the cholinergic receptor density, that is, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). We found that the binding capacity (Bmax) of [³H] Quinuclidinyl benzilate (³H-QNB) to mAChRs was decreased by almost 50 % in the children with ADHD (mean = 30.6 fmol/mg protein, SD = 25.6) in comparison with controls [mean = 63.1 fmol/mg protein, SD = 20.5, p ≤ 0.01 (Student's unpaired t test)]. The decreased Bmax indicates a reduced cholinergic receptor density, which might constitute a biomarker for ADHD. However, these preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger ADHD and comparison cohorts.

  20. Allosteric interactions of three muscarine antagonists at bovine tracheal smooth muscle and cardiac M2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Meurs, H; Zaagsma, J

    1989-03-01

    The kinetics of [3H]dexetimide dissociation from muscarine receptors in bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes were studied in the absence and presence of three muscarine antagonists. It was found that [3H]dexetimide dissociation from cardiac muscarine receptors was monophasic and very fast (half life less than 1 min) and was slowed by the cardioselective muscarine antagonists, gallamine, methoctramine and AF-DX 116, concentration dependently. [3H]Dexetimide dissociation from tracheal muscarine receptors was biphasic, with a fast phase (half-life less than 1 min) followed after 4-5 min by a slow phase (half-life = 38.5 min). The fast component, but not the slow component, was slowed by the muscarine antagonists with concentration dependencies very similar to those found in the heart. We conclude from these data that the major population of tracheal smooth muscle muscarine receptors resembles the cardiac M2 type not only with respect to equilibrium binding affinities but also with respect to the secondary, allosteric binding site on the muscarine receptor. The results also imply that the cardiac receptor subtype is much more sensitive to allosteric modulation than the glandular/smooth muscle receptor subtype. PMID:2714370

  1. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  2. Characterization and agonist regulation of muscarinic ([3H]N-methyl scopolamine) receptors in isolated ventricular myocytes from rat.

    PubMed

    Horackova, M; Robinson, B; Wilkinson, M

    1990-11-01

    Cell surface muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been characterized and quantified for the first time, in intact, isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The cells were previously established as functionally fully compatible with cellular responses in intact cardiac tissue. The specific binding of the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]-NMS, (N-methyl-[3H]-scopolamine methylchloride) was found to be stereo-specific, saturable, reversible and of high affinity. Binding of [3H]-NMS demonstrated appropriate drug specificity and was positively correlated with increasing cell concentrations. Bmax for [3H]-NMS binding to ventricular myocytes, enzymatically dissociated from adult male rats, was 15.8 +/- 1.03 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells (at 4 degrees C) and KD was 0.27 +/- 0.05 nM (n = 14). Binding assays performed at a higher incubation temperature (30 degrees C) yielded a higher Bmax value (22.1 +/- 1.6 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells; n = 11; P less than 0.005 vs. Bmax at 4 degrees C) but an unchanged KD (0.23 +/- 0.06 nM). Pretreatment of myocytes with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (1 mM) at 37 degrees C resulted in a reduction (down-regulation) in specific binding of the hydrophilic ligand [3H]-NMS. The magnitude of this reduction and its rate of recovery were dependent on the time of the exposure to carbachol. Exposures of 30-60 min elicited down-regulated by 35% (Bmax = 14.29 +/- 1.66 changed to 9.5 +/- 1.79 fmol/25 x 10(3) cells, without change in KD P less than 0.01, n = 4). The down-regulation of the muscarinic receptors by carbachol was insensitive to application of bacitracin - an inhibitor of endocytosis. On the other hand preincubation with 10(-9)M atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, hindered the agonist-induced receptor "loss" from the cell surface confirming the muscarinic nature of these receptors. We conclude that our preparation of intact, isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes is ideally suited for the study of cell surface muscarinic receptor regulation under physiological and

  3. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Chen, F F; Sung, T C; Hsu, H F; Wu, D

    1993-09-01

    [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methylchloride ([3H]NMS) was used to characterize the muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in the intact cardiomyocytes. The specific binding of [3H]NMS was proportional to cell concentration, saturable with respect to [3H]NMS concentration, and time dependent. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms showed that [3H]NMS bound to the freshly isolated and cultured cardiomyocytes with dissociation constants of 275 +/- 64 and 207 +/- 20 pM as well as maximum receptor densities of 0.13 +/- 0.09 and 5.36 +/- 0.20 fmol/10(5) cells, respectively. Heterogeneity of mAChRs was demonstrated by competitive binding experiments against [3H]NMS with M2 and M3 antagonists. These receptors (80%) exhibited high affinities for 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]-acetyl)-5,11-dihydro- 6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX-116) and methoctramine similar to those of M2 subtype. The low-affinity M2 antagonist binding constants were close to those reported for M3 receptors and possessed high affinity for 4-diphenylacetoxyl-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol. On the basis of biochemical studies, AF-DX-116 blocked adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) inhibition with high affinity (pKB 7.4), while it antagonized inositol phosphate formation with low affinity (pKB 6.5). 4-DAMP possessed high affinity in blocking inositol phosphate formation (pKB 9.0) and low affinity for antagonism of cAMP inhibition (pKB 7.7). Although no other muscarinic receptor mRNA has been detected in these cells, these data suggest the presence of a second population of mAChRs, which may not be identical to the classical cardiac "M2" receptors.

  4. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Chen, F F; Sung, T C; Hsu, H F; Wu, D

    1993-09-01

    [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methylchloride ([3H]NMS) was used to characterize the muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) in the intact cardiomyocytes. The specific binding of [3H]NMS was proportional to cell concentration, saturable with respect to [3H]NMS concentration, and time dependent. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms showed that [3H]NMS bound to the freshly isolated and cultured cardiomyocytes with dissociation constants of 275 +/- 64 and 207 +/- 20 pM as well as maximum receptor densities of 0.13 +/- 0.09 and 5.36 +/- 0.20 fmol/10(5) cells, respectively. Heterogeneity of mAChRs was demonstrated by competitive binding experiments against [3H]NMS with M2 and M3 antagonists. These receptors (80%) exhibited high affinities for 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]-acetyl)-5,11-dihydro- 6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX-116) and methoctramine similar to those of M2 subtype. The low-affinity M2 antagonist binding constants were close to those reported for M3 receptors and possessed high affinity for 4-diphenylacetoxyl-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol. On the basis of biochemical studies, AF-DX-116 blocked adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) inhibition with high affinity (pKB 7.4), while it antagonized inositol phosphate formation with low affinity (pKB 6.5). 4-DAMP possessed high affinity in blocking inositol phosphate formation (pKB 9.0) and low affinity for antagonism of cAMP inhibition (pKB 7.7). Although no other muscarinic receptor mRNA has been detected in these cells, these data suggest the presence of a second population of mAChRs, which may not be identical to the classical cardiac "M2" receptors. PMID:8214023

  5. M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors regulate long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell synapses in an input-specific fashion

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Wess, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors have long been known as crucial players in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but our understanding of the cellular underpinnings and the receptor subtypes involved lags well behind. This holds in particular for the hippocampal CA3 region, where the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity depend on the type of afferent input. Williams and Johnston (Williams S, Johnston D. Science 242: 84–87, 1988; Williams S, Johnston D. J Neurophysiol 64: 1089–1097, 1990) demonstrated muscarinic depression of mossy fiber (MF) long-term potentiation (LTP) through a presynaptic site of action and Maeda et al. (Maeda T, Kaneko S, Satoh M. Brain Res 619: 324–330, 1993) proposed a bidirectional modulation of MF LTP by muscarinic receptor subtypes. Since then, this issue, as well as muscarinic regulation of plasticity at associational/commissural (A/C) fiber-CA3 synapses has remained largely neglected, not least because of the lack of highly selective ligands for the different muscarinic receptor subtypes. In the present study, we performed field potential and whole cell recordings from the hippocampal CA3 region of M2 receptor knockout mice to determine the role of M2 receptors in short-term and long-term plasticity at A/C and MF inputs to CA3 pyramidal cells. At the A/C synapse, M2 receptors promoted short-term facilitation and LTP. Unexpectedly, M2 receptors mediated the opposite effect on LTP at the MF synapse, which was significantly reduced, most likely involving a depressant effect of M2 receptors on adenylyl cyclase activity in MF terminals. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic projections recruit M2 receptors to redistribute the gain of LTP in CA3 pyramidal cells in an input-specific manner. PMID:22490561

  6. In vivo visualization of central muscarinic receptors using [11C]quinuclidinyl benzilate and positron emission tomography in baboons.

    PubMed

    Varastet, M; Brouillet, E; Chavoix, C; Prenant, C; Crouzel, C; Stulzaft, O; Bottlaender, M; Cayla, J; Mazière, B; Mazière, M

    1992-03-24

    The muscarinic antagonist, quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB), labeled with carbon 11 was used as a radioligand to visualize in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) the central muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in baboons (Papio papio). The binding characteristics of [11C]QNB showed its specific binding to central mAChR. [11C]QNB brain uptake was high in cerebral cortex and striatum, areas that are rich in mAChR, whereas it decreased rapidly in cerebellum, evidencing non-specific binding in this structure that is almost devoid of mAChR. These results are consistent with the known cerebral distribution of mAChR in primates. [11C]QNB specific cerebral binding was enhanced by pretreatment with methyl-QNB, a peripherally acting muscarinic antagonist. Specifically labeled binding sites alone were blocked by prior administration of dexetimide, a muscarinic antagonist. Specific radioactivity was driven out from mAChR-rich regions by atropine and dexetimide, drugs with high affinity for mAChR. This competition was stereospecific since only dexetimide, the pharmacologically active isomer of benzetimide, was able to compete with the radioligand on its binding sites. A relationship between the occupancy of [11C]QNB-labeled receptors by atropine or dexetimide and the concomitant induction of a pharmacological effect was also detected by simultaneous PET scanning and electroencephalographic recording. Since mAChR form an important part of choline receptors in the central nervous system, [11C]QNB appears to be a suitable radiotracer to monitor cerebral physiological or pathological phenomena linked to the cholinergic system in living subjects. PMID:1521561

  7. Ethanol inhibits neuritogenesis induced by astrocyte muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, Marina; Moore, Nadia H; Giordano, Gennaro; VanDeMark, Kathryn L; Costa, Lucio G

    2010-09-01

    In utero alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that ethanol alters neuronal development. We have recently shown that stimulation of M(3) muscarinic receptors in astrocytes increases the synthesis and release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, causing neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. As M(3) muscarinic receptor signaling in astroglial cells is strongly inhibited by ethanol, we hypothesized that ethanol may also inhibit neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons induced by carbachol-stimulated astrocytes. In the present study, we report that the effect of carbachol-stimulated astrocytes on hippocampal neuron neurite outgrowth was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner (25-100 mM) by ethanol. This effect was because of the inhibition of the release of fibronectin, laminin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Similar effects on neuritogenesis and on the release of astrocyte extracellular proteins were observed after the incubation of astrocytes with carbachol in the presence of 1-butanol, another short-chain alcohol, which like ethanol is a competitive substrate for phospholipase D, but not by tert-butanol, its analog that is not a substrate for this enzyme. This study identifies a potential novel mechanism involved in the developmental effects of ethanol mediated by the interaction of ethanol with cell signaling in astrocytes, leading to an impairment in neuron-astrocyte communication.

  8. Endogenous Inhibition of the Trigeminally Evoked Neurotransmission to Cardiac Vagal Neurons by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, C.; Philbin, K.; Bateman, R.

    2010-01-01

    Stimulation of the nasal mucosa by airborne irritants or water evokes a pronounced bradycardia accompanied by peripheral vasoconstriction and apnea. The dive response, which includes the trigeminocardiac reflex, is among the most powerful autonomic responses. These responses slow the heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen consumption. Although normally cardioprotective, exaggeration of this reflex can be detrimental and has been implicated in cardiorespiratory diseases, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An essential component of the diving response and trigeminocardiac reflex is activation of the parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the nucleus ambiguus that control heart rate. This study examined the involvement of cholinergic receptors in trigeminally evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in CVNs in an in vitro preparation from rats. CVNs were identified using a retrograde tracer injected into the fat pads at the base of the heart. Application of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs on stimulation of trigeminal fibers. Whereas nicotine did not have any effect on the glutamatergic responses, the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonist bethanechol significantly decreased the excitatory neurotransmission. Atropine, an mAChR antagonist, facilitated these responses indicating this trigeminally evoked brain stem pathway in vitro is endogenously inhibited by mAChRs. Tropicamide, an m4 mAChR antagonist, prevented the inhibitory action of the muscarinic agonist bethanechol. These results indicate that the glutamatergic synaptic neurotransmission in the trigeminally evoked pathway to CVNs is endogenously inhibited in vitro by m4 mAChRs. PMID:20719927

  9. Muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity in the superior salivatory nucleus neurons innervating the salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirotaka; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Masako; Kobashi, Motoi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2011-07-15

    The superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurons to the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Cevimeline, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, stimulates the salivary glands and is presently used as sialogogue in the treatment of dry mouth. Since cevimeline passes through the blood-brain barrier, it is also able to act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system. Our preliminary experiment using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique has shown that cevimeline excites SSN neurons in rat brain slices, suggesting that SSN neurons have muscarinic acetylcholine receptors; however, it is unclear which subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors exist in SSN neurons. In the present study, we investigated immunohistochemically muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, M1 receptor (M1R), M2R, M3R, M4R, and M5R in SSN neurons. SSN neurons innervating the salivary glands, retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer from the chorda-lingual nerve, mostly expressed M3R immunoreactivity (-ir) (92.3%) but not M1R-ir. About half of such SSN neurons also showed M2R- (40.1%), M4R- (54.0%) and M5R-ir (46.0%); therefore, it is probable that SSN neurons co-express M3R-ir with at least two of the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. This is the first report to show that SSN neurons contain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

  10. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  11. Radioligand binding to muscarinic receptors of bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brunner, F; Kukovetz, W R

    1991-02-01

    1. Muscarinic receptors on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta were characterized by binding assays in which (-)-[3H]-N-methyl quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-NMeQNB) was used as radioligand. 2. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to crude membranes of freshly isolated endothelial cells was atropine-displaceable and of high affinity (KD = 0.48 nM) to a single class of sites (maximum binding capacity: 14 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein). Stereospecificity of the binding sites was demonstrated in experiments in which [3H]-NMeQNB binding was inhibited by dexetimide in the nanomolar range (KI = 0.63 nM) and by levetimide, its stereoisomer in the micromolar range (KI = 3.2 microM) (selectivity factor: approximately 5000). 3. Drug competition curves indicated a single class of binding sites for antagonists and the following apparent affinities (KI, nM): methyl atropine: 1.1: 4-diphenylacetoxy N-methyl piperidine methyl bromide (4-DAMP): 3.4; pirenzepine: 16; 11-[2-diethylamino-methyl)-1-piperidinyl- acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)1,4-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116); 2.500. Competition of acetylcholine with [3H]-NMeQNB was best described by two affinity sites (or states) (KH = 0.82 microM, KL = 1.6 microM). In the presence of guanylimido diphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (100 microM), acetylcholine affinity (IC50) was slightly, but significantly reduced (factor approximately 4). 4. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to freshly harvested intact cells was also atropine-displaceable, stereospecific (selectivity factor: approximately 3500) and of high affinity (KD = 0.35 nM). The maximum binding capacity (9 +/- 2 fmol mg-1 total cell protein) was comparable to that of membranes and corresponded to approximately 900 binding sites per endothelial cell. Binding to enzymatically harvested and cultured endothelial cells, or membranes derived therefrom, showed no atropine-displaceable binding. 5. The results suggest that (1) bovine aortic endothelial cells contain muscarinic binding sites with all necessary

  12. Acetylcholine as a mitogen: muscarinic receptor-mediated proliferation of rat astrocytes and human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guizzetti, M; Costa, P; Peters, J; Costa, L G

    1996-02-22

    The mitogenic effect of muscarinic receptor agonists in glial cells has been characterized in rat cortical astrocytes and human 132 1N1 astrocytoma cells. The muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in proliferation, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. The mitogenic effect was mimicked by several muscarinic, but not nicotinic receptor agonists, and was blocked by muscarinic receptor antagonists. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated the presence of m2, m3 and to a lesser degree, m5 muscarinic receptor mRNA in both astrocytes and astrocytoma cells. Proliferation experiments with subtype-specific muscarinic receptor antagonists suggest that carbachol-induced proliferation is due to activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) also stimulated glial cell proliferation. Down-regulation of protein kinase C, or the protein kinase C antagonist 1,5-(isoquinolynsulfanyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H7) blocked proliferation induced by either TPA or carbachol. Of other neurotransmitters tested, histamine caused glial cell proliferation, norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were ineffective, while serotonin and glutamate inhibited basal or serum-stimulated proliferation. PMID:8666059

  13. In vitro pharmacological properties of 4-bromodexetimide for muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Strijckmans, V; Coulon, C; Kassiou, M; Loc'h, C; Mazière, B

    1996-01-01

    The decrease of m-AChR density observed in neurodegenerative disorders has generated considerable interest in non-invasive mapping of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m-AChR) in the central nervous system. The aim of our study was to evaluate the selectivity of 4-bromodexetimide for the M1, M2, M3 and M4 m-AChR subtypes using in vitro binding analysis to determine the potential use of the bromine-76 labelled 4-bromodexetimide in the investigation of m-AChR subtypes in human brain with Positron Emission Tomography. Subtype selectivity of 4-bromodexetimide was determined in competition studies against tritiated subtype selective ligands using various rat or rabbit structure homogenates reflecting a single binding site and in optimal saturation and low non specific binding conditions. These conditions were reached for every subtype studied by analyzing the data from the saturation experiments of the tritiated ligands. 4-bromodexetimide displayed nanomolar affinities for the four m-AChR subtypes and a preferential selectivity for the M1 and M4 subtypes. The saturation analysis of [76Br]4-bromodexetimide, performed with rat cortex membranes showed high affinity for m-AChR receptors (Kd = 1.8 nM). As in vivo studies of [76Br]4-bromodexetimide showed preferential localization in the cortex and the striatum which are M1 and M4 rich structures and since it binds preferentially to the M1 and M4 subtypes, this radiotracer can still allow a combined subtype specific measurement of these muscarinic receptors. PMID:8649190

  14. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Siobhan H; Pasqui, Francesca; Colvin, Ellen M; Sanger, Helen; Mogg, Adrian J; Felder, Christian C; Broad, Lisa M; Fitzjohn, Steve M; Isaac, John T R; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors (M1Rs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and their inhibition or ablation disrupts the encoding of spatial memory. It has been hypothesized that the principal mechanism by which M1Rs influence spatial memory is by the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here, we use a combination of recently developed, well characterized, selective M1R agonists and M1R knock-out mice to define the roles of M1Rs in the regulation of hippocampal neuronal and synaptic function. We confirm that M1R activation increases input resistance and depolarizes hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and show that this profoundly increases excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling. Consistent with a critical role for M1Rs in synaptic plasticity, we now show that M1R activation produces a robust potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal neurons that has all the hallmarks of long-term potentiation (LTP): The potentiation requires NMDA receptor activity and bi-directionally occludes with synaptically induced LTP. Thus, we describe synergistic mechanisms by which acetylcholine acting through M1Rs excites CA1 pyramidal neurons and induces LTP, to profoundly increase activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These features are predicted to make a major contribution to the pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic transmission in rodents and humans. PMID:26472558

  15. Stress, chemical defense agents, and cholinergic receptors. Midterm report, 1 November 1987-31 July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J.D.

    1989-11-30

    This project is assessing the affects of exposure to a chemical defense agent on anxiety and stress, by using rat models of anxiety (conditioned emotional response (CER); conditioned suppression) and unconditioned non-specific stres (exposure to footshock). The specific experiments determined the plasticity of muscarinic cholinergic binding sites in the central nervous system. The neuroanatomical locus and neuropharmacological profile of changes in binding sites were assessed in brain areas enriched in cholinergic markers. Acetylcholine turnover was measured to determine if the receptor response is compensatory or independent. The effects of acute exposure to doses of a chemical defense agent (soman--XGD) on lethality and behaviors were examined. The experiments involved training and conditioning adult rats to CER using standard operant/respondent techniques. The binding of radiolabelled ligand was studied in vitro using brain membranes and tissue sections (autoradiography). The major findings are that CER produces increases in acetylcholine turnover in brain areas involved in anxiety, and that primarily post-synaptic M1 receptors compensatorly decrease in response. These neurochemical phenomena are directly correlated with several behaviors, including onset and extinction of CER and non-specific stress. Followup experiments have been designed to test the interaction of CER, XGD and neurochemistry.

  16. Muscarinic M2 receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle: discrepancies between binding and function.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Elzinga, C R; Van Amsterdam, R G; De Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1988-08-01

    Previous work showing that AF-DX 116, a cardioselective muscarinic antagonist in functional experiments, does not discriminate between muscarinic receptors in bovine cardiac and tracheal membranes has been extended. In addition to AF-DX 116 we used the muscarinic antagonists, atropine, pirenzepine, 4-DAMP methobromide, gallamine, hexahydrosiladifenidol and methoctramine, in radioligand binding experiments on bovine cardiac left ventricular and tracheal smooth muscle membranes. The functional antagonism of the methacholine-induced contraction of bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was also evaluated. An excellent correlation was found for all compounds between the binding affinities for muscarinic receptors in cardiac and tracheal smooth muscle membranes; moreover, the affinities found in cardiac membranes correspond with the pA2 values reported for atrial preparations of rat and guinea pig. However, significant and occasionally marked discrepancies were found between binding and functional affinities of these muscarinic antagonists on bovine tracheal smooth muscle. PMID:3215279

  17. Disparate cholinergic currents in rat principal trigeminal sensory nucleus neurons mediated by M1 and M2 receptors: a possible mechanism for selective gating of afferent sensory neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Soja, Peter J; Kristensen, Morten P

    2006-06-01

    Neurons situated in the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (PSTN) convey orofacial sensory inputs to thalamic relay regions and higher brain centres, and the excitability of these ascending tract cells is modulated across sleep/wakefulness states and during pain conditions. Moreover, acetylcholine release changes profoundly across sleep/wakefulness states and ascending sensory neurotransmission is altered by cholinergic agonists. An intriguing possibility is, therefore, that cholinergic mechanisms mediate such state-dependent modulation of PSTN tract neurons. We tested the hypotheses that cholinergic agonists can modulate PSTN cell excitability and that such effects are mediated by muscarinic receptor subtypes, using patch-clamp methods in rat and mouse. In all examined cells, carbachol elicited an electrophysiological response that was independent of action potential generation as it persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Responses were of three types: depolarization, hyperpolarization or a biphasic response consisting of hyperpolarization followed by depolarization. In voltage-clamp mode, carbachol evoked corresponding inward, outward or biphasic currents. Moreover, immunostaining for the vesicle-associated choline transporter showed cholinergic innervation of the PSTN. Using muscarinic receptor antagonists, we found that carbachol-elicited PSTN neuron hyperpolarization was mediated by M2 receptors and depolarization, in large part, by M1 receptors. These data suggest that acetylcholine acting on M1 and M2 receptors may contribute to selective excitability enhancement or depression in individual, rostrally projecting sensory neurons. Such selective gating effects via cholinergic input may play a functional role in modulation of ascending sensory transmission, including across behavioral states typified by distinct cholinergic tone, e.g. sleep/wakefulness arousal levels or neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:16820015

  18. Experiment K-6-18. Study of muscarinic and gaba (benzodiazepine) receptors in the sensory-motor cortex, hippcampus and spinal code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N.; Damelio, F.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    Frontal lobe samples of rat brains flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were processed for the study of muscarinic (cholinergic) and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors and for immunocytochemical localization of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although radioactive labeling of both muscarinic cholinergic and GABA (benzodiazepine) receptors proved to be successful with the techniques employed, distinct receptor localization of individual laminae of the frontal neocortex was not possible since the sampling of the area was different in the various groups of animals. In spite of efforts made for proper orientation and regional identification of laminae, it was found that a densitometric (quantitation of autoradiograms) analysis of the tissue did not contribute to the final interpretation of the effects of weightlessness on these receptors. As to the immunocytochemical studies the use of both markers, GFAP and GABA antiserum, confirmed the suitability of the techniques for use in frozen material. However, similar problems to those encountered in the receptor studies prevented an adequate interpretation of the effects of micro-G exposure on the localization and distribution of GABA and GFAP. This study did, however, confirm the feasibility of investigating neurotransmitters and their receptors in future space flight experiments.

  19. Blockade of muscarinic receptors impairs the retrieval of well-trained memory

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Shogo; Suematsu, Naofumi; Shimegi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to play an important role in memory functions, and its deficit has been proposed to cause the cognitive decline associated with advanced age and Alzheimer's disease (the cholinergic hypothesis). Although many studies have tested the cholinergic hypothesis for recently acquired memory, only a few have investigated the role of ACh in the retrieval process of well-trained cognitive memory, which describes the memory established from repetition and daily routine. To examine this point, we trained rats to perform a two-alternative forced-choice visual detection task. Each trial was started by having the rats pull upward a central-lever, which triggered the presentation of a visual stimulus to the right or left side of the display monitor, and then pulling upward a stimulus-relevant choice-lever located on both sides. Rats learned the task within 10 days, and the task training was continued for a month. Task performance was measured with or without systemic administration of a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) antagonist, scopolamine (SCOP), prior to the test. After 30 min of SCOP administration, rats stopped manipulating any lever even though they explored the lever and surrounding environment, suggesting a loss of the task-related associative memory. Three hours later, rats were recovered to complete the trial, but the rats selected the levers irrespective of the visual stimulus, suggesting they remembered a series of lever-manipulations in association with a reward, but not association between the reward and visual stimulation. Furthermore, an m1-AChR, but not nicotinic AChR antagonist caused a similar deficit in the task execution. SCOP neither interfered with locomotor activity nor drinking behavior, while it influenced anxiety. These results suggest that the activation of mAChRs at basal ACh levels is essential for the recall of well-trained cognitive memory. PMID:24782760

  20. Urinary Retention, Incontinence, and Dysregulation of Muscarinic Receptors in Male Mice Lacking Mras

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Wang, Bin; Yung, Andrew C.; Wang, Yanni; Kozlowski, Piotr; van Breemen, Cornelis; Schrader, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that male, but not female mice lacking expression of the GTPase M-Ras developed urinary retention with distention of the bladder that exacerbated with age but occurred in the absence of obvious anatomical outlet obstruction. There were changes in detrusor morphology in Mras-/- males: Smooth muscle tissue, which exhibited a compact organization in WT mice, appeared disorganized and became increasingly ‘layered’ with age in Mras-/- males, but was not fibrotic. Bladder tissue near the apex of bladders of Mras-/- males exhibited hypercontractility in response to the cholinergic agonist carbachol in in vitro, while responses in Mras-/- females were normal. In addition, spontaneous phasic contractions of detrusors from Mras-/- males were increased, and Mras-/- males exhibited urinary incontinence. We found that expression of the muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors that mediate the cholinergic contractile stimuli of the detrusor muscle was dysregulated in both Mras-/- males and females, although only males exhibited a urinary phenotype. Elevated expression of M2R in young males lacking M-Ras and failure to upregulate M3R with age resulted in significantly lower ratios of M3R/M2R expression that correlated with the bladder abnormalities. Our data suggests that M-Ras and M3R are functionally linked and that M-Ras is an important regulator of male bladder control in mice. Our observations also support the notion that bladder control is sexually dimorphic and is regulated through mechanisms that are largely independent of acetylcholine signaling in female mice. PMID:26516777

  1. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  2. Cholinergic Targets in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Spindel, Eliot R

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancers express an autocrine cholinergic loop in which secreted acetylcholine can stimulate tumor growth through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Because activation of mAChR and nAChR stimulates growth; tumor growth can be stimulated by both locally synthesized acetylcholine as well as acetylcholine from distal sources and from nicotine in the high percentage of lung cancer patients who are smokers. The stimulation of lung cancer growth by cholinergic agonists offers many potential new targets for lung cancer therapy. Cholinergic signaling can be targeted at the level of choline transport; acetylcholine synthesis, secretion and degradation; and nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In addition, the newly describe family of ly-6 allosteric modulators of nicotinic signaling such as lynx1 and lynx2 offers yet another new approach to novel lung cancer therapeutics. Each of these targets has their potential advantages and disadvantages for the development of new lung cancer therapies which are discussed in this review. PMID:26818857

  3. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptors in lamb isolated coronary resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, U.; Prieto, D.; Rivera, L.; Hernández, M.; Mulvany, M. J.; García-Sacristán, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. In vitro experiments in a microvascular myograph were designed to characterize postjunctional muscarinic receptors producing contraction both in the presence and absence of the endothelium in coronary resistance arteries (normalized diameter of 150-450 microns), isolated from the left ventricle of hearts from 3-6 month old lambs. Preferential muscarinic receptor antagonists were used to determine the receptor subtype: pirenzepine (M1 receptor), AFDX 116 (M2 receptor), 4-DAMP and pFHHSiD (M3 receptor). 2. The rank order of potency for muscarinic agonist-induced increases in tension in endothelium-intact preparations was oxotremorine-M = methacholine = acetylcholine (ACh) > carbachol. Removal of the endothelium increased the potency of ACh, but this procedure did not change either the sensitivity or maximal response to carbachol. 3. The contractile response to ACh was reproducible. Incubation with 3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-6) M pirenzepine induced non-parallel rightward shifts and depressed the maximum of the concentration-response curve to ACh in endothelium-intact arteries. The slope by Schild analysis was 2.9 +/- 0.8 (P < 0.05, n = 7). Atropine, AFDX 116, 4-DAMP and pFHHSiD produced parallel rightward shifts of the curves to ACh and the slopes of the Schild plots were not significantly different from unity. The pKB values for the antagonists from plots constrained to unity in endothelium-intact segments were: atropine (9.4), 4-DAMP (9.0), pFHHSiD (7.9) and AFDX 116 (6.2). 4. In endothelium-denuded arteries, pirenzepine, AFDX 116 and pFHHSiD caused concentration-dependent, parallel rightward displacements of the concentration-response curves to ACh and the slopes of the Schild plots were not significantly different from unity. The plots constrained to a slope of unity gave the following pKB values: pFHHSiD (8.7), pirenzepine (7.5) and AFDX 116 (6.2). 5. In the presence of the endothelium, low concentrations of pirenzepine (10(-9)-10(-7) M) produced leftward shifts of

  4. Autoradiographic analysis of muscarinic receptors in rat nasal glands.

    PubMed

    Van Megen, Y J; Teunissen, M J; Klaassen, A B; Rodrigues de Miranda, J F

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for the biochemical and autoradiographic demonstration of low muscarinic receptor densities in peripheral tissue. Histological criteria point clearly to the necessity for fixation to preserve tissue quality. [3H]l-Quinuclidinylbenzilate bound specifically to a homogeneous class of binding sites in 0.5% glutardialdehyde-fixed cryostat sections (10 microns) of rat nasal glands with high affinity (Kd = 0.47 +/- 0.06 nM) and with a receptor density (Bmax) of 41 +/- 1 fmol/mg protein. This binding was linearly dependent on the thickness of the sections. Kinetic experiments resulted in a Kd value of 0.19 nM. Binding was stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Autoradiograms, generated after incubation with 0.6 nM [3H]l-quinuclidinylbenzilate and dipping in nuclear K2 emulsion, showed specific labelling of the glandular acini and excretory ducts. These in vitro observations provide conclusive evidence for the presence of acetylcholine receptors in the nasal glands of the rat. PMID:2450760

  5. Purification of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor from porcine atria.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, G L; Herron, G S; Yamaki, M; Fullerton, D S; Schimerlik, M I

    1984-01-01

    The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor from porcine atria has been purified 100,000-fold to homogeneity by solubilization in digitonin/cholate and sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-agarose, diethylaminoethylagarose, hydroxylapatite, and 3-(2'-aminobenzhydryloxy)tropane-agarose. The yield of purified receptor was 4.3% of that found in the membrane fraction, and the purified receptor bound 11.1-12.8 nmol of L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate per mg of protein, corresponding to a binding component Mr of 78,400-90,000. The purified receptor preparation consisted of two polypeptides in approximately equimolar amounts when examined on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. The larger polypeptide (Mr 78,000 on 8% polyacrylamide gels) was specifically alkylated with [3H]propylbenzilylcholine mustard, whereas the smaller polypeptide (Mr 14,800) was not labeled. The possibility that the small polypeptide is a contaminant fortuitously appearing in equimolar amounts with the large polypeptide cannot be ruled out at this time. The purified preparation was highly stable, with no measurable change in the number of ligand binding sites or the gel pattern after 1 month's storage on ice. Scatchard analysis showed a single class of binding sites for the antagonist L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate with a dissociation constant of 61 +/- 4 pM. Equilibrium titration experiments demonstrated that the antagonist L-hyoscyamine displaced L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate from a single class of sites (Kd = 475 +/- 30 pM), whereas the agonist carbamoylcholine interacted at two populations of sites (53% +/- 3% high affinity, Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.3 microM; 47% +/- 3% low affinity, Kd = 67 +/- 14 microM). The ligand binding data were very similar to that for the membrane-bound receptor, suggesting that the receptor has not been altered radically during purification. Images PMID:6589642

  6. Muscarinic Receptors Control Frequency Tuning Through the Downregulation of an A-Type Potassium Current

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Krahe, Rüdiger; Bourque, Charles W.; Dunn, Robert J.; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of cholinergic input in the modulation of sensory responses was studied using a combination of in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology supplemented by mathematical modeling. The electrosensory system of weakly electric fish recognizes different environmental stimuli by their unique alteration of a self-generated electric field. Variations in the patterns of stimuli are primarily distinguished based on their frequency. Pyramidal neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) are often tuned to respond to specific input frequencies. Alterations in the tuning of the pyramidal neurons may allow weakly electric fish to preferentially select for certain stimuli. Here we show that muscarinic receptor activation in vivo enhances the excitability, burst firing, and subsequently the response of pyramidal cells to naturalistic sensory input. Through a combination of in vitro electrophysiology and mathematical modeling, we reveal that this enhanced excitability and bursting likely results from the down-regulation of an A-type potassium current. Further, we provide an explanation of the mechanism by which these currents can mediate frequency tuning. PMID:17615127

  7. The effect of a muscarinic receptor 1 gene variant on grey matter volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Scarr, Elizabeth; Fornito, Alex; Klauser, Paul; Bousman, Chad A; Scott, Rodney; Cairns, Murray J; Tooney, Paul A; Pantelis, Christos; Dean, Brian

    2015-11-30

    Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia who are homozygous at the c.267C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2067477) within the cholinergic muscarinic M1 receptor (CHRM1) perform less well on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) than those who are heterozygous. This study sought to determine whether variation in the rs2067477 genotype was associated with differential changes in brain structure. Data from 227 patients with established schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was performed to compare regional grey matter volume (GMV) between the 267C/C (N=191) and 267C/A (N=36) groups. Secondary analyses tested for an effect of genotype on cognition (the WCST was not available). Individuals who were homozygous (267C/C) demonstrated significantly reduced GMV in the right precentral gyrus compared to those who were heterozygous (267C/A). These preliminary results suggest that the rs2067477 genotype is associated with brain structure in the right precentral gyrus in individuals with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Future studies are required to replicate these results and directly link the volumetric reductions with specific cognitive processes.

  8. Cholinergic modulation of the medial prefrontal cortex: the role of nicotinic receptors in attention and regulation of neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Bernard; Poorthuis, Rogier B.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is crucial for normal cognitive performance. Despite the fact that many have studied how ACh affects neuronal processing in the mPFC and thereby influences attention behavior, there is still a lot unknown about how this occurs. Here we will review the evidence that cholinergic modulation of the mPFC plays a role in attention and we will summarize the current knowledge about the role between ACh receptors (AChRs) and behavior and how ACh receptor activation changes processing in the cortical microcircuitry. Recent evidence implicates fast phasic release of ACh in cue detection and attention. This review will focus mainly on the fast ionotropic nicotinic receptors and less on the metabotropic muscarinic receptors. Finally, we will review limitations of the existing studies and address how innovative technologies might push the field forward in order to gain understanding into the relation between ACh, neuronal activity and behavior. PMID:24653678

  9. Subcellular Distribution of M2-muscarinic Receptors in Relation to Dopaminergic Neurons of the Rat Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Miguel; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine can affect cognitive functions and reward, in part, through activation of muscarinic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to evoke changes in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic transmission. Of the known muscarinic receptor subtypes present in the VTA, the M2 receptor (M2R) is most implicated in autoregulation, and also may play a heteroreceptor role in regulation of the output of the dopaminergic neurons. We sought to determine the functionally relevant sites for M2R activation in relation to VTA dopaminergic neurons by examining the electron microscopic immunolabeling of M2R and the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the VTA of rat brain. The M2R was localized to endomembranes in DAT-containing somatodendritic profiles, but showed a more prominent, size-dependent plasmalemmal location in non-dopaminergic dendrites. M2R also was located on the plasma membrane of morphologically heterogenous axon terminals contacting unlabeled as well as M2R or DAT-labeled dendrites. Some of these terminals formed asymmetric synapses resembling those of cholinergic terminals in the VTA. The majority, however, formed symmetric, inhibitory-type synapses, or were apposed without recognized junctions. Our results provide the first ultrastructural evidence that the M2R is expressed, but largely not available for local activation, on the plasma membrane of VTA dopaminergic neurons. Instead, the M2R in this region has a distribution suggesting more indirect regulation of mesocorticolimbic transmission through autoregulation of acetylcholine release and changes in the physiological activity or release of other, largely inhibitory transmitters. These findings could have implications for understanding the muscarinic control of cognitive and goal-directed behaviors within the VTA. PMID:16927256

  10. Effects of extracellular acetylcholine on muscarinic receptor binding assessed by [125I]dexetimide and a simple probe.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Roa, P M; Wagner, H N; Villemagne, V L; London, E D; Lever, J R

    1998-10-01

    New pharmacologic approaches to enhance brain cholinergic function focus on increasing intrasynaptic acetylcholine. We examined the usefulness of a simple probe and [125I]dexetimide to evaluate in vivo the effects of extracellular acetylcholine on muscarinic receptor binding in the mouse brain. After radiotracer injection continuous time/activity curves were generated over 330 min. [125I]Dexetimide reached a plateau at 90 min post-injection. To increase extracellular acetylcholine, the anticholinesterase physostigmine was administered at 120 min, producing a reversible decrease in [125I]dexetimide specific binding (23%) for 30 min. These findings demonstrate that dynamic changes in extracellular acetylcholine can be evaluated by displacement of [125I]dexetimide binding in vivo using a simple probe system. PMID:9822886

  11. A human embryonic lung fibroblast with a high density of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    André, C; Marullo, S; Convents, A; Lü, B Z; Guillet, J G; Hoebeke, J; Strosberg, D A

    1988-01-15

    Binding studies with the radiolabeled muscarinic antagonists dexetimide, quinuclidinyl benzilate and N-methylscopolamine showed that the human embryonic lung fibroblast CCL137 possesses approximately 2 X 10(5) muscarinic receptors/cell, i.e. 2.1 pmol/mg membrane protein. These receptors showed a marked stereoselectivity towards dexetimide and levetimide and only low affinity for another antagonist, pirenzepine. The muscarinic agonist carbamylcholine inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase and induced phosphatidylinositide turnover in the intact cells. Both effects were inhibited by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Affinity labeling with tritiated propylbenzylcholine mustard revealed a protein of 72 kDa. Finally, down-regulation of the membrane receptors following prolonged treatment with the agonist carbamylcholine was assessed by means of the hydrophilic antagonist N-methylscopolamine. PMID:2828056

  12. Central muscarinic cholinergic involvement in serial pattern learning: Atropine impairs acquisition and retention in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in rats.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Amber M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    Atropine sulfate is a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist which impairs acquisition and retention performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. The present study examined the effects of atropine on acquisition and retention of a highly-structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of either saline or atropine sulfate (50mg/kg) and trained in an octagonal operant chamber equipped with a lever on each wall. They learned to press the levers in a particular order (the serial pattern) for brain-stimulation reward in a discrete-trial procedure with correction. The two groups learned a pattern composed of eight 3-element chunks ending with a violation element: 123-234-345-456-567-678-781-818 where the digits represent the clock-wise positions of levers in the chamber, dashes indicate 3-s pauses, and other intertrial intervals were 1s. Central muscarinic cholinergic blockade by atropine caused profound impairments during acquisition, specifically in the encoding of chunk-boundary elements (the first element of chunks) and the violation element of the pattern, but had a significant but negligible effect on the encoding of within-chunk elements relative to saline-injected rats. These effects persisted when atropine was removed, and similar impairments were also observed in retention performance. The results indicate that intact central muscarinic cholinergic systems are necessary for learning and producing appropriate responses at places in sequences where pattern structure changes. The results also provide further evidence that multiple cognitive systems are recruited to learn and perform within-chunk, chunk-boundary, and violation elements of a serial pattern.

  13. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. PMID:26208783

  14. Modulation of inflammatory pathways by the immune cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Nizri, Eran; Brenner, Talma

    2013-07-01

    Research done in the past years pointed to a novel function of cholinergic transmission. It has been shown that cholinergic transmission can modulate various aspects of the immune function, whether innate or adaptive. Cholinergic transmission affects immune cell proliferation, cytokine production, T helper differentiation and antigen presentation. Theses effects are mediated by cholinergic muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and other cholinergic components present in immune cells, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholineacetyltransferase. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was designated anti-inflammatory activity and has shown promise in pre-clinical models of inflammatory disorders. We herein describe the various components of the immune cholinergic system, and specifically the immune suppressive effects of α7 activation. This activation can be accomplished either by direct stimulation or indirectly, by inhibition of AChE. Thus, the presence of the immune cholinergic system can pave the way for novel immunomodulatory agents, or to the broadening of use of known cholinergic agents.

  15. The role of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors on the antinociception of sildenafil in the spinal cord of rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Chen Hee; Lee, Hyung Gon; Lee, Seong Heon; Chung, Cheol Won; Yoon, Myung Ha

    2011-09-15

    The role played by spinal adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal sildenafil in formalin-induced nociception was examined. Intrathecal catheters were inserted into the subarachnoid space of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and nociception was assessed using the formalin test, consisting of a subcutaneous injection of 50μL of 5% formalin solution into the hind paw. We examined the effects of an alpha 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin), an alpha 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine), a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine), and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) on sildenafil-induced antinociception. Intrathecal sildenafil (3, 10, and 30μg) suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, formalin-induced flinching during phases 1 and 2 of the test. Intrathecal sildenafil (30μg) could not show any effects against intrathecal prazosin (3μg), yohimbine (10μg), atropine (10μg), and mecamylamine (10μg) pretreatment during both phases of the formalin test. These results suggest that intrathecal sildenafil effectively attenuated the pain evoked by formalin injection. Additionally, spinal alpha 1, alpha 2, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors might play a role in sildenafil-induced antinociception.

  16. Murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 expresses all subtypes of muscarinic receptors and multiple nicotinic receptor subunits: Down-regulation of α4- and β4-subunits during early differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaltwasser, Susanne; Schmitz, Luise; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Anspach, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Wessler, Ignaz

    2015-11-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine mediates its cellular effects via stimulation of the G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptors and the ligand-gated ion channel nicotinic receptors. The murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 synthesizes and releases non-neuronal acetylcholine. In the present study a systematic investigation of the expression of nicotinic receptor subunits and muscarinic receptors was performed, when the stem cells were grown in the presence or absence of LIF, as the latter condition induces early differentiation. CGR8 cells expressed multiple nicotinic receptor subtypes (α3, α4, α7, α9, α10, β1, β2, β3, β4, γ, δ, ε) and muscarinic receptors (M1, M3, M4, M5); M2 was detected only in 2 out of 8 cultures. LIF removal caused a down-regulation only of the α4- and β4-subunit. In conclusion, more or less the whole repertoire of cholinergic receptors is expressed on the murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 for mediating cellular signaling of non-neuronal acetylcholine which acts via auto- and paracrine pathways. During early differentiation of the murine CGR8 stem cell signaling via nicotinic receptors containing α4- or β4 subunits is reduced. Thus, the so-called neuronal α4 nicotine receptor composed of these subunits may be involved in the regulation of pluripotency in this murine stem cell line.

  17. Stimulation of acid secretion and phosphoinositol production by rat parietal cell muscarinic M sub 2 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, A.; Rochlitz, H.; Herz, A.; Paumgartner, G. )

    1988-04-01

    The muscarinic receptor system involved in hydrogen production by enriched rat gastric parietal cells was investigated. Muscarinic receptor density determined by (N-methyl-{sup 3}H)scopolamine binding was 8,100/cell. The receptor appeared to be of the M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtype, since it had a low affinity (K{sub d} 189 nM) for the M{sub 1} receptor antagonist pirenzepine compared with atropine. Receptor activation by carbachol rapidly augmented levels of polyphosphoinositides, indicating an activation of phospholipase C. The dose-response relations for the increase in inositol phosphates closely paralleled the binding of carbachol to muscarinic receptors. The inositol phosphate response was antagonized by pirenzepine with a K{sub i} of 177 nM. the stimulation of inositol phosphate levels by carbachol correlated well with the stimulation of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake, determine as an index of acid secretion. The muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, pilocarpine, and bethanechol elicited partial increases in inositol phosphates at maximal drug concentrations, and these partial increases correlated with their ability to stimulate ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine uptake. These data indicate that inositolpolyphosphates may be a second messenger of M{sub 2} receptors stimulating acid secretion.

  18. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Henry G. S.; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light—electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling. PMID:26648844

  19. Endocannabinoids Mediate Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Adult Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Martin, Henry G S; Bernabeu, Axel; Lassalle, Olivier; Bouille, Clément; Beurrier, Corinne; Pelissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are associated with attention and cognition; however there is evidence that acetylcholine also has a role in PFC dependent learning and memory. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the PFC can induce synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain either opaque or unresolved. We have characterized a form of mAChR mediated long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses of layer 5 principal neurons in the adult medial PFC. This mAChR LTD is induced with the mAChR agonist carbachol and inhibited by selective M1 mAChR antagonists. In contrast to other cortical regions, we find that this M1 mAChR mediated LTD is coupled to endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling. Inhibition of the principal eCB CB1 receptor blocked carbachol induced LTD in both rats and mice. Furthermore, when challenged with a sub-threshold carbachol application, LTD was induced in slices pretreated with the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184, suggesting that the eCB 2-arachidonylglyerol (2-AG) mediates M1 mAChR LTD. Yet, when endogenous acetylcholine was released from local cholinergic afferents in the PFC using optogenetics, it failed to trigger eCB-LTD. However coupling patterned optical and electrical stimulation to generate local synaptic signaling allowed the reliable induction of LTD. The light-electrical pairing induced LTD was M1 mAChR and CB1 receptor mediated. This shows for the first time that connecting excitatory synaptic activity with coincident endogenously released acetylcholine controls synaptic gain via eCB signaling. Together these results shed new light on the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the adult PFC and expand on the actions of endogenous cholinergic signaling.

  20. Autoradiographic visualization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and guinea pig lung

    SciTech Connect

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes have been localized in human and guinea pig lung sections by an autoradiographic technique, using (3H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate (( 3H)QNB) and selective muscarinic antagonists. (3H)QNB was incubated with tissue sections for 90 min at 25 degrees C, and nonspecific binding was determined by incubating adjacent serial sections in the presence of 1 microM atropine. Binding to lung sections had the characterization expected for muscarinic receptors. Autoradiography revealed that muscarinic receptors were widely distributed in human lung, with dense labeling over submucosal glands and airway ganglia, and moderate labeling over nerves in intrapulmonary bronchi and of airway smooth muscle of large and small airways. In addition, alveolar walls were uniformly labeled. In guinea pig lung, labeling of airway smooth muscle was similar, but in contrast to human airways, epithelium was labeled but alveolar walls were not. The muscarinic receptors of human airway smooth muscle from large to small airways were entirely of the M3-subtype, whereas in guinea pig airway smooth muscle, the majority were the M3-subtype with a very small population of the M2-subtype present. In human bronchial submucosal glands, M1- and M3-subtypes appeared to coexist in the proportions of 36 and 64%, respectively. In human alveolar walls the muscarinic receptors were entirely of the M1-subtype, which is absent from the guinea pig lung. No M2-receptors were demonstrated in human lung. The localization of M1-receptors was confirmed by direct labeling with (3H)pirenzepine. With the exception of the alveolar walls in human lung, the localization of muscarinic receptor subtypes on structures in the lung is consistent with known functional studies.

  1. Molecular regulation of receptors: interaction of beta-estradiol and progesterone with the muscarinic system.

    PubMed Central

    Sokolovsky, M; Egozi, Y; Avissar, S

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various substrates on the binding of agonists to muscarinic receptors were studied in the rat hypothalamus and adenohypophysis by competition experiments using the highly specific tritiated muscarinic antagonist N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate. It was found that agonist binding properties were affected only by the steroid sex hormones (beta-estradiol and progesterone), both of which resulted in a decrease in the proportion of high-affinity binding sites and a decrease in the dissociation constant. This suggests a link between the muscarinic system and the mechanism by which these steroids exert their gonadotropin-releasing effect on the adenohypophysis. We propose a model to depict the putative relationship between the muscarinic system and other receptor systems, including that which controls the steroid sex hormones. PMID:6946492

  2. Muscarinic receptors in amygdala control trace fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baysinger, Amber N; Kent, Brianne A; Brown, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent behavior requires transient memory, which entails the ability to retain information over short time periods. A newly-emerging hypothesis posits that endogenous persistent firing (EPF) is the neurophysiological foundation for aspects or types of transient memory. EPF is enabled by the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and is triggered by suprathreshold stimulation. EPF occurs in several brain regions, including the lateral amygdala (LA). The present study examined the role of amygdalar mAChRs in trace fear conditioning, a paradigm that requires transient memory. If mAChR-dependent EPF selectively supports transient memory, then blocking amygdalar mAChRs should impair trace conditioning, while sparing delay and context conditioning, which presumably do not rely upon transient memory. To test the EPF hypothesis, LA was bilaterally infused, prior to trace or delay conditioning, with either a mAChR antagonist (scopolamine) or saline. Computerized video analysis quantified the amount of freezing elicited by the cue and by the training context. Scopolamine infusion profoundly reduced freezing in the trace conditioning group but had no significant effect on delay or context conditioning. This pattern of results was uniquely anticipated by the EPF hypothesis. The present findings are discussed in terms of a systems-level theory of how EPF in LA and several other brain regions might help support trace fear conditioning.

  3. [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe - an attractive ligand for evaluation of muscarinic-cholinergic neuron activity by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    The stereoisomers of 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-{alpha}-(1-fluoropentan-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}) have been resolved. (-,-)- receptors (K{sub i}, nM; ml, 0.3; m2, 0.1). [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe demonstrated high cerebral and myocardial uptake in rats in vivo. We now report significant blocking of [F-18]-(-.-)-FQNPe uptake in receptor-rich tissues in rats in vivo after (R)-QNB pretreatment and the absence of any TLC detectable FQNPe metabolites in tissue extracts. Rats were injected with (R)-QNB (3 mg/kg) 1 h prior to [F-18]-FQNPe injection (370-629 KBq). After 1 h, rats were sacrificed and tissues removed and counted. (R)-QNB significantly decreased FQNPe uptake in heart and all receptor-rich regions but not blood (Table; Mean % ID/g, n=5); C, control; Q, (R)-QNB; Hrt, heart; Cer, cerebellum; Pon, pons; Med, medulla; Cor, cortex; Stri, striatum; Hip, hippocampus; Th, thallamus; SuC, superior colliculi; InC, inferior colliculi. Tissues from untreated rats were Folch-extracted and 71-77% of activity was in organic extracts from brain and heart. TLC of organic extracts indicated a single radioactive component with R{sub f} of FQNPe. These combined results demonstrate that [F-18]-(-,-)-FQNPe does not appear to be metabolized in heart and brain, shows good receptor localization and is thus an attractive ligand for evaluation as a potential imaging agent by PET.

  4. Role of muscarinic-3 receptor antibody in systemic sclerosis: correlation with disease duration and effects of IVIG.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Singh, Jagmohan; Kedika, Ramalinga; Mendoza, Fabian; Jimenez, Sergio A; Blomain, Erik S; DiMarino, Anthony J; Cohen, Sidney; Rattan, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with autoantibodies against muscarinic-3 receptor (M3-R). We investigated the temporal course of the site of action of these autoantibodies at the myenteric neurons (MN) vs. the smooth muscle (SM) M3-R in relation to disease duration, and determined the role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in reversing these changes. Immunoglobulins purified from SSc patients (SScIgG) were used to assess their differential binding to MN and SM (from rat colon) employing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Effect of SScIgG on neural and direct muscle contraction was determined by cholinergic nerve stimulation and bethanechol-induced SM contraction. Effects of IVIG and its antigen-binding fragment F(ab')2 on SScIgG binding were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of rat colonic longitudinal SM myenteric plexus (LSMMP) lysate and to second extracellular loop peptide of M3-R (M3-RL2). SScIgG from all patients demonstrated significantly higher binding to MN than to SM. With progression of SSc duration, binding at MN and SM increased in a linear fashion with a correlation coefficient of 0.696 and 0.726, respectively (P < 0.05). SScIgG-mediated attenuation of neural and direct SM contraction also increased with disease duration. ELISA analysis revealed that IVIG and F(ab')2 significantly reduced SScIgG binding to LSMMP lysate and M3-RL2. Dysmotility in SSc occurs sequentially, beginning with SScIgG-induced blockage of cholinergic neurotransmission (neuropathy), which progresses to inhibition of acetylcholine action at the SM cell (myopathy). IVIG reverses this cholinergic dysfunction at the neural and myogenic receptors by anti-idiotypic neutralization of SScIgG.

  5. Batrachotoxin changes the properties of the muscarinic receptor in rat brain and heart: possible interaction(s) between muscarinic receptors and sodium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Armon, M; Kloog, Y; Henis, Y I; Sokolovsky, M

    1985-01-01

    The effects of Na+-channel activator batrachotoxin (BTX) on the binding properties of muscarinic receptors in homogenates of rat brain and heart were studied. BTX enhanced the affinity for the binding of the agonists carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine to the muscarinic receptors in brainstem and ventricle, but not in the cerebral cortex. Analysis of the data according to a two-site model for agonist binding indicated that the effect of BTX was to increase the affinity of the agonists to the high-affinity site. Guanyl nucleotides, known to induce interconversion of high-affinity agonist binding sites to the low-affinity state, canceled the effect of BTX on carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine binding. BTX had no effect on the binding of the agonist oxotremorine or on the binding of the antagonist [3H]-N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate. The local anesthetics dibucaine and tetracaine antagonized the effect of BTX on the binding of muscarinic agonists at concentrations known to inhibit the activation of Na+ channels by BTX. On the basis of these findings, we propose that in specific tissues the muscarinic receptors may interact with the BTX binding site (Na+ channels). PMID:2582418

  6. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    found that activation of pre-synaptic M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, whereas stimulation of post-synaptic M3 muscarinic receptors increases the firing activity of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information advances our understanding of the cholinergic mechanism regulating the vestibular system.

  7. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    found that activation of pre-synaptic M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, whereas stimulation of post-synaptic M3 muscarinic receptors increases the firing activity of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information advances our understanding of the cholinergic mechanism regulating the vestibular system. PMID:26823384

  8. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  9. Analgesic and Antineuropathic Drugs Acting Through Central Cholinergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Alessandro; Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo Di; Ghelardini, Carla

    2011-01-01

    The role of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in analgesia and neuropathic pain relief is relatively unknown. This review describes how such drugs induce analgesia or alleviate neuropathic pain by acting on the central cholinergic system. Several pharmacological strategies are discussed which increase synthesis and release of acetylcholine (ACh) from cholinergic neurons. The effects of their acute and chronic administration are described. The pharmacological strategies which facilitate the physiological functions of the cholinergic system without altering the normal modulation of cholinergic signals are highlighted. It is proposed that full agonists of muscarinic or nicotinic receptors should be avoided. Their activation is too intense and un-physiological because neuronal signals are distorted when these receptors are constantly activated. Good results can be achieved by using agents that are able to a) increase ACh synthesis, b) partially inhibit cholinesterase activity c) selectively block the autoreceptor or heteroreceptor feedback mechanisms. Activation of M1 subtype muscarinic receptors induces analgesia. Chronic stimulation of nicotinic (N1) receptors has neuronal protective effects. Recent experimental results indicate a relationship between repeated cholinergic stimulation and neurotrophic activation of the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. At least 9 patents covering novel chemicals for cholinergic system modulation and pain control are discussed. PMID:21585331

  10. Axonal transport of muscarinic receptors in vesicles containing noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Laduron, P M

    1984-01-01

    Presynaptic muscarinic receptors labeled with [3H]dexetimide and noradrenaline in dog splenic nerves accumulated proximally to a ligature at the same rate of axonal transport. After fractionation by differential centrifugation, specific [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate or [3H]dexetimide binding revealed a distribution profile similar to that of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and noradrenaline. Subfractionation by density gradient centrifugation showed two peaks of muscarinic receptors; the peak of density 1.17 contained noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase whereas that of density 1.14 was devoid of noradrenaline. Therefore the foregoing experiments provide evidence that presynaptic muscarinic receptors are transported in sympathetic nerves in synaptic vesicles which are similar to those containing noradrenaline and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase. This suggests a possible coexistence of receptor and neurotransmitter in the same vesicle. PMID:6198205

  11. Two molecular weight forms of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the avian central nervous system: switch in predominant form during differentiation of synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Large, T H; Rauh, J J; De Mello, F G; Klein, W L

    1985-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from the avian central nervous system were examined for developmental changes that correlated with the differentiation of cholinergic synapses. In contrast to previous studies that showed a single molecular weight form of muscarinic receptors in the mature central nervous system, the current study of receptors from embryonic and newly hatched chick retina showed the presence of two electrophoretic forms having apparent molecular weights of 86,200 +/- 400 and 72,200 +/- 300. Two receptor forms also were observed in embryonic cerebrum, optic tectum, and cerebellum. Each form was present, although decreased in molecular weight by 6000, after treatment with deglycosylating enzymes, consistent with molecular differences occurring in the protein portions, rather than the carbohydrate portions, of the molecules. The relative proportions of the high and low molecular weight receptors in retina showed a striking inversion during development. Before synaptogenesis, receptors were mainly of Mr 86,000, whereas after synaptogenesis, receptors were mainly of Mr 72,000. Development of a predominantly low molecular weight receptor population also occurred in aggregate, but not monolayer, cell culture, suggesting a possible role for cell-cell interactions in triggering the change. Pulse-chase labeling of receptors on cultured cells indicated that both forms were present on the cell surface; the labeled Mr 86,000 population had a half-life of 5 hr, whereas the labeled Mr 72,000 population had a half-life of 19 hr. The change in size of muscarinic receptors during development may reflect the action of regulatory mechanisms critical to the proper assembly and function of synapses in the central nervous system. Images PMID:3866251

  12. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  13. Cholinergic modulation of microglial activation by alpha 7 nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Shytle, R Douglas; Mori, Takashi; Townsend, Kirk; Vendrame, Martina; Sun, Nan; Zeng, Jin; Ehrhart, Jared; Silver, Archie A; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2004-04-01

    Almost all degenerative diseases of the CNS are associated with chronic inflammation. A central step in this process is the activation of brain mononuclear phagocyte cells, called microglia. While it is recognized that healthy neurons and astrocytes regulate the magnitude of microglia-mediated innate immune responses and limit excessive CNS inflammation, the endogenous signals governing this process are not fully understood. In the peripheral nervous system, recent studies suggest that an endogenous 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' regulates systemic inflammatory responses via alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) found on blood-borne macrophages. These data led us to investigate whether a similar cholinergic pathway exists in the brain that could regulate microglial activation. Here we report for the first time that cultured microglial cells express alpha 7 nAChR subunit as determined by RT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescent, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Acetylcholine and nicotine pre-treatment inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha release in murine-derived microglial cells, an effect attenuated by alpha 7 selective nicotinic antagonist, alpha-bungarotoxin. Furthermore, this inhibition appears to be mediated by a reduction in phosphorylation of p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Though preliminary, our findings suggest the existence of a brain cholinergic pathway that regulates microglial activation through alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. Negative regulation of microglia activation may also represent additional mechanism underlying nicotine's reported neuroprotective properties.

  14. Effects of atropine treatment on in vitro and in vivo binding of 4-[125I]-dexetimide to central and myocardial muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Matsumura, K; Scheffel, U; Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    Upregulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) after chronic atropine treatment has been described previously. The present study was designed to evaluate 4-iodine-125 dexetimide as an agent to determine changes in the number of mAChR. Rats were injected subcutaneously with atropine (500 mg/kg) either once or chronically, once daily for 10 days, and sacrificed 24 h later. In vitro binding assays with 4-[125I]-dexetimide showed significant increases in the number of mAChR in cerebra (21%) and ventricles (45%) after chronic atropine treatment but not after acute treatment. The affinity of binding to cerebral and ventricular mAChR declined after acute and chronic atropine treatment. In vivo studies were carried out involving intravenous injection of 4-[125I]-dexetimide 24 h after atropine treatment. Binding was markedly reduced in the brain and heart. Upregulation of mAChR, as seen in in vitro studies, could not be observed because of the remaining atropine. Occupancy of mAChR by atropine persisted as long as 7 days after one dose. The results of these studies indicate that 4-[125I]-dexetimide binding reflects the effects of atropine on central and peripheral muscarinic cholinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:1915471

  15. Identification of drugs competing with d-tubocurarine for an allosteric site on cardiac muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Waelbroeck, M

    1994-10-01

    d-Tubocurarine behaved as a weak allosteric inhibitor of N-[3H] methylscopolamine binding to cardiac M2 muscarinic receptors. In a low ionic strength buffer devoid of bivalent ions, d-tubocurarine recognized cardiac M2 receptors in the micromolar concentration range and decreased their affinity for N-[3H]methylscopolamine by at most 4-fold. To identify the compounds that preferentially recognize this accessory site (as opposed to the classical muscarinic binding site), we measured the inhibition by different drugs of N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding, in the absence or presence of d-tubocurarine. The effect of gallamine was competitively inhibited by d-tubocurarine; both drugs compete for the same accessory site on muscarinic receptors. The effects of dexetimide, levetimide, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-ethylpiperidine ethobromide, AF-DX 116, and telenzepine on N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding were not affected or were barely affected by d-tubocurarine; these compounds preferentially recognize another binding site (probably the muscarinic binding site). The dose-effect curves for pentamethylene-bis(4-diphenylacetoxymethylpiperidine) bromide and methoctramine were shifted, but at most 10-fold, by d-tubocurarine. It is likely that (in this low ionic strength incubation buffer) methoctramine and pentamethylene-bis(4-diphenylacetoxymethylpiperidine)bromide had comparable affinities for the muscarinic site and the accessory site. d-Tubocurarine competitively inhibited their binding to the accessory site and allosterically inhibited their binding to the muscarinic site. This resulted in a large decrease (40-60-fold) of their overall affinity for muscarinic receptors. PMID:7969047

  16. The binding of (3H)AF-DX 384 to rat ileal smooth muscle muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Entzeroth, M.; Mayer, N. )

    1991-01-01

    The tritiated cardioselective muscarinic antagonist AF-DX 384 (5,11-dihydro-11-(2-(-(8-dipropylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl-ethyl-amino-carbonyl)-6H-pyrido (2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepin-6-one) was used to label muscarinic receptors in the rat ileum. Saturation binding to membrane suspensions revealed a high affinity binding site with a Kd of 9.2 nM. The maximal number of binding sites labeled in this tissue (Bmax) is 237 fmol/mg protein. The association and dissociation kinetics were well represented by single exponential reactions, and the dissociation constant obtained from the ratio of rate constants was in agreement with that derived from saturation experiments. Specific binding was inhibited by muscarinic antagonists with a rank order of potencies of atropine (pKi: 8.80) greater than 4-DAMP (pKi: 8.23) = AF-DX 384 (pKi: 8.20) greater than AF-DX 116 (pKi: 7.09) = hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pKi: 6.97) greater than pirenzepine (pKi: 6.49) and is consistent with the interaction of (3H)AF-DX 384 with muscarinic receptors of the M2 subtype. It can be concluded that (3H)AF-DX 384 can be used to selectively label M2 muscarinic receptors in heterogeneous receptor populations.

  17. The anterior cingulate cortex may enhance inhibition of lateral prefrontal cortex via m2 cholinergic receptors at dual synaptic sites.

    PubMed

    Medalla, Maria; Barbas, Helen

    2012-10-31

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) share robust excitatory connections. However, during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when cortical activity is dominated by acetylcholine, the ACC is activated but DLPFC is suppressed. Using pathway tracing and electron microscopy in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta), we tested the hypothesis that the opposite states may reflect specific modulation by acetylcholine through strategic synaptic localization of muscarinic m2 receptors, which inhibit neurotransmitter release presynaptically, but are thought to be excitatory postsynaptically. In the ACC pathway to DLPFC (area 32 to area 9), m2 receptors predominated in ACC axon terminals and in more than half of the targeted dendrites of presumed inhibitory neurons, suggesting inhibitory cholinergic influence. In contrast, in a pathway linking the DLPFC area 46 to DLPFC area 9, postsynaptic m2 receptors predominated in targeted spines of presumed excitatory neurons, consistent with their mutual activation in working memory. These novel findings suggest that presynaptic and postsynaptic specificity of m2 cholinergic receptors may help explain the differential engagement of ACC and DLPFC areas in REM sleep for memory consolidation and synergism in awake states for cognitive control.

  18. M1 Muscarinic Receptor Deficiency Attenuates Azoxymethane-Induced Chronic Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rachakonda, Vikrant; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Shah, Nirish; Ahmad, Daniel; Cheng, Kunrong; Twaddell, William S.; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Khurana, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic nervous system regulates liver injury. However, the role of M1 muscarinic receptors (M1R) in modulating chronic liver injury is uncertain. To address this gap in knowledge we treated M1R-deficient and WT mice with azoxymethane (AOM) for six weeks and assessed liver injury responses 14 weeks after the last dose of AOM. Compared to AOM-treated WT mice, M1R-deficient mice had attenuated liver nodularity, fibrosis and ductular proliferation, α-SMA staining, and expression of α1 collagen, Tgfβ-R, Pdgf-R, Mmp-2, Timp-1 and Timp-2. In hepatocytes, these findings were associated with reductions of cleaved caspase-3 staining and Tnf-α expression. In response to AOM treatment, M1R-deficient mice mounted a vigorous anti-oxidant response by upregulating Gclc and Nqo1 expression, and attenuating peroxynitrite generation. M1R-deficient mouse livers had increased expression of Trail-R2, a promotor of stellate cell apoptosis; dual staining for TUNNEL and α-SMA revealed increased stellate cells apoptosis in livers from M1R-deficient mice compared to those from WT. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of M1R reduced H2O2-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. These results indicate that following liver injury, anti-oxidant response in M1R-deficient mice attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis and reduces stellate cell activation, thereby diminishing fibrosis. Therefore, targeting M1R expression and activation in chronic liver injury may provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:26374068

  19. Role of various kinases in muscarinic M3 receptor-mediated contraction of longitudinal muscle of rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Charles D.; Kendig, Derek M.; Al-Qudah, Mohammad; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S.; Grider, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal muscle layer in gut is the functional opponent to the circular muscle layer during peristalsis. Differences in innervation of the layers allow for the contraction of one layer concurrently with the relaxation of the other, enabling the passage of gut contents in a controlled fashion. Differences in development have given the cells of the two layers differences in receptor populations, membrane lipid handling, and calcium handling profiles/behaviors. The contractile activity of the longitudinal muscle is largely mediated by cholinergic neural input from myenteric plexus. Activation of muscarinic receptors leads to rapid activation of several kinases including MLC kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKII and Rho kinase. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) by MLC kinase (MLCK) is a prerequisite for contraction in both circular and longitudinal muscle cells. In rat colonic longitudinal muscle strips, we measured muscarinic receptor-mediated contraction following incubation with kinase inhibitors. Basal tension was differentially regulated by Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKII and CaMKK. Selective inhibitors of Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKK/AMPK, and CaMKII each reduced carbachol-induced contraction in the innervated muscle strips. These inhibitors had no direct effect on MLCK activity. Thus unlike previously reported for isolated muscle cells where CaMKII and ERK1/2 are not involved in contraction, we conclude that the regulation of carbachol-induced contraction in innervated longitudinal muscle strips involves the interplay of Rho kinase, ERK1/2, CaMKK/AMPK, and CAMKII. PMID:25891767

  20. Pre- and neonatal exposure of the Dahl rat to NaCl: development and regional distribution of myocardial alpha 1-adrenergic and cholinergic receptor sites.

    PubMed

    McCaughran, J A; Juno, C J; Friedman, R

    1986-06-01

    The prenatal and/or postweaning effects of a hypertensinogenic high NaCl-containing diet (8.0% NaCl, w/w) on (1) the regional distribution of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in the heart and (2) the predisposition/resistance to hypertension (HT) were assessed in the inbred Dahl HT-sensitive (S/JR) and HT-resistant (R/JR) rat. The density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors was reduced in the left ventricle but not consistently affected in the ventricular septum, right ventricle, or atria of S/JR offspring with NaCl-induced HT. Both normotensive and hypertensive S/JR rats also displayed a significantly greater density of cholinergic receptor sites in the atria but few consistent alterations in other regions of the heart, compared to R/JR rats. Maternal diet had no effect on the predisposition/resistance to salt-induced HT and little effect on the regional development of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and cholinergic receptor sites. The results of this study suggest that the reduced density of ventricular alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the S/JR strain is a consequence of HT while the elevated density of cholinergic receptors in the atria may be related to the genetic predisposition/resistance to HT.

  1. Involvement of spinal muscarinic and serotonergic receptors in the anti-allodynic effect of electroacupuncture in rats with oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Go, Donghyun; Kim, Woojin; Lee, Giseog; Bae, Hyojeong; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the spinal cholinergic and serotonergic analgesic systems mediate the relieving effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic cold allodynia in rats. The cold allodynia induced by an oxaliplatin injection (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by immersing the rat's tail into cold water (4℃) and measuring the withdrawal latency. EA stimulation (2 Hz, 0.3-ms pulse duration, 0.2~0.3 mA) at the acupoint ST36, GV3, or LI11 all showed a significant anti-allodynic effect, which was stronger at ST36. The analgesic effect of EA at ST36 was blocked by intraperitoneal injection of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine, 1 mg/kg), but not by nicotinic (mecamylamine, 2 mg/kg) receptor antagonist. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of M2 (methoctramine, 10 µg) and M3 (4-DAMP, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, but not M1 (pirenzepine, 10 µg) receptor antagonist, blocked the effect. Also, spinal administration of 5-HT3 (MDL-72222, 12 µg) receptor antagonist, but not 5-HT1A (NAN-190, 15 µg) or 5-HT2A (ketanserin, 30 µg) receptor antagonist, prevented the anti-allodynic effect of EA. These results suggest that EA may have a signifi cant analgesic action against oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain, which is mediated by spinal cholinergic (M2, M3) and serotonergic (5-HT3) receptors. PMID:27382357

  2. Inhibition of muscarinic receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism by cocaine, norcocaine and cocaethylene in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tan, X X; Costa, L G

    1994-05-13

    The interaction of cocaine, its metabolites norcocaine and benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene, which is formed following a combined cocaine and ethanol exposure, with muscarinic receptor binding and phosphoinositide metabolism was investigated in brain from immature rats. Cocaine and norcocaine inhibited binding of [3H]telenzepine and carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in cerebral cortex, while benzoylecgonine was devoid of any inhibitory activity. Cocaethylene was the most potent inhibitor of both binding and phosphoinositide metabolism. The effect of cocaine was more pronounced at the muscarinic receptors, but a small inhibition of histamine--and serotonin--stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism was also observed.

  3. Comparative study of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of human and rat cortical glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Demushkin, V.P.; Burbaeva, G.S.; Dzhaliashvili, T.A.; Plyashkevich, Y.G.

    1985-04-01

    The aim of the present investigation was a comparative studyof muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human and rat glial cells. (/sup 3/H)Quinuclidinyl-benzylate ((/sup 3/H)-QB), atropine, platiphylline, decamethonium, carbamylcholine, tubocurarine, and nicotine were used. The glial cell fraction was obtained from the cerebral cortex of rats weighing 130-140 g and from the frontal pole of the postmortem brain from men aged 60-70 years. The use of the method of radioimmune binding of (/sup 3/H)-QB with human and rat glial cell membranes demonstrated the presence of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the glial cells.

  4. Different behavior toward muscarinic receptor binding between quaternary anticholinergics and their tertiary analogues.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1986-12-01

    A number of corresponding tertiary and quaternary anticholinergic analogues were examined for their ability to inhibit specific (3)H-dexetimide binding to calf brain muscarinic receptors. In all cases the tertiary antagonists (except pirenzepine) showed steep and monophasic inhibition curves, whereas those of the quaternary derivatives were shallow (thiazinamium, methylbenactyzine) or even biphasic (oxyphenonium, methylatropine, methylscopolamine). These observations show that the addition of a methyl group to the nitrogen atom changes the mode of interaction of the anticholinergics to muscarinic receptor binding sites. Whether there are separate binding sites present or differences in interaction mode for only the quaternary moiety is discussed. PMID:24271831

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against the native or denatured forms of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    André, C; Guillet, J G; De Backer, J P; Vanderheyden, P; Hoebeke, J; Strosberg, A D

    1984-01-01

    BALB/c mice were immunized with affinity-purified muscarinic acetylcholine receptors from calf brain and their splenocytes fused with NS1 myeloma cells. Hybrid cultures were grown and selected for production of antibodies on the basis of enzyme immunoassays on calf and rat forebrain membrane preparations. Thirty-four clones were retained and six of them further subcloned. Two of these subclones produced antibodies that selectively recognized muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-bearing membranes. The M-35b antibodies interacted only with native digitonin-solubilized receptors, and not with denatured receptors. The M-23c antibodies did not react with active digitonin-solubilized receptors but recognized the denatured form. The M-23c antibodies should thus be useful in the purification of the receptor and its precursor translation products, while the M-35b antibodies could be used for the immunocytochemical localization of the receptor in cells and tissues of different species. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6200320

  6. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  7. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.

  8. Cholinergic and serotonergic alterations in the rat hippocampus following trimethyltin exposure and fetal neural transplantation.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Agrawal, A K; Husain, R; Dubey, M P; Seth, P K

    1999-01-15

    Trimethyltin (TMT) apart from causing cholinergic denervation of the hippocampus, damages the serotonergic inputs into the hippocampus as well. In the present study, fetal cholinergic and serotonergic rich neuronal populations from septal and raphe regions, respectively, were transplanted alone or in combination (as co-grafts) in the hippocampus of TMT exposed rats. Neurotransmitter receptor binding and neurotransmitter levels were assayed 6 months post-transplantation. Fetal septal transplants (rich in cholinergic neurons) significantly restored the deficits in cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor binding and acetylcholinesterase activity caused by TMT exposure. Raphe transplants (rich in serotonergic neurons) restored the deficit in serotonergic receptor binding and serotonin levels caused by TMT. Co-grafts of fetal raphe and septal neurons restored both the cholinergic (muscarinic) and serotonergic receptor functions. The results suggest that co-grafting technique could provide a better restoration of functional deficits when more than one type of neuronal population is damaged. PMID:10025586

  9. Central cholinergic control of vasopressin release in conscious rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iitake, K.; Share, L.; Ouchi, Y.; Crofton, J.T.; Brooks, D.P.

    1986-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of carbachol into conscious rats evoked a substantial increase in vasopressin secretion and blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the muscarinic blocker, atropine (10 g icv), but not by the nicotinic blocker, hexamethonium (10 g icv). Hexamethonium did, however, block the increase in blood pressure, the decrease in heart rate, and they very small elevation in the plasma vasopressin concentration induced by nicotine (10 g icv). These results indicate that stimulation of either central nicotinic or muscarinic receptors can affect the cardiovascular system and suggest that the cholinergic stimulation of vasopressin secretion may involve primarily muscarinic receptors in the conscious rat.

  10. Radioligand binding to muscarinic receptors of bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, F.; Kukovetz, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Muscarinic receptors on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta were characterized by binding assays in which (-)-[3H]-N-methyl quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-NMeQNB) was used as radioligand. 2. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to crude membranes of freshly isolated endothelial cells was atropine-displaceable and of high affinity (KD = 0.48 nM) to a single class of sites (maximum binding capacity: 14 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein). Stereospecificity of the binding sites was demonstrated in experiments in which [3H]-NMeQNB binding was inhibited by dexetimide in the nanomolar range (KI = 0.63 nM) and by levetimide, its stereoisomer in the micromolar range (KI = 3.2 microM) (selectivity factor: approximately 5000). 3. Drug competition curves indicated a single class of binding sites for antagonists and the following apparent affinities (KI, nM): methyl atropine: 1.1: 4-diphenylacetoxy N-methyl piperidine methyl bromide (4-DAMP): 3.4; pirenzepine: 16; 11-[2-diethylamino-methyl)-1-piperidinyl- acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)1,4-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116); 2.500. Competition of acetylcholine with [3H]-NMeQNB was best described by two affinity sites (or states) (KH = 0.82 microM, KL = 1.6 microM). In the presence of guanylimido diphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (100 microM), acetylcholine affinity (IC50) was slightly, but significantly reduced (factor approximately 4). 4. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to freshly harvested intact cells was also atropine-displaceable, stereospecific (selectivity factor: approximately 3500) and of high affinity (KD = 0.35 nM). The maximum binding capacity (9 +/- 2 fmol mg-1 total cell protein) was comparable to that of membranes and corresponded to approximately 900 binding sites per endothelial cell.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015420

  11. Alpha-lipoic acid-mediated activation of muscarinic receptors improves hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Aamra; Farhat, Syeda Mehpara; Iqbal, Ghazala; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic agent which readily crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and accumulates in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders, characterised by cognitive impairment. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and has a potential to improve cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ALA in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity mouse model. Effect of ALA (25mg/kg/day) was evaluated in the AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity (AlCl3 150 mg/kg/day) mouse model on learning and memory using behaviour tests and on the expression of muscarinic receptor genes (using RT-PCR), in hippocampus and amygdala. Following ALA treatment, the expression of muscarinic receptor genes M1, M2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) were significantly improved (p<0.05) relative to AlCl3-treated group. ALA enhanced fear memory (p<0.01) and social novelty preference (p<0.001) comparative to the AlCl3-treated group. Fear extinction memory was remarkably restored (p<0.001) in ALA-treated group demonstrated by reduced freezing response as compared to the AlCl3-treated group which showed higher freezing. In-silico analysis showed that racemic mixture of ALA has higher binding affinity for M1 and M2 compared to acetylcholine. These novel findings highlight the potential role of ALA in cognitive functions and cholinergic system enhancement thus presenting it an enviable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Muscarinic preferential M(1) receptor antagonists enhance the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanda, Gianluigi; Katz, Jonathan L

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies of benztropine analogues have found them to inhibit dopamine uptake like cocaine, but with less effectiveness than cocaine in producing behavioral effects related to drug abuse. Studies have assessed whether nonselective muscarinic antagonists decrease the effects of cocaine because many of the benztropine analogues are also muscarinic antagonists. As previous studies were conducted with nonselective muscarinic antagonists and the benztropine analogues show preferential affinity for the M(1) muscarinic receptor subtype, the present study examined interactions of cocaine and the preferential M(1) antagonists, telenzepine (TZP) and trihexyphenidyl (TXP) on subjective effects in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline injections. Cocaine dose-dependently increased the percentage of responses on the cocaine-appropriate lever, with full substitution at the training dose. In contrast neither TZP nor TXP produced more than 25% cocaine-appropriate responding at any dose. Both M(1) antagonists produced significant leftward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect curve, TZP at 3.0 and TXP at 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg. The present results indicate that preferential antagonist actions at muscarinic M(1) receptors enhance rather than attenuate the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine, and thus those actions unlikely contribute to the reduced cocaine-like effects of BZT analogues.

  13. Modes and Models of Forebrain Cholinergic Neuromodulation of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hasselmo, Michael E; Sarter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As indicated by the profound cognitive impairments caused by cholinergic receptor antagonists, cholinergic neurotransmission has a vital role in cognitive function, specifically attention and memory encoding. Abnormally regulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been hypothesized to contribute to the cognitive symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. Loss of cholinergic neurons enhances the severity of the symptoms of dementia. Cholinergic receptor agonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been investigated for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Evidence from experiments using new techniques for measuring rapid changes in cholinergic neurotransmission provides a novel perspective on the cholinergic regulation of cognitive processes. This evidence indicates that changes in cholinergic modulation on a timescale of seconds is triggered by sensory input cues and serves to facilitate cue detection and attentional performance. Furthermore, the evidence indicates cholinergic induction of evoked intrinsic, persistent spiking mechanisms for active maintenance of sensory input, and planned responses. Models have been developed to describe the neuronal mechanisms underlying the transient modulation of cortical target circuits by cholinergic activity. These models postulate specific locations and roles of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and that cholinergic neurotransmission is controlled in part by (cortical) target circuits. The available evidence and these models point to new principles governing the development of the next generation of cholinergic treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:20668433

  14. Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine and dopamine receptor mRNAs in rat basal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, D.M. Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Bethesda, MD ); Levey, A.I. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD ); Brann, M.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Within the basal ganglia, acetylcholine and dopamine play a central role in the extrapyramidal control of motor function. The physiologic effects of these neurotransmitters are mediated by a diversity of receptor subtypes, several of which have now been cloned. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are encoded by five genes (m1-m5), and of the two known dopamine receptor subtypes (D1 and D2) the D2 receptor gene has been characterized. To gain insight into the physiological roles of each of these receptor subtypes, the authors prepared oligodeoxynucleotide probes to localize receptor subtype mRNAs within the rat striatum and substantia nigra by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Within the striatum, three muscarinic (m1, m2, m4) receptor mRNAs and the D2 receptor mRNA were detected. The m1 mRNA was expressed in most neurons; the m2 mRNA, in neurons which were both very large and rare; and the m4 and D2 mRNAs, in 40-50% of the neurons, one-third of which express both mRNAs. Within the substantia nigra, pars compacta, only the m5 and D2 mRNAs were detected, and most neurons expressed both mRNAs. These data provide anatomical evidence for the identity of the receptor subtypes which mediate the diverse effects of muscarinic and dopaminergic drugs on basal ganglia function.

  15. Muscarinic receptors and amylase secretion of rat pancreatic acini during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Morisset, J; Wood, J; Solomon, T E; Larose, L

    1987-08-01

    This study examines the effects of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis on the secretory response of rat pancreatic acini to carbamylcholine and concentration of acinar muscarinic receptors. Rats were injected subcutaneously every 8 hr with cerulein, 12 micrograms/kg, for two days. They were sacrificed 2 and 4 hr after the first injection, 4 hr after the second and third, and 8 hr after the sixth. By 2 hr after the first injection, carbamylcholine showed decreased potency for stimulating amylase release; decreased potency becomes maximal after the second injection. Four hours after the first injection, carbamylcholine also showed decreased efficacy for causing maximal amylase release. In the course of development of pancreatitis, progressive reductions in muscarinic receptor concentrations were evident from 4 hr after the second injection. Following the complete treatment (8 hr after the sixth injection), no alteration could be observed in the affinity or proportions of each agonist class of muscarinic receptors. These studies indicate that the pancreatic acinar cells still remain functional after acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis, although significant reductions in potency and efficacy of carbamylcholine to cause amylase release and reduced muscarinic receptor concentration occur. PMID:2440647

  16. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, J.R.; Kriegstein, A.R.

    1987-11-22

    The distribution of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors was investigated in the turtle forebrain by the technique of in vitro receptor autoradiography. Muscarinic binding sites were labeled with 1 nM /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and benzodiazepine sites were demonstrated with the aid of 1 nM /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (/sup 3/H-FLU). Autoradiograms generated on /sup 3/H-Ultrofilm apposed to tissue slices revealed regionally specific distributions of muscarinic and benzodiazepine binding sites that are comparable with those for mammalian brain. Dense benzodiazepine binding was found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the lateral and dorsal cortices, and the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), a structure with no clear mammalian homologue. Muscarinic binding sites were most dense in the striatum, accumbens, DVR, lateral geniculate, and the anterior olfactory nucleus. Cortical binding sites were studied in greater detail by quantitative analysis of autoradiograms generated by using emulsion-coated coverslips. Laminar gradients of binding were observed that were specific for each radioligand; /sup 3/H-QNB sites were most dense in the inner molecular layer in all cortical regions, whereas /sup 3/H-FLU binding was generally most concentrated in the outer molecular layer and was least dense through all layers in the dorsomedial cortex. Because pyramidal cells are arranged in register in turtle cortex, the laminar patterns of receptor binding may reflect different receptor density gradients along pyramidal cell dendrites.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to purified muscarinic receptor display agonist-like activity.

    PubMed Central

    Leiber, D; Harbon, S; Guillet, J G; André, C; Strosberg, A D

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody M-35, which immunoprecipitates native calf brain acetylcholine muscarinic receptor, mimics agonist stimulation of the intact guinea pig myometrium: the antibody, just like carbamoylcholine hydrochloride, causes a rise in intracellular cyclic GMP content, an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation due to prostacyclin, and induces uterine contractions. Another antibody, M-23, which reacts with the denatured muscarinic receptor, is devoid of agonist-like activity at the cyclic nucleotide level but is still able to induce contractions of both rat and guinea pig myometrium. The cyclic nucleotide changes caused by both carbamoylcholine and antibody M-35 are inhibited by atropine; this antagonist, which blocks carbamoylcholine-mediated contractions, fails however, to prevent contractions induced by antibodies M-35 and M-23. These results suggest that the information necessary to transmit muscarinic signals is entirely contained in the receptor and that ligands only act to trigger the biological response. The data also imply that the muscarinic receptors of the myometrium are coupled to multiple effector systems. PMID:6087318

  18. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, impairs signal transduction associated with muscarinic acetylcholine and metabotropic glutamate receptors: possible action on G alpha(q/11).

    PubMed

    Blanc, E M; Kelly, J F; Mark, R J; Waeg, G; Mattson, M P

    1997-08-01

    Considerable data indicate that oxidative stress and membrane lipid peroxidation contribute to neuronal degeneration in an array of age-related neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the impact of subtoxic levels of membrane lipid peroxidation on neuronal function is largely unknown. We now report that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, disrupts coupling of muscarinic cholinergic receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors to phospholipase C-linked GTP-binding proteins in cultured rat cerebrocortical neurons. At subtoxic concentrations, HNE markedly inhibited GTPase activity, inositol phosphate release, and elevation of intracellular calcium levels induced by carbachol (muscarinic agonist) and (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl glycine (metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist). Maximal impairment of agonist-induced responses occurred within 30 min of exposure to HNE. Other aldehydes, including malondialdehyde, had little effect on agonist-induced responses. Antioxidants that suppress lipid peroxidation did not prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses by HNE, whereas glutathione, which is known to bind and detoxify HNE, did prevent impairment of agonist-induced responses. HNE itself did not induce oxidative stress. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis using an antibody to HNE-protein conjugates showed that HNE can bind to G alpha(q/11). HNE also significantly suppressed inositol phosphate release induced by aluminum fluoride. Collectively, our data suggest that HNE plays a role in altering receptor-G protein coupling in neurons under conditions of oxidative stress that may occur both normally, and before cell degeneration and death in pathological settings. PMID:9231714

  19. Role of M2 Muscarinic Receptor in the Airway Response to Methacholine of Mice Selected for Minimal or Maximal Acute Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Juciane Maria de Andrade; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Florsheim, Esther; Albuquerque, Layra Lucy; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Gomes, Eliane; Tavares de Lima, Wothan; de Franco, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Orlando Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle constriction induced by cholinergic agonists such as methacholine (MCh), which is typically increased in asthmatic patients, is regulated mainly by muscle muscarinic M3 receptors and negatively by vagal muscarinic M2 receptors. Here we evaluated basal (intrinsic) and allergen-induced (extrinsic) airway responses to MCh. We used two mouse lines selected to respond maximally (AIRmax) or minimally (AIRmin) to innate inflammatory stimuli. We found that in basal condition AIRmin mice responded more vigorously to MCh than AIRmax. Treatment with a specific M2 antagonist increased airway response of AIRmax but not of AIRmin mice. The expression of M2 receptors in the lung was significantly lower in AIRmin compared to AIRmax animals. AIRmax mice developed a more intense allergic inflammation than AIRmin, and both allergic mouse lines increased airway responses to MCh. However, gallamine treatment of allergic groups did not affect the responses to MCh. Our results confirm that low or dysfunctional M2 receptor activity is associated with increased airway responsiveness to MCh and that this trait was inherited during the selective breeding of AIRmin mice and was acquired by AIRmax mice during allergic lung inflammation. PMID:23691511

  20. Involvement of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors in Pathogenesis and Inflammatory Response Induced by Alpha-Neurotoxin Bot III of Scorpion Venom.

    PubMed

    Nakib, Imene; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-10-01

    Bot III neurotoxin is the most lethal α neurotoxin purified from Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion venom. This toxin binds to the voltage-gated sodium channel of excitable cells and blocks its inactivation, inducing an increased release of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and catecholamines). This study aims to elucidate the involvement of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in pathogenesis and inflammatory response triggered by this toxin. Injection of Bot III to animals induces an increase of peroxidase activities, an imbalance of oxidative status, tissue damages in lung parenchyma, and myocardium correlated with metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with nicotine (nicotinic receptor agonist) or atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) protected the animals from almost all disorders caused by Bot III toxin, especially the immunological alterations. Bisoprolol administration (selective β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist) was also efficient in the protection of animals, mainly on tissue damage. Propranolol (non-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist) showed less effect. These results suggest that both cholinergic and adrenergic receptors are activated in the cardiopulmonary manifestations induced by Bot III. Indeed, the muscarinic receptor appears to be more involved than the nicotinic one, and the β1 adrenergic receptor seems to dominate the β2 receptor. These results showed also that the activation of nicotinic receptor leads to a significant protection of animals against Bot III toxin effect. These findings supply a supplementary data leading to better understanding of the mechanism triggered by scorpionic neurotoxins and suggest the use of drugs targeting these receptors, especially the nicotinic one in order to counteract the inflammatory response observed in scorpion envenomation. PMID:27395044

  1. Heterogeneous receptor binding of classical quaternary muscarinic antagonists. I. Bovine tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; Ensing, K; in 't Hout, W G; de Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1991-01-01

    In competition experiments with the tertiary radioligand [3H]dexetimide, classical quaternary muscarinic antagonists like ipratropium bromide and N-methylscopolamine bromide distinguished two muscarinic binding sites in bovine brain (total brain minus cerebellum) membranes, in contrast to their tertiary analogues, atropine and scopolamine, which recognized only one binding site. This binding behavior was found to be almost identical in bovine striatal membranes, both in terms of binding affinities and proportions of high (Q1) and low (Q2) affinity binding sites. Both in total brain and in striatal membranes, the Q1/Q2 binding heterogeneity was independent of pirenzepine binding heterogeneity (M1/M2). In peripheral tissues, the binding properties of quaternary muscarinic antagonists varied. Whereas tertiary as well as quaternary compounds showed only high affinity binding towards muscarinic receptors in bovine atrial and left ventricular membranes, heterogeneous binding behavior was observed with quaternary but not with tertiary antagonists in bovine tracheal smooth muscle membranes. The tissue distribution found in the present study suggests that bovine tracheal smooth muscle contraction studies might shed light on the functional significance of the anomalous binding behavior of quaternary muscarinic antagonists. PMID:1824191

  2. Oligomeric size of the m2 muscarinic receptor in live cells as determined by quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Pisterzi, Luca F; Jansma, David B; Georgiou, John; Woodside, Michael J; Chou, Judy Tai-Chieh; Angers, Stéphane; Raicu, Valerica; Wells, James W

    2010-05-28

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), measured by fluorescence intensity-based microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging, has been used to estimate the size of oligomers formed by the M(2) muscarinic cholinergic receptor. The approach is based on the relationship between the apparent FRET efficiency within an oligomer of specified size (n) and the pairwise FRET efficiency between a single donor and a single acceptor (E). The M(2) receptor was fused at the N terminus to enhanced green or yellow fluorescent protein and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Emission spectra were analyzed by spectral deconvolution, and apparent efficiencies were estimated by donor-dequenching and acceptor-sensitized emission at different ratios of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-M(2) receptor to enhanced green fluorescent protein-M(2) receptor. The data were interpreted in terms of a model that considers all combinations of donor and acceptor within a specified oligomer to obtain fitted values of E as follows: n = 2, 0.495 +/- 0.019; n = 4, 0.202 +/- 0.010; n = 6, 0.128 +/- 0.006; n = 8, 0.093 +/- 0.005. The pairwise FRET efficiency determined independently by fluorescence lifetime imaging was 0.20-0.24, identifying the M(2) receptor as a tetramer. The strategy described here yields an explicit estimate of oligomeric size on the basis of fluorescence properties alone. Its broader application could resolve the general question of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as dimers or larger oligomers. The size of an oligomer has functional implications, and such information can be expected to contribute to an understanding of the signaling process. PMID:20304928

  3. Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of chronic airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palot, Alain; Sofalvi, Tunde; Pahus, Laurie; Gouitaa, Marion; Tummino, Celine; Martinez, Stephanie; Charpin, Denis; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine (neuronal and non-neuronal origin) regulates bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion. It has an inflammatory effect by inducing attraction, survival and cytokine release from inflammatory cells. Muscarinic receptors throughout the bronchial tree are mainly restricted to muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptors. Three long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) were approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe: once-daily tiotropium bromide; once-daily glycopyrronium bromide; and twice-daily aclidinium bromide. All have higher selectivity for M3 receptors than for M2 receptors, and dissociate more slowly from the M3 receptors than they do from the M2 receptors. Some LAMAs showed anti-inflammatory effects [inhibition of neutrophil chemotactic activity and migration of alveolar neutrophils, decrease of several cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and leukotriene (LT)B4] and antiremodeling effects (inhibition of mucus gland hypertrophy and decrease in MUC5AC-positive goblet cell number, decrease in MUC5AC overexpression). In the clinic, LAMAs showed a significant improvement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), quality of life, dyspnea and reduced the number of exacerbations in COPD and more recently in asthma. This review will focus on the three LAMAs approved in Europe in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. PMID:24587893

  4. Preferential localization of muscarinic M1 receptor on dendritic shaft and spine of cortical pyramidal cells and its anatomical evidence for volume transmission.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Miwako; Matsui, Minoru; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2010-03-24

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays important roles for higher brain functions, including arousal, attention, and cognition. These effects are mediated largely by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). However, it remains inconclusive whether the mode of ACh-mAChR signaling is synaptic, so-called "wired," transmission mediated by ACh released into the synaptic cleft, or nonsynaptic, so-called "volume," transmission by ambient ACh. To address this issue, we examined cellular and subcellular distribution of M(1), the most predominant mAChR subtype in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and pursued its anatomical relationship with cholinergic varicosities in these regions of adult mice. M(1) was highly expressed in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons, whereas it was low or undetectable in various GABAergic interneuron subtypes. M(1) was preferentially distributed on the extrasynaptic membrane of pyramidal cell dendrites and spines. Cholinergic varicosities often made direct contact to pyramidal cell dendrites and synapses. At such contact sites, however, synapse-like specialization was infrequent, and no particular accumulation was found at around contact sites for both M(1) and presynpatic active zone protein Bassoon. These features contrasted with those of the glutamatergic system, in which AMPA receptor GluA2 and metabotropic receptor mGluR5 were recruited to the synaptic or perisynaptic membrane, respectively, and Bassoon was highly accumulated in the presynaptic terminals. These results suggest that M(1) is so positioned to sense ambient ACh released from cholinergic varicosities at variable distances, and to enhance the synaptic efficacy and excitability of pyramidal cells. These molecular-anatomical arrangements will provide the evidence for volume transmission, at least in M(1)-mediated cortical cholinergic signaling.

  5. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Voith, G.; Dingermann, T.

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I{gamma} promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I{gamma} promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Expression of the human muscarinic receptor gene m2 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed a functional human muscarinic M2 receptor, under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter, in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The use of a contact site A leader peptide ensured insertion of the newly synthesized receptor protein into the plasma membrane. Due to the characteristics of the discoidin I gamma promoter, the M2 receptor is expressed during late growth and early development. The heterologously expressed M2 receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic receptors. Membranes as well as whole cells can be used in ligand binding assays. PMID:9636297

  7. Muscarinic receptors are involved in LMM3 tumor cells proliferation and angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmaudo, Laura Elizabeth; Torre, Eulalia de la; Sacerdote de Lustig, Eugenia; Sales, Maria Elena . E-mail: mesales@2vias.com.ar

    2005-09-09

    Angiogenesis is a process of new blood vessel development from pre-existing vasculature and it plays an essential role in tumor growth and metastases. Here, we investigate the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) and their participation in tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis ability. Saturation binding assays with the tritiated muscarinic antagonist quinuclidinyl benzilate indicate that LMM3 cells derived from a murine mammary adenocarcinoma express a single class of functional mAchR. Competition binding assays with selective muscarinic antagonists indicate a predominance of M{sub 3} receptor subtype. The muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB) stimulates LMM3 cell proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. The maximal effect induced by 10{sup -9} M CARB was totally blunted by atropine and by the selective M{sub 3} and M{sub 1} antagonists, para-fluoro hexahydro sila-difenidol (pf-HHSiD) and pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, pf-HHSiD completely blocked in vivo CARB-induced neovascular formation and vascular endothelial growth factor-A in LMM3 tumor cells. We can conclude that mAchR expressed in LMM3 mammary tumor cells positively regulate proliferation and angiogenesis required for tumor progression.

  8. An investigation of the factors that regulate muscarinic receptor expression in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myoung Suk; Scarr, Elizabeth; Dean, Brian

    2014-09-01

    We previously identified a group of subjects with schizophrenia who, on average, have a 75% decrease in cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 (CHRM1) in Brodmann's area (BA) 9. To extend this finding, we determined i) if the decrease in CHRM1 was present in another functionally related CNS region (BA6), ii) whether the marked decrease in CHRM1 was accompanied by changes in levels of other CHRMs and iii) potential factors responsible for the decreased CHRM1 expression. We measured CHRM1 and CHRM3 using in situ radioligand binding with [(3)H]pirenzepine and [(3)H]4-DAMP respectively in BA6 from 20 subjects with schizophrenia who had low levels of CHRM1 in BA9 (SzLow[(3)H]PZP), 18 subjects with schizophrenia whose levels of CHRM1 were similar to controls (SzNormal[(3)H]PZP) and 20 control subjects. Levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA were measured using qPCR and levels of the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, were determined using Western blots. In BA6, the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was decreased in subjects with SzLow[(3)H]PZP (p<0.001) compared to controls. The density of [(3)H]4-DAMP binding, levels of CHRM1, 3 and 4 mRNA and levels of SP1 and SP3 was not significantly different between the three groups. This study shows that the previously identified decrease in CHRM1 expression is not confined to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex but is present in other cortical areas. The effect shows some specificity to CHRM1, with no change in levels of binding to CHRM3. Furthermore, this decrease in CHRM1 does not appear to be associated with low levels of CHRM1 mRNA or to simply be regulated by the transcription factors, SP1 and SP3, suggesting that other mechanisms are responsible for the decreased CHRM1 in these subjects.

  9. The Role of Muscarinic and Nicotinic Cholinergic Neurotransmission in Aversive Conditioning: Comparing Pavlovian Fear Conditioning and Inhibitory Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Matthew R.; Quinn, Jennifer J.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Aversive conditioning is an ideal model for studying cholinergic effects on the processes of learning and memory for several reasons. First, deficits produced by selective lesions of the anatomical structures shown to be critical for Pavlovian fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance (such as the amygdala and hippocampus) resemble those deficits…

  10. Impaired vascular responses to parasympathetic nerve stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation in the submandibular gland in nonobese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Berggreen, Ellen; Nyløkken, Krister; Delaleu, Nicolas; Hajdaragic-Ibricevic, Hamijeta; Jonsson, Malin V

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Decreased vascular responses to salivary gland stimulation are observed in Sjögren's syndrome patients. We investigate whether impaired vascular responses to parasympathetic stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation in salivary glands parallels hyposalivation in an experimental model for Sjögren's syndrome. Methods Blood flow responses in the salivary glands were measured by laser Doppler flowmeter. Muscarinic receptor activation was followed by saliva secretion measurements. Nitric oxide synthesis-mediated blood flow responses were studied after administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Glandular autonomic nerves and muscarinic 3 receptor distributions were also investigated. Results Maximal blood flow responses to parasympathetic stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation were significantly lower in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice compared with BALB/c mice, coinciding with impaired saliva secretion in nonobese diabetic mice (P < 0.005). Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor had less effect on blood flow responses after parasympathetic nerve stimulation in nonobese diabetic mice compared with BALB/c mice (P < 0.02). In nonobese diabetic mice, salivary gland parasympathetic nerve fibres were absent in areas of focal infiltrates. Muscarinic 3 receptor might be localized in the blood vessel walls of salivary glands. Conclusions Impaired vasodilatation in response to parasympathetic nerve stimulation and muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to hyposalivation observed in nonobese diabetic mice. Reduced nitric oxide signalling after parasympathetic nerve stimulation may contribute in part to the impaired blood flow responses. The possibility of muscarinic 3 receptor in the vasculature supports the notion that muscarinic 3 receptor autoantibodies present in nonobese diabetic mice might impair the fluid transport required for salivation. Parasympathetic nerves were absent in areas of focal infiltrates, whereas a normal distribution was

  11. Subclassification of muscarinic receptors in the heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia in the pithed rat. Selectivity of some classical agonists.

    PubMed

    van Charldorp, K J; de Jonge, A; Thoolen, M J; van Zwieten, P A

    1985-12-01

    In pithed normotensive rats muscarinic receptors were characterized in heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia; the selectivity of some classical muscarinic agents for these subtypes was investigated. The potencies in decreasing heart rate, increasing bladder pressure and increasing diastolic blood pressure were measured for the following, intraarterially administered cholinergic agonists: McN-A-343 ([4-m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy]-2-butynyltrimethylammonium), pilocarpine, carbachol, oxotremorine, arecoline, acetyl-beta-methylcholine and acetylcholine. The selective M1-antagonist pirenzepine, the mixed M1/M2-antagonist dexetimide and the cardioselective M2-antagonist gallamine were used as tools for identification of the receptors. All data were obtained after intravenous pretreatment with a high dose of atenolol to eliminate tachycardia induced by stimulating sympathetic ganglionic muscarinic receptors. Dexetimide strongly antagonized the bradycardia as well as the increase in bladder pressure induced by pilocarpine, carbachol, oxotremorine, arecoline, acetyl-beta-methylcholine and acetylcholine, whereas pirenzepine was much less effective. Gallamine antagonized the bradycardia, whereas no influence was found on the bladder contraction. Pilocarpine acted as a partial agonist in reducing heart rate as well as in increasing bladder pressure, whereas McN-A-343 was almost ineffective in doses up to 1 mg/kg. The hypertensive response to pilocarpine and carbachol was less pronounced than that produced by McN-A-343. Pirenzepine and dexetimide significantly antagonized the hypertensive response to McN-A-343 and pilocarpine, whereas gallamine was much less effective. The hypertensive response induced by carbachol was totally blocked by hexamethonium. The other agonists used in this study did not produce a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in doses that produced a maximal effect on heart rate and urinary bladder pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS

  12. Agonist mediated conformational changes of solubilized calf forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, P; Andre, C; de Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G

    1984-10-01

    Muscarinic receptors in calf forebrain membranes can be identified by the specific binding of the radiolabelled antagonist [3H]dexetimide. These receptors (2.8 pM/mg protein) comprise two non-interconvertible subpopulations with respectively high and low agonist affinity but with the same antagonist affinity. For all the agonists tested the low affinity sites represent 85 +/- 5% of the total receptor population. 0.5% Digitonin solubilized extracts contain 0.8 pM muscarinic receptor/mg protein. In contrast with the membranes, these extracts contain only sites with low agonist affinity. The alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide causes an increase of the acetylcholine affinity for the low affinity sites in membranes as well as for the solubilized sites. This effect is time dependent until a maximal 3-fold increase in affinity is attained. The rate of N-ethylmaleimide action is enhanced by the concomitant presence of agonists. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide does not affect antagonist binding. This suggests that agonists mediate a conformational change of both the membrane bound low affinity muscarinic sites and of the solubilized sites, resulting in their increased susceptibility towards NEM alkylation. PMID:6487351

  13. Chronic ethanol feeding produces a muscarinic receptor upregulation, but not a muscarinic supersensitivity in lower esophageal sphincter muscle.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzian, A; Gordon, J H; Willson, C; Urban, G; Fields, J Z

    1992-02-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) are important in esophageal physiology, and mAChR alterations may be involved in ethanol-induced esophageal dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), whereas withdrawal from chronic ethanol results in pressure increases which are reversible by acute ethanol. To see if this increase in LESP is due to upregulation of mAChR, we evaluated both mAChR binding and dose-response curves for bethanechol and atropine-induced changes in LESP before and after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The number of mAChR sites (Bmax) in LES (3.4 fmol/mg tissue) was lowered by acute ethanol (1.72, -50%); withdrawal from chronic ethanol raised Bmax (5.2, +54%). Acute injection of ethanol into cats in withdrawal reversed this increase in mAChR density (3.1, -10%). These changes correlated with our earlier data on ethanol-induced changes in LESP. However, the dose-response curve for bethanechol-induced pressure increases shifted to the right [ED25 (micrograms/kg); control, 8.6; withdrawal, 21.3], paralleled by an increase in the number of low-affinity agonist binding sites. Thus, 1) the withdrawal-associated increase in Bmax (up-regulation) is more likely to be a compensatory response to deficits (functional subsensitivity) distal to the receptor recognition site than to proximal deficits; 2) the increase in Bmax does not cause LESP hyperactivity; and 3) receptor binding changes do not necessarily translate into physiological changes. PMID:1346638

  14. Heterologously expressed serotonin 1A receptors couple to muscarinic K+ channels in heart.

    PubMed Central

    Karschin, A; Ho, B Y; Labarca, C; Elroy-Stein, O; Moss, B; Davidson, N; Lester, H A

    1991-01-01

    In cardiac atrial cells, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate a K+ current directly via a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). Serotonin type 1A receptors may activate a similar pathway in hippocampal neurons. To develop a system in which receptor/G protein/K+ channel coupling can be experimentally manipulated, we have used a highly efficient recombinant vaccinia virus vector system to express human serotonin 1A receptors in primary cultures of rat atrial myocytes. The expressed 1A receptors activated the inwardly rectifying K+ conductance that is normally activated by the endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Maximal responses to either agonist occluded further activation by the other agonist. The average activation time constants for serotonin were about 5 times slower than for acetylcholine. The data support suggestions that the intracellular signaling pathway from seven-helix receptors to G proteins and directly to ion channels is widespread in excitable cells. After a fraction of the G proteins are activated irreversibly by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, subsequent transduction proceeds more efficiently. One possible interpretation is that multiple G-protein molecules are required to activate each channel. Vaccinia virus expression vectors are thus useful for expressing seven-helix receptors in primary cultures of postmitotic cells and have provided a heterologous expression system for the signaling pathway from seven-helix receptors to G proteins and directly to ion channels. Images PMID:1905814

  15. The effect of oxime reactivators on muscarinic receptors: functional and binding examinations.

    PubMed

    Soukup, O; Kumar, U K; Proska, J; Bratova, L; Adem, A; Jun, D; Fusek, J; Kuca, K; Tobin, G

    2011-05-01

    The antidotal treatment of organophosphorus poisoning is still a problematic issue since no versatile antidote has been developed yet. In our study, we focused on an interesting property, which does not relate to the reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of some oximes, but refers to their anti-muscarinic effects which may contribute considerably to their treatment efficacy. One standard reactivator (HI-6) and two new compounds (K027 and K203) have been investigated for their antimuscarinic properties. Anti-muscarinic effects were studies by means of an in vitro stimulated atrium preparation (functional test), the [(3)H]-QNB binding assay and G-protein coupled receptor assay (GPCR, beta-Arrestin Assay). Based on the functional data HI-6 demonstrates the highest anti-muscarinic effect. However, only when comparing [(3)H]-QNB binding results and GPCR data, K203 shows a very promising compound with regard to anti-muscarinic potency. The therapeutic impact of these findings has been discussed.

  16. Selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Dileo, G; Waelbroeck, M; Mash, D C; Flynn, D D

    1994-12-01

    We report here a novel strategy for the selective labeling and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype, based on the distinct kinetics of the muscarinic antagonists dexetimide and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) and on the selectivity profile of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 for the m1-m5 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Incubation with 10 nM dexetimide, a nonselective antagonist, resulted in > 90% occupancy of each of the m1-m5 receptor subtypes. The relatively rapid rates of dexetimide dissociation from the m1, m2, and m4 receptor subtypes (t1/2 values of < 12.5 min) and the slower rates of dexetimide dissociation from the m3 and m5 receptor subtypes (t1/2 values of 65 and 75 min, respectively) favored the labeling of the m1, m2, and m4 receptor subtypes with short incubations with [3H]NMS. Inclusion of 200 nM guanylpirenzepine and 250 nM AF-DX 116 prevented the binding of [3H]NMS to the majority of the m1 and m2 receptor subtypes, respectively, resulting in primary labeling of the m4 receptor subtype. Brief dissociation of the radioligand in the presence of 1 microM atropine improved the ratio of m4 to m2 labeling by selectively removing [3H]NMS from the m2 subtype. Under these conditions, the ratio of [3H]NMS binding to the m4 versus m1, m2, m3, and m5 receptor subtypes was 4:1. In vitro autoradiography combined with these m4-selective labeling conditions demonstrated that the M4 (m4) receptor subtype was localized to the primary visual area (V1, area 17, occipital cortex) and the basal ganglia, a distribution distinct from that demonstrated for the M1 (m1), M2 (m2), and M3 (m3) receptor subtypes. These results demonstrate that a combination of the distinct kinetics of dexetimide and NMS and the receptor subtype selectivity of guanylpirenzepine and AF-DX 116 provides a valuable labeling strategy to examine the distribution and localization of the M4 (m4) muscarinic receptor subtype in brain, peripheral tissues, and cell lines

  17. Diminished trkA receptor signaling reveals cholinergic-attentional vulnerability of aging

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Howe, William M.; Welchko, Ryan M.; Naughton, Sean X.; D'Amore, Drew E.; Han, Daniel H.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying the exceptional vulnerability of the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons during pathological aging have remained elusive. Here we employed an adeno-associated viral vector-based RNA interference (AAV-RNAi) strategy to suppress the expression of trkA receptors by cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/ substantia innominata (nMB/SI) of adult and aged rats. Suppression of trkA receptor expression impaired attentional performance selectively in aged rats. Performance correlated with trkA levels in the nMB/SI. TrkA knockdown neither affected nMB/SI cholinergic cell counts nor the decrease in cholinergic cell size observed in aged rats. However, trkA suppression augmented an age-related decrease in the density of cortical cholinergic processes and attenuated the capacity of cholinergic neurons to release ACh. The capacity of cortical synapses to release acetylcholine (ACh) in vivo was also lower in aged/trkA-AAV-infused rats than in aged or young controls, and it correlated with their attentional performance. Furthermore, age-related increases in cortical proNGF and p75 receptor levels interacted with the vector-induced loss of trkA receptors to shift NGF signaling toward p75-mediated suppression of the cholinergic phenotype, thereby attenuating cholinergic function and impairing attentional performance. These effects model the abnormal trophic regulation of cholinergic neurons and cognitive impairments in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. This rat model is useful for identifying the mechanisms rendering aging cholinergic neurons vulnerable as well as for studying the neuropathological mechanisms that are triggered by disrupted trophic signaling. PMID:23228124

  18. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological characterization of SVT-40776, a novel M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist, for the treatment of overactive bladder

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, C; Davalillo, S; Cabellos, J; Lagunas, C; Balsa, D; Pérez-del-Pulgar, S; Ballarín, M; Fernández, AG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Highly selective M3 muscarinic receptor antagonists may represent a better treatment for overactive bladder syndrome, diminishing side effects. Cardiac side effects of non-selective antimuscarinics have been associated with activity at M2 receptors as these receptors are mainly responsible for muscarinic receptor-dependent bradycardia. We have investigated a novel antimuscarinic, SVT-40776, highly selective for M3 over M2 receptors (Ki = 0.19 nmol·L−1 for M3 receptor affinity). This study reports the functional activity of SVT-40776 in the bladder, relative to its activity in atria. Experimental approach: In vitro and ex vivo (oral dosing) inhibition of mouse detrusor and atrial contractile responses to carbachol were used to study the functional activity of SVT-40776. The in vivo efficacy of SVT-40776 was characterized by suppression of isovolumetric spontaneous bladder contractions in anaesthetized guinea pigs after intravenous administration. Key results: SVT-40776 was the most potent in inhibiting carbachol-induced bladder contractions of the anti-cholinergic agents tested, without affecting atrial contractions over the same range of concentrations. SVT-40776 exhibited the highest urinary versus cardiac selectivity (199-fold). In the guinea pig in vivo model, SVT-40776 inhibited 25% of spontaneous bladder contractions at a very low dose (6.97 µg·kg−1 i.v), without affecting arterial blood pressure. Conclusions and implications: SVT-40776 is a potent inhibitor of M3 receptor-related detrusor contractile activity. The absence of effects on isolated atria preparations represents an interesting characteristic and suggests that SVT-40776 may lack unwanted cardiac effects; a feature especially relevant in a compound intended to treat mainly elderly patients. British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2008.00082.x PMID:19222482

  19. Involvement of central cholinergic mechanisms in the effects of oxytocin and an oxytocin receptor antagonist on retention performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    2000-11-01

    Oxytocin (OT, 0.10 microg/kg, sc) impaired retention of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task when injected into male Swiss mice 10 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. In contrast, the immediate post-training administration of the putative oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Thy-NH(9)(2)] OVT (AOT, 0.30 microg/kg, sc) significantly enhanced retention performance. Neither OT nor AOT affected response latencies in mice not given footshock on the training trial, and neither the impairing effects of OT nor the enhancing effects of AOT were seen when the training-treatment interval was 180 min, suggesting that both treatments influenced memory storage. The effects of OT (0.10 microg/kg, sc) on retention were prevented by AOT (0.03 microg/kg, sc) given immediately after training, but 10 min prior to OT treatment. The central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35, 70, or 150 microg/kg, i.p.), but not its quaternary analogue neostigmine (150 microg/kg, i.p.), reversed the impairment of retention performance induced by OT, whereas low subeffective doses of the centrally active muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or the central acting nicotinic cholinergic antagonist mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), but not methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the enhancement of retention performance caused by AOT. We suggest that oxytocin negatively modulates the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms during the posttraining period that follows an aversively motivated learning experience, leading to an impairment of retention performance of the inhibitory avoidance response. PMID:11031128

  20. Involvement of central cholinergic mechanisms in the effects of oxytocin and an oxytocin receptor antagonist on retention performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    2000-11-01

    Oxytocin (OT, 0.10 microg/kg, sc) impaired retention of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task when injected into male Swiss mice 10 min after training, as indicated by retention performance 48 h later. In contrast, the immediate post-training administration of the putative oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2), Thr(4), Thy-NH(9)(2)] OVT (AOT, 0.30 microg/kg, sc) significantly enhanced retention performance. Neither OT nor AOT affected response latencies in mice not given footshock on the training trial, and neither the impairing effects of OT nor the enhancing effects of AOT were seen when the training-treatment interval was 180 min, suggesting that both treatments influenced memory storage. The effects of OT (0.10 microg/kg, sc) on retention were prevented by AOT (0.03 microg/kg, sc) given immediately after training, but 10 min prior to OT treatment. The central acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (35, 70, or 150 microg/kg, i.p.), but not its quaternary analogue neostigmine (150 microg/kg, i.p.), reversed the impairment of retention performance induced by OT, whereas low subeffective doses of the centrally active muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or the central acting nicotinic cholinergic antagonist mecamylamine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), but not methylatropine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or hexamethonium (5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented the enhancement of retention performance caused by AOT. We suggest that oxytocin negatively modulates the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms during the posttraining period that follows an aversively motivated learning experience, leading to an impairment of retention performance of the inhibitory avoidance response.

  1. Direct excitation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: roles in cellular excitability, inhibitory transmission and cognition.

    PubMed

    Yi, Feng; Ball, Jackson; Stoll, Kurt E; Satpute, Vaishali C; Mitchell, Samantha M; Pauli, Jordan L; Holloway, Benjamin B; Johnston, April D; Nathanson, Neil M; Deisseroth, Karl; Gerber, David J; Tonegawa, Susumu; Lawrence, J Josh

    2014-08-15

    Parvalbumin-containing (PV) neurons, a major class of GABAergic interneurons, are essential circuit elements of learning networks. As levels of acetylcholine rise during active learning tasks, PV neurons become increasingly engaged in network dynamics. Conversely, impairment of either cholinergic or PV interneuron function induces learning deficits. Here, we examined PV interneurons in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and their modulation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). HC PV cells, visualized by crossing PV-CRE mice with Rosa26YFP mice, were anatomically identified as basket cells and PV bistratified cells in the stratum pyramidale; in stratum oriens, HC PV cells were electrophysiologically distinct from somatostatin-containing cells. With glutamatergic transmission pharmacologically blocked, mAChR activation enhanced PV cell excitability in both CA1 HC and PFC; however, CA1 HC PV cells exhibited a stronger postsynaptic depolarization than PFC PV cells. To delete M1 mAChRs genetically from PV interneurons, we created PV-M1 knockout mice by crossing PV-CRE and floxed M1 mice. The elimination of M1 mAChRs from PV cells diminished M1 mAChR immunoreactivity and muscarinic excitation of HC PV cells. Selective cholinergic activation of HC PV interneurons using Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs technology enhanced the frequency and amplitude of inhibitory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. Finally, relative to wild-type controls, PV-M1 knockout mice exhibited impaired novel object recognition and, to a lesser extent, impaired spatial working memory, but reference memory remained intact. Therefore, the direct activation of M1 mAChRs on PV cells contributes to some forms of learning and memory.

  2. Direct excitation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: roles in cellular excitability, inhibitory transmission and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Feng; Ball, Jackson; Stoll, Kurt E; Satpute, Vaishali C; Mitchell, Samantha M; Pauli, Jordan L; Holloway, Benjamin B; Johnston, April D; Nathanson, Neil M; Deisseroth, Karl; Gerber, David J; Tonegawa, Susumu; Lawrence, J Josh

    2014-01-01

    Parvalbumin-containing (PV) neurons, a major class of GABAergic interneurons, are essential circuit elements of learning networks. As levels of acetylcholine rise during active learning tasks, PV neurons become increasingly engaged in network dynamics. Conversely, impairment of either cholinergic or PV interneuron function induces learning deficits. Here, we examined PV interneurons in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and their modulation by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). HC PV cells, visualized by crossing PV-CRE mice with Rosa26YFP mice, were anatomically identified as basket cells and PV bistratified cells in the stratum pyramidale; in stratum oriens, HC PV cells were electrophysiologically distinct from somatostatin-containing cells. With glutamatergic transmission pharmacologically blocked, mAChR activation enhanced PV cell excitability in both CA1 HC and PFC; however, CA1 HC PV cells exhibited a stronger postsynaptic depolarization than PFC PV cells. To delete M1 mAChRs genetically from PV interneurons, we created PV-M1 knockout mice by crossing PV-CRE and floxed M1 mice. The elimination of M1 mAChRs from PV cells diminished M1 mAChR immunoreactivity and muscarinic excitation of HC PV cells. Selective cholinergic activation of HC PV interneurons using Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs technology enhanced the frequency and amplitude of inhibitory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. Finally, relative to wild-type controls, PV-M1 knockout mice exhibited impaired novel object recognition and, to a lesser extent, impaired spatial working memory, but reference memory remained intact. Therefore, the direct activation of M1 mAChRs on PV cells contributes to some forms of learning and memory. PMID:24879872

  3. Cholinergic regulation of the vasopressin neuroendocrine system

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the physical and functional relationship between the cholinergic system, and the neurodocrine cells of the supraoptic nucleus, a combination of experiments on receptor binding, localization and function were carried out. The putative nicotinic receptor probe (/sup 125/I)alpha bungarotoxin ((/sup 125/I)alpha BTX) bound with high affinity and specificity to the vasopressin and oxytocin magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, nucleus circularis, and paraventricular nucleus. Binding of (/sup 125/I)alpha BTX within the neural lobe was very low. In contrast, the muscarinic cholinergic receptor probe (/sup 3/H)quinuclidinylbenzilate ((/sup 3/H)QNB) did not bind to magnocellular vasopressin and oxytocin cell groups. The median eminence, which contains the neurosecretory axons, and the neural lobe of the pituitary contain low levels of (/sup 3/H)QNB binding. The physiological significance of these cholinergic receptors in regulation of vasopressin release was tested using an in vitro preparation of the supraoptic - neural lobe system.

  4. Ligand-binding assays for cyanobacterial neurotoxins targeting cholinergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Molgó, Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a threat to public health because of the capacity of some cyanobacterial species to produce potent hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Cyanobacterial neurotoxins are involved in the rapid death of wild and domestic animals by targeting voltage gated sodium channels and cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Anatoxin-a and its methylene homologue homoanatoxin-a are potent agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Since the structural determination of anatoxin-a, several mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed for detection of anatoxin-a and, later, homoanatoxin-a. Mass spectrometry-based techniques provide accuracy, precision, selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, adequate limit of detection, and structural and quantitative information for analyses of cyanobacterial anatoxins from cultured and environmental cyanobacterial samples. However, these physicochemical techniques will only detect known toxins for which toxin standards are commercially available, and they require highly specialized laboratory personnel and expensive equipment. Receptor-based assays are functional methods that are based on the mechanism of action of a class of toxins and are thus, suitable tools for survey of freshwater reservoirs for cyanobacterial anatoxins. The competition between cyanobacterial anatoxins and a labelled ligand for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is measured radioactively or non-radioactively providing high-throughput screening formats for routine detection of this class of neurotoxins. The mouse bioassay is the method of choice for marine toxin monitoring, but has to be replaced by fully validated functional methods. In this paper we review the ligand-binding assays developed for detection of cyanobacterial and algal neurotoxins targeting the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and for high-throughput screening of novel nicotinic agents.

  5. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  6. Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Thal, David M; Sun, Bingfa; Feng, Dan; Nawaratne, Vindhya; Leach, Katie; Felder, Christian C; Bures, Mark G; Evans, David A; Weis, William I; Bachhawat, Priti; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Sexton, Patrick M; Kobilka, Brian K; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2016-03-17

    Muscarinic M1-M5 acetylcholine receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate many vital functions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In particular, the M1 and M4 receptor subtypes have emerged as attractive drug targets for treatments of neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, but the high conservation of the acetylcholine-binding pocket has spurred current research into targeting allosteric sites on these receptors. Here we report the crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic receptors bound to the inverse agonist, tiotropium. Comparison of these structures with each other, as well as with the previously reported M2 and M3 receptor structures, reveals differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that contribute to a role in drug selectivity at this important receptor family. We also report identification of a cluster of residues that form a network linking the orthosteric and allosteric sites of the M4 receptor, which provides new insight into how allosteric modulation may be transmitted between the two spatially distinct domains. PMID:26958838

  7. Airway and lung remodelling in chronic pulmonary obstructive disease: a role for muscarinic receptor antagonists?

    PubMed

    Roth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lung tissue remodelling in chronic inflammatory lung diseases has long been regarded as a follow-up event to inflammation. Recent studies have indicated that, although airway and lung tissue remodelling is often independent of inflammation, it precedes or causes inflammation. None of the available therapies has a significant effect on airway and lung tissue remodelling in asthma, bronchiectasis, fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The goal of stopping or reversing lung tissue remodelling is difficult, as the term summarizes the net effect of independent events, including (1) cell proliferation, (2) cell volume increase, (3) cell migration, (4) modified deposition and metabolism of specific extracellular matrix components, and (5) local action of infiltrated inflammatory cells. The extracellular matrix of the lung has a very high turnover, and thus small changes may accumulate to significant structural pathologies, which seem to be irreversible. The most important question is 'why are pathological changes of the lung structure irreversible and resistant to drugs?' Many drugs have the potential to reduce remodelling mechanisms in vitro but fail in clinical trials. New evidence suggests that muscarinic receptor inhibitors have the potential to improve lung function through modifying tissue remodelling. However, the role of muscarinic receptors in lung remodelling, especially their supportive role for other remodelling driving factors, needs to be further investigated. The focus of this review is the role of muscarinic receptors in lung tissue remodelling as it has been reported in the human lung.

  8. Verrucotoxin inhibits KATP channels in cardiac myocytes through a muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Wu; Yazawa, Kazuto; Hao, Li-Ying; Onoue, Yoshio; Kameyama, Masaki

    2007-06-01

    Verrucotoxin is the major component of venom from the stonefish (Synanceia verrucosa). Stings from the dorsal spines of the stonefish produce intensive pain, convulsions, hypotension, paralysis, respiratory weakness and collapse of the cardiovascular system, occasionally leading to death. It has been reported that verrucotoxin might modulate ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) current in frog atrial fibers. However, the mechanism by which verrucotoxin acts on KATP current remains unclear. In this study, we examined whether verrucotoxin inhibited KATP current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, using the patch clamp method. Verrucotoxin suppressed KATP current induced by pinacidil (KATP channel opener) in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half maximum concentration of 16.3 microg/ml. The effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was suppressed by atropine (1 microM), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (100 nM), a muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effect of verrucotoxin on KATP current was attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine (10 microM) and calphostin C (10 microM), yet not by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (0.5 microM). These results suggest that verrucotoxin inhibits KATP current through the muscarinic M3 receptor-PKC pathway. These findings enhance our understanding of the toxic effects of verrucotoxin from the stonefish. PMID:17362922

  9. Selective Activation of M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reverses MK-801-Induced Behavioral Impairments and Enhances Associative Learning in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25137629

  10. Muscarinic and opioid receptor modulation of release of (Met/sup 5/-enkephalin immunoreactive material and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Retrogradely perfused bovine adrenal glands were stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh) and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium (DMPP), with or without: hexamethonium (C-6), atropine, imipramine, methacholine, pilocarpine, etorphine, or diprenorphine. Stimulation by either ACh DMPP resulted in an increased release of both (Met/sup 5/)-enkephalin immunoreactive material (ME-IRM) and catecholamines as measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. ACh (5 x 10/sup -5/ M) and DMPP (5 x 10/sup -5/ M) stimulated the release of norepinephrine greater than the release of epinephrine. The action of these agents was antagonized by C-6(5 x 10/sup -4/ M). Atropine (5 x 10/sup -7/ M) antagonized the action of ACh to stimulate norepinephrine and MI-IRM release while having no effect on DMPP-stimulated release. Imipramine (5 x 10/sup -6/ M) had no effect on either ACh or DMPP-stimulated release. Methacholine (4 x 10/sup -5/ M) potentiated the DMPP (1 x 10/sup -5/ M) stimulation of ME-IRM and catecholamine release; pilocarpine (4 x 10/sup -5/ M) significantly potentiated only the DMPP-stimulated release of norepinephrine. Pilocarpine (5 x 10/sup -5/ M) and muscarine (5 x 10/sup -5/ M) had no effect on the secretion of MI-IRM and catecholamines from the bovine adrenal gland. Etorphine (5 x 10/sup -7/ M) significantly decreased the ACh and DMPP stimulation ME-IRM and catecholamine release. The activity of a muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the bovine adrenal medulla in stimulus-secretion coupling has been controversial. The binding of /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate to chromaffin granule membranes was investigated to further characterize muscarinic receptors in the bovine adrenal gland.

  11. Muscarinic receptor subtypes controlling the cationic current in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zholos, Alexander V; Bolton, Thomas B

    1997-01-01

    The effects of muscarinic antagonists on cationic current evoked by activating muscarinic receptors with the stable agonist carbachol were studied by use of patch-clamp recording techniques in guinea-pig single ileal smooth muscle cells. Ascending concentrations of carbachol (3–300 μM) activated the cationic conductance in a concentration-dependent manner with conductance at a maximally effective carbachol concentration (Gmax) of 27.4±1.4 nS and a mean −log EC50 of 5.12±0.03 (mean±s.e.mean) (n=114). Muscarinic antagonists with higher affinity for the M2 receptor, methoctramine, himbacine and tripitramine, produced a parallel shift of the carbachol concentration-effect curve to the right in a concentration-dependent manner with pA2 values of 8.1, 8.0 and 9.1, respectively. All M3 selective muscarinic antagonists tested, 4-DAMP, p-F-HHSiD and zamifenacin, reduced the maximal response in a concentration-dependent and non-competitive manner. This effect could be observed even at concentrations which did not produce any increase in the EC50 for carbachol. At higher concentrations M3 antagonists shifted the agonist curve to the right, increasing the EC50, and depressed the maximum conductance response. Atropine, a non-selective antagonist, produced both reduction in Gmax (M3 effect) and significant increase in the EC50 (M2 effect) in the same concentration range. The depression of the conductance by 4-DAMP, zamifenacin and atropine could not be explained by channel block as cationic current evoked by adding GTPγS to the pipette (without application of carbachol) was unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that carbachol activates M2 muscarinic receptors so initiating the opening of cationic channels which cause depolarization; this effect is potentiated by an unknown mechanism when carbachol activates M3 receptors. As an increasing fraction of M3 receptors are blocked by an antagonist, the effects on cationic current of an increasing proportion of

  12. Muscarinic M(3) facilitation of acetylcholine release from rat myenteric neurons depends on adenosine outflow leading to activation of excitatory A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Vieira, C; Duarte-Araújo, M; Adães, S; Magalhães-Cardoso, T; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2009-10-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the myenteric plexus, and it regulates its own release acting via muscarinic autoreceptors. Adenosine released from stimulated myenteric neurons modulates ACh release preferentially via facilitatory A(2A) receptors. In this study, we investigated how muscarinic and adenosine receptors interplay to regulate ACh from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Blockade of the muscarinic M(2) receptor with 11-[[2-1[(diethylamino) methyl-1-piperidinyl]- acetyl

  13. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; de Valdivia, Ernesto Gonzalez; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M M; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels O; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin R; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2013-09-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M) and muscarine (EC50, 6 × 10(-8) M) and blocked by the classical mAChR antagonists atropine, scopolamine, and 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB), while the other (the B-type; encoded by gene CG7918) is also activated by acetylcholine, but has a 1,000-fold lower sensitivity to muscarine, and is not blocked by the antagonists. A- and B-type mAChRs were also cloned and functionally characterized from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Recently, Haga et al. (Nature 2012, 482: 547-551) published the crystal structure of the human m2 mAChR, revealing 14 amino acid residues forming the binding pocket for QNB. These residues are identical between the human m2 and the D. melanogaster and T. castaneum A-type mAChRs, while many of them are different between the human m2 and the B-type receptors. Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome. Protostomes, such as arthropods, and deuterostomes, such as mammals and other vertebrates, belong to two evolutionarily distinct lineages of animal evolution that split about 700 million years ago. We found that animals that originated before this split, such as cnidarians (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs.

  14. Acetylcholine receptors and cholinergic ligands: biochemical and genetic aspects in Torpedo californica and Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study evaluates the biochemical and genetic aspects of the acetylcholine receptor proteins and cholinergic ligands in Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. Included are (1) a comparative study of nicotinic ligand-induced cation release from acetylcholine receptors isolated from Torpedo californica and from Drosophila melanogaster, (2) solution studies of the cholinergic ligands, nikethamide and ethamivan, aimed at measuring internal molecular rotational barriers in solvents of different polarity; and (3) the isolation and characterization of the gene(s) for the acetylcholine receptor in Drosophila melasogaster. Acetylcholine receptor proteins isolated from Drosphila melanogaster heads were found to behave kinetically similar (with regards to cholinergic ligand-induced /sup 155/Eu:/sup 3 +/ displacement from prelabeled proteins) to receptor proteins isolated from Torpedo californica electric tissue, providing additional biochemical evidence for the existence of a Drosophila acetylcholine receptor.

  15. Carbamylcholine and phorbol esters desensitize muscarinic receptors by different mechanisms in rat pancreatic acini.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, L M; Paquette, B; Larose, L; Morisset, J

    1990-01-01

    Pretreatment of rat pancreatic acini with phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PK-C) activator, caused the desensitization of carbamylcholine (CBC)-induced amylase release in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The less potent phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) also provoked a desensitization, but the inactive 4-alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate had no effect. PMA or PDBu also significantly reduced subsequent amylase release induced by caerulein or secretin in contrast to CBC, which only reduced amylase release induced by CBC or secretin. Preincubation of acini with PMA did not lead to a decrease in PMA or A23187-stimulated amylase release. A 3 h resting period did not restore the desensitization induced by PMA or PDBu. Pretreatment with PMA did not cause changes in muscarinic receptor high- and low-affinity populations as observed with CBC pretreatment. The PK-C inhibitor H-7 completely prevented the desensitization induced by PDBu but not that induced by CBC. TMB-8, another PK-C inhibitor, also completely prevented the desensitization induced by PDBu but only partially that induced by CBC. These results suggest that phorbol esters can induce desensitization of muscarinic receptor-stimulated amylase release by a different mechanism than that involved in muscarinic agonist-induced desensitization.

  16. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  17. [Cholinergic system of the heart].

    PubMed

    Kučera, Matej; Hrabovská, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The cholinergic system of the heart can be either of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. The neuronal cholinergic system in the heart is represented by preganglionic parasympathetic pathways, intracardiac parasympathetic ganglia and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons projecting to the atria, SA node and AV node. The non-neuronal cholinergic system consists of cardiomyocytes that have complete equipment for synthesis and secretion of acetylcholine. Current knowledge suggests that the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the heart affects the regulation of the heart during sympathetic activation. The non-neuronal cholinergic system of the heart plays also a role in the energy metabolism of cardimyocites. Acetylcholine of both neuronal and non-neuronal origin acts in the heart through muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. The effect of acetylcholine in the heart is terminated by cholinesterases acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Recently, papers suggest that the increased cholinergic tone in the heart by cholinesterase inhibitors has a positive effect on some cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure. For this reason, the cholinesterase inhibitors might be used in the treatment of certain cardiovascular disorders in the future.

  18. Heart ventricles specific stress-induced changes in β-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Tillinger, Andrej; Novakova, Martina; Krizanova, Olga; Kvetnansky, Richard; Myslivecek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    The left and right ventricles fulfill different role in heart function. Here we compare chamber specific changes in local catecholamine concentrations; gene expression and the receptor protein amount of all three β-adrenoceptors (β-AR) in rat right heart ventricles exposed to acute (1 session) and repeated (7 sessions) immobilization stress (IMMO) vs. previously observed changes in left ventricles. Density of muscarinic receptors as main cardio-inhibitive receptors was also measured. In the right ventricles, noradrenaline and adrenaline were increased. No β1-AR changes were observed, in spite of the increased sympathetic activity. On the other hand, we have found a decrease of β2-AR gene expression (reduction to 30%) after 7 IMMO and protein (to 59%) after 1 IMMO. β3-AR gene expression was increased after 7 IMMO. Muscarinic receptor density was not changed. When comparing correlation in left and right ventricles, there was strong correlation between adrenaline and β2-AR gene expression, protein and β3-AR gene expression in the left ventricles while only correlation between adrenaline and β2-AR mRNA and protein in the right ventricles was found. Our results show that maintenance of cardiac homeostasis under stress conditions are to a great extent achieved by a balance between different receptors and also by a balanced receptor changes in left vs. right ventricles. Taken together, decrease of cardio-stimulating β2-AR represents a new important mechanism by which β2-AR contributes to the heart physiology.

  19. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  20. Nicotine receptors and depression: revisiting and revising the cholinergic hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mineur, Yann S.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2010-01-01

    There is a well-established connection between smoking and depression, with depressed individuals over-represented among smokers and ex-smokers often experiencing increased depressive symptoms immediately after quitting. Nicotine in tobacco binds, activates and desensitizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), but it is not known whether activation or desensitization is more important for nicotine’s effects on depressive symptoms. In this article, we review the hypothesis that blockade rather than activation of neuronal nAChRs might be important for the effects of nicotinic agents on depressive symptoms based on clinical and preclinical studies of nicotinic drugs. The endogenous neurotransmitter for nAChRs is acetylcholine, and the effects of nicotine on depression-like behaviors support the idea that dysregulation of the cholinergic system might contribute to the etiology of major depressive disorder. Thus, pharmacological agents that limit acetylcholine signaling through neuronal nAChRs might be promising for the development of novel antidepressant medications. PMID:20965579

  1. Reduction of ventricular M2 muscarinic receptors in cardiomyopathic hamster (CHF 147) at the necrotic stage of the myopathy.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M; Horackova, M; Giles, A

    1994-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that isolated ventricular myocytes from cardiomyopathic hamsters (CHF 147) during the necrotic stage (70-100 days) exhibit an attenuated contractile response to muscarinic stimulation. In the present study we have investigated whether this dysfunction may be related to a change in the density (or affinity) of cardiac muscarinic receptors. Thus, we have characterized and quantified the binding of the muscarinic antagonist [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine (NMS) to M2 muscarinic receptors in cardiac micropunches and in suspensions of isolated intact cardiomyocytes obtained from cardiomyopathic (CHF 147) and Golden Syrian hamsters. The hamsters were either 70-100 days old, when the cardiomyopathy had reached the cytolytic and necrotic stage or 30 days old, i.e. before the onset of the cardiomyopathy. In both preparations (micropunches and dissociated cardiomyocytes) the specific binding of [3H]-NMS was stereospecific, reversible, saturable, of high affinity and linearly dependent upon increasing amounts of tissue and cells. The binding site also possessed the drug specificity typical of an M2 muscarinic receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed that the hearts of the older CHF 147 hamsters contain significantly fewer M2 muscarinic receptors than the control Golden Syrian hamsters while the affinity (Kd) was not altered. This reduction of M2 receptor number was not observed in CHF 147 hamsters at 30 days. Further, we found no differences in beta-adrenergic or in alpha 1-adrenergic binding in the two strains of hamster at either age. Thus, our results indicate that the parasympathetic regulation of cardiac function in CHF 147 hamsters may be compromised by a decreased number of muscarinic receptors at the necrotic stage of the cardiomyopathy.

  2. Possible Mechanisms for Functional Antagonistic Effect of Ferula assafoetida on Muscarinic Receptors in Tracheal Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kiyanmehr, Majid; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzehi, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background The contribution of histamine (H1) receptors inhibitory and/or β-adrenoceptors stimulatory mechanisms in the relaxant property of Ferula assa-foetida. (F. asafoetida) was examined in the present study. Methods We evaluated the effect of three concentrations of F. asafoetida extract (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/mL), a muscarinic receptors antagonist, and saline on methacholine concentration-response curve in tracheal smooth muscles incubated with β-adrenergic and histamine (H1) (group 1), and only β-adrenergic (group 2) receptors antagonists. Results EC50 values in the presence of atropine, extract (5 and 10 mg/mL) and maximum responses to methacholine due to the 10 mg/mL extract in both groups and 5 mg/mL extract in group 1 were higher than saline (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0477, and P = 0.0008 in group 1 and P < 0.0001, P = 0.0438, and P = 0.0107 in group 2 for atropine, 5 and 10 mg/mL extract, respectively). Values of concentration ratio minus one (CR-1), in the presence of extracts were lower than atropine in both groups (P = 0.0339 for high extract concentration in group 1 and P < 0.0001 for other extract concentrations in both groups). Conclusion Histamine (H1) receptor blockade affects muscarinic receptors inhibitory property of F. asafoetida in tracheal smooth muscle PMID:27540324

  3. Different subcellular localization of muscarinic and serotonin (S2) receptors in human, dog, and rat brain.

    PubMed

    Luabeya, M K; Maloteaux, J M; De Roe, C; Trouet, A; Laduron, P M

    1986-02-01

    Cortex from rat, dog, and human brain was submitted to subcellular fractionation using an analytical approach consisting of a two-step procedure. First, fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation and were analyzed for their content of serotonin S2 and muscarinic receptors, serotonin uptake, and marker enzymes. Second, the cytoplasmic extracts were subfractionated by equilibration in sucrose density gradient. In human brain, serotonin and muscarinic receptors were found associated mostly with mitochondrial fractions which contain synaptosomes, whereas in rat brain they were concentrated mainly in the microsomal fractions. Density gradient centrifugation confirmed a more marked synaptosomal localization of receptors in human than in rat brain, the dog displaying an intermediate profile. In human brain, indeed, more receptor sites were found to be associated with the second peak characterized in electron microscopy by the largest number of nerve terminals. In addition, synaptosomes from human brain are denser than those from rat brain and some marker enzymes reveal different subcellular distribution in the three species. These data indicate that more receptors are of synaptosomal nature in human brain than in other species and this finding is compatible with a larger amount of synaptic contacts in human brain. PMID:2934515

  4. AF-DX 116, a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, potentiates the effects of glucose and reverses the effects of insulin on memory.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    1998-11-01

    Male Swiss mice were tested 24 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Low subeffective doses of d-(+)-glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), but not its stereoisomer l-(-)-glucose (30 mg/kg,ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.3 mg/kg,ip), a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, given 10 min after training, interact to improve retention. Insulin (8 IU/kg, ip) impaired retention when injected immediately after training, and the effects were reversed, in a dose-related manner, by AF-DX 116 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, ip) administered 10 min following insulin. Since AF-DX 116 possibly blocks autoreceptors mediating the inhibition of acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerve terminals, the present data support the view that changes in the central nervous system glucose availability, subsequent to modification of circulating glucose levels, influence the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory storage of an inhibitory avoidance response in mice. PMID:9774523

  5. AF-DX 116, a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, potentiates the effects of glucose and reverses the effects of insulin on memory.

    PubMed

    Kopf, S R; Boccia, M M; Baratti, C M

    1998-11-01

    Male Swiss mice were tested 24 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Low subeffective doses of d-(+)-glucose (10 mg/kg, ip), but not its stereoisomer l-(-)-glucose (30 mg/kg,ip), administered immediately after training, and AF-DX 116 (0.3 mg/kg,ip), a presynaptic muscarinic receptor antagonist, given 10 min after training, interact to improve retention. Insulin (8 IU/kg, ip) impaired retention when injected immediately after training, and the effects were reversed, in a dose-related manner, by AF-DX 116 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg, ip) administered 10 min following insulin. Since AF-DX 116 possibly blocks autoreceptors mediating the inhibition of acetylcholine release from cholinergic nerve terminals, the present data support the view that changes in the central nervous system glucose availability, subsequent to modification of circulating glucose levels, influence the activity of central cholinergic mechanisms involved in memory storage of an inhibitory avoidance response in mice.

  6. Activation of muscarinic receptors inhibits glutamate-induced GSK-3β overactivation in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Li-min; Chen, Hong-zhuan; Lu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the actions of the muscarinic agonist carbachol on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of glutamate for 24 or 48 h. The cell viability was measured using MTT assay, and the expression and activation of GSK-3β were detected with Western blot. β-Catenin translocation was detected using immunofluorescence. Luciferase reporter assay and real-time PCR were used to analyze the transcriptional activity of β-catenin. Results: Glutamate (1, 3, and 10 mmol/L) induced PC12 cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of the cells with glutamate (1 mmol/L) caused significant overactivation of GSK-3β and prevented β-catenin translocation to the nucleus. Pretreatment with carbachol (0.01 μmol/L) blocked glutamate-induced cell death and GSK-3β overactivation, and markedly enhanced β-catenin transcriptional activity. Conclusion: Activation of muscarinic receptors exerts neuroprotection in PC12 cells by attenuating glutamate-induced GSK-3β overactivation, suggesting potential benefits of muscarinic agonists for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23685950

  7. Muscarinic cholinergic ligand binding to intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) coupling with two biochemical effectors: adenylate cyclase and phosphatidylinositol turnover.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, K; Vickroy, T W; Watson, M; Roeske, W R; Reisine, T D; Smith, T L; Yamamura, H I

    1986-03-01

    (-)-[3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding to muscarinic receptors on intact mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D16-16) was characterized in an attempt to correlate radioligand binding properties with receptor-coupled biochemical responses. Performing rinse time studies for 2 hr produced a remarkably improved ratio of specific/total (+)-[3H]QNB binding (85%). Kinetic experiments yielded association (k+1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants of 2.2 X 10(8) M-1 min-1 and 6.8 X 10(-3) min-1, respectively. Receptor occupancy curves demonstrated a uniform population of specific, saturable (-)-[3H]QNB binding sites with a Hill coefficient equal to 1.0 and an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) equal to 34 pM under our conditions. Stereoselectivity was observed with the enantiomers (dexetimide and levetimide) of benzetimide (a factor of 4300). Concentrations of carbachol that produced a half-maximal inhibition of cyclic AMP formation and a concentration of carbachol for producing half-maximal stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in the intact cells were 0.45 and 170 microM, respectively. Schild analysis revealed that pirenzepine, a nonclassical muscarinic antagonist, had a 40-fold greater affinity for reversing carbachol-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover (inhibition constant or Ki = 7 nM), compared to its antagonism of the carbachol-mediated inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP formation (Ki = 280 nM). Interestingly, pirenzepine inhibited (-)-[3H]QNB binding with a Ki value of 72 nM. In contrast, atropine was nearly equipotent (Ki = 0.3-0.5 nM) in binding studies and in both effector systems. PMID:3005550

  8. Cholinergic inhibition of adrenergic neurosecretion in the rabbit iris-ciliary body

    SciTech Connect

    Jumblatt, J.E.; North, G.T.

    1988-04-01

    The prejunctional effects of cholinergic agents on release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve endings were investigated in the isolated, superfused rabbit iris-ciliary body. Stimulation-evoked release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine was inhibited by the cholinergic agonists methacholine, oxotremorine, muscarine, carbamylcholine and acetylcholine (plus eserine), but was unmodified by pilocarpine or nicotine. Agonist-induced inhibition was antagonized selectively by atropine, indicating a muscarinic response. Atropine alone markedly enhanced norepinephrine release, revealing considerable tonic activation of prejunctional cholinergic receptors in this system. Prejunctional inhibition by carbamylcholine was found to completely override the facilitative action of forskolin or 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic effects on neurosecretion were non-additive, suggesting that the underlying receptors coexist at neurotransmitter release sites.

  9. Differentiation between ligand trapping into intact cells and binding on muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Gossuin, A; Maloteaux, J M; Trouet, A; Laduron, P

    1984-05-22

    Binding properties of [3H] dexetimide , L-quinuclidinyl[phenyl-4-3H] benzilate and [3H]methylscopolamine were compared with intact 108 CC 15 cells and membrane preparations of those. The ability of the three ligands to label specifically muscarinic receptors on membrane fractions was quite similar. By contrast, when performed with intact cells, [3H] dexetimide and L-quinuclidinyl [phenyl-4-3H]benzilate revealed higher nonspecific binding which was prevented by methylamine, suggesting a trapping of the ligands within the cells presumably in the lysosomes. To the contrary, such nonspecific 'binding' or trapping was not detectable when [3H]methylscopolamine was used as ligand, a fact which makes this ligand particularly appropriate for labelling cell surface muscarinic receptors. It is concluded that more caution is needed in binding studies when performed with intact cells; indeed, besides specific binding on receptor sites, [3H]ligand can be entrapped within the cell and can even sometimes give the illusion of specific binding. The use of lysosomal agents which do not interfere with specific receptors on membrane preparations should allow one, in most cases, to discard the possibility of a trapping phenomenon in intact cells. PMID:6722181

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulation of mu (mu) opioid receptors in adult rat sphenopalatine ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Margas, Wojciech; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurons represent the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system involved in controlling cerebral blood flow. In the present study, we examined the coupling mechanism between mu (mu) opioid receptors (MOR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) with Ca(2+) channels in acutely dissociated adult rat SPG neurons. Successful MOR activation was recorded in approximately 40-45% of SPG neurons employing the whole cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. In addition, immunofluorescence assays indicated that MOR are not expressed in all SPG neurons while M(2) mAChR staining was evident in all neurons. The concentration-response relationships generated with morphine and [d-Ala2-N-Me-Phe4-Glycol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) showed IC(50) values of 15.2 and 56.1 nM and maximal Ca(2+) current inhibition of 26.0 and 38.7%, respectively. Activation of MOR or M(2) mAChR with morphine or oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M), respectively, resulted in voltage-dependent inhibition of Ca(2+) currents via coupling with Galpha(i/o) protein subunits. The acute prolonged exposure (10 min) of neurons to morphine or Oxo-M led to the homologous desensitization of MOR and M(2) mAChR, respectively. The prolonged stimulation of M(2) mAChR with Oxo-M resulted in heterologous desensitization of morphine-mediated Ca(2+) current inhibition, and was sensitive to the M(2) mAChR blocker methoctramine. On the other hand, when the neurons were exposed to morphine or DAMGO for 10 min, heterologous desensitization of M(2) mAChR was not observed. These results suggest that in rat SPG neurons activation of M(2) mAChR likely modulates opioid transmission in the brain vasculature to adequately maintain cerebral blood flow. PMID:19889856

  11. Type 3 muscarinic receptors contribute to intestinal mucosal homeostasis and clearance of nippostrongylus brasiliensis through induction of Th2 cytokines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increased appreciation for the role of nicotinic receptors in the modulation of and response to inflammation, the contribution of muscarinic receptors to mucosal homeostasis, clearance of enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function remains relatively undefined. Uninfected and N...

  12. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-01

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. PMID:26874213

  13. Coupling of G Proteins to Reconstituted Monomers and Tetramers of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Redka, Dar'ya S.; Morizumi, Takefumi; Elmslie, Gwendolynne; Paranthaman, Pranavan; Shivnaraine, Rabindra V.; Ellis, John; Ernst, Oliver P.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors can be reconstituted as monomers in nanodiscs and as tetramers in liposomes. When reconstituted with G proteins, both forms enable an allosteric interaction between agonists and guanylyl nucleotides. Both forms, therefore, are candidates for the complex that controls signaling at the level of the receptor. To identify the biologically relevant form, reconstituted monomers and tetramers of the purified M2 muscarinic receptor were compared with muscarinic receptors in sarcolemmal membranes for the effect of guanosine 5′-[β,γ-imido]triphosphate (GMP-PNP) on the inhibition of N-[3H]methylscopolamine by the agonist oxotremorine-M. With monomers, a stepwise increase in the concentration of GMP-PNP effected a lateral, rightward shift in the semilogarithmic binding profile (i.e. a progressive decrease in the apparent affinity of oxotremorine-M). With tetramers and receptors in sarcolemmal membranes, GMP-PNP effected a vertical, upward shift (i.e. an apparent redistribution of sites from a state of high affinity to one of low affinity with no change in affinity per se). The data were analyzed in terms of a mechanistic scheme based on a ligand-regulated equilibrium between uncoupled and G protein-coupled receptors (the “ternary complex model”). The model predicts a rightward shift in the presence of GMP-PNP and could not account for the effects at tetramers in vesicles or receptors in sarcolemmal membranes. Monomers present a special case of the model in which agonists and guanylyl nucleotides interact within a complex that is both constitutive and stable. The results favor oligomers of the M2 receptor over monomers as the biologically relevant state for coupling to G proteins. PMID:25023280

  14. Taurolithocholic acid promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell growth via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Amonyingcharoen, Sumet; Suriyo, Tawit; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant cancer of the biliary tract and its occurrence is associated with chronic cholestasis which causes an elevation of bile acids in the liver and bile duct. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanistic effect of bile acids on the CCA cell growth. Intrahepatic CCA cell lines, RMCCA-1 and HuCCA-1, were treated with bile acids and their metabolites to determine the growth promoting effect. Cell viability, cell cycle analysis, EdU incorporation assays were conducted. Intracellular signaling proteins were detected by western immunoblotting. Among eleven forms of bile acids and their metabolites, only taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) concentration dependently (1-40 µM) increased the cell viability of RMCCA-1, but not HuCCA-1 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed induction of cells in the S phase and the EdU incorporation assay revealed induction of DNA synthesis in the TLCA-treated RMCCA-1 cells. Moreover, TLCA increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK 1/2 and also increased the expression of cyclin D1 in RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, TLCA-induced RMCCA-1 cell growth could be inhibited by atropine, a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, AG 1478, a specific EGFR inhibitor, or U 0126, a specific MEK 1/2 inhibitor. These results suggest that TLCA induces CCA cell growth via mAChR and EGFR/EKR1/2 signaling pathway. Moreover, the functional presence of cholinergic system plays a certain role in TLCA-induced CCA cell growth.

  15. Muscarinic receptors in rat nasal mucosa are predominantly of the low affinity agonist type.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; Scheres, H M; Salden, H J; Beld, A J; Klaassen, A B; Kuijpers, W

    1985-07-31

    Specific [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat nasal mucosa homogenates occurs to a homogeneous class of binding sites with Kd = 60 +/- 2 10(-12) M and Bmax = 8.1 +/- 2 pmol/g tissue. Binding is stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Pirenzepine inhibits [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding with low affinity (Ki = 5.0 10(-7) M), classifying the binding sites as muscarinic M2-receptors. Methylfurtrethonium and methacholine inhibit [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding following an almost sigmoid curve at high concentrations pointing to the presence of mainly low affinity agonist binding sites. PMID:3840092

  16. Reductions of {sup 56}Fe heavy-particle irradiation-induced deficits in striatal muscarinic receptor sensitivity by selective cross-activation/inhibition of second-messenger systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.A.; Villalobos-Molina, R.; Rabin, B.M.; Dalton, T.K.; Harris, A.; Kandasamy, S.

    1994-07-01

    Recent experiments have revealed radiation-induced losses of sensitivity of rodent neostriatal muscarinic receptors to stimulation by cholinergic agonists that appears as reduction in oxotremorine enhancement of K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release. These losses were postulated to be the result of radiation-induced alterations early in phosphoinositide-mediated signal transduction. Additional findings indicated that if the ligand-receptor-G protein interface was bypassed no radiation deficits were seen. In the present study, radiation-induced deficits in K{sup +}-evoked dopamine release were examined in perifused striatal tissue obtained from rats exposed to 0,0.1 or 1.0 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles. Results showed that these deficits could be reduced by co-applying combinations of various pharmacological agents that were known to have differential effects on various second messengers such as 1,4,5-inositoltrisphosphate (IP{sub 3}). Combinations included oxotremorine-carbachol, and either oxotremorine or carbachol with arginine vasopressin or arachidonic acid. These results are discussed in terms of putative radiation-induced changes in receptor-containing membranes which alter receptor-G protein coupling/uncoupling. 49 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Differential Muscarinic Modulation in the Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard S.; Hu, Ruilong; DeSouza, Andre; Eberly, Christian L.; Krahe, Krista; Chan, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation of olfactory circuits by acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in odor discrimination and learning. Early processing of chemosensory signals occurs in two functionally and anatomically distinct regions, the main and accessory olfactory bulbs (MOB and AOB), which receive extensive cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. Here, we explore the regulation of AOB and MOB circuits by ACh, and how cholinergic modulation influences olfactory-mediated behaviors in mice. Surprisingly, despite the presence of a conserved circuit, activation of muscarinic ACh receptors revealed marked differences in cholinergic modulation of output neurons: excitation in the AOB and inhibition in the MOB. Granule cells (GCs), the most abundant intrinsic neuron in the OB, also exhibited a complex muscarinic response. While GCs in the AOB were excited, MOB GCs exhibited a dual muscarinic action in the form of a hyperpolarization and an increase in excitability uncovered by cell depolarization. Furthermore, ACh influenced the input–output relationship of mitral cells in the AOB and MOB differently showing a net effect on gain in mitral cells of the MOB, but not in the AOB. Interestingly, despite the striking differences in neuromodulatory actions on output neurons, chemogenetic inhibition of cholinergic neurons produced similar perturbations in olfactory behaviors mediated by these two regions. Decreasing ACh in the OB disrupted the natural discrimination of molecularly related odors and the natural investigation of odors associated with social behaviors. Thus, the distinct neuromodulation by ACh in these circuits could underlie different solutions to the processing of general odors and semiochemicals, and the diverse olfactory behaviors they trigger. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT State-dependent cholinergic modulation of brain circuits is critical for several high-level cognitive functions, including attention and memory. Here, we provide new evidence that cholinergic

  18. Human eosinophil major basic protein is an endogenous allosteric antagonist at the inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Fryer, A D

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) as well as other eosinophil proteins, on binding of [3H]N-methyl-scopolamine ([3H]NMS: 1 x 10(-10) M) to muscarinic M2 receptors in heart membranes and M3 receptors in submandibular gland membranes was studied. MBP inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors. MBP also inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating that the interaction of MBP with the M2 muscarinic receptor is allosteric. This effect of MBP suggests that it may function as an endogenous allosteric inhibitor of agonist binding to the M2 muscarinic receptor. Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by MBP was reversible by treatment with heparin, which binds and neutralizes MBP. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) also inhibited specific binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors but not to M3 receptors and inhibited atropine-induced dissociation of [3H]NMS-receptor complexes. On a molar basis, EPO is less potent than MBP. Neither eosinophil cationic protein nor eosinophil-derived neurotoxin affected binding of [3H]NMS to M2 receptors. Thus both MBP and EPO are selective allosteric antagonists at M2 receptors. The effects of these proteins may be important causes of M2 receptor dysfunction and enhanced vagally mediated bronchoconstriction in asthma. Images PMID:8473484

  19. Differential ontogeny of alpha 1-adrenergic and cholinergic receptor sites in the atria and ventricles of the inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive (S/JR) and -resistant (R/JR) rat.

    PubMed

    McCaughran, J A; Juno, C J; O'Malley, E

    1987-10-01

    The ontogeny of atrial and ventricular alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites was investigated in inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive (S/JR) and -resistant (R/JR) rats between 5 and 150 days of age. The density of sites in both cardiac regions was generally greater in the neonate than mature rat. A marked proliferation of sites was observed in neonatal and young adult rats that occurred in the following order: ventricular cholinoceptors----ventricular adrenoceptors----atrial cholinoceptors----atrial adrenoceptors. The density of ventricular adrenoceptors was greater in the S/JR rat than the R/JR rat at 5 days of age. At 150 days of age, the density of sites was less in the S/JR rat than the age-matched R/JR rat or the normotensive 50-day-old S/JR rat. The development of atrial adrenoceptors was similar between the strains, regardless of the blood pressure. The density of ventricular cholinergic receptors was greater in the S/JR strain at 5 and 15 days of age. However, the density of atrial cholinergic sites was consistently greater in the S/JR strain throughout development. The results of this study suggest that: (1) significant prenatal receptor development occurs in the heart; (2) receptor development may precede the functional maturation of postganglionic autonomic efferents; and (3) distinguishing differences in the regional density of alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic binding sites are present between S/JR and R/JR rats at much earlier points in development than previously shown.

  20. Cholinergic mechanism in Liriope tetraphylla (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Scemes, E; Garcia Mendes, E

    1986-01-01

    Crude whole body homogenates of Liriope tetraphylla exhibit a cholinesterase particularly active on acetylthiocholine but not on butyrylthiocholine. The acetylthiocholine hydrolysis is completely blocked by neostigmine. The Michaelis-Menten constant for acetylthiocholine is 0.14 mM. The pharmacological analysis of the responses to the choline esters nicotine and atropine suggests the involvement in Liriope tetraphylla of a cholinergic mechanism in the pointing reflex. Butyrylcholine, nicotine and atropine (but not muscarinic agonists) caused the contraction of the subumbrellar radial muscles. The effects of atropine were dose-dependent and were depressed in competition with muscarinic agonists. MgCl2 interfered with the action of atropine. The results were explained by suggesting the existence, at least at the neuromuscular junction, of excitatory (nicotinic) and inhibitory (muscarinic) pre-synaptic receptors modulating the release of the (unknown) transmitter acting post-synaptically.

  1. [Interaction of chagasic autoantibodies with the third extracellular domain of the human heart muscarinic receptor. Functional and pathological implications].

    PubMed

    Goin, J C; Pérez Leirós, C; Borda, E; Sterin-Borda, L

    1996-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate by ELISA and immunoblotting the presence in the sera of chagasic patients of circulating autoantibodies against the third extracellular domain of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by using a synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence 169-192 of the receptor. Immunoaffinity purified antipeptide antibodies displayed cardiac muscarinic activity as decreased contractility and cAMP production and increased cGMP levels. These effects were specifically blocked by the synthetic peptide and by atropine. A strong association between the existence of circulating autoantibodies and the presence of dysautonomia was shown, making these autoantibodies an appropriate marker of heart autonomic dysfunction.

  2. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by adenosine receptors in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R A; Davies, C H

    1997-01-01

    1. Intracellular current clamp recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices. Experiments were performed in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonists to block all fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. A single stimulus, delivered extracellularly in the stratum oriens, caused a reduction in spike frequency adaptation in response to a depolarizing current step delivered 2 s after the stimulus. A 2- to 10-fold increase in stimulus intensity evoked a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) which was associated with a small increase in input resistance. The peak amplitude of the EPSP occurred approximately 2.5 s after the stimulus and its magnitude (up to 30 mV) and duration (10-50 s) increased with increasing stimulus intensity. 2. The slow EPSP was unaffected by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+)-MCPG; 1000 microM) but was greatly enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (1-5 microM). Both the slow EPSP and the stimulus-evoked reduction in spike frequency adaptation were inhibited by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist atropine (1-5 microM). These results are consistent with these effects being mediated by mAChRs. 3. Both the mAChR-mediated EPSP (EPSPm) and the associated reduction in spike frequency adaptation were reversibly depressed (up to 97%) by either adenosine (100 microM) or its non-hydrolysable analogue 2-chloroadenosine (CADO; 0.1-5.0 microM). These effects were often accompanied by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (up to 8 mV) and a reduction in input resistance (up to 11%). The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonists 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA; 0.1-0.4 microM) and R(-)N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA; 1 microM) both depressed the EPSPm. In contrast, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5

  3. L-689,660, a novel cholinomimetic with functional selectivity for M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, R. J.; McKnight, A. T.; Scholey, K.; Newberry, N. R.; Street, L. J.; Hutson, P. H.; Semark, J. E.; Harley, E. A.; Patel, S.; Freedman, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    1. L-689,660, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 3-(6-chloropyrazinyl)maleate, a novel cholinomimetic, demonstrated high affinity binding (pKD (apparent) 7.42) at rat cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors. L-689,660 had a low ratio (34) of pKD (apparent) values for the displacement of binding of the antagonist ([3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) compared with the displacement of the agonist [3H]-oxotremorine-M ([3H]-Oxo-M), in rat cerebral cortex. Low NMS/Oxo-M ratios have been shown previously to be a characteristic of compounds that are low efficacy partial agonists with respect to stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol turnover in the cerebral cortex. 2. L-689,660 showed no muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity in radioligand binding assays but showed functional selectivity in pharmacological assays. At M1 muscarinic receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion, L-689,660 was a potent (pEC50 7.3 +/- 0.2) full agonist in comparison with (+/-)-muscarine. At M3 receptors in the guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle or in trachea, L-689,660 was again a potent agonist (pEC50 7.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.3 respectively) but had a lower maximum response than carbachol. In contrast L-689,660 was an antagonist at M2 receptors in guinea-pig atria (pA2 7.2 (95% confidence limits 7, 7.4)) and at muscarinic autoreceptors in rat hippocampal slices. 3. The putative M1-selective muscarinic agonist, AF102B (cis-2-methylspiro-(1,3-oxathiolane 5,3')-quinuclidine hydrochloride) was found to have a profile similar to L-689,660 but had up to 100 times less affinity in binding and functional assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422595

  4. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  5. Memory Enhancement Induced by Post-Training Intrabasolateral Amygdala Infusions of [beta]-Adrenergic or Muscarinic Agonists Requires Activation of Dopamine Receptors: Involvement of Right, but Not Left, Basolateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLumiere, Ryan T.; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic innervations of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulate memory consolidation. The current study investigated whether memory enhancement induced by post-training intra-BLA infusions of a [beta]-adrenergic or muscarinic cholinergic agonist requires concurrent activation…

  6. Amnesic effects of the anticholinergic drugs, trihexyphenidyl and biperiden: differences in binding properties to the brain muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Ohue, M; Kitaura, T; Kihira, K

    1999-07-10

    An amnesic effect of anticholinergic drugs was previously described from several behavioral studies. We examined this effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden, clinically used in the parkinsonism and schizophrenic patients, by using passive avoidance tasks. Both of these drugs (0.1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) showed dose-dependent amnesic effects in the acquisition and retrieval phases. However, the effect induced by trihexyphenidyl was transient, whereas that of biperiden was long-lasting. To clarify the reason for the different duration of the amnesic activity, binding to the muscarinic receptor was examined. In the Scatchard analysis, trihexyphenidyl competed with [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([(3)H]QNB) on the muscarinic receptor (showed increased K(d) and unchanged B(max) value), while biperiden decreased [(3)H]QNB binding (B(max) value) significantly. Furthermore, in an exchange assay for receptor inactivation, trihexyphenidyl binding to muscarinic receptors was exchanged by [(3)H]QNB completely, but biperiden decreased the exchangeable binding of [(3)H]QNB in a dose dependent manner (0.1-100 nM). These results suggested that the binding of trihexyphenidyl and biperiden to muscarinic receptor might be completely reversible and partially irreversible, respectively, whereas the K(i) values of these two drugs were similar. In conclusion, this difference in binding property may explain the difference in the time-course of the amnesic effect induced by trihexyphenidyl and biperiden.

  7. Muscarinic Preferential M1 Receptor Antagonists Minimally Alter the Discriminative-Stimulus Effects of Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Gianluigi; Katz, Jonathan L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of benztropine analogues have found them to inhibit dopamine uptake like cocaine, but with less effectiveness than cocaine in producing behavioral effects related to drug abuse. Studies have assessed whether nonselective muscarinic antagonists decrease the effects of cocaine because many of the benztropine analogues are also muscarinic antagonists. As previous studies were conducted with nonselective muscarinic antagonists and the benztropine analogues show preferential affinity for the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype, the present study examined interactions of cocaine and the preferential M1 antagonists, telenzepine (TZP) and trihexyphenidyl (TXP) on subjective effects in rats trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) from saline injections. Cocaine dose-dependently increased the percentage of responses on the cocaine-appropriate lever, with full substitution at the training dose. In contrast neither TZP nor TXP produced more than 25% cocaine-appropriate responding at any dose. Both M1 antagonists produced significant leftward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect curve, TZP at 3.0 and TXP at 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg. The present results indicate that preferential antagonist actions at muscarinic M1 receptors enhance rather than attenuate the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine, and thus those actions unlikely contribute to the reduced cocaine-like effects of BZT analogues. PMID:17631384

  8. Comparison of human and porcine gastric clasp and sling fiber contraction by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vegesna, Anil K.; Braverman, Alan S.; Miller, Larry S.; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Tiwana, Mansoor I.; Khayyam, Umar

    2010-01-01

    To compare the gastroesophageal junction of the human with the pig, M2 and M3 receptor densities and the potencies of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in gastric clasp and sling smooth muscle fibers. Total muscarinic and M2 receptors are higher in pig than human clasp and sling fibers. M3 receptors are higher in human compared with pig sling fibers but lower in human compared with pig clasp fibers. Clasp fibers have fewer M3 receptors than sling fibers in both humans and pigs. Similar to human clasp fibers, pig clasp fibers contract significantly less than pig sling fibers. Analysis of the methoctramine Schild plot suggests that M2 receptors are involved in mediating contraction in pig clasp and sling fibers. Darifenacin potency suggests that M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig sling fibers and that M2 and M3 receptors mediate contraction in pig clasp fibers. Taken together, the data suggest that both M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors mediate the contraction in both pig clasp and sling fibers similar to human clasp and sling fibers. PMID:20133950

  9. Cholinergic ligand interactions with acetylcholine receptor proteins and solvent interactions with N,N-dialkylnicotinamides

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    A dual-chambered flow dialysis nuclear counting apparatus was used to monitor cholinergic ligand induced displacement of {sup 155}Eu{sup 3+} from acetylcholine receptor proteins. Acetylcholine, nicotine and carbamylcholine induced similar rates of displacement of {sup 155}Eu{sup 3+} probes of calcium binding sites in receptor proteins from wild type Drosophila melanogaster and Torpedo californica. The receptor isolated from a nicotine resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster displayed an altered dependency of cholinergic ligand induced cation displacement with respect to the other two receptor proteins. Both Drosophila strains' solubilized receptor proteins migrated as three bands of molecular weights 68,000, 66,000, and 60,000 on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Carbon-13 NMR techniques were employed to examine the effects of solvent environment on rotational energy barriers in a series of molecules related to the analeptic, nikethamide: N,N-dimethylnicotinamide, 1-nicotinoyl piperidine, and N,N-dipropylnicotinamide.

  10. Disruption of cerebellar cholinergic system in hypoxic neonatal rats and its regulation with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine resuscitations.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Ajayan, M S; Paulose, C S

    2013-04-16

    Cholinergic system is important for respiratory control from the first days of life. Disturbances in cholinergic pathway due to early life stress like hypoxic shock can adversely affect the ventilatory response. The present study evaluates neonatal hypoxic insult mediated cholinergic disturbances and the role of glucose, oxygen and epinephrine resuscitation. The changes in total muscarinic, muscarinic M1, M2, M3 receptors and the enzymes involved in acetylcholine metabolism - cholineacetyl transferase and acetylcholine easterase in the cerebellum were analyzed. Hypoxic stress decreased cerebellar muscarinic receptor density with a decreased muscarinic M1, M2 and M3 receptor gene expression. The metabolic shift in the acetylcholine synthesis and release is indicated by the decreased cholineacetyl transferase mRNA expression and increased acetylcholine esterase gene expression. Glucose, acting as a precursor for acetyl choline synthesis and an immediate energy source, helps in reversing the cholinergic disturbances in hypoxic neonates. The limitation of immediate oxygenation and epinephrine administration in ameliorating cholinergic disturbances in hypoxic neonates was also reported. This will help in devising a better resuscitation program for the management of neonatal hypoxia.

  11. GIRK channel activation via adenosine or muscarinic receptors has similar effects on rat atrial electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Liang, Bo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K⁺ channels (GIRK) are important in the regulation of heart rate and atrial electrophysiology. GIRK channels are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic M₂ receptors and adenosine A₁ receptors. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the electrophysiological effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine on GIRK channels in rat atria. Action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD₉₀), effective refractory period (ERP), and resting membrane potential (RMP) were investigated in isolated rat atria by intracellular recordings. Both the adenosine analog N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and ACh profoundly shortened APD₉₀ and ERP and hyperpolarized the RMP. No additive or synergistic effect of CPA and ACh coapplication was observed. To antagonize GIRK channel activation, the specific inhibitor rTertiapin Q (TTQ) was applied. The coapplication of TTQ reversed the CPA and ACh-induced effects. When TTQ was applied without exogenous receptor activator, both APD₉₀ and ERP were prolonged and RMP was depolarized, confirming a basal activity of the GIRK current. The results reveal that activation of A₁ and M₂ receptors has a profound and equal effect on the electrophysiology in rat atrium. This effect is to a major extent mediated through GIRK channels. Furthermore, these results support the notion that atrial GIRK currents from healthy hearts have a basal component and additional activation can be mediated via at least 2 different receptor mechanisms. PMID:23609329

  12. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  13. ERK5 activation by Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors is independent of receptor internalization and β-arrestin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Fernández, Guzmán; Cabezudo, Sofía; García-Hoz, Carlota; Tobin, Andrew B; Mayor, Federico; Ribas, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to activate both G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent signalling cascades. The initiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways is a key downstream event in the control of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Both G proteins and β-arrestins have been reported to mediate context-specific activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPKs. Recently, the activation of ERK5 MAPK by Gq-coupled receptors has been described to involve a direct interaction between Gαq and two novel effectors, PKCζ and MEK5. However, the possible contribution of β-arrestin towards this pathway has not yet been addressed. In the present work we sought to investigate the role of receptor internalization processes and β-arrestin recruitment in the activation of ERK5 by Gq-coupled GPCRs. Our results show that ERK5 activation is independent of M1 or M3 muscarinic receptor internalization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-deficient muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors are still able to fully activate the ERK5 pathway, despite their reported inability to recruit β-arrestins. Indeed, the overexpression of Gαq, but not that of β-arrestin1 or β-arrestin2, was found to potently enhance ERK5 activation by GPCRs, whereas silencing of β-arrestin2 expression did not affect the activation of this pathway. Finally, we show that a β-arrestin-biased mutant form of angiotensin II (SII; Sar1-Ile4-Ile8 AngII) failed to promote ERK5 phosphorylation in primary cardiac fibroblasts, as compared to the natural ligand. Overall, this study shows that the activation of ERK5 MAPK by model Gq-coupled GPCRs does not depend on receptor internalization, β-arrestin recruitment or receptor phosphorylation but rather is dependent on Gαq-signalling.

  14. Cholinergic functioning in stimulant addiction: implications for medications development.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mooney, Marc

    2009-11-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter discovered, participates in many CNS functions, including sensory and motor processing, sleep, nociception, mood, stress response, attention, arousal, memory, motivation and reward. These diverse cholinergic effects are mediated by nicotinic- and muscarinic-type cholinergic receptors (nAChR and mAChR, respectively). The goal of this review is to synthesize a growing literature that supports the potential role of acetylcholine as a treatment target for stimulant addiction. Acetylcholine interacts with the dopaminergic reward system in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. In the ventral tegmental area, both nAChR and mAChR stimulate the dopaminergic system. In the nucleus accumbens, cholinergic interneurons integrate cortical and subcortical information related to reward. In the prefrontal cortex, the cholinergic system contributes to the cognitive aspects of addiction. Preclinical studies support a facilitative role of nicotinic receptor agonists in the development of stimulant addiction. In contrast, nonselective muscarinic receptor agonists seem to have an inhibitory role. In human studies, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which increase synaptic acetylcholine levels, have shown promise for the treatment of stimulant addiction. Further studies testing the efficacy of cholinergic medications for stimulant addiction are warranted. PMID:19845415

  15. Tramadol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Jafari-Sabet, Ali-Reza; Dizaji-Ghadim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The effects on tramadol state-dependent memory of bilateral intradorsal hippocampal (intra-CA1) injections of physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, were examined in adult male NMRI mice. A single-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. Post-training intra-CA1 administration of an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse), dose dependently impaired memory retention. Pretest injection of tramadol (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under the influence of post-training tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). A pretest intra-CA1 injection of physostigmine (1 μg/mouse) reversed the memory impairment induced by post-training administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1). Moreover, pretest administration of physostigmine (0.5 and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) with an ineffective dose of tramadol (0.25 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) also significantly restored retrieval. Pretest administration of physostigmine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. A pretest intra-CA1 injection of the atropine (1 and 2 μg/mouse) 5 min before the administration of tramadol (1 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) dose dependently inhibited tramadol state-dependent memory. Pretest administration of atropine (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/mouse, intra-CA1) by itself did not affect memory retention. It can be concluded that dorsal hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mechanisms play an important role in the modulation of tramadol state-dependent memory.

  16. Functional and biochemical characteristics of urinary bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Jeová Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To re-examine the function of the urinary bladder in vivo as well as to determine the functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors in long-term alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Methods Two-month-old male Wistar rats were injected with alloxan and the animals showing blood glucose levels >300mg/dL together with age-paired untreated animals were kept for 11 months. Body weight, bladder weight, blood glucose, and urinary volume over a period of 24 hours were determined in both groups of animals. A voiding cystometry in conscious control and diabetic rats was performed to determine maximal micturition pressure, micturition contraction interval and duration as well as voided and post-voiding residual volume. In addition, concentration-response curves for bethanechol in isolated bladder strips, as well as [3H]-N methyl-scopolamine binding site characteristics in bladder homogenates were determined. Results Mean bladder weight was 162.5±21.2mg versus 290±37.9mg in control and treated animals, respectively (p<0.05). Micturition contraction amplitude (34.6±4.7mmHg versus 49.6±2.5mmHg), duration (14.5±1.7 seconds versus 23.33±4.6 seconds) and interval (87.5±17.02 seconds versus 281.11±20.24 seconds) were significantly greater in alloxan diabetic rats. Voided urine volume per micturition contraction was also significantly higher in diabetic animals. However the post-voiding residual volume was not statistically different. Bethanechol potency (EC50 3µM versus 5µM) and maximal effect (31.2±5.9g/g versus 36.1±6.8g/g) in isolated bladder strips as well as number (169±4fmol/mg versus 176±3fmol/mg protein) and affinity (0.69±0.1nM versus 0.57±0.1nM) of bladder muscarinic receptors were also not statistically different. Conclusion Bladder function in vivo is altered in chronic alloxan-induced diabetes rats without changes in functional and biochemical characteristics of bladder muscarinic receptors. PMID:26466064

  17. Identification of four areas each enriched in a unique muscarinic receptor subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Hoss, W.; Ellerbrock, B.R.; Goldman, P.S.; Collins, D.A.; Messer, W.S. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The affinities of muscarinic agonists and antagonists were determined by autoradiography and image analysis in selected areas of the rat brain. IC{sub 50} values and Hill coefficients for the inhibition of the binding of 0.2 nM ({sup 3}H)-QNB to dentate gyrus, superior colliculus, rhomboid thalamus and substantia nigra were measured in coronal sections. Pirenzepine displayed a high affinity for receptors in the dentate gyrus and AF-DX 116, the superior colliculus. Both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 had high affinities for the substantia nigra and low affinities for the rhomboid thalamus. Gallamine displayed a 50-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Amitriptyline was less selective, showing a modest preference for substantia nigra receptors and 4-DAMP was essentially nonselective. Carbachol was the most selective agonist with a 4000-fold preference for superior colliculus over dentate gyrus receptors. Other agonists except RS 86 were also selective for superior colliculus receptors in the order carbachol >> arecoline > bethanechol > McN A343 = oxotremorine = pilocarpine.

  18. Dynamic Regulation of Quaternary Organization of the M1 Muscarinic Receptor by Subtype-selective Antagonist Drugs*

    PubMed Central

    Pediani, John D.; Ward, Richard J.; Godin, Antoine G.; Marsango, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Although rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors can exist as both monomers and non-covalently associated dimers/oligomers, the steady-state proportion of each form and whether this is regulated by receptor ligands are unknown. Herein we address these topics for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a key molecular target for novel cognition enhancers, by using spatial intensity distribution analysis. This method can measure fluorescent particle concentration and assess oligomerization states of proteins within defined regions of living cells. Imaging and analysis of the basolateral surface of cells expressing some 50 molecules·μm−2 human muscarinic M1 receptor identified a ∼75:25 mixture of receptor monomers and dimers/oligomers. Both sustained and shorter term treatment with the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine resulted in a large shift in the distribution of receptor species to favor the dimeric/oligomeric state. Although sustained treatment with pirenzepine also resulted in marked up-regulation of the receptor, simple mass action effects were not the basis for ligand-induced stabilization of receptor dimers/oligomers. The related antagonist telenzepine also produced stabilization and enrichment of the M1 receptor dimer population, but the receptor subtype non-selective antagonists atropine and N-methylscopolamine did not. In contrast, neither pirenzepine nor telenzepine altered the quaternary organization of the related M3 muscarinic receptor. These data provide unique insights into the selective capacity of receptor ligands to promote and/or stabilize receptor dimers/oligomers and demonstrate that the dynamics of ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of G protein-coupled receptors is markedly more complex than previously appreciated. This may have major implications for receptor function and behavior. PMID:27080256

  19. Dynamic Regulation of Quaternary Organization of the M1 Muscarinic Receptor by Subtype-selective Antagonist Drugs.

    PubMed

    Pediani, John D; Ward, Richard J; Godin, Antoine G; Marsango, Sara; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-06-17

    Although rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors can exist as both monomers and non-covalently associated dimers/oligomers, the steady-state proportion of each form and whether this is regulated by receptor ligands are unknown. Herein we address these topics for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, a key molecular target for novel cognition enhancers, by using spatial intensity distribution analysis. This method can measure fluorescent particle concentration and assess oligomerization states of proteins within defined regions of living cells. Imaging and analysis of the basolateral surface of cells expressing some 50 molecules·μm(-2) human muscarinic M1 receptor identified a ∼75:25 mixture of receptor monomers and dimers/oligomers. Both sustained and shorter term treatment with the selective M1 antagonist pirenzepine resulted in a large shift in the distribution of receptor species to favor the dimeric/oligomeric state. Although sustained treatment with pirenzepine also resulted in marked up-regulation of the receptor, simple mass action effects were not the basis for ligand-induced stabilization of receptor dimers/oligomers. The related antagonist telenzepine also produced stabilization and enrichment of the M1 receptor dimer population, but the receptor subtype non-selective antagonists atropine and N-methylscopolamine did not. In contrast, neither pirenzepine nor telenzepine altered the quaternary organization of the related M3 muscarinic receptor. These data provide unique insights into the selective capacity of receptor ligands to promote and/or stabilize receptor dimers/oligomers and demonstrate that the dynamics of ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of G protein-coupled receptors is markedly more complex than previously appreciated. This may have major implications for receptor function and behavior. PMID:27080256

  20. M3-subtype muscarinic receptor that controls intracellular calcium release and inositol phosphate accumulation in gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Leonard, A; Cuq, P; Magous, R; Bali, J P

    1991-07-25

    The muscarinic receptor subtype which triggers acid secretion was investigated in isolated rabbit gastric parietal cells. Cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), measured with the fluorescent indicator FURA-2, increased rapidly after full agonist (carbachol) stimulation (6-8 sec), then returned to an intermediate sustained value. Other M2-agonists, oxotremorine and arecoline, produced a partial [Ca2+]i increase, whereas M1-agonists, pilocarpine and [4-m-chlorophenylcarbamoyloxyl]-2-butynyl-trimethylammonium, were without any significant effect. [Ca2+]i rise was inhibited by selective muscarinic antagonists: atropine greater than 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methbromide greater than quinuclidinylbenzilate (QNB) greater than pirenzepine greater than 11-[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one, this sequence being characteristic of the involvement of an M3-subtype. This inhibition was shown to be stereoselective; dexetimide and (-)QNB were more potent than levetimide and (+)QNB. The IC50 values for inhibition of [Ca2+]i increase by muscarinic antagonists were in good agreement with those obtained for inhibition of phospholipase C activation. In conclusion, the muscarinic receptor that controls acid secretion appears to be of the M3-subtype and the biochemical events coupled to the activation of this receptor system are also controlled through the same subtype. PMID:1651079

  1. Down-regulation of the G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha by transfected human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells is independent of receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed Central

    van de Westerlo, E; Yang, J; Logsdon, C; Williams, J A

    1995-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors show a 40-50% reduction in the immunoreactive G-proteins Gq alpha and G11 alpha when stimulated with the cholinergic agonist carbachol. This effect is seen after 9 h, is maximal after 24 h, and occurs over a range of carbachol concentrations that activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in these cells. The effect is specific for Gq alpha family proteins as Gs alpha was slightly increased after carbachol treatment and G13 alpha was unchanged. Using a urea gel system, we were able to resolve Gq alpha and G11 alpha, both of which were down-regulated by carbachol. An M3 receptor mutant, with C-terminal threonines changed to alanines as described previously, binds ligand and activates phosphoinositide hydrolysis normally but is not down-regulated in response to carbachol. This receptor, however, induces Gq alpha/G11 alpha down-regulation similarly to wild-type M3 receptors, indicating that G-protein down-regulation is not directly coupled to receptor down-regulation. Thus down-regulation of Gq alpha and G11 alpha may contribute to heterologous desensitization particularly at longer times of agonist exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7654194

  2. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  3. Effects of chain-length and unsaturation on affinity and selectivity at muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R. B.; Holdup, D. W.; Harris, G.; Veale, M. A.; Williams, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Lengthening the chain in diphenylacetylcholine decreases affinity for muscarinic cholinoceptors in guinea-pig ileum. Diphenylacetoxypropyldimethylamine and its quaternary trimethylammonium salt are roughly equiactive: the dimethylamine and the piperidine have some selectivity for ileum compared with atria, but are not as active nor as selective as 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) methobromide (MeBr). With the weaker diphenylacetoxybutyl compounds the base is more active than the quaternary salt. 2. The diphenylacetoxybutyl-, cis-butenyl and trans-butenyl compounds have similar affinities. The quaternary salts are less active than the tertiary bases, but they are less selective than the butynyl analogues studied in earlier work. 3. 1,1-Diphenyl-1-hydroxy-2,4-hexadiynyl dimethylamine and its trimethylammonium salt are inactive in concentrations below 100 microM, as are the (+)-camphor-sulphonyl ester of 4-hydroxy-N-methyl piperidine and its methiodide. The (+/-)-phenylcyclopentylacetyl ester of 4-hydroxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide is more active than its cyclohexyl analogue and than 4-DAMP MeBr but it is less selective than 4-DAMP MeBr. 4. The high selectivity of p-fluoro-hexahydrosila-diphenidol is confirmed but this compound has relatively low affinity (for ileum log K = 7.8). 5. The results indicate steric constraints to binding at muscarinic receptors which could be used to check molecular modelling of the receptor based on its known amino acid sequence. The group binding the charged nitrogen is probably at the mouth of a cavity which can accommodate two large rings (as in 4-DAMP MeBr) but with a depth less than about 7 A so that the rod-like hexadiynes cannot fit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2331586

  4. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P; Sørensen, H; Bonne, T C; Zaar, M; Aachmann-Andersen, N J; Nordsborg, N B; Secher, N H; Lundby, C

    2015-06-15

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (fraction of inspired O2 = 12%) after intravenous administration of 1) no drugs (Cont), 2) propranolol (Prop), 3) glycopyrrolate (Glyc), or 4) Prop + Glyc. HR increased with exercise in all drug conditions (P < 0.001) but was always higher at a given workload in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.001). Averaged over all workloads, the difference between hypoxia and normoxia was 19.8 ± 13.8 beats/min during Cont and similar (17.2 ± 7.7 beats/min, P = 0.95) during Prop but smaller (P < 0.001) during Glyc and Prop + Glyc (9.8 ± 9.6 and 8.1 ± 7.6 beats/min, respectively). Cardiac output was enhanced by hypoxia (P < 0.002) to an extent that was similar between Cont, Glyc, and Prop + Glyc (2.3 ± 1.9, 1.7 ± 1.8, and 2.3 ± 1.2 l/min, respectively, P > 0.4) but larger during Prop (3.4 ± 1.6 l/min, P = 0.004). Our results demonstrate that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia during exercise partially relies on vagal withdrawal. Conversely, sympathoexcitation either does not contribute or increases heart rate through mechanisms other than β-adrenergic transmission. A potential candidate is α-adrenergic transmission, which could also explain why a tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition.

  5. M2 muscarinic receptor activation regulates Schwann cell differentiation and myelin organization.

    PubMed

    Uggenti, Carolina; De Stefano, M Egle; Costantino, Michele; Loreti, Simona; Pisano, Annalinda; Avallone, Bice; Talora, Claudio; Magnaghi, Valerio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2014-07-01

    Glial cells express acetylcholine receptors. In particular, rat Schwann cells express different muscarinic receptor subtypes, the most abundant of which is the M2 subtype. M2 receptor activation causes a reversible arrest of the cell cycle. This negative effect on Schwann cell proliferation suggests that these cells may possibly progress into a differentiating program. In this study we analyzed the in vitro modulation, by the M2 agonist arecaidine, of transcription factors and specific signaling pathways involved in Schwann cell differentiation. The arecaidine-induced M2 receptor activation significantly upregulates transcription factors involved in the promyelinating phase (e.g., Sox10 and Krox20) and downregulates proteins involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state (e.g., c-jun, Notch-1, and Jagged-1). Furthermore, arecaidine stimulation significantly increases the expression of myelin proteins, which is accompanied by evident changes in cell morphology, as indicated by electron microscopy analysis, and by substantial cellular re-distribution of actin and cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, ultrastructural and morphometric analyses on sciatic nerves of M2/M4 knockout mice show numerous degenerating axons and clear alterations in myelin organization compared with wild-type mice. Therefore, our data demonstrate that acetylcholine mediates axon-glia cross talk, favoring Schwann cell progression into a differentiated myelinating phenotype and contributing to compact myelin organization.

  6. Involvement of the cholinergic system in conditioning and perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2011-08-10

    The cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in learning and memory, and have been the centre of attention when it comes to diseases containing cognitive deficits. It is therefore not surprising, that the cholinergic transmitter system has experienced detailed examination of its role in numerous behavioural situations not least with the perspective that cognition may be rescued with appropriate cholinergic 'boosters'. Here we reviewed the literature on (i) cholinergic lesions, (ii) pharmacological intervention of muscarinic or nicotinic system, or (iii) genetic deletion of selective receptor subtypes with respect to sensory discrimination and conditioning procedures. We consider visual, auditory, olfactory and somatosensory processing first before discussing more complex tasks such as startle responses, latent inhibition, negative patterning, eye blink and fear conditioning, and passive avoidance paradigms. An overarching reoccurring theme is that lesions of the cholinergic projection neurones of the basal forebrain impact negatively on acquisition learning in these paradigms and blockade of muscarinic (and to a lesser extent nicotinic) receptors in the target structures produce similar behavioural deficits. While these pertain mainly to impairments in acquisition learning, some rare cases extend to memory consolidation. Such single case observations warranted replication and more in-depth studies. Intriguingly, receptor blockade or receptor gene knockout repeatedly produced contradictory results (for example in fear conditioning) and combined studies, in which genetically altered mice are pharmacological manipulated, are so far missing. However, they are desperately needed to clarify underlying reasons for these contradictions. Consistently, stimulation of either muscarinic (mainly M(1)) or nicotinic (predominantly α7) receptors was beneficial for learning and memory formation across all paradigms supporting the notion that research into the development and

  7. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  8. Cholinergic manipulations bidirectionally regulate object memory destabilization.

    PubMed

    Stiver, Mikaela L; Jacklin, Derek L; Mitchnick, Krista A; Vicic, Nevena; Carlin, Justine; O'Hara, Matthew; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-04-01

    Consolidated memories can become destabilized and open to modification upon retrieval. Destabilization is most reliably prompted when novel information is present during memory reactivation. We hypothesized that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in novelty-induced memory destabilization because of its established involvement in new learning. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of cholinergic manipulations in rats using an object recognition paradigm that requires reactivation novelty to destabilize object memories. The muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, systemically or infused directly into the perirhinal cortex, blocked this novelty-induced memory destabilization. Conversely, systemic oxotremorine or carbachol, muscarinic receptor agonists, administered systemically or intraperirhinally, respectively, mimicked the destabilizing effect of novel information during reactivation. These bidirectional effects suggest a crucial influence of ACh on memory destabilization and the updating functions of reconsolidation. This is a hitherto unappreciated mnemonic role for ACh with implications for its potential involvement in cognitive flexibility and the dynamic process of long-term memory storage.

  9. IN VITRO EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS, PARATHION, METHYL PARATHION AND THEIR OXONS ON CARDIAC MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR BINDING IN NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS. (R825811)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus insecticides elicit toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Young animals are generally more sensitive than adults to these toxicants. A number of studies reported that some organophosphorus agents also bind directly to muscarinic receptors, in particular...

  10. Calcium channel blockade with verapamil. Effects on blood pressure, renal, and myocardial adrenergic, cholinergic, and calcium channel receptors in inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive (S/JR) and hypertension-resistant (R/JR) rats.

    PubMed

    McCaughran, J A; Juno, C J

    1988-07-01

    Verapamil HCl was chronically administered to inbred Dahl S/JR and R/JR rats maintained on a diet containing 8.0% NaCl (w/w) and the effects on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were investigated. Treatment over a 4-week period via implanted miniosmotic pumps attenuated but did not prevent the development of salt-induced hypertension (HT) in the S/JR rat. Elevated HR, possibly reflexive in origin, was observed in S/JR rats that received verapamil but not in similarly treated R/JR rats. Although verapamil retarded the development of HT in S/JR rats, BP rose to moderately hypertensive levels, and the ventricle/body weight ratio was elevated by the termination of the study. The effect of verapamil on the density and affinity of alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and calcium channel receptors in renal and ventricular membranes was also assessed. The density of renal and ventricular alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors was not affected by chronic drug treatment. The density of renal alpha 2- and beta-adrenoceptors was greater in the S/JR strain than in the R/JR strain, regardless of the treatment. The density of muscarinic cholinergic and calcium channel receptors in the ventricle was not affected by the treatment. The results of this study suggest that the long-term antihypertensive effects of verapamil in the S/JR rat do not involve an alteration in the binding characteristics of adrenergic, cholinergic, or calcium channel receptor sites in ventricular and renal membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effect of the combination of the benzodiazepine tranquilizer medazepam and the nootropic agent meclofenoxate on the activity of rat brain muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Popova, J S; Petkov, V D

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of 7-day treatment with the benzodiazepine tranquilizer medazepam (5 mg/kg), the nootropic agent meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg) and their combination in the same doses on the binding activity of muscarinic receptors in four rat brain structures (cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus) were studied using the antagonist [3H]-1-quinuclidinyl benzylate [( 3H]-QNB) as radio-ligand. 2. Medazepam treatment caused significant decrease of muscarinic receptor binding affinity (Kd) and of the receptor binding capacity (Bmax) in the brain structures studied. The number of muscarinic binding sites was unsignificantly decreased only in the hippocampus. 3. Meclofenoxate treatment caused an increase of muscarinic receptor affinity and a decrease of the binding capacity in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and an increase of the binding affinity in the striatum and hippocampus. 4. The combination of medazepam and meclofenoxate caused no significant changes of both muscarinic receptor characteristics in the hippocampus and of the receptor affinity in the striatum and hypothalamus in comparison with control rats. The Bmax values were decreased in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hypothalamus when compared with control animals. The differences observed were slighter than those determined after the comparison of medazepam treated rats with control rats. 5. The results obtained afford an opportunity to suggest that the nootropic agent meclofenoxate acts to moderate the effect of the benzodiazepine tranquilizer medazepam on the activity of rat brain muscarinic receptors.

  12. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Archundia, Marlet; Cordomi, Arnau; Garriga, Pere; Perez, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS). Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand. PMID:22500107

  13. Neuronal damage and changes in the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the neonatal rat cerebral cortical upon exposure to sparteine, a quinolizidine alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Flores-Soto, M E; Bañuelos-Pineda, J; Orozco-Suárez, S; Schliebs, R; Beas-Zárate, C

    2006-10-01

    Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid (QA) produced by Lupine species that has generated much interest due to its anti-hypertensive, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In the nervous system, sparteine has been shown to display anti-cholinergic and depressive activity, although how sparteine exerts its toxic effects in the brain remains unclear. We have addressed this issue by administering subcutaneous injections of sparteine (25 mg/kg of body weight) to rats on postnatal days 1 and 3, and then examining the expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subunits m1-m4 in the brains of the neonatal rats 14-60 days later. Administration of sparteine to neonatal rats caused neuronal damage in the cerebral motor cortex accompanied by transient changes in the expression of m1-m4 mAChR subunits as revealed by both RT-PCR and Western blotting. This effect could be prevented by pre-treatment with atropine (10 mg/kg) 1 h prior to the injection of sparteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of sparteine is mediated through mAChRs. PMID:16843632

  14. In vivo evaluation of Z-(R,R)-IQNP as a candidate for the study of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors by SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Greenbaum, M.; Beets, A.L.

    1997-05-01

    The ability to image alternations of M{sub 2} muscarinic receptors is of importance in the study of dementias and heart failure. We have developed a QNB analogue, Z-(R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate (Z-(R,R)-IQNP), which demonstrates high in vitro binding affinity for both the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} muscarinic receptor subtypes.

  15. The M2 selective antagonist AF-DX 116 shows high affinity for muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal membranes.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; in't Hout, W G; de Zeeuw, R A; Zaagsma, J

    1987-05-01

    We have characterized the muscarine receptors in bovine tracheal and left ventricular membranes using 3H-dexetimide/pirenzepine and 3H-dexetimide/AF-DX 116 competition studies. Pirenzepine exhibited low (M2) affinity binding to both preparations; Kd was 590 nM in left ventricle and 463 nM in trachea. AF-DX 116 exhibited high (M2) affinity binding to left ventricle (Kd = 95.6 nM); in tracheal membranes it bound with high (M2) affinity (Kd = 40.7 nM) to 74% of the receptors and with low (M3) affinity (Kd = 2.26 microM) to 26% of the receptors. It is concluded that bovine tracheal muscle membranes contain a heterogeneous population of muscarine binding sites, the majority having M2 (heart) subtype characteristics and being located on the smooth muscle membranes; a minority having M3 (exocrine gland) subtype characteristics and presumed to be located in submucosal glands. This is the first report of high affinity binding of AF-DX 116 to non-cardiac peripheral muscarine receptors. PMID:3614390

  16. In vivo labeling of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain with [3H]cytisine.

    PubMed

    Flesher, J E; Scheffel, U; London, E D; Frost, J J

    1994-01-01

    [3H]Cytisine was evaluated as an in vivo ligand for the nicotinic cholinergic receptor (nAchR) in mouse brain. The tracer was injected intravenously, and radioactivity in brain regions was analyzed. Radioactivity peaked in the brain at 30 minutes. It was highest in the thalamus, intermediate in the superior colliculi, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and low in the cerebellum. Pretreatment with unlabeled cytisine inhibited binding in the thalamus, but not in the cerebellum. Binding was displaced by l-nicotine, but not by d-nicotine or dexetimide. The results suggest that cytisine, appropriately labeled with a positron emitting radionuclide, may be useful for study of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in humans by emission computed tomography. PMID:8196506

  17. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway.

  18. Cholinergic chemosensory cells of the thymic medulla express the bitter receptor Tas2r131.

    PubMed

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Voigt, Anja; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Boehm, Ulrich; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin. Such a chemical phenotype is characteristic for chemosensory cells of mucosal surfaces which utilize bitter receptors for detection of potentially hazardous compounds and cholinergic signaling to initiate avoidance reflexes. We here demonstrate mRNA expression of bitter receptors Tas2r105, Tas2r108, and Tas2r131 in the murine thymus. Using a Tas2r131-tauGFP reporter mouse we localized the expression of this receptor to cholinergic cells expressing the downstream elements of the taste transduction pathway. These cells are distinct from the medullary thymic epithelial cells which promiscuously express tissue-restricted self-antigens during the process of negative selection, since double-labeling immunofluorescence showed no colocalization of autoimmune regulator (AIRE), the key mediator of negative selection, and TRPM5. These data demonstrate the presence of bitter taste-sensing signaling in cholinergic epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and opens a discussion as to what is the physiological role of this pathway. PMID:26102274

  19. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K; Byun, Nellie; Bubser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) are emerging as important targets for the development of novel treatments for the symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Preclinical and early proof-of-concept clinical studies have provided strong evidence that activators of specific mAChR (M1 and M4) and nAChR (α7 and α2β4) subtypes are effective in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity and/or cognitive enhancement, and in the treatment of positive and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. While early attempts to develop selective mAChR and nAChR agonists provided important preliminary findings, these compounds have ultimately failed in clinical development due to a lack of true subtype selectivity and subsequent dose-limiting adverse effects. In recent years, there have been major advances in the discovery of highly selective activators for the different mAChR and nAChR subtypes with suitable properties for optimization as potential candidates for clinical trials. One novel strategy has been to identify ligands that activate a specific receptor subtype through actions at sites that are distinct from the highly conserved ACh-binding site, termed allosteric sites. These allosteric activators, both allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, of mAChR and nAChR subtypes demonstrate unique mechanisms of action and high selectivity in vivo, and may provide innovative treatment strategies for schizophrenia. PMID:21956443

  20. Spatiotemporal calcium signaling in a Drosophila melanogaster cell line stably expressing a Drosophila muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, D; Delpech, V Raymond; Sattelle, D B; Rauh, J J

    2003-11-01

    A muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), DM1, expressed in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, has been stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line (S2-DM1) and used to investigate spatiotemporal calcium changes following agonist activation. Carbamylcholine (CCh) and oxotremorine are potent agonists, whereas application of the vertebrate M1 mAChR agonist, McN-A-343, results in a weak response. Activation of S2-DM1 receptors using CCh resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) that was biphasic. Two distinct calcium sources were found to contribute to calcium signaling: (1) internal stores that are sensitive to both thapsigargin and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and (2) capacitative calcium entry. Spatiotemporal imaging of individual S2-DM1 cells showed that the CCh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient resulted from a homogeneous calcium increase throughout the cell, indicative of calcium release from internal stores. In contrast, ionomycin induced the formation of a "calcium ring" at the cell periphery, consistent with external calcium influx. PMID:12827518

  1. Ligand binding properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes (m1-m5) expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, G Z; Kameyama, K; Rinken, A; Haga, T

    1995-07-01

    Five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (m1-m5) have been expressed in insect cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) using the baculovirus system. Up to 6 nmol of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were produced by 1 liter culture; 0.3 to 0.6 (human m1), 3 to 6 (human m2), 2 to 4 (rat m3), 1 to 2 (rat m4) and 0.5 to 1 (human m5) nmol. Pirenzepine, AF-DX116 and hexahidrosiladifenidol showed the highest affinity for the m1, m2 and m3 subtype, respectively, indicating that these receptors expressed in Sf9 cells retain the same substrate specificity as those in mammalian tissues or cultured cells. Among 32 kinds of muscarinic ligands examined in the present studies, prifinium was found to have the highest affinity for the m4 subtype, and pilocarpine, oxotremorine, McN-A343 and promethazine the highest affinity for the m5 subtype, although the differences in the affinities among the five subtypes were less than 10-fold. Alcuronium increased the binding of [3H]N-methylscopalamine to the m2 subtype, but not the m1, m4 and m5 subtypes and only slightly to the m3 subtype. Similar but smaller effects of fangchinoline and tetrandrine were found for [3H]N-methylscopalamine binding to only the m3 subtype. These effects may also be useful for the discrimination of individual subtypes. PMID:7616422

  2. Signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Yang, M S; Oh, C D; Kim, K T; Ha, M J; Kang, S S; Chun, J S

    1999-01-15

    The signalling pathway leading to an activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase subtypes Erk-1 and -2 upon stimulation of muscarinic receptor with carbachol in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2(C) cells was investigated. Carbachol activated Erk-1/-2 by stimulating M3 muscarinic receptor, as determined by specific antagonists for individual muscarinic receptors. The activation of Erk-1/-2 by carbachol was blocked by the inhibition or down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Among the multiple PKC isoforms expressed in SK-N-BE2(C) cells, only PKCepsilon was activated by the treatment of carbachol, and selective down-regulation of PKCepsilon was sufficient to block Erk-1/-2 activation. Carbachol treatment induced activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf, and an inhibition of Raf blocked Erk-1/-2 activation. Ectopic expression of inhibitory small GTPase Ras, RasN17, blocked the carbachol-induced Raf activation without affecting the activation of PKCepsilon, while the inhibition of PKC blocked the Raf activation. Thus, these results suggest that carbachol-induced activation of PKCepsilon mediates Erk-1/-2 activation by a sequential activation of Ras, Raf and MAP kinase kinase.

  3. Calcium current activated by muscarinic receptors and thapsigargin in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The activation of muscarinic receptors in N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells elicits a voltage-independent calcium current. The current turns on slowly, reaches its maximum value approximately 45 s after applying the agonist, is sustained as long as agonist is present, and recovers by one half in approximately 10 s after washing the agonist away. The current density is 0.11 +/- 0.08 pA/pF (mean +/- SD; n = 12). It is absent in zero-Ca++ saline and reduced by Mn++ and Ba++. The I(V) curve characterizing the current has an extrapolated reversal potential > +40 mV. The calcium current is observed in cells heavily loaded with BAPTA indicating that the calcium entry pathway is not directly gated by calcium. In fura-2 experiments, we find that muscarinic activation causes an elevation of intracellular Ca++ that is due to both intracellular calcium release and calcium influx. The component of the signal that requires external Ca++ has the same time course as the receptor operated calcium current. Calcium influx measured in this way elevates (Ca++)i by 89 +/- 41 nM (n = 7). Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca++/ATPase associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), activates a calcium current with similar properties. The current density is 0.22 +/- 0.20 pA/pF (n = 6). Thapsigargin activated current is reduced by Mn++ and Ba++ and increased by elevated external Ca++. Calcium influx activated by thapsigargin elevates (Ca++)i by 82 +/- 35 nM. The Ca++ currents due to agonist and due to thapsigargin do not sum, indicating that these procedures activate the same process. Carbachol and thapsigargin both cause calcium release from internal stores and the calcium current bears strong similarity to calcium-release-activated calcium currents in nonexcitable cells (Hoth, M., and R. Penner. 1993. Journal of Physiology. 465:359-386; Zweifach, A., and R. S. Lewis, 1993. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 90:6295- 6299). PMID:7964592

  4. Activation of T84 cell chloride channels by carbachol involves a phosphoinositide-coupled muscarinic M3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K E; Frizzell, R A; Sekar, M C

    1992-04-10

    Muscarinic agonists stimulate Cl- secretion across monolayers of the colon tumor epithelial cell line, T84. The muscarinic receptor has been characterized in T84 cell homogenates by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS). [3H]NMS bound to a single population of sites at 25 degrees C in 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM HEPES, 10 mM MgCl2, pH 7.4 buffer, with calculated Kd = 278 (+/- 44) pM and Bmax = 40 (+/- 6) fmol/mg protein (n = 4). Binding was reversible (diss. t1/2 = 18 +/- 3 min) and stereoselective (dexetimide Ki = 0.3 nM) much greater than levetimide (Ki = 8300 nM). Antagonists exhibited the following rank order of potencies and Ki values (nM): atropine (0.54) greater than 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) (0.84) greater than dicyclomine (14) = hexahydrosiladifenidol (18) greater than pirenzepine (136) greater than AF-DX 116 (3610). The same sequence was observed for inhibition of carbachol-induced 125I efflux from T84 monolayers. This is indicative of an M3 'glandular' muscarinic receptor. Coupling to second messenger systems was examined by labelling monolayers with [14C]arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H]inositol. Carbachol (0.3 mM) did not release [14C]AA from labelled lipids, but ionomycin produced a dose-dependent increase in media [14C]AA. Carbachol (0.3 mM) elevated inositol monophosphate 14-fold. The results suggest that muscarinic agonists stimulate Cl- secretion by interacting with an M3 receptor coupled to inositide lipid hydrolysis. PMID:1379932

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Bitopic Ligand Engagement with the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Keov, Peter; López, Laura; Devine, Shane M.; Valant, Celine; Lane, J. Robert; Scammells, Peter J.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    TBPB and 77-LH-28-1 are selective agonists of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) that may gain their selectivity through a bitopic mechanism, interacting concomitantly with the orthosteric site and part of an allosteric site. The current study combined site-directed mutagenesis, analytical pharmacology,and molecular modeling to gain further insights into the structural basis underlying binding and signaling by these agonists. Mutations within the orthosteric binding site caused similar reductions in affinity and signaling efficacy for both selective and prototypical orthosteric ligands. In contrast, the mutation of residues within transmembrane helix (TM) 2 and the second extracellular loop (ECL2) discriminated between the different classes of ligand. In particular, ECL2 appears to be involved in the selective binding of bitopic ligands and in coordinating biased agonism between intracellular calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Molecular modeling of the interaction between TBPB and the M1 mAChR revealed a binding pose predicted to extend from the orthosteric site up toward a putative allosteric site bordered by TM2, TM3, and TM7, thus consistent with a bitopic mode of binding. Overall, these findings provide valuable structural and mechanistic insights into bitopic ligand actions and receptor activation and support a role for ECL2 in dictating the active states that can be adopted by a G protein-coupled receptor. This may enable greater selective ligand design and development for mAChRs and facilitate improved identification of bitopic ligands. PMID:25006252

  6. Upregulation of M3 muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M3-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Cardiac-specific M3-mAChR overexpression transgenic (TG) mice and rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts with ectopic expression of M3-mAChR were established. Models of cardiac hypertrophy were induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or Ang II infusion in the mice in vivo, and by isoproterenol (ISO) or Ang II treatment of H9c2 cells in vitro. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiography (ECG) measurement, hemodynamic measurement and histological analysis. mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results M3-mAChR was upregulated in hypertrophic heart, while M2-mAChR expression did not change significantly. M3-mAChR overexpression significantly attenuated the increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide and β-myosin heavy chain induced by Ang II both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, M3-mAChR overexpression downregulated AT1 receptor expression and inhibited the activation of MAPK signaling in the heart. Conclusion The upregulation of M3-mAChR during myocardial hypertrophy could relieve the hypertrophic response provoked by Ang II, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK signaling through the downregulation of AT1 receptor. PMID:24028210

  7. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  8. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection: Evaluation in Murine Skin.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Frank R; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe; Peters, Eva M J

    2015-05-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  9. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  10. Cholinergic modulation by opioid receptor ligands: potential application to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Motel, William C; Coop, Andrew; Cunningham, Christopher W

    2013-03-01

    Morphinans have a storied history in medicinal chemistry as pain management drugs but have received attention as modulators of cholinergic signaling for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Galantamine is a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and allosteric potentiating ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR-APL) that shares many common structural elements with morphinan-based opioids. The structurally diverse opioids codeine and eseroline, like galantamine, are also nAChR-APL that have greatly diminished affinity for AChE, representing potential lead compounds for selective nAChR-APL development. In accordance with the emerging repurposing trend of evaluating known compounds for novel pharmacological activity, ongoing research on augmentation of cholinergic signaling that has been aided by the use of opioids will be reviewed. PMID:22931533

  11. Binding and functional properties of antimuscarinics of the hexocyclium/sila-hexocyclium and hexahydro-diphenidol/hexahydro-sila-diphenidol type to muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Waelbroeck, M.; Tastenoy, M.; Camus, J.; Christophe, J.; Strohmann, C.; Linoh, H.; Zilch, H.; Tacke, R.; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.

    1989-01-01

    1. In an attempt to assess the structural requirements for the muscarinic receptor selectivity of hexahydro-diphenidol (hexahydro-difenidol) and hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (hexahydro-sila-difenidol), a series of structurally related C/Si pairs were investigated, along with atropine, pirenzepine and methoctramine, for their binding affinities in NB-OK 1 cells as well as in rat heart and pancreas. 2. The action of these antagonists at muscarinic receptors mediating negative inotropic responses in guinea-pig atria and ileal contractions has also been assessed. 3. Antagonist binding data indicated that NB-OK 1 cells (M1 type) as well as rat heart (cardiac type) and pancreas (glandular/smooth muscle type) possess different muscarinic receptor subtypes. 4. A highly significant correlation was found between the binding affinities of the antagonists to muscarinic receptors in rat heart and pancreas, respectively, and the affinities to muscarinic receptors in guinea-pig atria and ileum. This implies that the muscarinic binding sites in rat heart and the receptors in guinea-pig atria are essentially similar, but different from those in pancreas and ileum. 5. The antimuscarinic potency of hexahydro-diphenidol and hexahydro-sila-diphenidol at the three subtypes was influenced differently by structural modifications (e.g. quaternization). Different selectivity profiles for the antagonists were obtained, which makes these compounds useful tools to investigate further muscarinic receptor heterogeneity. Indeed, the tertiary analogues hexahydro-diphenidol (HHD) and hexahydro-sila-diphenidol (HHSiD) had an M1 = glandular/smooth muscle greater than cardiac selectivity profile, whereas the quaternary analogues HHD methiodide and HHSiD methiodide were M1 preferring (M1 greater than glandular/smooth muscle, cardiac). PMID:2804545

  12. Expression of CSA-hm2 fusion in Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the Dictyostelium ras promoter reveals functional muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Dingermann, T

    1995-11-01

    We have expressed the human m2 muscarinic receptor gene in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Expression under the control of the constitutive actin 6 promoter without a D. discoideum leader peptide results in cells which seem to respond to muscarinic agonists initially, but which quickly revert to non responding cells only after a few generations. However, when expressing the hm2 gene as a fusion gene together with the CSA leader peptide under the control of the regulated D. discoideum ras promoter cells are obtained which express functional muscarinic M2 receptors in a stable manner. As expected from the typical regulation of the ras promoter, M2 receptors are expressed only during development. In ligand binding assays these heterologously expressed receptors show binding characteristics similar to authentic M2 receptors. PMID:8570674

  13. Protection against ventricular fibrillation via cholinergic receptor stimulation and the generation of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kalla, Manish; Chotalia, Minesh; Coughlan, Charles; Hao, Guoliang; Crabtree, Mark J.; Tomek, Jakub; Bub, Gil; Paterson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Animal studies suggest an anti‐fibrillatory action of the vagus nerve on the ventricle, although the exact mechanism is controversial.Using a Langendorff perfused rat heart, we show that the acetylcholine analogue carbamylcholine raises ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and flattens the electrical restitution curve.The anti‐fibrillatory action of carbamylcholine was prevented by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and can be mimicked by the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside.Carbamylcholine increased NO metabolite content in the coronary effluent and this was prevented by mecamylamine.The anti‐fibrillatory action of both carbamylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was ultimately dependent on muscarinic receptor stimulation as all effects were blocked by atropine.These data demonstrate a protective effect of carbamylcholine on VFT that depends upon both muscarinic and nicotinic receptor stimulation, where the generation of NO is likely to be via a neuronal nNOS–sGC dependent pathway. Abstract Implantable cardiac vagal nerve stimulators are a promising treatment for ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure. Animal studies suggest the anti‐fibrillatory effect may be nitric oxide (NO) dependent, although the exact site of action is controversial. We investigated whether a stable analogue of acetylcholine could raise ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and whether this was dependent on NO generation and/or muscarinic/nicotinic receptor stimulation. VFT was determined in Langendorff perfused rat hearts by burst pacing until sustained VF was induced. Carbamylcholine (CCh, 200 nmol l–1, n = 9) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced heart rate from 292 ± 8 to 224 ± 6 b.p.m. Independent of this heart rate change, CCh caused a significant increase in VFT (control 1.5 ± 0.3 mA, CCh 2.4 ± 0.4 mA, wash 1.1

  14. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to muscarinic receptors in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1: characterization of the transducing mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Bayon, Y; Hernandez, M; Alonso, A; Nuñez, L; Garcia-Sancho, J; Leslie, C; Sanchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The cholinergic agonist carbachol induced the release of arachidonic acid in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line, and this was blocked by atropine, suggesting the involvement of muscarinic receptors. To assess the mechanisms of signalling involved in the response to carbachol, a set of compounds characterized by eliciting responses through different mechanisms was tested. A combination of 4beta-phorbol 12beta-myristate 13alpha-acetate and thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endomembrane Ca2+-ATPase that induces a prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, induced an optimal response, suggesting at first glance that both protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+ mobilization were involved in the response. This was consistent with the observation that carbachol elicited Ca2+ mobilization and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2; phosphatide sn-2-acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.4) as measured by a decrease in electrophoretic mobility. Nevertheless, the release of arachidonate induced by carbachol was unaltered in media containing decreased concentrations of Ca2+ or in the presence of neomycin, a potent inhibitor of phospholipase C which blocks phosphoinositide turnover and Ca2+ mobilization. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate added to the cell-free homogenate induced both [3H]arachidonate release and cPLA2 translocation to the cell membrane fraction in the absence of Ca2+, thus suggesting the existence of an alternative mechanism of cPLA2 translocation dependent on G-proteins and independent of Ca2+ mobilization. From the combination of experiments utilizing biochemical and immunological tools the involvement of cPLA2 was ascertained. In summary, these data indicate the existence in the astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 of a pathway involving the cPLA2 which couples the release of arachidonate to the occupancy of receptors for a neurotransmitter, requires PKC activity and G-proteins and might operate in the absence of Ca2+ mobilization. PMID:9173894

  15. Mechanistic insights into allosteric structure-function relationships at the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ridha, Alaa; Lane, J Robert; Mistry, Shailesh N; López, Laura; Sexton, Patrick M; Scammells, Peter J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Canals, Meritxell

    2014-11-28

    Benzylquinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) is the first highly selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), but it possesses low affinity for the allosteric site on the receptor. More recent drug discovery efforts identified 3-((1S,2S)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-((6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)benzo[h]quinazolin-4(3H)-one (referred to herein as benzoquinazolinone 12) as a more potent M1 mAChR PAM with a structural ancestry originating from BQCA and related compounds. In the current study, we optimized the synthesis of and fully characterized the pharmacology of benzoquinazolinone 12, finding that its improved potency derived from a 50-fold increase in allosteric site affinity as compared with BQCA, while retaining a similar level of positive cooperativity with acetylcholine. We then utilized site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling to validate the allosteric binding pocket we previously described for BQCA as a shared site for benzoquinazolinone 12 and provide a molecular basis for its improved activity at the M1 mAChR. This includes a key role for hydrophobic and polar interactions with residues Tyr-179, in the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and Trp-400(7.35) in transmembrane domain (TM) 7. Collectively, this study highlights how the properties of affinity and cooperativity can be differentially modified on a common structural scaffold and identifies molecular features that can be exploited to tailor the development of M1 mAChR-targeting PAMs. PMID:25326383

  16. The restructuring of muscarinic receptor subtype gene transcripts in c-fos knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Mravec, Boris; Kvetnansky, Richard; Myslivecek, Jaromir

    2013-05-01

    Although c-Fos plays a key role in intracellular signalling, the disruption of the c-fos gene has only minor consequences on the central nervous system (CNS) function. As muscarinic receptors (MR) play important roles in many CNS functions (attention, arousal, and cognition), the c-fos knock-out might be compensated through MR changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the M1-M5 MR mRNA in selected CNS areas: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum (FC, PC, TC, OC, stria, hip, hypo, and crbl, respectively). Knocking out the c-fos gene changed the expression of MR in FC (reduced M1R, M4R and M5R expression), TC (increased M4R expression), OC (decreased M2R and M3R expression) and hippocampus (reduced M3R expression). Moreover, gender differences were observed in WT mice: increased expression of all M1-M5R in the FC in males and M1-M4R in the striatum in females. A detailed analysis of MR transcripts showed pre-existing correlations in the amount of MR-mRNA between specific regions. WT mice showed three major types of cortico-cortical correlations: fronto-occipital, temporo-parietal and parieto-occipital. The cortico-subcortical correlations involved associations between the FC, PC, TC and striatum. In KO mice, a substantial rearrangement of the correlation pattern was observed: only a temporo-parietal correlation and correlations between the FC and striatum remained, and a new correlation between the hypothalamus and cerebellum appeared. Thus, in addition to the previously described dopamine receptor restructuring, the restructuring of MR mRNA correlations reveals an additional mechanism for adaptation to the c-fos gene knockout.

  17. Alteration of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rabies viral-infected dog brains.

    PubMed

    Dumrongphol, H; Srikiatkhachorn, A; Hemachudha, T; Kotchabhakdi, N; Govitrapong, P

    1996-04-01

    Functions of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) were studied in rabid dog brains using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) as a radioligand. Of various brain regions, hippocampus and brainstem were the areas mostly affected in terms of impaired specific binding to [3H]QNB, as compared to other regions, as well as to those of controls. Saturation studies of the hippocampus revealed significantly elevated dissociation equilibrium constant (K(d)) values in both furious (n = 5) (9.80 + or - 2.77 nM) and dumb (n = 6) (6.01 + or - 1.08 nM) types of rabies as compared to 11 controls (2.15 + or - 0.31 nM), whereas the maximum number of receptor sites (B (max)) values were comparable among all subgroups of normal (1.38 + or - 0.10 pmol/mg protein), dumb (1.43 + or - 0.17 pmol/mg protein) and furious (1.28 + or - 0.12 pmol/mg protein) rabies types. Hippocampal K(d) values were comparable between high (fluorescent antibody test-FAT and polymerase chain reaction-PCR positive; n = 4) (7.47 + or - 3.27 nM), and low (FAT-negative and PCR-positive; n = 4) virus amount (8.34 + or - 3.93 nM) but these were significantly higher than controls (n = 4) (1.58 + or - 0.17 nM). Our data suggest a functional derangement of mAChR at specific sites of hippocampus and brainstem which is not dependent on the amount of virus.

  18. Mechanistic Insights into Allosteric Structure-Function Relationships at the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Ridha, Alaa; Lane, J. Robert; Mistry, Shailesh N.; López, Laura; Sexton, Patrick M.; Scammells, Peter J.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Canals, Meritxell

    2014-01-01

    Benzylquinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA) is the first highly selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) for the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), but it possesses low affinity for the allosteric site on the receptor. More recent drug discovery efforts identified 3-((1S,2S)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-((6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)benzo[h]quinazolin-4(3H)-one (referred to herein as benzoquinazolinone 12) as a more potent M1 mAChR PAM with a structural ancestry originating from BQCA and related compounds. In the current study, we optimized the synthesis of and fully characterized the pharmacology of benzoquinazolinone 12, finding that its improved potency derived from a 50-fold increase in allosteric site affinity as compared with BQCA, while retaining a similar level of positive cooperativity with acetylcholine. We then utilized site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling to validate the allosteric binding pocket we previously described for BQCA as a shared site for benzoquinazolinone 12 and provide a molecular basis for its improved activity at the M1 mAChR. This includes a key role for hydrophobic and polar interactions with residues Tyr-179, in the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and Trp-4007.35 in transmembrane domain (TM) 7. Collectively, this study highlights how the properties of affinity and cooperativity can be differentially modified on a common structural scaffold and identifies molecular features that can be exploited to tailor the development of M1 mAChR-targeting PAMs. PMID:25326383

  19. Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor Induces Cytoprotective Signaling in Salivary Gland Cells through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Ichimonji, Isao; Min, Christine; Zhu, Tongbo; Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing; Almazrooa, Soulafa A.; Cha, Seunghee

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) plays a pivotal role in the induction of glandular fluid secretions. Although M3R is often the target of autoantibodies in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS), chemical agonists for M3R are clinically used to stimulate saliva secretion in patients with SjS. Aside from its activity in promoting glandular fluid secretion, however, it is unclear whether activation of M3R is related to other biological events in SjS. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of chemical agonist-mediated M3R activation on apoptosis induced in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Carbachol (CCh), a muscarinic receptor-specific agonist, abrogated tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced apoptosis through pathways involving caspase 3/7, but its cytoprotective effect was decreased by a M3R antagonist, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, or an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Ligation of M3R with CCh transactivated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK and Akt, the downstream targets of EGFR. Inhibition of intracellular calcium release or protein kinase C δ, both of which are involved in the cell signaling of M3R-mediated fluid secretion, did not affect CCh-induced ERK or Akt phosphorylation. CCh stimulated Src phosphorylation and binding to EGFR. A Src inhibitor attenuated the CCh/M3R-induced cytoprotective effect and EGFR transactivation cascades. Overall, these results indicated that CCh/M3R induced transactivation of EGFR through Src activation leading to ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed caspase 3/7-mediated apoptotic signals in HSG cells. This study, for the first time, proposes that CCh-mediated M3R activation can promote not only fluid secretion but also survival of salivary gland cells in the inflammatory context of SjS. PMID:22511543

  20. Postlesion estradiol treatment increases cortical cholinergic innervations via estrogen receptor-α dependent nonclassical estrogen signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Koszegi, Zsombor; Szego, Éva M; Cheong, Rachel Y; Tolod-Kemp, Emeline; Ábrahám, István M

    2011-09-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) treatment exerts rapid, nonclassical actions via intracellular signal transduction system in basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurons in vivo. Here we examined the effect of E2 treatment on lesioned BFC neurons in ovariectomized mice and the role of E2-induced nonclassical action in this treatment. Mice given an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) injection into the substantia innominata-nucleus basalis magnocellularis complex (SI-NBM) exhibited cholinergic cell loss in the SI-NBM and ipsilateral cholinergic fiber loss in the cortex. A single injection of E2 after NMDA lesion did not have an effect on cholinergic cell loss in the SI-NBM, but it restored the ipsilateral cholinergic fiber density in the cortex in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The most effective cholinergic fiber restoration was observed with 33 ng/g E2 treatment at 1 h after NMDA lesion. The E2-induced cholinergic fiber restoration was absent in neuron-specific estrogen receptor-α knockout mice in vivo. Selective activation of nonclassical estrogen signaling in vivo by estren induced E2-like restorative actions. Selective blockade of the MAPK or protein kinase A pathway in vivo prevented E2's ability to restore cholinergic fiber loss. Finally, studies in intact female mice revealed an E2-induced restorative effect that was similar to that of E2-treated ovariectomized mice. These observations demonstrate that a single E2 treatment restores the BFC fiber loss in the cortex, regardless of endogenous E2 levels. They also reveal the critical role of nonclassical estrogen signaling via estrogen receptor-α and protein kinase A-MAPK pathways in E2-induced restorative action in the cholinergic system in vivo.

  1. Presynaptic Excitation via GABAB Receptors in Habenula Cholinergic Neurons Regulates Fear Memory Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juen; Tan, Lubin; Ren, Yuqi; Liang, Jingwen; Lin, Rui; Feng, Qiru; Zhou, Jingfeng; Hu, Fei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Chao; Yu, Tao; Zhuang, Yinghua; Bettler, Bernhard; Wang, Fengchao; Luo, Minmin

    2016-07-28

    Fear behaviors are regulated by adaptive mechanisms that dampen their expression in the absence of danger. By studying circuits and the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptive response, we show that cholinergic neurons of the medial habenula reduce fear memory expression through GABAB presynaptic excitation. Ablating these neurons or inactivating their GABAB receptors impairs fear extinction in mice, whereas activating the neurons or their axonal GABAB receptors reduces conditioned fear. Although considered exclusively inhibitory, here, GABAB mediates excitation by amplifying presynaptic Ca(2+) entry through Cav2.3 channels and potentiating co-release of glutamate, acetylcholine, and neurokinin B to excite interpeduncular neurons. Activating the receptors for these neurotransmitters or enhancing neurotransmission with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor reduces fear responses of both wild-type and GABAB mutant mice. We identify the role of an extra-amygdalar circuit and presynaptic GABAB receptors in fear control, suggesting that boosting neurotransmission in this pathway might ameliorate some fear disorders. PMID:27426949

  2. ( sup 3 H)cytisine binding to nicotinic cholinergic receptors in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pabreza, L.A.; Dhawan, S.; Kellar, K.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Cytisine, a ganglionic agonist, competes with high affinity for brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors labeled by any of several nicotinic {sup 3}H-agonist ligands. Here we have examined the binding of ({sup 3}H)cytisine in rat brain homogenates. ({sup 3}H)Cytisine binds with high affinity (Kd less than 1 nM), and specific binding represented 60-90% of total binding at all concentrations examined up to 15 nM. The nicotinic cholinergic agonists nicotine, acetylcholine, and carbachol compete with high affinity for ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding sites, whereas among nicotinic receptor antagonists only dihydro-beta-erythroidine competes with high affinity (in the nanomolar range). Comparison of binding in several brain regions showed that ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding is higher in the thalamus, striatum, and cortex than in the hippocampus, cerebellum, or hypothalamus. The pharmacology and brain regional distribution of ({sup 3}H)cytisine binding sites are those predicted for neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist recognition sites. The high affinity and low nonspecific binding of ({sup 3}H)cytisine should make it a very useful ligand for studying neuronal nicotinic receptors.

  3. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Modulates Odorant Receptor Activity via Inhibition of β-Arrestin-2 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Li, Yun Rose; Tian, Huikai; Ma, Minghong; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in rodents serves a critical function in social, reproductive, and survival behaviors. Processing of chemosensory signals in the brain is dynamically regulated in part by an animal's physiological state. We previously reported that type 3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M3-Rs) physically interact with odorant receptors (ORs) to promote odor-induced responses in a heterologous expression system. However, it is not known how M3-Rs affect the ability of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to respond to odors. Here, we show that an M3-R antagonist attenuates odor-induced responses in OSNs from wild-type, but not M3-R-null mice. Using a novel molecular assay, we demonstrate that the activation of M3-Rs inhibits the recruitment of β-arrestin-2 to ORs, resulting in a potentiation of odor-induced response in OSNs. These results suggest a role for acetylcholine in modulating olfactory processing at the initial stages of signal transduction in the olfactory system. PMID:25800153

  4. Muscarinic receptors transform NIH 3T3 cells through a Ras-dependent signalling pathway inhibited by the Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain.

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, R R; Sorisky, A; Brann, M R; Macara, I G

    1994-01-01

    Expression of certain subtypes of human muscarinic receptors in NIH 3T3 cells provides an agonist-dependent model of cellular transformation by formation of foci in response to carbachol. Although focus formation correlates with the ability of the muscarinic receptors to activate phospholipase C, the actual mitogenic signal transduction pathway is unknown. Through cotransfection experiments and measurement of the activation state of native and epitope-tagged Ras proteins, the contributions of Ras and Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) to muscarinic receptor-dependent transformation were defined. Transforming muscarinic receptors were able to activate Ras, and such activation was required for transformation because focus formation was inhibited by coexpression of either Ras with a dominant-negative mutation or constructs of Ras-GAP that include the catalytic domain. Coexpression of the N-terminal region of GAP or of its isolated SH3 (Src homology 3) domain, but not its SH2 domain, was also sufficient to suppress muscarinic receptor-dependent focus formation. Point mutations at conserved residues in the Ras-GAP SH3 domain reversed its action, leading to an increase in carbachol-dependent transformation. The inhibitory effect of expression of the Ras-GAP SH3 domain occurs proximal to Ras activation and is selective for the mitogenic pathway activated by carbachol, as cellular transformation by either v-Ras or trkA/nerve growth factor is unaffected. Images PMID:7969134

  5. Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channel currents in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells by muscarine via stimulation of M3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Reeve, H L; Vaughan, P F; Peers, C

    1995-03-01

    The effects of muscarine on whole-cell Ca2+ channel currents in SH-SY5Y cells were studied using conventional and perforated-patch-clamp techniques, with 10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier. Muscarine (10-300 microM) caused concentration-dependent inhibitions of Ca2+ channel currents which were only reversible when perforated-patch recordings were used. Inhibition of currents was associated with slowing of activation kinetics in approximately 50% of cells. In the presence of 5 microM nifedipine, muscarine was still able to inhibit currents, but after pre-exposure of cells to 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA the inhibitory effects of muscarine were almost completely lost. In the presence of 100 microM muscarine, Bay K 8644 (5 microM) was still able to enhance current amplitudes. Pre-treatment of cells with pertussis toxin (250 ng/ml for 16-24 hr) or inclusion of 1 mM GDP-beta-S in the patch-pipette prevented the inhibitory actions of muscarine. Hexahydrosiladifenidol (0.1-1 microM) antagonized the actions of muscarine (calculated pA2 7.1) but the presence of 10 microM pirenzipine or 0.1 microM methoctramine in the bath solution did not alter the degree of current inhibition caused by 100 microM muscarine. In summary, these results indicate that muscarine in SH-SY5Y cells causes inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels via a M3 receptor coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. PMID:7630487

  6. Activation of alpha adrenergic and muscarinic receptors modifies early glucose suppression of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Bo; Dansk, Heléne; Grapengiesser, Eva

    2014-03-14

    Elevation of glucose induces transient inhibition of insulin release by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) below baseline in pancreatic β-cells. The period of [Ca(2+)]i decrease (phase 0) coincides with increased glucagon release and is therefore the starting point for antisynchronous pulses of insulin and glucagon. We now examine if activation of adrenergic α2A and muscarinic M3 receptors affects the initial [Ca(2+)]i response to increase of glucose from 3 to 20mM in β-cells situated in mouse islets. In the absence of receptor stimulation the elevation of glucose lowered [Ca(2+)]i during 90-120 s followed by rise due to opening of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. The period of [Ca(2+)]i decrease was prolonged by activation of the α2A adrenergic receptors (1 μM epinephrine or 100 nM clonidine) and shortened by stimulation of the muscarinic M3 receptors (0.1 μM acetylcholine). The latter effect was mimicked by the Na/K pump inhibitor ouabain (10-100 μM). The results indicate that prolonged initial decrease (phase 0) is followed by slow [Ca(2+)]i rise and shorter decrease followed by fast rise. It is concluded that the period of initial decrease of [Ca(2+)]i regulates the subsequent β-cell response to glucose.

  7. Ovulation requires the activation on proestrus of M₁ muscarinic receptors in the left ovary.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M E; Flores, A; Alvarado, B E; Hernández, C G; Zárate, A; Chavira, R; Cárdenas, M; Arrieta-Cruz, I; Gutiérrez-Juárez, R

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the effects of chemically blocking type 1 muscarinic receptors (M1R) on either the left or right ovary on ovulation rate, number of ova shed and steroid hormones levels. M1R were unilaterally blocked in ovary with the M1R selective antagonist pirenzepine (PZP). PZP was delivered into the bursa ovarica of the left or right ovary of adult rats at 13:00 h on proestrus day. PZP treatment in the left but not in the right ovary blocked ovulation. PZP did not modify the number of ova shed, nor progesterone or 17β-estradiol serum levels. The surge of luteinizing hormone levels was diminished while that of follicle-stimulating hormone did not change in animals treated with PZP in the left ovary. Interestingly, treatment with either synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or human chorionic gonadotropin 1 h after PZP administration in the left ovary restored ovulation in both ovaries. The presence of M1R protein in the theca cells of the ovarian follicles as well as in cells of the corpus luteum was detected on proestrus day. These results suggest that M1R activation in the left ovary is required for pre-ovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and ovulation. Furthermore, these results also suggest that M1R in the left ovary might be regulating ovulation asymmetrically through a stimulatory neural signal relayed to the hypothalamus via the vagus nerve to induce the GnRH secretion which then triggers ovulation.

  8. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes which selectively couple to phospholipase C: Pharmacological and biochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, M.A.; Fraser, C.M. )

    1990-12-14

    The pharmacological and biochemical properties of rat m1 and m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO) cells were characterized with ligand binding, affinity labeling and biochemical assays. Both mAChR subtypes display saturable, high affinity binding of (3H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and a rank order of antagonist potency of QNB greater than atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Carbachol displacement of (3H)-QNB binding to the m3 mAChR revealed an approximate 17-fold higher affinity than observed with the m1 mAChR. (3H)-propylbenzilylcholine mustard (PrBCM) labeling of mAChR revealed that m1 and m3 mAChR migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels with apparent molecular masses of 80,000 and 94,000 daltons, respectively, consistent with the known differences in their molecular sizes. Both m1 and m3 mAChR elicited dose-dependent increases in the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides; however, the maximal increase in total inositol phosphates elicited with the m1 mAChR was approximately 2-fold greater than that observed in cells expressing similar densities of m3 mAChR. Agonist activation of the m1 mAChR also elicited increases in basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP, whereas the m3 mAChR had no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. These data suggest that although m1 and m3 mAChR display a considerable degree of structural homology, they exhibit distinct pharmacological and biochemical properties.

  9. Deletion of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors increases amyloid pathology in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Albert A.; Fritz, Jason J.; Wess, Jürgen; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that causes dementia and poses a major public health crisis as the population ages. Aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is strongly implicated as a proximal event in AD pathophysiology, but the neurochemical signals that regulate APP processing in the brain are not completely understood. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) has been shown to affect APP processing and AD pathology, but less is known about the roles of specific mAChR subtypes. In this study, we used M1 mAChR knockout mice (M1KO) to isolate the effects of the M1 mAChR on APP processing in primary neurons and on the development of amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We demonstrate that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing in neurons, as evidenced by decreased agonist-regulated shedding of the neuroprotective APP ectodomain APPsα and increased production of toxic Aβ peptides. Expression of M1 mAChRs on the M1KO background rescued this phenotype, indicating that M1 mAChRs are sufficient to modulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing. In APPSwe/Ind transgenic mice, the loss of M1 mAChRs resulted in increased levels of brain Aβ1-40 and greater accumulation of amyloid plaque pathology. Analysis of APP metabolites in APPSwe/Ind brain tissue indicates that the loss of M1 mAChRs increases amyloidogenic APP processing. These results indicate that the M1 mAChR is an important regulator of amyloidogenesis in the brain and provide strong support for targeting the M1 mAChR as a therapeutic candidate in AD. PMID:20335454

  10. Signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LIQIANG; LIU, YUQIANG; DING, ZHIBO; SUN, WENDONG; YUAN, MINGZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms used during signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM3) in prostate cancer. The microarray datasets of GSE3325, including 5 clinically localized primary prostate cancers and 4 benign prostate tissues, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in primary prostate cancer tissues compared with benign controls were screened using the Limma package. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Next, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with DEGs were predicted and miRNA-target DEG analysis was performed using a Web-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit. Finally, the PPI network and the miRNA-target DEG network were integrated using Cytoscape. In total, 224 DEGs were screened in the prostate cancer tissues, including 113 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes. CHRM3 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were enriched in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. EGF and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. EGF with the highest degree of connectivity was the hub node in the PPI network, and miR-34b could interact with Myc directly in the miRNA-target DEG network. EGF and Myc may exhibit significant roles in the progression of prostate cancer via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the MAPK signaling pathway. CHRM3 may activate these two pathways in prostate cancer progression. Thus, these two key factors and pathways may be crucial mechanisms during signal transduction by CHRM3 in prostate cancer. PMID:26870222

  11. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  12. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated.

  13. Comparison of the kinetics and extent of muscarinic M1-M5receptor internalization, recycling and downregulation in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraju, Arunkumar; Sawyer, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized agonist-induced internalization, recycling and downregulation of each muscarinic receptor subtype (M1 – M5) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The radioligands [3H]QNB and [3H]NMS were used to measure the total and plasma membrane populations of muscarinic receptors, respectively. Following carbachol treatment (1 mM), the rank orders for the rate of carbachol-induced internalization of the muscarinic subtypes were M2 > M4 = M5 > M3 = M1, respectively. Unlike the M2 receptor, M1, M3, M4 and M5 receptors recycled back to the plasma membrane after one-hour carbachol treatment. The receptor downregulation elicited to 24-hour carbachol treatment was similar for M2, M3, M4 and M5 receptors, whereas that for the M1 receptor was greater. Our results indicate that there are subtype-specific differences in the rate and extent of agonist-induced muscarinic receptor internalization, recycling and downregulation in CHO cells. PMID:21044619

  14. M sub 1 muscarinic antagonists interact with. sigma. recognition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hudkins, R.L. ); DeHaven-Hudkins, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The M{sub 1}-selective muscarinic antagonists aprophen, caramiphen, carbetapentane, 2-DAEX, dicyclomine, hexahydrosiladifenidol, iodocaramiphen, nitrocaramiphen, oxybutynin and trihexyphenidyl potently inhibited binding to {sigma} sites in brain. Both basic ester and non-ester structural type compounds which exhibit affinity for the muscarinic receptor also demonstrated affinity for the {sigma} site, while the classical antimuscarinic agents atropine and QNB, and the tricyclic pirenzepine, were ineffective in binding to this site. The authors also observed a significant correlation between the K{sub i} values for {sigma}compounds to inhibit ({sup 3}H)pirenzepine binding and their IC{sub 50} values to inhibit carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover. These observations may aid in elucidating the relationship of {sigma} binding to inhibition of phosphoinositide turnover stimulated by cholinergic agonists.

  15. Metabotropic glutamate 2 receptors modulate synaptic inputs and calcium signals in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Antonio; Bonsi, Paola; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Morari, Michele; Marti, Matteo; Centonze, Diego; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kingston, Ann E; Calabresi, Paolo

    2002-07-15

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons were recorded from a rat slice preparation. Synaptic potentials evoked by intrastriatal stimulation revealed three distinct components: a glutamatergic EPSP, a GABA(A)-mediated depolarizing potential, and an acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated IPSP. The responses to group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor activation were investigated on the isolated components of the synaptic potentials. Each pharmacologically isolated component was reversibly reduced by bath-applied LY379268 and ((2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl)-glycine, group II agonists. In an attempt to define the relevance of group II mGlu receptor activation on cholinergic transmission, we focused on the inhibitory effect on the IPSP, which was mimicked and occluded by omega-agatoxin IVA (omega-Aga-IVA), suggesting a modulation on P-type high-voltage-activated calcium channels. Spontaneous calcium-dependent plateau-potentials (PPs) were recorded with cesium-filled electrodes plus tetraethylammonium and TTX in the perfusing solution, and measurements of intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i changes were obtained simultaneously. PPs and the concomitant [Ca2+]i elevations were significantly reduced in amplitude and duration by LY379268. The mGlu-mediated inhibitory effect on PPs was mimicked by omega-Aga-IVA, suggesting an involvement of P-type channels. Moreover, electrically induced ACh release from striatal slices was reduced by mGlu2 receptor agonists and occluded by omega-Aga-IVA in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, double-labeling experiments combining mGlu2 receptor in situ hybridization and choline acetyltransferase immunocytochemistry revealed a strong mGlu2 receptor labeling on cholinergic interneurons, whereas single-label isotopic in situ hybridization for mGlu3 receptors did not show any labeling in these large striatal interneurons. These results suggest that the mGlu2 receptor-mediated modulatory action on cell excitability would tune striatal ACh release

  16. Pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptors implicated in rabbit detrusor muscle contraction and activation of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in rabbit detrusor and parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Barras, M; Coste, A; Eon, M T; Guillot, E

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacological characteristics of the functional muscarinic receptors implicated in rabbit detrusor contraction and coupled to inositol phospholipid turnover in rabbit detrusor and parotid gland. The selectivity of several muscarinic antagonists for detrusor vs. salivary gland muscarinic receptors was also examined. The affinities for the muscarinic m1-, m2- and m3-receptor subtypes were determined using membranes from human cloned receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells using [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine as a radioligand. Anti-muscarinic activity was determined in isolated rabbit detrusor by measuring the displacement of the contractile response to carbachol, and in rabbit detrusor and rabbit parotid by measuring the displacement of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis (total inositol phosphate accumulation) to carbachol. A significant correlation was found between the potencies to antagonize carbachol-induced rabbit detrusor contraction (pK(B)) and the affinities (pKi) for the m3-receptor subtype (r = 0.93, P = 5 x 10(-6)). Lower, but significant, correlations [0.88 (P = 6.3 x 10(-5)), 0.72 (P = 4.6 x 10(-3))] were obtained with m1- or m2-receptor subtypes, respectively. Each muscarinic antagonist tested displayed similar potency to antagonize carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in rabbit detrusor and parotid (r = 0.96, P = 8 x 10(-3)). A significant correlation was found between the potencies to antagonize carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis (pK(B)), determined in rabbit detrusor and rabbit parotid, and the affinities (pK(i)) for the m3-receptor subtype [r = 0.96 (P = 0.01), 0.99 (P = 5 x 10(-5)), respectively] and for the m1-receptor subtype [r = 0.98 (P = 3.5 x 10(-3)), 0.94 (P = 0.02), respectively] but not for the m2-receptor subtype [r = 0.33, 0.57, ns, respectively]. In each in vitro assay, methoctramine (preferential M2 selective antagonist) and pirenzepine (preferential M1 selective

  17. An In Vivo Pharmacological Screen Identifies Cholinergic Signaling as a Therapeutic Target in Glial-Based Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Messing, Albee

    2016-01-01

    The role that glia play in neurological disease is poorly understood but increasingly acknowledged to be critical in a diverse group of disorders. Here we use a simple genetic model of Alexander disease, a progressive and severe human degenerative nervous system disease caused by a primary astroglial abnormality, to perform an in vivo screen of 1987 compounds, including many FDA-approved drugs and natural products. We identify four compounds capable of dose-dependent inhibition of nervous system toxicity. Focusing on one of these hits, glycopyrrolate, we confirm the role for muscarinic cholinergic signaling in pathogenesis using additional pharmacologic reagents and genetic approaches. We further demonstrate that muscarinic cholinergic signaling works through downstream Gαq to control oxidative stress and death of neurons and glia. Importantly, we document increased muscarinic cholinergic receptor expression in Alexander disease model mice and in postmortem brain tissue from Alexander disease patients, and that blocking muscarinic receptors in Alexander disease model mice reduces oxidative stress, emphasizing the translational significance of our findings. We have therefore identified glial muscarinic signaling as a potential therapeutic target in Alexander disease, and possibly in other gliopathic disorders as well. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the urgent need for better treatments for neurological diseases, drug development for these devastating disorders has been challenging. The effectiveness of traditional large-scale in vitro screens may be limited by the lack of the appropriate molecular, cellular, and structural environment. Using a simple Drosophila model of Alexander disease, we performed a moderate throughput chemical screen of FDA-approved drugs and natural compounds, and found that reducing muscarinic cholinergic signaling ameliorated clinical symptoms and oxidative stress in Alexander disease model flies and mice. Our work demonstrates that small

  18. Impaired recovery of brain muscarinic receptor sites following an adaptive down-regulation induced by repeated administration of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pintor, A.; Fortuna, S.; De Angelis, S.; Michalek, H. )

    1990-01-01

    Potential age-related differences in the recovery rate of brain cholinesterase activity (ChE) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding sites (mAChRs) following reduction induced by repeated treatment with diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male 3- and 24-month old rats were s.c. injected with DFP on alternate days for 2 weeks and killed 48 hr and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after the last treatment. In the hippocampus and striatum, but not in the cerebral cortex, of control rats there as a significant age-related decline of ChE activity and maximal density of 3H-QNB binding sites (Bmax). The repeated administration of DFP during the first week caused a syndrome of cholinergic stimulation both in aged and young rats. The syndrome was more pronounced, in terms of intensity and duration in aged than in young animals resulting in 40 and 12% mortality, respectively; during the second week the syndrome attenuated in the two age-groups. The percentage inhibition of brain ChE at the end of DFP treatment did not differ between young and surviving aged rats. The down-regulation of mACRs was present in the three brain regions of both young and age rats (from 20 to 40%). Factorial analysis of variance showed significant differences for age, recovery rate, and significant interaction between age and recovery rate, both for ChE and mAChRs in young rats the three brain areas.

  19. Sexually dimorphic effects of the Lhx7 null mutation on forebrain cholinergic function.

    PubMed

    Fragkouli, A; Stamatakis, A; Zographos, E; Pachnis, V; Stylianopoulou, F

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported recently that mice lacking both alleles of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx7, display dramatically reduced number of forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether the Lhx7 mutation affects male and female mice differently, given the fact that gender differences are consistently observed in forebrain cholinergic function. Our results show that in adult male as well as female Lhx7 homozygous mutants there is a dramatic loss of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive forebrain neurons, both projection and interneurons. The reduction of forebrain choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive neurons in Lhx7 homozygous mutants is accompanied by a decrease of acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining in all forebrain cholinergic neuron target areas of both male and female homozygous mutants. Furthermore, there was an increase of M1-, but not M2-, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding site density in the somatosensory cortex and basal ganglia of only the female homozygous mutant mice. Such an increase can be regarded as a mechanism acting to compensate for the dramatically reduced cholinergic input, raising the possibility that the forebrain cholinergic system in female mice may be more plastic and responsive to situations of limited neurotransmitter availability. Finally, our study provides additional data for the sexual dimorphism of the forebrain cholinergic system, as female mice appear to have a lower density of M1-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the striatal areas of the basal ganglia and a higher density of M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, in a number of cortical areas, as well as the striatal areas of the basal ganglia.

  20. Evaluation of a purification procedure for the muscarinic receptor for the purpose of quantitative receptor assays of anticholinergics. Part B: The solubilized receptor.

    PubMed

    Smisterová, J; Ensing, K; de Boer, J; de Zeeuw, R A

    1995-11-01

    For the purpose of quantitative receptor assays, a three-step solubilization procedure including three optimization sets for muscarinic receptor from calf striatum was developed. The first step includes the extraction of the P2-pellet with n-hexane and consequently with 2 M NaCl. By the latter, 39% of non-receptor proteins was extracted. The resulting pellet (NaCl-pellet), enriched in muscarinic receptors by a factor of 1.5-1.7, was solubilized with 1% digitonin. The binding parameters of the solubilized receptor were determined for the tertiary 3H-dexetimide (3H-DEX) and the quaternary 3H-N-methylscopolamine (3H-NMS). The resulting receptor density measured with 3H-dexetimide was lower (43.3% of that for the NaCl-pellet) than that for 3H-N-methyl-scopolamine (56.7%). The treatment with digitonin preserved the high affinity for 3H-N-methylscopolamine (Kd = 0.645 nM), however the affinity of 3H-dexetimide decreased after solubilization (Kd = 8.526 nM). The use of solubilized receptors in combination with hydrophilic 3H-NMS allows to increase the ratio specific/non-specific binding, since the non-specific binding for this ligand to the solubilized preparation is lower when compared with membrane-bound receptors. The above solubilization procedure was found preferable over directly solubilizing the P2-pellet since (a) the receptor density for 3H-NMS was higher for the solubilized NaCl-pellet by a factor of about 1.7, and (b) the treatment of the P2-pellet with digitonin resulted in a lowering of the Kd to 2.422 nM. However, with respect to the plasma effect on the ligand binding, both solubilized preparations give similar results. The use of the solubilized NaCl-pellet or the P2-pellet can considerably improve the quantitative receptor assays of plasma samples. Unlike the membrane-bound receptor, a high volume of plasma, such as 400 microliters, can be added to the assay without any influence on the 3H-DEX binding when solubilized preparation is used. PMID:8570570

  1. Heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex demonstrated by the selective antagonist AF-DX 116

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Seaver, N.A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of muscarinic receptors in rabbit peripheral lung homogenates bind pirenzepine with high affinity (putative M1 subtype). In experiments of AF-DX 116 inhibiting (TH)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (TH)pirenzepine, the authors found similar inhibitory constants for AF-DX 116 binding in rat heart and rabbit peripheral lung that were 4-fold smaller (i.e. of higher affinity) than the inhibitory constant for rat cerebral cortex. This results demonstrates heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. Cholinergic modulation of fast inhibitory and excitatory transmission to pedunculopontine thalamic projecting neurons.

    PubMed

    Ye, Meijun; Hayar, Abdallah; Strotman, Beau; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2010-05-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system, which is mostly active during waking and rapid-eye movement sleep. The PPN projects to the thalamus and receives cholinergic inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and contralateral PPN. We employed retrograde labeling and whole cell recordings to determine the modulation of GABAergic, glycinergic, and glutamatergic transmission to PPN thalamic projecting neurons, and their postsynaptic responses to the nonspecific cholinergic agonist carbachol. M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor-modulated inhibitory postsynaptic responses were observed in 73% of PPN output neurons; in 12.9%, M1 and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation was detected; and muscarinic and nicotinic-modulated fast inhibitory followed by slow excitatory biphasic responses were evident in 6.7% of cells. A significant increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents during carbachol application was observed in 66.2% and 65.2% of efferent neurons, respectively. This effect was blocked by a M1 antagonist or nonselective muscarinic blocker, indicating that glutamatergic, GABAergic, and/or glycinergic neurons projecting to PPN output neurons are excited through muscarinic receptors. Decreases in the frequency of miniature EPSCs, and amplitude of electrical stimulation-evoked EPSCs, were blocked by a M2 antagonist, suggesting the presence of M2Rs at terminals of presynaptic glutamatergic neurons. Carbachol-induced multiple types of postsynaptic responses, enhancing both inhibitory and excitatory fast transmission to PPN thalamic projecting neurons through muscarinic receptors. These results provide possible implications for the generation of different frequency oscillations in PPN thalamic projecting neurons during distinct sleep-wake states. PMID:20181729

  3. Cholinergic Modulation of Fast Inhibitory and Excitatory Transmission to Pedunculopontine Thalamic Projecting Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meijun; Hayar, Abdallah; Strotman, Beau

    2010-01-01

    The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the cholinergic arm of the reticular activating system, which is mostly active during waking and rapid-eye movement sleep. The PPN projects to the thalamus and receives cholinergic inputs from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and contralateral PPN. We employed retrograde labeling and whole cell recordings to determine the modulation of GABAergic, glycinergic, and glutamatergic transmission to PPN thalamic projecting neurons, and their postsynaptic responses to the nonspecific cholinergic agonist carbachol. M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor-modulated inhibitory postsynaptic responses were observed in 73% of PPN output neurons; in 12.9%, M1 and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation was detected; and muscarinic and nicotinic-modulated fast inhibitory followed by slow excitatory biphasic responses were evident in 6.7% of cells. A significant increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents during carbachol application was observed in 66.2% and 65.2% of efferent neurons, respectively. This effect was blocked by a M1 antagonist or nonselective muscarinic blocker, indicating that glutamatergic, GABAergic, and/or glycinergic neurons projecting to PPN output neurons are excited through muscarinic receptors. Decreases in the frequency of miniature EPSCs, and amplitude of electrical stimulation-evoked EPSCs, were blocked by a M2 antagonist, suggesting the presence of M2Rs at terminals of presynaptic glutamatergic neurons. Carbachol-induced multiple types of postsynaptic responses, enhancing both inhibitory and excitatory fast transmission to PPN thalamic projecting neurons through muscarinic receptors. These results provide possible implications for the generation of different frequency oscillations in PPN thalamic projecting neurons during distinct sleep-wake states. PMID:20181729

  4. Cholinergic Plasticity of Oscillating Neuronal Assemblies in Mouse Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Zylla, Maura M.; Zhang, Xiaomin; Reichinnek, Susanne; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus expresses several types of network oscillations which entrain neurons into transiently stable assemblies. These groups of co-active neurons are believed to support the formation, consolidation and recall of context-dependent memories. Formation of new assemblies occurs during theta- and gamma-oscillations under conditions of high cholinergic activity. Memory consolidation is linked to sharp wave-ripple oscillations (SPW-R) during decreased cholinergic tone. We hypothesized that increased cholinergic tone supports plastic changes of assemblies while low cholinergic tone favors their stability. Coherent spatiotemporal network patterns were measured during SPW-R activity in mouse hippocampal slices. We compared neuronal activity within the oscillating assemblies before and after a transient phase of carbachol-induced gamma oscillations. Single units maintained their coupling to SPW-R throughout the experiment and could be re-identified after the transient phase of gamma oscillations. However, the frequency of SPW-R-related unit firing was enhanced after muscarinic stimulation. At the network level, these changes resulted in altered patterns of extracellularly recorded SPW-R waveforms. In contrast, recording of ongoing SPW-R activity without intermittent cholinergic stimulation revealed remarkably stable repetitive activation of assemblies. These results show that activation of cholinergic receptors induces plasticity at the level of oscillating hippocampal assemblies, in line with the different role of gamma- and SPW-R network activity for memory formation and –consolidation, respectively. PMID:24260462

  5. Pretreatment with antibody to eosinophil major basic protein prevents hyperresponsiveness by protecting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C M; Fryer, A D; Jacoby, D B; Gleich, G J; Costello, R W

    1997-01-01

    In antigen-challenged guinea pigs there is recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs and to airway nerves, decreased function of inhibitory M2 muscarinic autoreceptors on parasympathetic nerves in the lungs, and airway hyperresponsiveness. A rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein was used to determine whether M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction, and the subsequent hyperresponsiveness, are due to antagonism of the M2 receptor by eosinophil major basic protein. Guinea pigs were sensitized, challenged with ovalbumin and hyperresponsiveness, and M2 receptor function tested 24 h later with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Antigen-challenged guinea pigs were hyperresponsive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves compared with controls. Likewise, loss of M2 receptor function was demonstrated since the agonist pilocarpine inhibited vagally-induced bronchoconstriction in control but not challenged animals. Pretreatment with rabbit antibody to guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein prevented hyperresponsiveness, and protected M2 receptor function in the antigen-challenged animals without inhibiting eosinophil accumulation in the lungs or around the nerves. Thus, hyperresponsiveness is a result of inhibition of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function by eosinophil major basic protein in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. PMID:9410903

  6. Regional circadian variation of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Por, S.B.; Bondy, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The level of binding of a labeled acetylcholine muscarinic antagonist (quinuclidinyl benzilate) to different cerebral membranes has been measured. Of the regions examined, circadian rhythmicity of binding could only be detected significantly in the hippocampus and the hypothalamus and not in the cerebral cortex, striatum, or cerebellum.

  7. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    PubMed

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  8. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Ajeesh Koshy; Miller, Thomas R.; Blakely, Randy D.; Sarter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/− mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/− mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/− mice. Additionally, CHT+/− mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/− mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/− cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT +/− model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:23958450

  9. Reduced posterior cingulate binding of I-123 iodo-dexetimide to muscarinic receptors in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boundy, K L; Barnden, L R; Katsifis, A G; Rowe, C C

    2005-05-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) allows timely pharmacological and social interventions. Alteration in muscarinic receptor binding was evaluated with I-123 iodo-dexetimide (IDEX) in early clinical stage AD. We studied 11 mild AD patients (Folstein Minimental State Examination Score 24-27, Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5-1.0) and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects with SPECT brain imaging after injection of 185 MBq of IDEX and 750 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO. Using a voxel based approach (Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) software), a deficit in IDEX binding was found in the posterior cingulate cortex in the mild AD group with p (corrected)=0.06 for the most significant voxel and p=0.0003 for the voxel cluster. Region of interest (ROI) analysis confirmed the SPM99 results. SPM99 found no deficit in the HMPAO scans, suggesting that neither atrophy nor hypoperfusion were major factors in the reduced IDEX binding. This study provides further evidence of the involvement of the posterior cingulate region and of muscarinic receptors in early Alzheimer's disease and suggests that this change may precede an alteration in blood flow. PMID:15925773

  10. Autoantibodies enhance agonist action and binding to cardiac muscarinic receptors in chronic Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ciria C; Nascimento, Jose H; Chaves, Elen A; Costa, Patricia C; Masuda, Masako O; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos DE Carvalho, Antonio C; Gimenez, Luis E

    2008-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M(2)-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(2)AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M(2)AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M(2)AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [(3)H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([(3)H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M(2)AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [(3)H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [(3)H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC(50) of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 x 10(- 8), 1.33 x 10(- 7), and 2.0 x 10(- 7) mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M(2)AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  11. Autoantibodies Enhance Agonist Action and Binding to Cardiac Muscarinic Receptors in Chronic Chagas’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Ciria C.; Nascimento, José H.; Chaves, Elen A.; Costa, Patrícia C.; Masuda, Masako O.; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio C.; Giménez, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M2AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M2AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M2AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M2AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [3H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [3H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC50 of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 × 10−8, 1.33 × 10−7, and 2.0 × 10−7 mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M2AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  12. Pharmacology of butylthio[2.2.2] (LY297802/NNC11-1053): a novel analgesic with mixed muscarinic receptor agonist and antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Shannon, H E; Sheardown, M J; Bymaster, F P; Calligaro, D O; Delapp, N W; Gidda, J; Mitch, C H; Sawyer, B D; Stengel, P W; Ward, J S; Wong, D T; Olesen, P H; Suzdak, P D; Sauerberg, P; Swedberg, M D

    1997-05-01

    Butylthio[2.2.2], ((+)-(S)-3-(4-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2] octane; LY297802/NNC11-1053) is a muscarinic receptor ligand which is equiefficacious to morphine in producing antinociception. In vitro, butylthio[2.2.2] had high affinity for muscarinic receptors in brain homogenates, but had substantially less or no affinity for several other neurotransmiter receptors and uptake sites. In isolated tissues, butylthio[2.2.2] was an agonist with high affinity for M1 receptors in the rabbit vas deferens (IC50 = 0.33 nM), but it was an antagonist at M2 receptors in guinea pig atria (pA2 = 6.9) and at M3 receptors in guinea pig urinary bladder (pA2 = 7.4) and a weak partial agonist in guinea pig ileum, which contains a heterogeneous population of muscarinic receptors. In vivo, butylthio[2.2.2] was without effect on acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin levels in rat brain. Moreover, butylthio[2.2.2] did not decrease charcoal meal transit in mice, nor did it significantly alter heart rate in rats. Further, butylthio[2.2.2] did not produce parasympathomimetic effects such as salivation or tremor in mice, but it antagonized salivation and tremor produced by the nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. The present data demonstrate that butylthio[2.2.2] is a novel muscarinic receptor mixed agonist/antagonist and its pharmacological profile suggests that it may have clinical utility in the management of pain as an alternative to opioids. PMID:9152398

  13. Cholinergic mechanisms in spinal locomotion—potential target for rehabilitation approaches

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Larry M.; McVagh, J. R.; Noga, B. R.; Cabaj, A. M.; Majczyński, H.; Sławińska, Urszula; Provencher, J.; Leblond, H.; Rossignol, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments implicate cholinergic brainstem and spinal systems in the control of locomotion. Our results demonstrate that the endogenous cholinergic propriospinal system, acting via M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors, is capable of consistently producing well-coordinated locomotor activity in the in vitro neonatal preparation, placing it in a position to contribute to normal locomotion and to provide a basis for recovery of locomotor capability in the absence of descending pathways. Tests of these suggestions, however, reveal that the spinal cholinergic system plays little if any role in the induction of locomotion, because MLR-evoked locomotion in decerebrate cats is not prevented by cholinergic antagonists. Furthermore, it is not required for the development of stepping movements after spinal cord injury, because cholinergic agonists do not facilitate the appearance of locomotion after spinal cord injury, unlike the dramatic locomotion-promoting effects of clonidine, a noradrenergic α-2 agonist. Furthermore, cholinergic antagonists actually improve locomotor activity after spinal cord injury, suggesting that plastic changes in the spinal cholinergic system interfere with locomotion rather than facilitating it. Changes that have been observed in the cholinergic innervation of motoneurons after spinal cord injury do not decrease motoneuron excitability, as expected. Instead, the development of a “hyper-cholinergic” state after spinal cord injury appears to enhance motoneuron output and suppress locomotion. A cholinergic suppression of afferent input from the limb after spinal cord injury is also evident from our data, and this may contribute to the ability of cholinergic antagonists to improve locomotion. Not only is a role for the spinal cholinergic system in suppressing locomotion after SCI suggested by our results, but an obligatory contribution of a brainstem cholinergic relay to reticulospinal locomotor command systems is not confirmed by our

  14. The distribution of cerebral muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo in patients with dementia. A controlled study with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Gibson, R.; Coppola, R.; Jones, D.W.; Molchan, S.; Sunderland, T.; Berman, K.F.; Reba, R.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A high-affinity muscarinic receptor antagonist, 123IQNB (3-quinuclidinyl-4-iodobenzilate labeled with iodine 123), was used with single photon emission computed tomography to image muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in 14 patients with dementia and in 11 healthy controls. High-resolution single photon emission computed tomographic scanning was performed 21 hours after the intravenous administration of approximately 5 mCi of IQNB. In normal subjects, the images of retained ligand showed a consistent regional pattern that correlated with postmortem studies of the relative distribution of muscarinic receptors in the normal human brain, having high radioactivity counts in the basal ganglia, occipital cortex, and insular cortex, low counts in the thalamus, and virtually no counts in the cerebellum. Eight of 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease had obvious focal cortical defects in either frontal or posterior temporal cortex. Both patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pick's disease had obvious frontal and anterior temporal defects. A region of interest statistical analysis of relative regional activity revealed a significant reduction bilaterally in the posterior temporal cortex of the patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. This study demonstrates the practicability of acetylcholine receptor imaging with 123IQNB and single photon emission computed tomography. The data suggest that focal abnormalities in muscarinic binding in vivo may characterize some patients with Alzheimer's disease and Pick's disease, but further studies are needed to address questions about partial volume artifacts and receptor quantification.

  15. Stereoselective recognition of the enantiomers of phenglutarimide and of six related compounds by four muscarinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Waelbroeck, M.; Lazareno, S.; Pfaff, O.; Friebe, T.; Tastenoy, M.; Mutschler, E.; Lambrecht, G.

    1996-01-01

    0.02% of the eutomer. 6. In contrast with the eutomer binding site, replacement of the phenyl ring by a thienyl or cyclohexyl ring did not affect binding of the low affinity enantiomers to the muscarinic receptor or the [3H]-NMS-receptor complex. The replacement of the diethylamino group by a piperidine ring, and N-methylation of the piperidine-2,6 dione moiety increased slightly these enantiomers' potencies. 7. The muscarinic receptors were extremely stereoselective, and had up to 20000 fold lower affinity for the less active enantiomers. However, the stereochemical requirements of the muscarinic receptor subtypes were different for the enantiomers of compounds 1-7, being most stringent at M1 receptors. 8. The weaker enantiomers behaved as competitive antagonists in pharmacological studies, at least in the concentration-range investigated. PMID:8968538

  16. Somatodendritic Targeting of M5 Muscarinic Receptor in the Rat Ventral Tegmental Area: Implications for Mesolimbic Dopamine Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, Miguel; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscarinic modulation of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in reward, potentially mediated through the M5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M5R). However, the key sites for M5R-mediated control of dopamine neurons within this region are still unknown. To address this question we examined the electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of antipeptide antisera against M5R and the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter (DAT) in single sections through the rat VTA. M5R was located mainly to VTA somatodendritic profiles (71%; n = 627), at least one-third (33.2%; n = 208) of which also contained DAT. The M5R immunoreactivity was distributed along cytoplasmic tubulovesicular endomembrane systems in somata and large dendrites, but was more often located at plasmalemmal sites in small dendrites, the majority of which did not express DAT. The M5R-immunoreactive dendrites received a balanced input from unlabeled terminals forming either asymmetric or symmetric synapses. Compared with dendrites, M5R was less often seen in axon terminals, comprising only 10.8% (n = 102) of the total M5R-labeled profiles. These terminals were usually presynaptic to unlabeled dendrites, suggesting that M5R activation can indirectly modulate non–DAT-containing dendrites through presynaptic mechanisms. Our results provide the first ultrastructural evidence that in the VTA, M5R has a subcellular location conducive to major involvement in postsynaptic signaling in many dendrites, only some of which express DAT. These findings suggest that cognitive and rewarding effects ascribed to muscarinic activation in the VTA can primarily be credited to M5R activation at postsynaptic plasma membranes distinct from dopamine transport. PMID:23504804

  17. Inhibition of muscarinic receptor-induced proliferation of astroglial cells by ethanol: mechanisms and implications for the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; Guizzetti, Marina

    2002-12-01

    In utero exposure to ethanol is deleterious to fetal brain development. Children born with the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) display a number of abnormalities, the most significant of which are central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions, such as microencephaly and mental retardation. An interaction of ethanol with glial cells, particularly astrocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of this alcohol. At low concentrations (10-100 mM) ethanol inhibits the proliferation of astroglial cells in vitro, particularly when stimulated by acetycholine through muscarinic M3 receptors. Of the several signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors in astrocytes or astrocytoma cells, which are involved in mitogenic signaling, only some (e.g. protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, p70S6 kinase) appear to be targeted by ethanol at the same low concentrations which effectively inhibit proliferation. Inhibition of astroglial proliferation by ethanol may contribute to the microencephaly seen in FAS.

  18. Sidedness and chemical and kinetic properties of the vesamicol receptor of cholinergic synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, W.D.; Parsons, S.M.

    1988-07-12

    Cholinergic synaptic vesicles isolated from Torpedo electric organ contain a receptor for the compound l-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol (vesamicol, formerly AH5183), which then occupied blocks storage of acetylcholine (AcCh). The inside or outside orientation of the receptor and its chemical and ligand binding kinetics characteristics were studied. Binding of (/sup 3/H)vesamicol to the receptor is inhibited efficiently by the protein modification reagents 4-(chloromercuri)benzenesulfonate and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and by protease treatment of cholate-solubilized receptor. The receptor in native vesicles is resistant to irreversible inactivation by proteases, elevated temperature, or pH extremes. (/sup 3/H)Vesamicol binding depends on deprotonation of a group of pK/sub a/sub 1// = 6.26 +/- 0.03 and protonation of a group of pK/sub a/sub 2// = 10.60 +/- 0.04, which is probably the tertiary amine of the drug molecule itself. The membrane-impermeant zwitterionic vesamicol analgoue dl-trans-4-oxo-4-((5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-7-(4-phenyl-1-piperidinyl)-1-naphthalenyl)amino)butanoic acid (TPNB) is an effective inhibitor of AcCh active transport. At 0/sup 0/C, 10 ..mu..M unlabeled vesamicol displaced 36 +/- 2% of a low concentration of bound (/sup 3/H)vesamicol at 0.16 +/- 0.02 min/sup -1/ and 64 +/- 2% at 0.013 +/- 0.001 min/sup -1/. One micromolar unlabeled vesamicol behaved similarly. Several types of receptor heterogeneity are consistent with the data. It is concluded that the vesamicol receptor is a stable protein often exhibiting heterogeneity, which faces the cytoplasmic compartment of the cholinergic nerve terminal. It probably contains a binding site carboxylate in a hydrophobic environment, which ion pairs with the protonated tertiary ammonium group of the drug. It also contains a cytoplasmically oriented sulfhydryl group, which is linked to but not part of the binding site.

  19. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Isc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on Isc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport – up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors – is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  20. Mechanism of muscarinic receptor-induced K+ channel activation as revealed by hydrolysis-resistant GTP analogues

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gk) in the coupling between muscarinic receptor activation and opening of an inwardly rectifying K+ channel [IK(M)] was examined in cardiac atrial myocytes, using hydrolysis-resistant GTP analogues. In the absence of muscarinic agonist, GTP analogues produced a membrane current characteristic of IK(M). The initial rate of appearance of this receptor-independent IK(M) was measured for the various analogues in order to explore the kinetic properties of IK(M) activation. We found that IK(M) activation is controlled solely by the intracellular analogue/GTP ratio and not by the absolute concentrations of the nucleotides. Analogues competed with GTP for binding to Gk with the following relative affinities: GTP gamma S greater than GTP greater than GppNHp greater than GppCH2p. At sufficiently high intracellular concentrations, however, all GTP analogues produced the same rate of IK(M) activation. This analogue- independent limiting rate is likely to correspond to the rate of GDP release from inactive, GDP-bound Gk. Muscarinic receptor stimulation by nanomolar concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh), which do not elicit IK(M) under control conditions, catalyzed IK(M) activation in the presence of GTP analogues. The rate of Gk activation by ACh (kACh) was found to be described by the simple relationship kACh = 8.4 X 10(8) min- 1 M-1.[ACh] + 0.44 min-1, the first term of which presumably reflects the agonist-catalyzed rate of GDP release from the Gk.GDP complex, while the second term corresponds to the basal rate of receptor- independent GDP release. Combined with the estimated K0.5 of the IK(M)- [ACh] dose-effect relationship, 160 nM, this result also allowed us to estimate the rate of Gk.GTP hydrolysis, kcat, to be near 135 min-1. These results provide, for the first time, a quantitative description of the salient features of G-protein function in vivo. PMID:2455765

  1. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) inhibits ERK phosphorylation by muscarinic receptor modulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Secondo, Agnese; De Mizio, Mariarosaria; Zirpoli, Laura; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Mondola, Paolo

    2008-11-07

    The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) belongs to a family of isoenzymes that are able to dismutate the oxygen superoxide in hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This enzyme is secreted by many cellular lines and it is also released trough a calcium-dependent depolarization mechanism involving SNARE protein SNAP 25. Using rat pituitary GH3 cells that express muscarinic receptors we found that SOD1 inhibits P-ERK1/2 pathway trough an interaction with muscarinic M1 receptor. This effect is strengthened by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M agonist and partially reverted by pyrenzepine, an antagonist of M1 receptor; moreover this effect is independent from increased intracellular calcium concentration induced by SOD1. Finally, P-ERK1/2 inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of GH3 cell proliferation. These data indicate that SOD1 beside the well studied antioxidant properties can be considered as a neuromodulator able to affect mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pituitary cells trough a M1 muscarinic receptor.

  2. AKAP79, PKC, PKA and PDE4 participate in a Gq-linked muscarinic receptor and adenylate cyclase 2 cAMP signalling complex

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia X.; Cooper, Dermot M. F.

    2014-01-01

    AC2 (adenylate cyclase 2) is stimulated by activation of Gq-coupled muscarinic receptors through PKC (protein kinase C) to generate localized cAMP in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. In the present study, we utilized a sensitive live-cell imaging technique to unravel the proteins that play essential roles in a Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor-mediated cAMP signalling complex. We reveal that, upon agonist binding to the Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor, AKAP79 (A-kinase-anchoring protein 79) recruits PKC to activate AC2 to produce cAMP. The cAMP formed is degraded by PDE4 (phosphodiesterase 4) activated by an AKAP-anchored PKA (protein kinase A). Calcineurin, a phosphatase bound to AKAP79, is not involved in this regulation. Overall, a transient cAMP increase is generated from AC2 by Gq-coupled muscarinic receptor activation, subject to sophisticated regulation through AKAP79, PKC, PDE4 and PKA, which significantly enhances acetylcholine-mediated signalling. PMID:23889134

  3. Silver nanoparticles induce anti-proliferative effects on airway smooth muscle cells. Role of nitric oxide and muscarinic receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Lee, Manuel A; Rosas-Hernández, Héctor; Salazar-García, Samuel; Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; González, Francisco J; Ali, Syed F; González, Carmen

    2014-01-13

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used to manufacture materials with new properties and functions. However, little is known about their toxic or beneficial effects on human health, especially in the respiratory system, where its smooth muscle (ASM) regulates the airway contractility by different mediators, such as acetylcholine (ACh) and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AgNPs on ASM cells. Exposure to AgNPs induced ACh-independent expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at 100 μg/mL, associated with excessive production of NO. AgNPs induced the muscarinic receptor activation, since its blockage with atropine and blockage of its downstream signaling pathway inhibited the NO production. AgNPs at 10 and 100 μg/mL induced ACh-independent prolonged cytotoxicity and decreased cellular proliferation mediated by the muscarinic receptor-iNOS pathway. However, the concentration of 100 μg/mL of AgNPs induced muscarinic receptor-independent apoptosis, suggesting the activation of multiple pathways. These data indicate that AgNPs induce prolonged cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on ASM cells, suggesting an activation of the muscarinic receptor-iNOS pathway. Further investigation is required to understand the full mechanisms of action of AgNPs on ASM under specific biological conditions.

  4. Assessment of brain muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors in living mice using a simple probe, [125I]-4-iododexetimide and [125I]-4-iodolevetimide.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Lever, J R; Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Guilarte, T R; Wagner, H N

    1993-12-01

    This study describes assessment of brain muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors in living mice using a single-crystal radiation detection system, the high-affinity antagonist [125I]-4-iododexetimide, and the inactive enantiomer [125I]-4-iodolevetimide. Kinetics of radioligand binding, as well as perturbation by atropine displacement, can be determined using this simple probe technique. PMID:8152535

  5. Characterization of muscarinic receptor binding by the novel radioligand, [(3)H]imidafenacin, in the bladder and other tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Shiori; Ito, Yoshihiko; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to directly characterize specific binding sites of tritium ([(3)H])-labeled imidafenacin, a new radioligand for labeling muscarinic receptors, in the bladder and other peripheral or central nervous tissues of rats. Muscarinic receptors in rat tissues were measured by radioligand binding assay using [(3)H]imidafenacin. Specific [(3)H]imidafenacin binding in rat tissues was saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. Estimated dissociation constants (Kd values) were significantly lower in submaxillary gland and prostate and higher in heart than in bladder, indicating lower Kd values in M1 and M3 subtype- than M2 subtype-dominating tissues. Unlabeled imidafenacin and clinically used antimuscarinic agents competed with [(3)H]imidafenacin for binding sites in bladder and other tissues in a concentration-dependent manner, which indicated pharmacological specificity of [(3)H]imidafenacin binding sites. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-piperidinyl diphenylacetate (4-DAMP mustard), an irreversible inactivating agent of M3 subtype, significantly decreased the number of [(3)H]imidafenacin binding sites in bladder, submaxillary gland, and colon, but not in heart. [(3)H]imidafenacin labeled muscarinic receptors in M1 and M3 subtype-dominating tissues with higher affinity than [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine methyl chloride (NMS). [(3)H]imidafenacin is a useful radioligand to label muscarinic receptors in M1- and M3-dominating tissues with high affinity.

  6. Pharmacological and ionic characterizations of the muscarinic receptors modulating (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release from rat cortical synaptosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.M.; Otero, D.H.

    1985-05-01

    The muscarinic receptors that modulate acetylcholine release from rat cortical synaptosomes were characterized with respect to sensitivity to drugs that act selectively at M1 or M2 receptor subtypes, as well as to changes in ionic strength and membrane potential. The modulatory receptors appear to be of the M2 type, since they are activated by carbachol, acetylcholine, methacholine, oxotremorine, and bethanechol, but not by pilocarpine, and are blocked by atropine, scopolamine, and gallamine (at high concentrations), but not by pirenzepine or dicyclomine. The ED50S for carbachol, acetylcholine, and oxotremorine are less than 10 microM, suggesting that the high affinity state of the receptor is functional. High ionic strength induced by raising the NaCl concentration has no effect on agonist (oxotremorine) potency, but increases the efficacy of this compound, which disagrees with receptor-binding studies. On the other hand, depolarization with either KCl or with veratridine (20 microM) reduces agonist potencies by approximately an order of magnitude, suggesting a potential mechanism for receptor regulation.

  7. Assay of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function in cultured cardiac cells by stimulation of /sup 86/Rb+ efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.D.; Nathanson, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    An assay for the increase in potassium permeability mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in cultured cardiac cells is described, using the K+ ion substitute /sup 86/Rb+ as the tracer ion. Cardiac cells accumulate /sup 86/Rb+ from the extracellular medium in a Na+/K+ ATPase-dependent manner. Subsequent efflux of /sup 86/Rb+ in the absence and presence of muscarinic agonists follows kinetics similar to those previously reported for /sup 42/K+. The mAChR agonist carbamylcholine (carbachol) stimulated /sup 86/Rb+ efflux with an EC50 of 50 nM. The half-time for efflux is reduced by greater than 40% at maximally effective concentrations of agonist. Stimulation of /sup 86/Rb+ efflux by carbachol is blocked by the mAChR antagonist atropine with an IC50 of 15 nM. The stimulation of 86Rb+ efflux by carbachol is not affected by the presence of the Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor ouabain. This assay provides a method for quantitating the mAChR-mediated increase in K+ permeability in cardiac cells without the use of /sup 42/K+.

  8. Muscarinic receptor modulation of basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated function of the failing human left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Newton, G E; Parker, A B; Landzberg, J S; Colucci, W S; Parker, J D

    1996-12-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of muscarinic receptor modulation on basal and beta-adrenergic stimulated left ventricular function in patients with heart failure. 21 heart failure patients and 14 subjects with normal ventricular function were studied. In Protocol 1 intracoronary acetylcholine resulted in a 60+/-8% inhibition of the left ventricular +dP/dt response to intracoronary dobutamine in the normal group, and a similar 70+/-13% inhibition in the heart failure group. Acetylcholine also attenuated the dobutamine-mediated acceleration of isovolumic relaxation (Tau) in both groups. Acetylcholine alone had no effect on Tau in the normal group, while it prolonged Tau in the heart failure group. In Protocol 2 intracoronary atropine resulted in a 35+/-10% augmentation of the inotropic response to dobutamine in the normal group, versus a non-significant 12+/-15% augmentation of the dobutamine response in the heart failure group. In Protocol 3, in 6 heart failure patients, both effects of acetylcholine, the slowing of ventricular relaxation and the inhibition of beta-adrenergic responses, were reversed by the addition of atropine. Therefore, in the failing human left ventricle muscarinic stimulation has an independent negative lusitropic effect and antagonizes the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease: Targeting the Cholinergic System

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H.; Guimaraes, Isabella M.; Silva, Flavia R.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) has a crucial role in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is responsible for synthesizing ACh from acetyl-CoA and choline in the cytoplasm and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) uptakes the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles. Following depolarization, ACh undergoes exocytosis reaching the synaptic cleft, where it can bind its receptors, including muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ACh present at the synaptic cleft is promptly hydrolyzed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), forming acetate and choline, which is recycled into the presynaptic nerve terminal by the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1). Cholinergic neurons located in the basal forebrain, including the neurons that form the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are severely lost in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). AD is the most ordinary cause of dementia affecting 25 million people worldwide. The hallmarks of the disease are the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. However, there is no real correlation between levels of cortical plaques and AD-related cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, synaptic loss is the principal correlate of disease progression and loss of cholinergic neurons contributes to memory and attention deficits. Thus, drugs that act on the cholinergic system represent a promising option to treat AD patients. PMID:26813123

  10. Iodine-123 N-methyl-4-iododexetimide: a new radioligand for single-photon emission tomographic imaging of myocardial muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R J; Kassiou, M; Eu, P; Katsifis, A G; Garra, M; Power, J; Najdovski, L; Lambrecht, R M

    1995-04-01

    Cardiac muscarinic receptor ligands suitable for positron emission tomography have previously been characterised. Attempts to develop radioligands of these receptors suitable for single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging have not been successful due to high lung retention and high non-specific binding of previously investigated potential tracers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution and in vivo imaging characteristics of a new radiopharmaceutical, [123I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide. Biodistribution studies performed in rats showed high cardiac uptake (2.4% ID/g) 10 min after injection with a heart to lung activity ratio of 5:1. Specificity and stereoselectivity of cardiac binding were demonstrated using blocking experiments in rats. Dynamic imaging studies in anaesthetised greyhounds demonstrated rapid and high myocardial uptake and low lung binding with stable heart to lung activity ratios of > 2.5:1 between 10 and 30 min, making SPECT imaging feasible. Administration of an excess of an unlabelled muscarinic antagonist, methyl-quinuclidinyl benzylate rapidly displaced myocardial activity to background levels and the pharmacologically inactive enantiomer, [123I]N-methyl-4-iodolevetimide, had no detectable cardiac uptake, indicating specific and stereoselective muscarinic receptor binding. SPET revealed higher activity in the inferior than in the anterior wall, this being consistent with previously described regional variation of cardiac parasympathetic innervation. [123I]N-methyl-4-iododexetimide shows promise as an imaging agent for muscarinic receptor distribution in the heart and may be helpful in evaluating diverse cardiac diseases associated with altered muscarinic receptor function, including heart failure and diabetic heart disease. PMID:7607265

  11. Evaluation of a purification procedure for the muscarinic receptor for the purpose of quantitative receptor assays of anticholinergics. Part A: The membrane-bound receptor.

    PubMed

    Smisterová, J; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1995-11-01

    The presented purification procedure for the muscarinic receptor from calf striatum includes the extraction of lipids with hexane in the first step and the removal of 39% of non-receptor proteins with 2 M NaCl in the second step. The simplicity of such an approach to the purification of the receptor warrants its use in the routine practice for quantitative purposes. The high affinity binding of tertiary 3H-dexetimide (3H-DEX) and quaternary 3H-N-methylscopolamine (3H-NMS) is preserved after the removal of irrelevant lipids and proteins from the P2-pellet. The overall yield of receptors--80%, when labelled with 3H-NMS, was satisfactory. Moreover, the final product, the NaCl-pellet, exerts a higher density of 3H-NMS binding sites per mg proteins by a factor of about 1.7. The overall yield of receptors and purification factor were lower, when measured with 3H-DEX. The total yield of 3H-DEX binding sites amounted to about 40% and the receptor density per mg protein decreased by a factor of 0.85. We did not succeed in the improvement of the ratio specific/non-specific binding, neither for 3H-DEX nor for 3H-NMS for the purified receptor preparations. The use of 3H-NMS is preferable to 3H-DEX in plasma sample assays because of a negligible effect of plasma on ligand binding when compared with 3H-DEX. PMID:8570569

  12. Prediction of drug-induced catalepsy based on dopamine D1, D2, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor occupancies.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Ito, K; Kotaki, H; Sawada, Y; Iga, T

    1997-06-01

    It is known that catalepsy serves as an experimental animal model of parkinsonism. In this study, the relationship between in vivo dopamine D1 and D2 receptor occupancies and catalepsy was investigated to predict the intensity of catalepsy induced by drugs that bind to D1 and D2 receptors nonselectively. 3H-SCH23390 and 3H-raclopride were used for the labeling of D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. The ternary complex model consisting of agonist or antagonist, receptor, and transducer was developed, and the dynamic parameters were determined. After coadministration of SCH23390 and nemonapride, catalepsy was stronger than sum of the values predicted by single administration of each drug, and it was intensified synergistically. This finding suggested the existence of interaction between D1 and D2 receptors, and the necessity for constructing the model including this interaction. To examine the validity of this model, catalepsy and in vivo dopamine receptor occupancy were measured after administration of drugs that induce or have a possibility to induce parkinsonism (haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, oxatomide, hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcycilzine). All of the tested drugs blocked both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. Intensity of catalepsy was predicted with this dynamic model and was compared with the observed values. In contrast with haloperidol, flunarizine, manidipine, and oxatomide (which induced catalepsy), hydroxyzine, meclizine, and homochlorcyclizine failed to induce catalepsy. Intensities of catalepsy predicted with this dynamic model considering the interaction between D1 and D2 receptors overestimated the observed values, suggesting that these drugs have catalepsy-reducing properties as well. Because muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor antagonists inhibit the induction of catalepsy, the anticholinergic activities of the drugs were investigated. After SCH23390, nemonapride and scopolamine were administered simultaneously; catalepsy and in

  13. Allosteric Effects of Sodium Ion Binding on Activation of the M3 Muscarinic G-Protein-Coupled Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yinglong; Caliman, Alisha D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important membrane proteins that mediate cellular signaling and represent primary targets for about one-third of currently marketed drugs. Recent x-ray crystallographic studies identified distinct conformations of GPCRs in the active and inactive states. An allosteric sodium ion was found bound to a highly conserved D2.50 residue in inactive GPCRs, whereas the D2.50 allosteric pocket became collapsed in active GPCR structures. However, the dynamic mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to understand the mechanistic effects of sodium ion binding on dynamic activation of the M3 muscarinic GPCR through long-timescale accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations. Results showed that with the D2.50 residue deprotonated, the M3 receptor is bound by an allosteric sodium ion and confined mostly in the inactive state with remarkably reduced flexibility. In contrast, the D2.50-protonated receptor does not exhibit sodium ion binding to the D2.50 allosteric site and samples a significantly larger conformational space. The receptor activation is captured and characterized by large-scale structural rearrangements of the transmembrane helices via dynamic hydrogen bond and salt bridge interactions. The residue motions are highly correlated during receptor activation. Further network analysis revealed that the allosteric signaling between residue D2.50 and key residues in the intracellular, extracellular, and orthosteric pockets is significantly weakened upon sodium ion binding. PMID:25863070

  14. Allosteric activation of M4 muscarinic receptors improve behavioral and physiological alterations in early symptomatic YAC128 mice

    PubMed Central

    Pancani, Tristano; Foster, Daniel J.; Moehle, Mark S.; Bichell, Terry Jo; Bradley, Emma; Bridges, Thomas M.; Klar, Rebecca; Poslusney, Mike; Rook, Jerri M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Wood, Michael R.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Xiang, Zixiu; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that lead to Huntington’s disease (HD) result in increased transmission at glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses at early presymptomatic stages that have been postulated to set the stage for pathological changes and symptoms that are observed at later ages. Based on this, pharmacological interventions that reverse excessive corticostriatal transmission may provide a novel approach for reducing early physiological changes and motor symptoms observed in HD. We report that activation of the M4 subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor reduces transmission at corticostriatal synapses and that this effect is dramatically enhanced in presymptomatic YAC128 HD and BACHD relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, chronic administration of a novel highly selective M4 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) beginning at presymptomatic ages improves motor and synaptic deficits in 5-mo-old YAC128 mice. These data raise the exciting possibility that selective M4 PAMs could provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HD. PMID:26508634

  15. Pharmacological characteristics of liriodenine, isolated from Fissistigma glaucescens, a novel muscarinic receptor antagonist in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Lin, C H; Chang, G J; Su, M J; Wu, Y C; Teng, C M; Ko, F N

    1994-09-01

    1. The pharmacological activities of liriodenine, isolated from Fissistigma glaucescens, were determined in isolated trachea, ileum and cardiac tissues of guinea-pigs. 2. Liriodenine was found to be a muscarinic receptor antagonist in guinea-pig trachea as revealed by its competitive antagonism of carbachol (pA2 = 6.22 +/- 0.08)-induced smooth muscle contraction. It was slightly more potent than methoctramine (pA2 = 5.92 +/- 0.05), but was less potent than atropine (pA2 = 8.93 +/- 0.07), pirenzepine (pA2 = 7.02 +/- 0.09) and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP, pA2 = 8.72 +/- 0.07). 3. Liriodenine was also a muscarinic antagonist in guinea-pig ileum (pA2 = 6.36 +/- 0.10) with a pA2 value that closely resembled that obtained in the trachea. 4. Liriodenine was 10 fold less potent in atrial preparations (left atria, pA2 = 5.24 +/- 0.04; right atria, pA2 = 5.35 +/- 0.09 and 5.28 +/- 0.07 for inotropic and chronotropic effects, respectively) than in smooth muscle preparations. 5. High concentration of liriodenine (300 microM) partially depressed the contractions induced by U-46619, histamine, prostaglandin F2 alpha, neurokinin A, leukotriene C4 and high K+ in the guinea-pig trachea. The inhibitions were characterized by a rightward shift in the concentration-response curves with suppression of their maximal contraction. 6. High concentration of liriodenine (300 microM) did not affect U-46619- or neurokinin A-induced tracheal contraction in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) or in Ca(2+)-free (containing 0.2 mM EGTA) medium. 7. Neither cyclic AMP nor cyclic GMP content of guinea-pig trachealis was changed by liriodenine (30-300 microM). 8. It is concluded that liriodenine is a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist in isolated trachea, ileum and cardiac tissues of guinea-pigs. It is more potent in smooth muscle than in cardiac preparations. It also acts as a blocker of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels at a high concentration (300 microM).

  16. Huperzine A protects sepsis associated encephalopathy by promoting the deficient cholinergic nervous function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Sen-Zhi; Huang, Wei-Ping; Huang, Lin-Qiang; Han, Yong-Li; Han, Qian-Peng; Zhu, Gao-Feng; Wen, Miao-Yun; Deng, Yi-Yu; Zeng, Hong-Ke

    2016-09-19

    Neuroinflammatory deregulation in the brain plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE). Given the mounting evidence of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the cholinergic nervous system, it is surprising that there is little information about its changes in the brain during sepsis. To elucidate the role of the cholinergic nervous system in SAE, hippocampal choline acetyltransferase, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1, acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine were evaluated in LPS-induced sepsis rats. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuronal apoptosis, and animal cognitive performance were also assessed. Furthermore, therapeutic effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Huperzine A (HupA) on the hippocampal cholinergic nervous function and neuroinflammation were evaluated. A deficiency of the cholinergic nervous function was revealed in SAE, accompanied with over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines, increase in neuronal apoptosis and brain cognitive impairment. HupA remarkably promoted the deficient cholinergic nervous function and attenuated the abnormal neuroinflammation in SAE, paralleled with the recovery of brain function. We suggest that the deficiency of the cholinergic nervous function and the abnormal neuroinflammation are synergistically implicated in the pathogenesis of SAE. Thus, HupA is a potential therapeutic candidate for SAE, as it improves the deficient cholinergic nervous function and exerts anti-inflammatory action.

  17. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 and M3 subtypes mediate acetylcholine-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Tangsucharit, Panot; Takatori, Shingo; Zamami, Yoshito; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takayama, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated pharmacological characterizations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subtypes involving ACh-induced endothelium-independent vasodilatation in rat mesenteric arteries. Changes in perfusion pressure to periarterial nerve stimulation and ACh were measured before and after the perfusion of Krebs solution containing muscarinic receptor antagonists. Distributions of muscarinic AChR subtypes in mesenteric arteries with an intact endothelium were studied using Western blotting. The expression level of M1 and M3 was significantly greater than that of M2. Endothelium removal significantly decreased expression levels of M2 and M3, but not M1. In perfused mesenteric vascular beds with intact endothelium and active tone, exogenous ACh (1, 10, and 100 nmol) produced concentration-dependent and long-lasting vasodilatations. In endothelium-denuded preparations, relaxation to ACh (1 nmol) disappeared, but ACh at 10 and 100 nmol caused long-lasting vasodilatations, which were markedly blocked by the treatment of pirenzepine (M1 antagonist) or 4-DAMP (M1 and M3 antagonist) plus hexamethonium (nicotinic AChR antagonist), but not methoctramine (M2 and M4 antagonist). These results suggest that muscarinic AChR subtypes, mainly M1, distribute throughout the rat mesenteric arteries, and that activation of M1 and/or M3 which may be located on CGRPergic nerves releases CGRP, causing an endothelium-independent vasodilatation.

  18. Accelerated structure-based design of chemically diverse allosteric modulators of a muscarinic G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinglong; Goldfeld, Dahlia Anne; Moo, Ee Von; Sexton, Patrick M; Christopoulos, Arthur; McCammon, J Andrew; Valant, Celine

    2016-09-20

    Design of ligands that provide receptor selectivity has emerged as a new paradigm for drug discovery of G protein-coupled receptors, and may, for certain families of receptors, only be achieved via identification of chemically diverse allosteric modulators. Here, the extracellular vestibule of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is targeted for structure-based design of allosteric modulators. Accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations were performed to construct structural ensembles that account for the receptor flexibility. Compounds obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were docked to the receptor ensembles. Retrospective docking of known ligands showed that combining aMD simulations with Glide induced fit docking (IFD) provided much-improved enrichment factors, compared with the Glide virtual screening workflow. Glide IFD was thus applied in receptor ensemble docking, and 38 top-ranked NCI compounds were selected for experimental testing. In [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine radioligand dissociation assays, approximately half of the 38 lead compounds altered the radioligand dissociation rate, a hallmark of allosteric behavior. In further competition binding experiments, we identified 12 compounds with affinity of ≤30 μM. With final functional experiments on six selected compounds, we confirmed four of them as new negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) and one as positive allosteric modulator of agonist-mediated response at the M2 mAChR. Two of the NAMs showed subtype selectivity without significant effect at the M1 and M3 mAChRs. This study demonstrates an unprecedented successful structure-based approach to identify chemically diverse and selective GPCR allosteric modulators with outstanding potential for further structure-activity relationship studies. PMID:27601651

  19. An interspecies comparison of mercury inhibition on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Niladri; Stamler, Christopher J.; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Chan, H.M. . E-mail: laurie.chan@mcgill.ca

    2005-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous pollutant that can disrupt neurochemical signaling pathways in mammals. It is well documented that inorganic Hg (HgCl{sub 2}) and methyl Hg (MeHg) can inhibit the binding of radioligands to the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor in rat brains. However, little is known concerning this relationship in specific anatomical regions of the brain or in other species, including humans. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HgCl{sub 2} and MeHg on [{sup 3}H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([{sup 3}H]-QNB) binding to the mACh receptor in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex regions from human, rat, mouse, mink, and river otter brain tissues. Saturation binding curves were obtained from each sample to calculate receptor density (B {sub max}) and ligand affinity (K {sub d}). Subsequently, samples were exposed to HgCl{sub 2} or MeHg to derive IC50 values and inhibition constants (K {sub i}). Results demonstrate that HgCl{sub 2} is a more potent inhibitor of mACh receptor binding than MeHg, and the receptors in the cerebellum are more sensitive to Hg-mediated mACh receptor inhibition than those in the cerebral cortex. Species sensitivities, irrespective of Hg type and brain region, can be ranked from most to least sensitive: river otter > rat > mink > mouse > humans. In summary, our data demonstrate that Hg can inhibit the binding [{sup 3}H]-QNB to the mACh receptor in a range of mammalian species. This comparative study provides data on interspecies differences and a framework for interpreting results from human, murine, and wildlife studies.

  20. An Antibody Biosensor Establishes the Activation of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor during Learning and Memory*♦

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Adrian J.; Bradley, Sophie J.; Prihandoko, Rudi; Brooke, Simon M.; Mogg, Adrian; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer M.; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Challiss, R. A. John; Broad, Lisa M.; Felder, Christian C.; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the in vivo activation status of G protein-coupled receptors would not only indicate physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptors but would also aid drug discovery by establishing drug/receptor engagement. Here, we develop a phospho-specific antibody-based biosensor to detect activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR) in vitro and in vivo. Mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics identified 14 sites of phosphorylation on the M1 mAChR. Phospho-specific antibodies to four of these sites established that serine at position 228 (Ser228) on the M1 mAChR showed extremely low levels of basal phosphorylation that were significantly up-regulated by orthosteric agonist stimulation. In addition, the M1 mAChR-positive allosteric modulator, 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, enhanced acetylcholine-mediated phosphorylation at Ser228. These data supported the hypothesis that phosphorylation at Ser228 was an indicator of M1 mAChR activation. This was further supported in vivo by the identification of phosphorylated Ser228 on the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus of mice following administration of the muscarinic ligands xanomeline and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Finally, Ser228 phosphorylation was seen to increase in the CA1 region of the hippocampus following memory acquisition, a response that correlated closely with up-regulation of CA1 neuronal activity. Thus, determining the phosphorylation status of the M1 mAChR at Ser228 not only provides a means of establishing receptor activation following drug treatment both in vitro and in vivo but also allows for the mapping of the activation status of the M1 mAChR in the hippocampus following memory acquisition thereby establishing a link between M1 mAChR activation and hippocampus-based memory and learning. PMID:26826123

  1. Slow Cholinergic Modulation of Spike Probability in Ultra-Fast Time-Coding Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, David; Kurth, Stefanie; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensory processing in the lower auditory pathway is generally considered to be rigid and thus less subject to modulation than central processing. However, in addition to the powerful bottom-up excitation by auditory nerve fibers, the ventral cochlear nucleus also receives efferent cholinergic innervation from both auditory and nonauditory top–down sources. We thus tested the influence of cholinergic modulation on highly precise time-coding neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil. By combining electrophysiological recordings with pharmacological application in vitro and in vivo, we found 55–72% of spherical bushy cells (SBCs) to be depolarized by carbachol on two time scales, ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes. These effects were mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological block of muscarinic receptors hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suggesting a novel mechanism of setting the resting membrane potential for SBC. The cholinergic depolarization led to an increase of spike probability in SBCs without compromising the temporal precision of the SBC output in vitro. In vivo, iontophoretic application of carbachol resulted in an increase in spontaneous SBC activity. The inclusion of cholinergic modulation in an SBC model predicted an expansion of the dynamic range of sound responses and increased temporal acuity. Our results thus suggest of a top–down modulatory system mediated by acetylcholine which influences temporally precise information processing in the lower auditory pathway. PMID:27699207

  2. Slow Cholinergic Modulation of Spike Probability in Ultra-Fast Time-Coding Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, David; Kurth, Stefanie; Rübsamen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sensory processing in the lower auditory pathway is generally considered to be rigid and thus less subject to modulation than central processing. However, in addition to the powerful bottom-up excitation by auditory nerve fibers, the ventral cochlear nucleus also receives efferent cholinergic innervation from both auditory and nonauditory top–down sources. We thus tested the influence of cholinergic modulation on highly precise time-coding neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the Mongolian gerbil. By combining electrophysiological recordings with pharmacological application in vitro and in vivo, we found 55–72% of spherical bushy cells (SBCs) to be depolarized by carbachol on two time scales, ranging from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes. These effects were mediated by nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, respectively. Pharmacological block of muscarinic receptors hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential, suggesting a novel mechanism of setting the resting membrane potential for SBC. The cholinergic depolarization led to an increase of spike probability in SBCs without compromising the temporal precision of the SBC output in vitro. In vivo, iontophoretic application of carbachol resulted in an increase in spontaneous SBC activity. The inclusion of cholinergic modulation in an SBC model predicted an expansion of the dynamic range of sound responses and increased temporal acuity. Our results thus suggest of a top–down modulatory system mediated by acetylcholine which influences temporally precise information processing in the lower auditory pathway.

  3. Unexpected antipsychotic-like activity with the muscarinic receptor ligand (5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane .

    PubMed

    Bymaster, F P; Shannon, H E; Rasmussen, K; Delapp, N W; Mitch, C H; Ward, J S; Calligaro, D O; Ludvigsen, T S; Sheardown, M J; Olesen, P H; Swedberg, M D; Sauerberg, P; Fink-Jensen, A

    1998-09-01

    (5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3 .2.1]octane (PTAC) is a potent muscarinic receptor ligand with high affinity for central muscarinic receptors and no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors or binding sites including dopamine receptors. The ligand exhibits partial agonist effects at muscarinic M2 and M4 receptors and antagonist effects at muscarinic M1, M3 and M5 receptors. PTAC inhibited conditioned avoidance responding, dopamine receptor agonist-induced behavior and D-amphetamine-induced FOS protein M5 expression in the nucleus accumbens without inducing catalepsy, tremor or salivation at pharmacologically relevant doses. The effect of PTAC on conditioned avoidance responding and dopamine receptor agonist-induced behavior was antagonized by the acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. The compound selectively inhibited dopamine cell firing (acute administration) as well as the number of spontaneously active dopamine cells (chronic administration) in the limbic ventral tegmental area (A10) relative to the non-limbic substantia nigra, pars compacta (A9). The results demonstrate that PTAC exhibits functional dopamine receptor antagonism despite its lack of affinity for the dopamine receptors and indicate that muscarinic receptor partial agonists may be an important new approach in the medical treatment of schizophrenia.

  4. Activation of a muscarinic receptor selectively inhibits a rapidly inactivated Ca2+ current in rat sympathetic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Wanke, E; Ferroni, A; Malgaroli, A; Ambrosini, A; Pozzan, T; Meldolesi, J

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons dissociated from the superior cervical ganglion of 2-day-old rats were studied by whole-cell patch clamp and by fura-2 measurements of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. Step depolarizations in the presence of tetrodotoxin and hexamethonium triggered two Ca2+ currents that differed in the voltage dependence of activation and kinetics of inactivation. These currents resemble the L and N currents previously described in chicken sensory neurons [Nowycky, M. C., Fox, A. P. & Tsien, R. W. (1985) Nature (London) 316, 440-442]. Treatment with acetylcholine resulted in the rapid (within seconds), selective, and reversible inhibition of the rapidly inactivated, N-type current, whereas the long-lasting L-type current remained unaffected. The high sensitivity to blocker drugs (atropine, pirenzepine) indicated that this effect of acetylcholine was due to a muscarinic M1 receptor. Intracellular perfusion with nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogs or pretreatment of the neurons with pertussis toxin had profound effects on the Ca2+ current modulation. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate caused the disappearance of the N-type current (an effect akin to that of acetylcholine, but irreversible), whereas guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate and pertussis toxin pretreatment prevented the acetylcholine-induced inhibition. In contrast, cAMP, applied intracellularly together with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, as well as activators and inhibitors of protein kinase C, were without effect. Acetylcholine caused shortening of action potentials in neurons treated with tetraethylammonium to partially block K+ channels. Moreover, when applied to neurons loaded with the fluorescent indicator fura-2, acetylcholine failed to appreciably modify [Ca2+]i at rest but caused a partial blunting of the initial [Ca2+]i peak induced by depolarization with high K+. This effect was blocked by muscarinic antagonists and pertussis toxin and was unaffected by protein kinase

  5. Acetylcholine receptors in the human retina

    SciTech Co