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Sample records for muscle reflex thresholds

  1. Aural Acoustic Stapedius-Muscle Reflex Threshold Procedures to Test Human Infants and Adults.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-02-01

    Power-based procedures are described to measure acoustic stapedius-muscle reflex threshold and supra-threshold responses in human adult and infant ears at frequencies from 0.2 to 8 kHz. The stimulus set included five clicks in which four pulsed activators were placed between each pair of clicks, with each stimulus set separated from the next by 0.79 s to allow for reflex decay. Each click response was used to detect the presence of reflex effects across frequency that were elicited by a pulsed broadband-noise or tonal activator in the ipsilateral or contralateral test ear. Acoustic reflex shifts were quantified in terms of the difference in absorbed sound power between the initial baseline click and the later four clicks in each set. Acoustic reflex shifts were measured over a 40-dB range of pulsed activators, and the acoustic reflex threshold was objectively calculated using a maximum 10 likelihood procedure. To illustrate the principles underlying these new reflex tests, reflex shifts in absorbed sound power and absorbance are presented for data acquired in an adult ear with normal hearing and in two infant ears in the initial and follow-up newborn hearing screening exams, one with normal hearing and the other with a conductive hearing loss. The use of absorbed sound power was helpful in classifying an acoustic reflex shift as present or absent. The resulting reflex tests are in use in a large study of wideband clinical diagnosis and monitoring of middle-ear and cochlear function in infant and adult ears.

  2. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on nociceptive flexion reflex threshold in healthy young adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Emery, Charles F; France, Christopher R; Harris, Jennifer; Norman, Greg; Vanarsdalen, Courtney

    2008-08-31

    Although prior studies have demonstrated effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) in reducing self-reported pain, no laboratory studies have examined the effects of PMR on objective indicators of descending modulation of nociception. This randomized controlled study utilized the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) to evaluate nociceptive responding among 55 college-age men and women (mean age=19.4+/-1.2 years). Participants completed laboratory assessments of NFR threshold and questionnaires evaluating pain and stress. Participants were then randomly assigned to either a 25-min PMR condition or a no-treatment control condition. Following the brief intervention, participants completed a second NFR procedure and self-report questionnaires. Results indicated a significant time by condition interaction for NFR, with participants in the PMR condition experiencing a significant increase in NFR threshold while participants in the no-treatment condition experienced no change in NFR. Ratings of pain did not change during the study, but PMR participants reported decreased stress following the PMR intervention. This is the first study with a randomized no-treatment control group demonstrating the effect of a brief PMR protocol on descending inhibition of nociception. Results support the efficacy of PMR in reducing nociceptive response and provide further evidence of the utility of behavioral pain management strategies.

  3. Paraspinal muscle reflex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Slota, G P; Bennett, B C

    2004-02-01

    Neuromuscular control of spinal stability may be represented as a control system wherein the paraspinal muscle reflex acts as feedback response to kinetic and kinematic disturbances of the trunk. The influence of preparatory muscle recruitment for the control of spinal stability has been previously examined, but there are few reported studies that characterize paraspinal reflex gain as feedback response. In the current study, the input-output dynamics of paraspinal reflexes were quantified by means of the impulse response function (IRF), with trunk perturbation force representing the input signal and EMG the output signal. Surface EMGs were collected from the trunk muscles in response to a brief anteriorly directed impact force applied to the trunk of healthy participants. Reflex behavior was measured in response to three levels of force impulse, 6.1, 9.2 and 12.0 Ns, and two different levels of external trunk flexion preload, 0 and 110 N anterior force. Reflex EMG was quantifiable in response to 91% of the perturbations. Mean reflex onset latency was 30.7+/-21.3 ms and reflex amplitude increased with perturbation amplitude. Impulse response function gain, G(IRF), was defined as the peak amplitude of the measured IRF and provided a consistent measure of response behavior. EMG reflex amplitude and G(IRF) increased with force impulse. Mean G(IRF) was 2.27+/-1.31% MVC/Ns and demonstrated declining trend with flexion preload. Results agree with a simple systems model of the neuromechanical feedback behavior. The relative contribution of the reflex dynamics to spinal stability must be investigated in future research.

  4. Mentalis muscle related reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uyanık, Özlem; Ertürk, Özdem; Sohtaoğlu, Melis; Kızıltan, Meral Erdemir

    2016-05-01

    The mentalis muscle (MM) arises from the incisive fossa of the mandible, raises and protrudes the lower lip. Here, we aim to characterize responses obtained from MM by supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli in a group of 16 healthy volunteers who did not have clinical palmomental reflex. Reflex activities were recorded from the MM and orbicularis oculi (O.oc) after supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli. Response rates over MM were consistent after each stimulus, however, mean latencies of MM response were longer than O.oc responses by all stimulation modalities. Shapes and amplitudes of responses from O.oc and MM were similar. Based on our findings, we may say that MM motoneurons have connections with trigeminal, vestibulocochlear and lemniscal pathways similar to other facial muscles and electrophysiological recording of MM responses after electrical and auditory stimulation is possible in healthy subjects.

  5. Reflex responses of masseter muscles to sound.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Franca; Giaconi, Elena; Rothwell, John C; Tolu, Eusebio

    2010-10-01

    Acoustic stimuli can evoke reflex EMG responses (acoustic jaw reflex) in the masseter muscle. Although these were previously ascribed to activation of cochlear receptors, high intensity sound can also activate vestibular receptors. Since anatomical and physiological studies, both in animals and humans, have shown that masseter muscles are a target for vestibular inputs we have recently reassessed the vestibular contribution to masseter reflexes. We found that high intensity sound evokes two bilateral and symmetrical short-latency responses in active unrectified masseter EMG of healthy subjects: a high threshold, early p11/n15 wave and a lower threshold, later p16/n21 wave. Both of these reflexes are inhibitory but differ in their threshold, latency and appearance in the rectified EMG average. Experiments in healthy subjects and in patients with selective lesions showed that vestibular receptors were responsible for the p11/n15 wave (vestibulo-masseteric reflex) whereas cochlear receptors were responsible for the p16/n21 wave (acoustic masseteric reflex). The possible functional significance of the double vestibular control over masseter muscles is discussed. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  6. Human intersegmental reflexes from intercostal afferents to scalene muscles.

    PubMed

    McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Gorman, Robert B; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2016-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether specific reflex connections operate between intercostal afferents and the scalene muscles in humans, and whether these connections operate after a clinically complete cervical spinal cord injury. What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first description of a short-latency inhibitory reflex connection between intercostal afferents from intercostal spaces to the scalene muscles in able-bodied participants. We suggest that this reflex is mediated by large-diameter afferents. This intercostal-to-scalene inhibitory reflex is absent after cervical spinal cord injury and may provide a way to monitor the progress of the injury. Short-latency intersegmental reflexes have been described for various respiratory muscles in animals. In humans, however, only short-latency reflex responses to phrenic nerve stimulation have been described. Here, we examined the reflex connections between intercostal afferents and scalene muscles in humans. Surface EMG recordings were made from scalene muscles bilaterally, in seven able-bodied participants and seven participants with motor- and sensory-complete cervical spinal cord injury (median 32 years postinjury, range 5 months to 44 years). We recorded the reflex responses produced by stimulation of the eighth or tenth left intercostal nerve. A short-latency (∼38 ms) inhibitory reflex was evident in able-bodied participants, in ipsilateral and contralateral scalene muscles. This bilateral intersegmental inhibitory reflex occurred in 46% of recordings at low stimulus intensities (at three times motor threshold). It was more frequent (in 75-85% of recordings) at higher stimulus intensities (six and nine times motor threshold), but onset latency (38 ± 9 ms, mean ± SD) and the size of inhibition (23 ± 10%) did not change with stimulus intensity. The reflex was absent in all participants with spinal cord injury. As the intercostal

  7. Voluntary and reflex control of the human temporalis muscle.

    PubMed

    Scott, B J J; Mason, A G; Cadden, S W

    2002-07-01

    Electromyographic recordings (EMGs) were made in 10 human subjects from the anterior and posterior parts of the temporalis muscle using skin surface electrodes. The activities produced by voluntary maximal clenching tasks and the reflex responses to electrical stimulation of the muco-gingival junction were studied. In most subjects, maximum activity in both parts of the muscle occurred when clenching in the intercuspal position (anterior temporalis: 7 of 10 subjects; posterior temporalis: 9 of 10 subjects). Clenching maximally in the retruded position usually resulted in less activity; when this activity was expressed as a percentage of the maximum achieved by each subject for that part of the muscle, the median values were: anterior temporalis, 68% and posterior temporalis, 79%. Clenching in the protruded position produced little or no activity (median values: anterior temporalis, 3%; posterior temporalis, 5%). There were no significant differences between the EMG activities of the anterior and posterior parts of the muscle during these tasks when the activities were normalized to the maximum achieved in each part of the muscle. Application of electrical stimuli at the muco-gingival junction (upper incisor region) produced reflex inhibitions and excitations in both parts of the muscle. There were no significant differences in the thresholds of these reflexes between the anterior and posterior parts of the muscle. Furthermore, there was little difference between the two parts of the muscle in terms of the latencies, durations and magnitudes of the responses. Thus the results of the study suggest that there are similar neural control mechanisms for the anterior and posterior parts of the temporalis muscle despite the common view that these parts of the muscle have different functions.

  8. Reflex changes in muscle spindle discharge during a voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Aniss, A M; Gandevia, S C; Burke, D

    1988-03-01

    1. This study was undertaken to determine whether low-threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents from mechanoreceptors in the foot reflexly affect fusimotor neurons innervating the plantar and dorsiflexors of the ankle during voluntary contractions. 2. Recordings were made from 29 identified muscle spindle afferents innervating triceps surae and the pretibial flexors. Trains of electrical stimuli (5 stimuli, 300 impulses per second) were delivered to the sural nerve at the ankle (intensity: 2-4 times sensory threshold) and to the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle (intensity: 1.5-3 times motor threshold for the small muscles of the foot). The stimuli were delivered while the subject maintained an isometric voluntary contraction of the receptor-bearing muscle, sufficient to accelerate the discharge of each spindle ending. This ensured that the fusimotor neurons directed to the ending were active and influencing the spindle discharge. The effects of these stimuli on muscle spindle discharge were assessed using raster displays, frequencygrams, poststimulus time histograms (PSTHs) and cumulative sums ("CUSUMs") of the PSTHs. Reflex effects onto alpha-motoneurons were determined from poststimulus changes in the averaged rectified electromyogram (EMG). Reflex effects of these stimuli onto single-motor units were assessed in separate experiments using PSTHs and CUSUMs. 3. Electrical stimulation of the sural or posterior tibial nerves at nonnoxious levels had no significant effect on the discharge of the 14 spindle endings in the pretibial flexor muscles. The electrical stimuli also produced no significant change in discharge of 11 of 15 spindle endings in triceps surae. With the remaining four endings in triceps surae, the overall change in discharge appeared to be an increase for two endings (at latencies of 60 and 68 ms) and a decrease for two endings (at latencies of 110 and 150 ms). The difference in the incidence of the responses of spindle endings in tibialis

  9. Sweet taste and menthol increase cough reflex thresholds.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S; Dalton, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    Cough is a vital protective reflex that is triggered by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. The current experiments explored how chemosensory stimuli modulate this important reflex. Cough thresholds were measured using a single-inhalation capsaicin challenge. Experiment 1 examined the impact of sweet taste: Cough thresholds were measured after rinsing the mouth with a sucrose solution (sweet) or with water (control). Experiment 2 examined the impact of menthol: Cough thresholds were measured after inhaling headspace above a menthol solution (menthol vapor) or headspace above the mineral oil solvent (control). Experiment 3 examined the impact of rinsing the mouth with a (bitter) sucrose octaacetate solution. Rinsing with sucrose and inhaling menthol vapor significantly increased measured cough thresholds. Rinsing with sucrose octaacete caused a non-significant decrease in cough thresholds, an important demonstration of specificity. Decreases in cough reflex sensitivity from sucrose or menthol could help explain why cough syrups without pharmacologically active ingredients are often almost as effective as formulations with an added drug. Further, the results support the idea that adding menthol to cigarettes might make tobacco smoke more tolerable for beginning smokers, at least in part, by reducing the sensitivity of an important airway defense mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. H-reflexes in masseter and temporalis muscles in man.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, G M; De Laat, A

    1995-01-01

    In contrast with limb muscles, studies on H-reflexes in the trigeminal system are scarce. The present report aimed at reevaluating the responses obtained in the masseter and temporalis muscles after electrical stimulation of their nerves. Twenty-four subjects participated in the experiments. The reflexes were elicited in the masseter and temporal muscles by monopolar stimulation and recorded using surface electrodes. Stimulation of the masseteric nerve evoked an M-response in the masseter and an H-reflex in both the masseter and the temporal muscles. In contrast with the masseter muscle, where the homonymous H-reflex disappeared at higher stimulation intensities, the heteronymous temporal H-reflex remained and reached a plateau. Simultaneous stimulation of the masseteric and deep temporal nerves resulted in an M-response and an H-reflex in both the masseter and temporal muscles. Increasing stimulus intensitites led to disappearance of the H-reflex in both muscles. The results were compared with those obtained by others on limb muscles. As in these muscles, the presence of heteronymous H-reflexes in the jaw muscles can be used in future studies of motoneuronal excitability.

  11. Feasibility of eliciting the H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ulkatan, Sedat; Jaramillo, Ana Maria; Téllez, Maria J; Goodman, Robert R; Deletis, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of eliciting the brainstem H reflex in the masseter muscle in patients under general anesthesia. We electrically stimulated the masseteric nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve, and recorded ipsilateral masseteric and temporalis muscle responses. We tested eight patients who presented with trigeminal neuralgia; one patient had a temporal bone tumor and one patient had a brainstem arteriovenous malformation. All responses were elicited when patients were under general anesthesia and before the initiation of surgery. The H reflex in the masseter muscle was reliably elicited in 70% of the patients. The reflexes met the usual criteria for the H reflex because they were elicited below the threshold of the direct M response, and their amplitudes decreased when the M response increased with stronger stimuli. The mean onset latencies of the masseter H reflex and the M response were 5.4±1.3ms and 2.6±0.6ms, respectively. In the present study, we provide evidence of the feasibility of eliciting the H reflex in the masseter muscles of patients under general anesthesia. The H reflex of the masseter muscle may represent a new method available for intraoperative monitoring. Specifically, this method may be important for the monitoring of brainstem functional integrity, particularly in the midbrain and mid-pons, in addition to the trigeminal nerve path. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Leg muscle reflexes mediated by cutaneous A-beta fibres are normal during gait in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, L; Boks, L M; van Wezel, B M; Goris, R J; Duysens, J E

    2000-04-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is, from the onset, characterized by various neurological deficits such as an alteration of sensation and a decrease in muscle strength. We investigated if afferent A-beta fibre-mediated reflexes are changed in lower extremities affected by acute RSD. The involvement of these fibres was determined by analyzing reflex responses from the tibialis anterior (TA) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles after electrical stimulation of the sural nerve. The reflexes were studied during walking on a treadmill to investigate whether the abnormalities in gait of the patients were related either to abnormal amplitudes or deficient phase-dependent modulation of reflexes. In 5 patients with acute RSD of the leg and 5 healthy volunteers these reflex responses were determined during the early and late swing phase of the step cycle. No significant difference was found between the RSD and the volunteers. During early swing the mean amplitude of the facilitatory P2 responses in BF and TA increased as a function of stimulus intensity (1.5, 2 and 2.5 times the perception threshold) in both groups. At end swing the same stimuli induced suppressive responses in TA. This phase-dependent reflex reversal from facilitation in early swing to suppression in late swing occurred equally in both groups. In the acute phase of RSD of the lower extremity there is no evidence for abnormal A-beta fibre-mediated reflexes or for defective regulation of such reflexes. This finding has implications for both the theory on RSD pathophysiology and RSD models, which are based on abnormal functioning of A-beta fibres.

  13. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    PubMed Central

    Sloot, Lizeth H.; van den Noort, Josien C.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Harlaar, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163–191 ms). Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally measure reflexes during

  14. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Masugi, Yohei; Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg.

  15. Neural effects of muscle stretching on the spinal reflexes in multiple lower-limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Hiroki; Inoue, Daisuke; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have shown that muscle stretching suppresses monosynaptic spinal reflex excitability in stretched muscles, its effects on non-stretched muscles is still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle stretching on monosynaptic spinal reflex in non-stretched muscles. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Muscle stretching of the right triceps surae muscle was performed using a motor torque device for 1 minute. Three different dorsiflexion torques (at approximately 5, 10, and 15 Nm) were applied during muscle stretching. Spinal reflexes evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded in both the lower-limb muscles before, during, and at 0 and 5 min following muscle stretching. The amplitudes of the spinal reflexes in both the stretched and non-stretched muscles in the right (ipsilateral) leg were smaller during stretching compared to before, and at 0 and 5 min after stretching. Furthermore, the degree of reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes in the right (ipsilateral) leg muscles increased significantly as the dorsiflexion torque (i.e., stretching of the right triceps surae muscles) increased. In contrast, reduction in the amplitude of the spinal reflexes with increasing dorsiflexion torque was not seen in the left (contralateral) leg muscles. Our results clearly indicate that muscle stretching has inhibitory effects on monosynaptic spinal reflexes, not only in stretched muscles, but also in non-stretched muscles of the ipsilateral leg. PMID:28662201

  16. Reflex control of human jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Türker, Kemal S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the headings of the stimulation conditions. This was deliberately done to remind the reader that under each stimulation condition, several receptor systems are activated, and that it is not yet possible to stimulate only one afferent system in isolation in human mastication experiments. To achieve a method for uniform investigation, we need to set a method for stimulation of the afferent pathway under study with minimal simultaneous activation of other receptor systems. This stimulation should also be done in an efficient and reproducible way. To substantiate our conviction to standardize the stimulus type and parameters, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical and electrical stimuli. For mechanical stimulus to be delivered in a reproducible way, the following precautions are suggested: The stimulus delivery system (often a probe attached to a vibrator) should be brought into secure contact with the area of stimulation. To minimize the slack between the probe, the area to be stimulated should be taken up by the application of pre-load, and the delivered force should be recorded in series. Electrical stimulus has advantages in that it can be delivered in a reproducible way, though its physiological relevance can be questioned. It is also necessary to standardize the method for recording and analyzing the responses of the motoneurons to the stimulation. For that, a new technique is introduced, and its advantages over the currently used methods are discussed. The new method can illustrate the synaptic potential that is induced in the motoneurons without the errors that are unavoidable in the current

  17. Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold as a Measure of Ankle Plantar-Flexor Spasticity After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Andreanne K; Mullick, Aditi A; Moïn-Darbari, Karina; Levin, Mindy F

    2016-05-01

    Commonly used spasticity scales assess the resistance felt by the evaluator during passive stretching. These scales, however, have questionable validity and reliability. The tonic stretch reflex threshold (TSRT), or the angle at which motoneuronal recruitment begins in the resting state, is a promising alternative for spasticity measurement. Previous studies showed that spasticity and voluntary motor deficits after stroke may be characterized by a limitation in the ability of the central nervous system to regulate the range of the TSRT. The study objective was to assess interevaluator reliability for TSRT plantar-flexor spasticity measurement. This was an interevaluator reliability study. In 28 people after stroke, plantar-flexor spasticity was evaluated twice on the same day. Plantar-flexor muscles were stretched 20 times at different velocities assigned by a portable device. Plantar-flexor electromyographic signals and ankle angles were used to determine dynamic velocity-dependent thresholds. The TSRT was computed by extrapolating a regression line through dynamic velocity-dependent thresholds to the angular axis. Mean TSRTs in evaluations 1 and 2 were 66.0 degrees (SD=13.1°) and 65.8 degrees (SD=14.1°), respectively, with no significant difference between them. The intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) was .851 (95% confidence interval=.703, .928). The notion of dynamic stretch reflex threshold does not exclude the possibility that spasticity is dependent on acceleration, as well as on velocity; future work will study both possibilities. Tonic stretch reflex threshold interevaluator reliability for evaluating stroke-related plantar-flexor spasticity was very good. The TSRT is a reliable measure of spasticity. More information may be gained by combining the TSRT measurement with a measure of velocity-dependent resistance. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. Pressurized Wideband Acoustic Stapedial Reflex Thresholds: Normal Development and Relationships to Auditory Function in Infants.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lisa L; Keefe, Douglas H; Feeney, M Patrick; Fitzpatrick, Denis F

    2017-02-01

    This study analyzed effects of pressurization on wideband acoustic stapedial-muscle reflex (ASR) tests in infants cared for in normal newborn (NN) and neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Effects of hearing-screening outcomes on ASR threshold measurements were also evaluated, and a subsequent longitudinal study established normative threshold ranges over the first year after birth. An initial experiment compared thresholds in newborns measured at ambient pressure in the ear canal and at the tympanometric peak pressure. ASR thresholds for broadband noise were higher for ears that did not pass newborn hearing screening and ASR threshold was 14 dB higher for real-ear compared to coupler conditions. Effects of pressurization were significant for ears that passed screening; thus, ASR testing in infants should be conducted at tympanometric peak pressure. ASR threshold was significantly higher for ears that referred on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) screening tests and also for ears with conductive and sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed by ABR. Developmental ASR changes were significant over the first year for both normal and NICU infants. Wideband pressurized ASR thresholds are a clinically relevant measure of newborn hearing screening and diagnostic outcomes.

  19. The Effect of the 226-Hz Probe Level on Contralateral Acoustic Stapedius Reflex Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jessica E.; Feeney, M. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 226-Hz probe level on the acoustic stapedius reflex threshold. Method: Contralateral reflex thresholds for a 1000-Hz pure-tone stimulus were obtained from 40 young adults with normal hearing using an experimental system at four 226-Hz probe levels (70, 75, 80, and 85 dB SPL) with…

  20. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the H-reflex of muscles of different fibre type composition.

    PubMed

    Goulet, C G; Arsenault, A B; Bourbonnais, D; Levin, M F

    1997-09-01

    Differential effects of repetitive stimulation of low threshold afferents on both the recruitment threshold and motoneuronal excitability of type I and type II motor units have been demonstrated. The present study was aimed at further investigating the differential effects of 30 minutes of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the H-reflex amplitude (Hmax/2) of the Soleus (SO), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) muscles. Eleven healthy subjects were tested in order to evaluate the effects of TENS on either the common peroneal (CPN), saphenous or sural nerve. The experimental session consisted of three consecutive 45 min periods. Within each of these periods, H-reflexes were recorded before, during and after the TENS was applied. It was hypothesized that repetitive low threshold afferent stimulation would either have inhibitory or facilitatory effects on the H-reflex amplitude of the SO or gastrocnemii muscles respectively. Non-parametric Friedman ANOVAs revealed a significant tendency (p < 0.05) toward inhibition of the H-reflex amplitude of the SO and GL muscle during TENS applied over either the CPN or sural nerve, as well as that of the GM during repetitive stimulation of the saphenous nerve. Although the present study failed to reveal any differential effects of TENS on the H-reflex amplitude of muscle on different fibre type content, the significant decrease in H-reflex observed on the triceps surae muscles during TENS applied over the CPN might have promising clinical outcomes for hyperreflexive subjects.

  1. Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kathe, Claudia; Hutson, Thomas Haynes; McMahon, Stephen Brendan; Moon, Lawrence David Falcon

    2016-01-01

    Brain and spinal injury reduce mobility and often impair sensorimotor processing in the spinal cord leading to spasticity. Here, we establish that complete transection of corticospinal pathways in the pyramids impairs locomotion and leads to increased spasms and excessive mono- and polysynaptic low threshold spinal reflexes in rats. Treatment of affected forelimb muscles with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding human Neurotrophin-3 at a clinically-feasible time-point after injury reduced spasticity. Neurotrophin-3 normalized the short latency Hoffmann reflex to a treated hand muscle as well as low threshold polysynaptic spinal reflexes involving afferents from other treated muscles. Neurotrophin-3 also enhanced locomotor recovery. Furthermore, the balance of inhibitory and excitatory boutons in the spinal cord and the level of an ion co-transporter in motor neuron membranes required for normal reflexes were normalized. Our findings pave the way for Neurotrophin-3 as a therapy that treats the underlying causes of spasticity and not only its symptoms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18146.001 PMID:27759565

  2. Reflex contractions of the ischiocavernosus muscles following electrical and pressure stimulations.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, P; Proulx, J; Courtois, F

    1988-02-01

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that voluntary muscular contractions of the ischiocavernosus muscles (IC) correlate with changes in intracavernous pressure and, therefore, with penile rigidity. The purpose of our current research project was to verify whether reflex contractions of the IC muscles exist and under what conditions. Our results confirm that reflex contractions occur following electrical or pressure stimulations. Following electrical stimulation, the mean latency of the reflex contractions was 67.5 ms for the IC muscles and 34.9 ms for the bulbocavernosus muscles (BC). Following pressure stimulation, the pressure threshold necessary to elicit contractions of the IC muscles varied between 18.2 mm. Hg and 34.8 mm. Hg. We also observed that pressure variation (increase and decrease) rather than a relatively constant pressure is necessary to produce this reflex response. We interpret these results to suggest that pressure stimulations on the glans penis during coitus contribute to the erectile process and, specifically, to the increase in intracavernous pressure. These findings suggest the possibility of a physiotherapeutic management for patients with penile rigidity problems.

  3. Stretch reflex instability compared in three different human muscles.

    PubMed

    Durbaba, R; Taylor, A; Manu, C A; Buonajuti, M

    2005-06-01

    The possibility of causing instability in the stretch reflex has been examined in three different human muscles: biceps, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of the hand and digastric. Tremor recorded as fluctuation of isometric force was compared with that occurring during contraction against a spring load. The spring compliance was selected to make the natural frequency of the part in each case appropriate for oscillations in the short latency stretch reflex. A computer model of the whole system was used to predict the frequency at which oscillations should be expected and to estimate the reflex gain required in each case to cause sustained oscillations. Estimates were computed of the autospectra of the force records and of the rectified surface EMG signals and of the coherence functions. Normal subjects showed no evidence of a distinct spectral peak during isometric recording from any of the three muscles. However, in anisometric conditions regular oscillations in force occurred in biceps, but not in FDI or digastric. The oscillations in biceps at 8-9 Hz were accompanied by similar oscillations in the EMG which were highly coherent with the force signal. The results are consistent with the presence of a strong segmental stretch reflex effect in biceps and weak or absent reflex in FDI. Digastric is known to contain no muscle spindles and therefore to lack a stretch reflex. In two subjects who volunteered that they had more tremor than normal, but had no known neurological abnormality, there was a distinct peak in the force spectrum at 8-9 Hz in biceps and FDI in isometric conditions with coherent EMG activity. The peak increased in size in anisometric conditions in biceps but not in FDI. This component appears to be of central rather than of reflex origin. No equivalent component was found in digastric records. The results are discussed in relation to the possible role of the short latency stretch reflex in the genesis of physiological tremor in different muscles.

  4. Three Methods for Estimating the Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex (MEMR) Using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE) Measurement Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    sound -evoked contraction of the stapedius muscle. This contraction pulls the stapes away from the oval window, stiffens the ossicular chain and the...acoustic reflex or stapedial reflex. The MEMR can be evoked by ipsilateral, contralateral, or bilateral stimulation. The MEMR threshold (the lowest sound ...male) were from an experiment designed to establish stopping rules for MOCR measurements made with an SFOAE test. Subjects were adults aged 18-40

  5. Effects of leg pedaling on early latency cutaneous reflexes in upper limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The functional coupling of neural circuits between the upper and lower limbs involving rhythmic movements is of interest to both motor control research and rehabilitation science. This coupling can be detected by examining the effect of remote rhythmic limb movement on the modulation of reflex amplitude in stationary limbs. The present study investigated the extent to which rhythmic leg pedaling modulates the amplitude of an early latency (peak 30-70 ms) cutaneous reflex (ELCR) in the upper limb muscles. Thirteen neurologically intact volunteers performed leg pedaling (60 or 90 rpm) while simultaneously contracting their arm muscles isometrically. Control experiments included isolated isometric contractions and discrete movements of the leg. ELCRs were evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve with a train of rectangular pulses (three pulses at 333 Hz, intensity 2.0- to 2.5-fold perceptual threshold). Reflex amplitudes were significantly increased in the flexor carpi radialis and posterior deltoid and significantly decreased in the biceps brachii muscles during leg pedaling compared with that during stationary isometric contraction of the lower leg muscles. This effect was also sensitive to cadence. No significant modulation was seen during the isometric contractions or discrete movements of the leg. Additionally, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the ELCR. These findings suggest that activation of the rhythm generating system of the legs affects the excitability of the early latency cutaneous reflex pathways in the upper limbs.

  6. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  7. Spasticity Measurement Based on Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold in Children with Cerebral Palsy Using the PediAnklebot

    PubMed Central

    Germanotta, Marco; Taborri, Juri; Rossi, Stefano; Frascarelli, Flaminia; Palermo, Eduardo; Cappa, Paolo; Castelli, Enrico; Petrarca, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, objective measures are becoming prominent in spasticity assessment, to overcome limitations of clinical scales. Among others, Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold (TSRT) showed promising results. Previous studies demonstrated the validity and reliability of TSRT in spasticity assessment at elbow and ankle joints in adults. Purposes of the present study were to assess: (i) the feasibility of measuring TSRT to evaluate spasticity at the ankle joint in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), and (ii) the correlation between objective measures and clinical scores. A mechatronic device, the pediAnklebot, was used to impose 50 passive stretches to the ankle of 10 children with CP and 3 healthy children, to elicit muscles response at 5 different velocities. Surface electromyography, angles, and angular velocities were recorded to compute dynamic stretch reflex threshold; TSRT was computed with a linear regression through angles and angular velocities. TSRTs for the most affected side of children with CP resulted into the biomechanical range (95.7 ± 12.9° and 86.7 ± 17.4° for Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius, and 75.9 ± 12.5° for Tibialis Anterior). In three patients, the stretch reflex was not elicited in the less affected side. TSRTs were outside the biomechanical range in healthy children. However, no correlation was found between clinical scores and TSRT values. Here, we demonstrated the capability of TSRT to discriminate between spastic and non-spastic muscles, while no significant outcomes were found for the dorsiflexor muscle. PMID:28611612

  8. Transient reversal of the stretch reflex in human arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, F; Borghese, N A; Carrozzo, M

    1991-09-01

    1. Load perturbation responses can violate the law of reciprocal innervation between antagonist muscles under particular conditions. Thus flexor and extensor muscles of wrist and elbow joints are reflexly coactivated by the impact of a ball on the hand during a catching task. The aim of this study was to determine whether reflex coactivation can be preset within the central nervous system (CNS) or whether it is entirely due to the peripheral stimulus. To this end, we studied the behavior of stretch reflex responses of arm muscles evoked by torque motor perturbations applied before and during the catching task. 2. Subjects were instructed to catch a ball dropped from 1.6 m. A torque motor delivered perturbations to the elbow joint, resulting in angular motion at both elbow and wrist joints because of their dynamic mechanical coupling. Two series of experiments were performed that differed in the perturbation waveform. In the first series, a single torque pulse could be randomly applied at different times during the task. The corresponding responses were recovered by subtracting the average of the unperturbed trials from the averages of perturbed trials. In the second series of experiments, a train of pseudorandom pulses was applied continuously during each trial. The time-varying impulse responses were computed at 20-ms intervals by cross-correlation methods. 3. The pattern of the short-latency electromyographic responses evoked by either single pulses or pseudorandom perturbations obeyed the law of reciprocal innervation of antagonist muscles under basal conditions. However, the pattern of the responses evoked by the same perturbations around the time of ball impact on the hand consisted of a substantial coactivation of both stretched and shortening muscles. Reflex coactivation resulted from response patterns that differed at different joints. At the elbow, reflex coactivation resulted from a transient reversal of the direction of the short-latency responses of

  9. The middle ear muscle reflex in the diagnosis of cochlear neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Valero, Michelle D; Hancock, Kenneth E; Liberman, M Charles

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear neuropathy, i.e. the loss of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without loss of hair cells, may cause hearing deficits without affecting threshold sensitivity, particularly if the subset of ANFs with high thresholds and low spontaneous rates (SRs) is preferentially lost, as appears to be the case in both aging and noise-damaged cochleas. Because low-SR fibers may also be important drivers of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) and middle-ear muscle reflex (MEMR), these reflexes might be sensitive metrics of cochlear neuropathy. To test this hypothesis, we measured reflex strength and reflex threshold in mice with noise-induced neuropathy, as documented by confocal analysis of immunostained cochlear whole-mounts. To assay the MOCR, we measured contra-noise modulation of ipsilateral distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before and after the administration of curare to block the MEMR or curare + strychnine to also block the MOCR. The modulation of DPOAEs was 1) dominated by the MEMR in anesthetized mice, with a smaller contribution from the MOCR, and 2) significantly attenuated in neuropathic mice, but only when the MEMR was intact. We then measured MEMR growth functions by monitoring contra-noise induced changes in the wideband reflectance of chirps presented to the ipsilateral ear. We found 1) that the changes in wideband reflectance were mediated by the MEMR alone, and 2) that MEMR threshold was elevated and its maximum amplitude was attenuated in neuropathic mice. These data suggest that the MEMR may be valuable in the early detection of cochlear neuropathy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Middle Ear Muscle Reflex in the Diagnosis of Cochlear Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Michelle D.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear neuropathy, i.e. the loss of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without loss of hair cells, may cause hearing deficits without affecting threshold sensitivity, particularly if the subset of ANFs with high thresholds and low spontaneous rates (SRs) is preferentially lost, as appears to be the case in both aging and noise-damaged cochleas. Because low-SR fibers may also be important drivers of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) and middle-ear muscle reflex (MEMR), these reflexes might be sensitive metrics of cochlear neuropathy. To test this hypothesis, we measured reflex strength and reflex threshold in mice with noise-induced neuropathy, as documented by confocal analysis of immunostained cochlear whole-mounts. To assay the MOCR, we measured contra-noise modulation of ipsilateral distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before and after the administration of curare to block the MEMR or curare + strychnine to also block the MOCR. The modulation of DPOAEs was 1) dominated by the MEMR in anesthetized mice, with a smaller contribution from the MOCR, and 2) significantly attenuated in neuropathic mice, but only when the MEMR was intact. We then measured MEMR growth functions by monitoring contra-noise induced changes in the wideband reflectance of chirps presented to the ipsilateral ear. We found 1) that the changes in wideband reflectance were mediated by the MEMR alone, and 2) that MEMR threshold was elevated and its maximum amplitude was attenuated in neuropathic mice. These data suggest that the MEMR may be valuable in the early detection of cochlear neuropathy. PMID:26657094

  11. Urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency in continent women.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Geraldo de Aguiar; Bruschini, Homero; Manzano, Gilberto M; Giuliano, Lydia P; Nóbrega, João Antônio M; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The sensory evaluation of the lower urinary tract is summarized in the bladder proprioceptive sensitivity during cystometry. Experimental studies suggest that abnormalities of the urethral innervation and micturition reflex can be related to the presence of continence disturbances. This study aimed to measure the urethral sensory threshold and the urethro-anal reflex latency in healthy volunteers, establishing reading criteria, comparing the results and technique used with the literature and verifying the effect of physiological factors. Thirty healthy female volunteers were studied. They had an absence of genital or urinary complaints and had undergone no previous pelvic or vaginal procedures. The measurement of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency were performed as described. The determination of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency were obtained in 96.6% of the volunteers. The electrophysiological parameters did not correlate with age, parity or number of vaginal deliveries. There was a positive association of the urethral sensory threshold with height. Technical aspects were considered and compared with those in the literature as well as the advantages and limitations of the method. The measurement of the urethral sensory threshold and urethro-anal reflex latency presented consistent recordings. The urethral sensory threshold should be analyzed carefully in individuals with height above the population average. Subsequent observations are necessary to clarify their function in patients with continence disturbances and to measure the urethral function, but these values can be used as normal parameters for comparison.

  12. Analysis of muscle fiber conduction velocity enables reliable detection of surface EMG crosstalk during detection of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael Brun; Manresa, José Alberto Biurrun; Frahm, Ken Steffen; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2013-03-26

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is a polysynaptic spinal reflex that induces complex muscle synergies to withdraw a limb from a potential noxious stimulus. Several studies indicate that assessment of the NWR is a valuable objective tool in relation to investigation of various pain conditions. However, existing methodologies for NWR assessment evaluate standard surface electromyography (sEMG) measured over just one muscle and do not consider the possible interference of crosstalk originating from adjacent active muscles. The present study had two aims: firstly, to investigate to which extent the presence of crosstalk may affect NWR detection using a standardized scoring criterion (interval peak z-score) that has been validated without taking crosstalk into consideration. Secondly, to investigate whether estimation of muscle fiber conduction velocity can help identifying the propagating and non-propagating nature of genuine reflexes and crosstalk respectively, thus allowing a more valid assessment of the NWR. Evaluation of interval peak z-score did apparently allow reflex detection with high sensitivity and specificity (0.96), but only if the influence of crosstalk was ignored. Distinction between genuine reflexes and crosstalk revealed that evaluation of interval peak z-score incorporating a z-score threshold of 12 was associated with poor reflex detection specificity (0.26-0.62) due to the presence of crosstalk. Two different standardized methods for estimation of muscle fiber conduction velocity were employed to demonstrate that significantly different muscle fiber conduction velocities may be estimated during genuine reflexes and crosstalk, respectively. This discriminative feature was used to develop and evaluate a novel methodology for reflex detection from sEMG that is robust with respect to crosstalk. Application of this conduction velocity analysis (CVA) entailed reflex detection with excellent sensitivity (1.00 and 1.00) and specificity (1.00 and 0

  13. Analysis of muscle fiber conduction velocity enables reliable detection of surface EMG crosstalk during detection of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is a polysynaptic spinal reflex that induces complex muscle synergies to withdraw a limb from a potential noxious stimulus. Several studies indicate that assessment of the NWR is a valuable objective tool in relation to investigation of various pain conditions. However, existing methodologies for NWR assessment evaluate standard surface electromyography (sEMG) measured over just one muscle and do not consider the possible interference of crosstalk originating from adjacent active muscles. The present study had two aims: firstly, to investigate to which extent the presence of crosstalk may affect NWR detection using a standardized scoring criterion (interval peak z-score) that has been validated without taking crosstalk into consideration. Secondly, to investigate whether estimation of muscle fiber conduction velocity can help identifying the propagating and non-propagating nature of genuine reflexes and crosstalk respectively, thus allowing a more valid assessment of the NWR. Results Evaluation of interval peak z-score did apparently allow reflex detection with high sensitivity and specificity (0.96), but only if the influence of crosstalk was ignored. Distinction between genuine reflexes and crosstalk revealed that evaluation of interval peak z-score incorporating a z-score threshold of 12 was associated with poor reflex detection specificity (0.26-0.62) due to the presence of crosstalk. Two different standardized methods for estimation of muscle fiber conduction velocity were employed to demonstrate that significantly different muscle fiber conduction velocities may be estimated during genuine reflexes and crosstalk, respectively. This discriminative feature was used to develop and evaluate a novel methodology for reflex detection from sEMG that is robust with respect to crosstalk. Application of this conduction velocity analysis (CVA) entailed reflex detection with excellent sensitivity (1.00 and 1.00) and

  14. Reflex inhibition of cutaneous and muscle vasoconstrictor neurons during stimulation of cutaneous and muscle nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Kirillova-Woytke, Irina; Baron, Ralf; Jänig, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous (CVC) and muscle (MVC) vasoconstrictor neurons exhibit typical reflex patterns to physiological stimulation of somatic and visceral afferent neurons. Here we tested the hypothesis that CVC neurons are inhibited by stimulation of cutaneous nociceptors but not of muscle nociceptors and that MVC neurons are inhibited by stimulation of muscle nociceptors but not of cutaneous nociceptors. Activity in the vasoconstrictor neurons was recorded from postganglionic axons isolated from the sural nerve or the lateral gastrocnemius-soleus nerve in anesthetized rats. The nociceptive afferents were excited by mechanical stimulation of the toes of the ipsilateral hindpaw (skin), by hypertonic saline injected into the ipsi- or contralateral gastrocnemius-soleus muscle, or by heat or noxious cold stimuli applied to the axons in the common peroneal nerve or tibial nerve. The results show that CVC neurons are inhibited by noxious stimulation of skin but not by noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle and that MVC neurons are inhibited by noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle but not by noxious stimulation of skin. These inhibitory reflexes are mostly lateralized and are most likely organized in the spinal cord. Stimulation of nociceptive cold-sensitive afferents does not elicit inhibitory or excitatory reflexes in CVC or MVC neurons. The reflex inhibition of activity in CVC or MVC neurons generated by stimulation of nociceptive cutaneous or muscle afferents during tissue injury leads to local increase of blood flow, resulting in an increase of transport of immunocompetent cells, proteins, and oxygen to the site of injury and enhancing the processes of healing.

  15. Muscle reflex in heart failure: the role of exercise training.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Exercise evokes sympathetic activation and increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Two neural mechanisms that cause the exercise-induced increase in sympathetic discharge are central command and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The former suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. The latter is a reflex originating in skeletal muscle which contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. The afferent arm of this reflex is composed of metabolically sensitive (predominantly group IV, C-fibers) and mechanically sensitive (predominately group III, A-delta fibers) afferent fibers. Activation of these receptors and their associated afferent fibers reflexively adjusts sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity during exercise. In heart failure, the sympathetic activation during exercise is exaggerated, which potentially increases cardiovascular risk and contributes to exercise intolerance during physical activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A therapeutic strategy for preventing or slowing the progression of the exaggerated EPR may be of benefit in CHF patients. Long-term exercise training (ExT), as a non-pharmacological treatment for CHF increases exercise capacity, reduces sympatho-excitation and improves cardiovascular function in CHF animals and patients. In this review, we will discuss the effects of ExT and the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state.

  16. Co-contraction modifies the stretch reflex elicited in muscles shortened by a joint perturbation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gwyn N; MacKinnon, Colum D; Trumbower, Randy; Perreault, Eric J

    2010-11-01

    Simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles acting about a joint influences joint stiffness and stability. Although several studies have shown that reflexes in the muscle lengthened by a joint perturbation are modulated during co-contraction, little attention has been given to reflex regulation in the antagonist (shortened) muscle. The goal of the present study was to determine whether co-contraction gives rise to altered reflex regulation across the joint by examining reflexes in the muscle shortened by a joint perturbation. Reflexes were recorded from electromyographic activity in elbow flexors and extensors while positional perturbations to the elbow joint were applied. Perturbations were delivered during isolated activation of the flexor or extensor muscles as well as during flexor and extensor co-contraction. Across the group, the shortening reflex in the elbow extensor switched from suppression during isolated extensor muscle activation to facilitation during co-contraction. The shortening reflex in the elbow flexor remained suppressive during co-contraction but was significantly smaller compared to the response obtained during isolated elbow flexor activation. This response in the shortened muscle was graded by the level of activation in the lengthened muscle. The lengthening reflex did not change during co-contraction. These results support the idea that reflexes are regulated across multiple muscles around a joint. We speculate that the facilitatory response in the shortened muscle arises through a fast-conducting oligosynaptic pathway involving Ib interneurons.

  17. Co-contraction modifies the stretch reflex elicited in muscles shortened by a joint perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyn N.; MacKinnon, Colum D.; Trumbower, Randy; Perreault, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles acting about a joint influences joint stiffness and stability. Although several studies have shown that reflexes in the muscle lengthened by a joint perturbation are modulated during co-contraction, little attention has been given to reflex regulation in the antagonist (shortened) muscle. The goal of the present study was to determine whether co-contraction gives rise to altered reflex regulation across the joint by examining reflexes in the muscle shortened by a joint perturbation. Reflexes were recorded from electromyographic activity in elbow flexors and extensors while positional perturbations to the elbow joint were applied. Perturbations were delivered during isolated activation of the flexor or extensor muscles as well as during flexor and extensor co-contraction. Across the group, the shortening reflex in the elbow extensor switched from suppression during isolated extensor muscle activation to facilitation during co-contraction. The shortening reflex in the elbow flexor remained suppressive during co-contraction but was significantly smaller compared to the response obtained during isolated elbow flexor activation. This response in the shortened muscle was graded by the level of activation in the lengthened muscle. The lengthening reflex did not change during co-contraction. These results support the idea that reflexes are regulated across multiple muscles around a joint. We speculate that the facilitatory response in the shortened muscle arises through a fast-conducting oligosynaptic pathway involving Ib interneurons. PMID:20878148

  18. Psychologic factors are related to some sensory pain thresholds but not nociceptive flexion reflex threshold in chronic whiplash.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Michele; Hodkinson, Emily; Pettiford, Catherine; Souvlis, Tina; Curatolo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity, central hyperexcitability [lowered nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) thresholds], and psychologic distress are features of chronic whiplash. However, relationships between these substrates are not clear. This study tested the hypothesis that psychologic distress and catastrophization are correlated with sensory hypersensitivity and NFR responses in chronic whiplash. Pressure and thermal pain thresholds (mean values across 3 body sites), NFR threshold, and pain at threshold Visual Analog Scale were measured in 30 participants with chronic whiplash and 30 asymptomatic controls. Pain and disability levels Neck Disability Index, psychologic distress (GHQ-28), and catastrophization (PCS) were also measured in the whiplash group. Whiplash injured participants demonstrated lowered pain thresholds to pressure and cold (P<0.05); lowered NFR thresholds (P=0.003), and demonstrated above threshold levels of psychologic distress (GHQ-28) and levels of catastrophization comparable with other musculoskeletal conditions. There were no group differences for heat pain thresholds or pain at NFR threshold. In the whiplash group, PCS scores correlated moderately with cold pain threshold (r=0.51, P=0.01). In contrast, there were no significant correlations between GHQ-28 scores and pain threshold measures or between psychologic factors and NFR responses in whiplash participants. There were no significant correlations between psychologic factors and pain thresholds or NFR responses in controls. We have demonstrated that psychologic factors have some association with sensory hypersensitivity (cold pain threshold measures) in chronic whiplash but do not seem to influence spinal cord excitability. This suggests that psychologic disorders are important, but not the only, determinants of central hypersensitivity in whiplash patients.

  19. Assessment of the Brainstem-Mediated Stapedius Muscle Reflex in Andean Children Living at High Altitudes.

    PubMed

    Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; Jacobs, Anthony B; Laurell, Göran

    2017-03-01

    Counter, S. Allen, Leo H. Buchanan, Fernando Ortega, Anthony B. Jacobs, and Göran Laurell. Assessment of the brainstem-mediated stapedius muscle reflex in Andean children living at high altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 18:37-45, 2017.-This study examined the physiological thresholds, amplitude growth, and contraction duration of the acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) in Andean children aged 2-17 years living at altitudes of 2850 m (Altitude I Group) and 3973 m (Altitude II Group) as part of a general medical assessment of the health status of the children. The brainstem-mediated ASR reveals the integrity of the neuronal components of the auditory reflex arc, including the cochlea receptors, eight cranial nerves, and brainstem neural projections to the cochlear nuclei, bilateral superior olivary nuclei, facial nerve nuclei, and facial nerve and its stapedius branch. Uncrossed (ipsilateral) and crossed (contralateral) ASR thresholds (ASRT), ASR amplitude growth (ASRG) function, and ASR muscle contraction duration (decay/fatigue) (ASRD) were measured noninvasively with 500, 1000 Hz and broadband (bandwidth = 125-4000 Hz) noise stimulus activators using a middle ear immittance system. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) level and heart rate were measured in a subsample of the study group. Statistical analyses revealed that the Altitude I and Altitude II groups had ASRT, ASRG function, and ASRD rates comparable to children at sea level and that the two groups were not significantly different for any of the ASR measures. No significant association was found between SaO2 or heart rate and ASRT, growth, and muscle fatigue rate. In conclusion, the assessment of the ASR in children in the high-altitude groups revealed normal function. Furthermore, the results indicate no adverse oto-physiological effects of altitude on the brainstem-mediated ASR at elevations between 2850 and 4000 m and suggest normal middle ear and auditory brainstem function.

  20. Topographical effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on the H-reflex of the triceps surae muscles.

    PubMed

    Goulet, C; Arsenault, A B; Bourbonnais, D; Levin, M F

    1994-01-01

    The present study was conducted on eight normal subjects in order to evaluate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); 99 Hz, 250 μs pulse duration, applied over either the common peroneal (CPN) or sural nerve, on the H-reflex of the soleus (SO), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscles. Within each session, SO, GL and GM H-reflexes were recorded before (for 5 min), during (for 30 min) and after (for 10 min) TENS was applied at twice the sensory threshold for perception. It was found that, on average, while the stimulation was administered on the CPN: (a) the GL H-reflex amplitude increased by 40% (Friedman test: χ(2) = 11.71, P < 0.05); (b) the SO H-reflex decreased (≥ 10% H(ctrl)), although not in a statistically significant manner, in five of eight subjects; and (c) the GM H-reflex remained, overall, relatively stable. No significant effects of TENS over the sural nerve were found on any of the investigated muscles. The finding of increased H-reflex amplitudes in GL during TENS made it less likely that CPN stimulation had reciprocal inhibitory effects. However, such an increase could be attributed to a selective effect (such as a decrease in the recruitment threshold) on type II motoneurons of the GL. Furthermore, the topographical effects observed on the GL during TENS may reflect selective local effects due to stimulation of a sensory branch of the CPN, the lateral sural nerve, which mainly innervates the skin overlying the GL. The absence of effects noted on the GM during TENS further supports this hypothesis as the cutaneous afferents overlying that muscle were not stimulated. The repetitive cutaneous stimulation over the sural nerve, at the lateral malleolus, may have been too distal to stimulate the cutaneous receptors overlying the SO.

  1. The role of gingival mechanoreceptors in the reflex control of human jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Louca, C; Vidgeon, S D; Cadden, S W; Linden, R W

    1998-01-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) experiments were undertaken to investigate the jaw reflexes evoked by activation of gingival receptors in 12 humans. EMG recordings were made from an active masseter muscle whilst ramp-plateau mechanical stimuli were applied to the gingiva. Stimuli with a constant rate of rise (0.2 N/msec) and a variable plateau force (up to 2 N), evoked a complex set of short- and long-latency inhibitory and excitatory responses. These occurred as a sequence of inhibition-excitation-inhibition-excitation, although not all of these elements were seen on every occasion. The median thresholds of these four responses ranged from 0.5 to 1 N but overall there were no significant differences between them (p > 0.05, Friedman's ANOVA). In other experiments, the same reflexes were recorded in response to application to the gingiva of 1 N ramp-plateau stimuli (5 msec rise time) and 1 N tap stimuli applied to the adjacent tooth. The application of a local anaesthetic agent to the stimulated gingiva produced reductions in the mean magnitude of almost all the responses but these were significant (p < 0.05; ANOVA) only for the long-latency inhibitions evoked by ramping the gingiva and the long-latency excitations evoked by either stimulus. It is concluded that mechanoreceptors in the gingiva can mediate long-latency inhibitory and excitatory jaw reflexes, and that these receptors may also contribute to long-latency reflexes evoked by tapping teeth. The scarcity of effects of gingival anaesthesia on the short-latency reflexes may be due to such responses being mediated by receptors deeper in the periodontium.

  2. Comments on standardization of reflex measurements in human masseter muscle, including silent periods.

    PubMed

    van der Glas, H W; van Steenberghe, D

    1989-11-01

    The following comments are given on the guidelines suggested by Türker (1988) for studies on oral reflexes using the surface EMG of the masseter muscles in man, including the silent period. (i) Attention should not be confined to electrical stimulation since mechanoreceptors in the periodontium, especially in the periodontal ligament, can only be activated by mechanical stimulation of a tooth. Furthermore, different modes of stimulation and stimulation sites do not yield equivalent reflex complexes. Weak and transient mechanical stimulation of a tooth while clenching at a low level of 5 or 10% MVC is a selective model (89%) to study the influence of periodontal receptors. (ii) Statistical criteria should be applied on rectified and averaged EMG records to prevent any subjective bias in the measurements of reflex variables. Whether a period of increased EMG activity is due to clustering of action potentials of motor units firing of which was delayed by a preceding inhibition, or to a real excitatory influence, can be assessed by applying statistical criteria on averaged and subsequently rectified records. (iii) The clenching level should be less than 25% of MVC to avoid muscle fatigue, and to elicit pronounced reflexes with a weak and therefore more selective stimulus. (iv) The stimulus intensity should be much less than six times the threshold if selectivity for mechanoreceptors is desired. Furthermore, periods of increased activity in surface EMG resulting from a weak stimulus are probably due to real excitatory influences and not to clustering of motor unit action potentials after an inhibition. (v) Jaw separation and the use of a force transducer are not always advantageous. If mechanical stimulation is applied to a tooth, clenching in full habitual occlusion causes a complete suppression of the influence of muscle spindles. A shift in activity between the various elevator muscles, and hence a change in activity of the muscle studied, may occur during an

  3. Modulation of jaw reflexes induced by noxious stimulation to the muscle in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Kurose, Masayuki; Yamamura, Kensuke; Noguchi, Makiko; Inoue, Makoto; Ootaki, Sachiko; Yamada, Yoshiaki

    2005-04-11

    Previous studies have shown that jaw reflexes and activity patterns of the jaw muscles were modulated in the presence of jaw muscle pain. However, there is no study comparing the modulatory effects on the jaw reflexes induced by noxious stimulation to the jaw muscle. To clarify this, effects of the application of mustard oil (MO), an inflammatory irritant, into the temporalis (jaw-closing) muscle on (1) jaw-opening reflex evoked by tooth pulp stimulation (TP-evoked JOR) as a nociceptive reflex, (2) jaw-opening reflex evoked by inferior alveolar nerve stimulation as a non-nociceptive reflex and (3) jaw-closing reflex evoked by trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus stimulation as a proprioceptive reflex were investigated in anesthetized rats. The MO application induced suppression of all reflexes, and the effect on the TP-evoked JOR was more prominent than on the other reflexes. To elucidate the involvement of endogenous opioid system for the suppressive effect, a systemic administration of naloxone following the MO application was conducted. The MO-induced suppressive effect on the TP-evoked JOR was reversed by the naloxone administration. The results suggest that noxious stimulation to the jaw muscle modulate jaw reflexes particularly for the nociceptive jaw-opening reflex, and the modulatory effect includes both facilitatory and inhibitory aspects. The results also suggest that pain modulatory systems such as the endogenous opioid system play a crucial role in the suppression of the nociceptive transmissions related to nociceptive reflexes, and in some pathological states, defense reflexes may not be evoked properly.

  4. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways.

  5. The Muscle Stretch Reflex throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Ellen; Hameed, Farah; Dhaher, Yasin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The significant sex-disparity in sports-related knee injuries may be due to underlying differences in motor control. While the development of sex-specific movement patterns is likely multi-factorial, this study specifically focuses on the potential modulatory role of sex hormones. Purpose To investigate the muscle stretch reflex (MSR) across the menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that the MSR would fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle, and that the lowest response would correspond with peak concentrations of estrogen. Methods Nineteen healthy women ages 18–35 participated in this study: 8 eumenorrheic women and 11 women taking oral contraceptives. Serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations, anterior knee laxity (AKL) and the MSR response of the quadriceps muscles were measured three times during the menstrual cycle. Results The MSR response of the RF varied significantly across the menstrual cycle in both groups. Specifically, the RF MSR response was 2.4 times lower during the peri-ovulatory phase when compared to the luteal phase (P = 0.007). The same trend was seen in the VM, but this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.070). The MSR response of the VL did not change significantly across the menstrual cycle (P = 0.494). A mixed model comparison did not show an association between endogenous concentrations of estradiol and progesterone, exposure to hormonal contraceptives or AKL and the MSR response for any muscle. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the RF MSR response varies throughout the menstrual cycle with the lowest response around the time of ovulation. Additional research is needed to clarify the exact relationship between sex hormones, AKL and the MSR response and to determine the specific origin of the change along the monosynaptic reflex arc. PMID:24091990

  6. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alexandre Scalli Mathias; Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Pinheiro, Laiza Araujo Mohana; Costa, Everardo Andrade da; Gusmão, Reinaldo Jordão

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints. This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests. The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean=39.6), and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean=17.3). We found that 15.1% (55) of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140) had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192) had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172) had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000Hz bilaterally. There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-threshold, short-latency cutaneous reflexes during fictive locomotion in the "semi-chronic" spinal cat.

    PubMed

    LaBella, L A; Niechaj, A; Rossignol, S

    1992-01-01

    Low-threshold, short-latency cutaneous reflexes evoked in ipsilateral hindlimb motor nerves were examined during fictive locomotion. Locomotion in 11 anaemically decerebrated spinal animals (1-3 weeks after transection at T13-L1) was induced by administration of clonidine, L-dopa and nialamide; by administration of the latter two drugs only; or by exteroceptive stimulation in the absence of any drugs. The caudal and lateral cutaneous sural, caudal cutaneous femoral, saphenous and superficial peroneal nerves were stimulated at low threshold (1.5-3 T). Pooled results from all combinations of cutaneous nerves stimulated and muscle nerves recorded show that the initial response was excitatory in 40 of 50 triceps surae and 17 of 20 semitendinosus (St) electroneurograms (ENGs). These excitatory responses occurred at latencies that ranged from 5 to 15 ms and tended to be maximal during the motor nerve's active period in the step cycle (i.e. they were modulated in a phase-dependent manner). Only three inhibitory responses (9-12 ms earliest latency) were encountered in total: in two St ENGs of one animal and in one lateral gastrocnemius-soleus ENG of a different animal. In two animals a "second" excitatory response (15-25 ms latency) was sometimes recorded in triceps surae and St nerves and, interestingly, could be modulated out of phase with the early response. Weak short-latency excitatory reflexes were also found in contralateral St ENGs when examined. Finally, among medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius and soleus nerves, excitatory responses due to stimulation of any particular cutaneous nerve tended to be modulated similarly but were of consistently different amplitude among the three. This finding, together with the general observation that excitatory reflexes produced by stimulation of a particular cutaneous nerve were modulated similarly in extensors (or flexors) of different animals, suggests that spinal circuits generating locomotion may indeed exert a

  8. Introduction and validation of a less painful algorithm to estimate the nociceptive flexion reflex threshold.

    PubMed

    Lichtner, Gregor; Golebiewski, Anna; Schneider, Martin H; von Dincklage, Falk

    2015-05-22

    The nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) is a widely used tool to investigate spinal nociception for scientific and diagnostic purposes, but its clinical use is currently limited due to the painful measurement procedure, especially restricting its applicability for patients suffering from chronic pain disorders. Here we introduce a less painful algorithm to assess the NFR threshold. Application of this new algorithm leads to a reduction of subjective pain ratings by over 30% compared to the standard algorithm. We show that the reflex threshold estimates resulting from application of the new algorithm can be used interchangeably with those of the standard algorithm after adjusting for the constant difference between the algorithms. Furthermore, we show that the new algorithm can be applied at shorter interstimulus intervals than are commonly used with the standard algorithm, since reflex threshold values remain unchanged and no habituation effects occur when reducing the interstimulus interval for the new algorithm down to 3s. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm to investigate the modulation of nociception through different states of attention. Taken together, the here presented new algorithm could increase the utility of the NFR for investigation of nociception in subjects who were previously not able to endure the measurement procedure, such as chronic pain patients.

  9. Radiation of phasic stretch reflex in biceps brachii to muscles of the arm in man and its restriction during development.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, M C; Eyre, J A; Miller, S

    1991-01-01

    1. The phasic stretch reflex in biceps brachii has been recorded in 372 normal subjects aged from 31 weeks gestation to 55 years. The stimulus used was a brief mechanical pulse delivered by a hand-held electromagnetic vibrator and the response was measured in the surface electromyogram. 2. The threshold for eliciting the reflex was low in the newborn and increased over the first 6 years to values corresponding to those of adults. 3. On the basis of timing it is concluded that the phasic stretch reflex has a monosynaptic component at all ages. 4. The surface electromyogram was also recorded in triceps brachii, pectoralis major, deltoid and hypothenar muscles. In some subjects evoking the phasic stretch reflex in biceps brachii resulted in short latency responses in these muscles, a phenomenon termed radiated response. 5. The probability of occurrence of radiated responses and their magnitudes were greatest at birth and decreased over 2-4 years. 6. Experiments were performed to determine how far mechanical transmission of the stimulus to biceps through the tissues of the arm might account for the radiated responses in the other muscles studied. It was concluded that the responses observed in triceps brachii, pectoralis major, deltoid and hypothenar muscles, following vibration of the biceps tendon, are primarily due to the radiation of the activity carried in biceps muscle afferents to the alpha-motoneurones of the respective muscles. 7. On the basis of timing it is concluded that in subjects below 2 years the radiated responses in the muscles studied have a monosynaptic component. PMID:1654417

  10. A stretch reflex in extraocular muscles of species purportedly lacking muscle spindles

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Numa; Taylor, Michael D.; Plautz, Erik J.; Radel, Jeffery D.; Whittaker, Thomas; Nudo, Randolph J.; Feldman, Anatol G.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that proprioceptive feedback plays a crucial role in limb posture and movement. However, the role of afferent signals from extraocular muscles (EOM) in the control of eye movement has been a matter of continuous debate. These muscles have atypical sensory receptors in several species and it has been proposed that they are not supported by stretch reXexes. We recorded electromyographic activity of EOM during passive rotations of the eye in sedated rats and squirrel monkeys and observed typical stretch reXexes in these muscles. Results suggest that there is a similarity in the reXexive control of limb and eye movement, despite substantial differences in their biomechanics and sensory receptors. Like in some limb skeletal muscles, the stretch reflex in EOM in the investigated species might be mediated by other length-sensitive receptors, rather than muscle spindles. PMID:17216145

  11. Reflex muscle contractions can be elicited by valgus positional perturbations of the human knee.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Y Y; Tsoumanis, A D; Rymer, W Z

    2003-02-01

    Experimental evidence on the reflex responses of thigh muscles to valgus mechanical perturbations at the human knee are presented. Random step positional deflections, ranging from 5 degrees to 12 degrees at 60 degrees /s, were applied to the fully extended knees of seven healthy subjects. Subjects were instructed to maintain a constant background co-activation ( approximately 2-11% MVC) of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles prior to and during the mechanical stimulus. We found that the reflex response to sustained valgus joint deflection in the vasti muscles had longer onset latencies (range: 83-92ms) than did the stretch reflex in the same muscles (latencies: 29-31ms). This reflex EMG response consisted typically of a peak followed by sustained muscle activity throughout the step perturbation. The sustained EMG activity was dependent on the amplitude of the perturbing stimulus, but in a nonlinear manner. The long latency of the valgus response suggests that the reflex originates in nonmuscular sensory pathways, potentially from mechanoreceptors lying in periarticular tissues such as joint ligaments and capsule. Analysis of the spatial distribution of reflex responses showed an asymmetrical pattern with preferential activation of medial vs. lateral muscles of the knee. We assess whether these asymmetric reflex contractions could promote joint stability, either by inducing generalized joint stiffening, or by preferential activation of those muscles that are best suited to resist induced ligament strain.

  12. Enhanced stretch reflex excitability in the soleus muscle during passive standing posture in humans.

    PubMed

    Shimba, Sachio; Kawashima, Noritaka; Ohta, Yuji; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the spinal reflex excitability of the soleus muscle is modulated as posture changes from a supine to a passive upright position. Eight healthy subjects (29.6+/-5.4 yrs) participated in this study. Stretch and H-reflex responses were elicited while the subjects maintained passive standing (ST) and supine (SP) postures. The passive standing posture was accomplished by using a gait orthosis to which a custom-made device was mounted to elicit stretch reflex in the soleus muscle. This orthosis makes it possible to elicit stretch and H-reflexes without background muscle activity in the soleus muscle. The results revealed that the H-reflex amplitude in the ST was smaller than that in the SP condition, which is in good agreement with previous reports. On the other hand, the stretch reflex was significantly larger in the ST than in the SP condition. Since the experimental conditions of both the stretch and H-reflex measurements were exactly the same, the results were attributed to differences in the underlying neural mechanisms of the two reflex systems: different sensitivity of the presynaptic inhibition onto the spinal motoneuron pool and/or a change in the muscle spindle sensitivity. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal muscle activation assessment by ultrasound imaging during flexor withdrawal reflex and voluntary contraction.

    PubMed

    Jose, Gomez-Tames; Shuto, Nakamura; Jose, Gonzalez; Wenwei, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Activating flexor reflexes by electrical stimulation has been used as a mechanism to initiate the swing phase or to enhance it for spinal cord injured patients. However, it is necessary to know their contraction dynamics in order to artificially induce them at the right moment of a walking cycle. This requires understanding the temporal activation pattern of both surface and deep muscles simultaneously. This study aimed at developing a system to measure and analyze the temporal activation of both surface and deep muscles during voluntary contraction and flexor reflexes (also called withdrawal reflexes) using ultrasound imaging. A set of experiments were done to verify the validity of the system, while exploring the temporal pattern of muscle activation during flexor reflexes. As a result, we were able to quantify the surface and deep muscle activity by measuring the muscle thickness, pennation angle and long-axis displacement, from the ultrasound images.

  14. Stretch reflexes in the human masticatory muscles: a brief review and a new functional role.

    PubMed

    Miles, T S; Flavel, S C; Nordstrom, M A

    2004-10-01

    Stretch reflexes play a vital role in fine-tuning movements and in automatically maintaining posture. This article briefly reviews the operation of the stretch reflex in the human masticatory system. The conventional approach of stretching muscles in an open-loop manner has yielded much valuable information on the operation of this reflex. In particular, it has revealed that stretching the jaw-closing muscles evokes a reflex response with two major components. The short-latency reflex is favoured when stretches are brisk, but slower stretches evoke an additional long-latency component. In the hand muscles, the long-latency response is transcortical: in the masticatory muscles, it is not. In addition to its role in servo-control of muscle length during chewing, the stretch reflex in the jaw-closing muscles maintains the vertical position of the mandible during vigorous head movements such as those that occur during running, jumping, hopping and other vigorous whole-body movements in which the head moves briskly up and down. This is an interesting model system in which to investigate stretch reflexes with natural stimuli under unrestrained, physiological conditions.

  15. Dynamic control of muscle stiffness and H reflex modulation during hopping and jumping in man.

    PubMed Central

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Simonsen, E B; Voigt, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to evaluate the functional effects of reflexes on muscle mechanics during natural voluntary movements. The excitability of the H (Hoffmann) reflex was used as a measure of the excitability of the central component of the stretch reflex. 2. We recorded EMG, ground reaction forces and the H reflex in the soleus muscle in humans while landing from a downward jump, during drop jumping and during hopping. The movements were also recorded by high-speed cinematography. 3. The EMG pattern was adapted to the motor task. When landing the EMG in the soleus muscle and in the anterior tibial muscle showed preinnervation and alternating activity after touch down. When hopping there was little preinnervation in the soleus muscle, and the activity was initiated about 45 ms after touch down by a peak and continued unbroken until lift off. In the drop jumps the EMG pattern depended on the jumping style used by the subject. 4. The H reflex in the soleus muscle was strongly modulated in a manner appropriate to the requirements of the motor task. During landing from a downward jump the H reflex was low at touch down whereas while hopping it was high at touch down. During drop jumping it was variable and influenced by the jumping technique. 5. Muscle stiffness in the ankle joint was negative after touch down when landing, but always positive when hopping. 6. It is suggested that during landing the alternating EMG pattern after touch down was programmed and little influenced by reflexes. During hopping reflexes could contribute to the initial peak and the EMG during lift off. 7. The programmed EMG activity and the suppression of the H reflex while landing probably contribute to the development of the negative stiffness and change the muscles from a spring to a damping unit. PMID:1890636

  16. Masseter length determines muscle spindle reflex excitability during jaw-closing movements.

    PubMed

    Naser-Ud-Din, Shazia; Sowman, Paul F; Sampson, Wayne J; Dreyer, Craig W; Türker, Kemal Sitki

    2011-04-01

    The masticatory muscles are considered to be important determinants of facial form, but little is known of the muscle spindle reflex characteristics and their relationship, if any, to face height. The aim of this study was to determine whether spindle reflexes, evoked by mechanical stimulation of an incisor and recorded on the masseter muscle, correlated with different facial patterns. Twenty-eight adult volunteers (16 women; ages, 19-38 years) underwent 2-N tap stimuli to their maxillary left central incisor during simulated mastication. Reflexes were recorded during local anesthesia of the stimulated tooth to eliminate the contribution from periodontal mechanoreceptors. Surface electromyograms of the reflex responses of the jaw muscles to these taps were recorded via bipolar electrodes on the masseter muscle and interpreted by using spike-triggered averaging of the surface electromyograms. Lateral cephalometric analysis was carried out with software (version 10.5, Dolphin, Los Angeles, Calif; and Mona Lisa, Canberra, Australia). Two-newton tooth taps produced principally excitatory reflex responses beginning at 17 ms poststimulus. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between these muscle spindle reflexes and facial heights: specifically, shorter face heights were associated with stronger spindle reflexes. This correlation was strongest between the derived measure of masseter length and the spindle reflex strength during jaw closure (r = -0.49, P = 0.008). These results suggest that a similar muscle spindle stimulus will generate a stronger reflex activation in the jaw muscles of patients with shorter faces compared with those with longer faces. This finding might help to explain the higher incidence of clenching or bruxism in those with short faces and also might, in the future, influence the design of orthodontic appliances and dental prostheses. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  17. The effects of acute and prolonged muscle vibration on the function of the muscle spindle's reflex arc.

    PubMed

    Pope, Zachary K; DeFreitas, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Localized mechanical vibration, applied directly to a muscle, is known to have powerful, duration-dependent effects on the muscle spindle's reflex arc. Here, the conditioning of the function of the spindle reflex arc via vibration was examined with considerations for use as a non-invasive, sensorimotor research tool. Muscle spindle function was examined with patellar tendon taps prior to and following exposure to muscle vibration applied to the quadriceps femoris for acute (<5 s) and prolonged (20 min) durations. Surface electromyography (sEMG), torque, and accelerometry signals were obtained during the taps to quantify various measures of reflex magnitude and latency. Our findings suggest that acute vibration had no effect on normalized reflex torque or sEMG amplitude (p > 0.05), but increased total reflex latency (p = 0.022). Alternatively, prolonged vibration reduced normalized reflex torque and sEMG amplitude (p < 0.001), and increased reflex latency (p < 0.001). Our findings support the use of prolonged vibration as a practical means to decrease the function of the muscle spindle's reflex arc. Overall, this suppressive effect was evident in the majority of subjects, but the extent was variable. This approach could potentially be used to help delineate the muscle spindle's role in various sensory or motor tasks in which more direct measures are not feasible. Acute vibration, however, did not potentiate muscle spindle function as hypothesized. Rather, our results suggest that acute vibration increased total reflex latency. Accordingly, potential mechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Reflex control of posterior shoulder muscles from arm afferents in healthy people.

    PubMed

    Elliott, S C; Hanson, J R; Wellington, J; Alexander, C M

    2011-12-01

    In order to position the hand during functional tasks, control of the shoulder is required. Heteronymous reflexes from the upper limb to shoulder muscles are used to assist in this control. To investigate this further, the radial and ulnar nerves were stimulated at elbow level whilst surface electromyographic activity of posterior deltoid, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi muscles were recorded. In addition, the cutaneous branch of the radial nerve and the skin of the fifth digit were stimulated in order to investigate any cutaneous contribution to reflex activity. Reflexes were evoked in all three of these shoulder muscles from hand and/or forearm afferents. However, the reflexes differed; whereas both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes were evoked in posterior deltoid and infraspinatus, the reflexes in latissimus dorsi were mainly excitatory. Cutaneomuscular reflexes were seldom evoked here, but when they were present they were generally evoked at longer latencies than the reflexes evoked by mixed nerve stimulation. The results suggest a role for reflexes originating from the forearm and/or hand in the control of the shoulder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does eccentric-exercise-induced jaw muscle soreness influence brainstem reflexes?

    PubMed

    Torisu, Tetsurou; Wang, Kelun; Svensson, Peter; Laat, Antoon De; Yamabe, Yoshihisa; Murata, Hiroshi; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the effects of soreness evoked by eccentric jaw exercises on two types of brainstem reflexes: the short-latency stretch reflex and the longer-latency exteroceptive suppression (ES), and to test for possible relationships between magnitude of soreness and reflex responses. The brainstem reflexes of jaw-closing muscles were recorded before (Baseline), immediately after (Post-task), and 1 day after (1-day-after) a 30-min eccentric exercise in 15 healthy men. All subjects participated in a control session without exercise. Soreness sensations at rest and during maximum biting were significantly elevated until 1-day-after the eccentric exercise (P<0.014). The ES responses tended to be increased (more inhibition) at Post-task and 1-day-after. There was a significant correlation between the ES response and the soreness sensation during maximum biting (P<0.04). The jaw-stretch reflex did not show significant change after the eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness associated with eccentric jaw exercises has a differential impact on the jaw-stretch reflex and the ES response. Experimentally induced acute muscle pain has previously been shown to influence both the ES and the jaw-stretch reflex, thus, different types of muscle pain and symptoms can be speculated to have different effects on a variety of brainstem reflexes.

  20. Anticipatory modulation of neck muscle reflex responses induced by mechanical perturbations of the human forehead.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Rieko; Kimura, Toshitaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami; Torii, Suguru; Suzuki, Shuji

    2004-08-12

    The aim of this study was to test whether anticipation of upcoming head blow stimuli, which elicit reflex responses in the neck muscle, makes the reflex responses greater or not. In nine healthy subjects the reflex responses were elicited in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in the eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) conditions, which corresponded to the predictable and unpredictable conditions, respectively. The subjects were instructed not to resist the perturbations after the impact. The results demonstrated that the reflex response of the SCM muscle was significantly smaller in the predictable EO condition than in the unpredictable EC condition (P < 0.05), although no significant differences were observed in either the background EMG activities or the head accelerations. Further, this effect of anticipation was observed only in the later reflex EMG component, which most probably mediated the stretch reflex pathway. In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the early component, which was presumed to be the vestibular-collic reflex. The reduced stretch reflex response was suggested to be functionally relevant to the task requirement, i.e., to let the neck extension movement occur, and not to resist after the impact of the head blow. It was concluded that the anticipation has an effect on reducing the stretch reflex responses in the neck muscle, but does not have any effect on the presumed vestibular-collic reflex under the present experimental paradigm. It is suggested that the gain of the stretch reflex pathway is modulated by anticipatory information of upcoming mechanical event.

  1. Influence of delayed muscle reflexes on spinal stability: model-based predictions allow alternative interpretations of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Anne; Puta, Christian; Anders, Christoph; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Wagner, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Model-based calculations indicate that reflex delay and reflex gain are both important for spinal stability. Experimental results demonstrate that chronic low back pain is associated with delayed muscle reflex responses of trunk muscles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of such time-delayed reflexes on the stability using a simple biomechanical model. Additionally, we compared the model-based predictions with experimental data from chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls using surface-electromyography. Linear stability methods were applied to the musculoskeletal model, which was extended with a time-delayed reflex model. Lateral external perturbations were simulated around equilibrium to investigate the effects of reflex delay and gain on the stability of the human lumbar spine. The model simulations predicted that increased reflex delays require a reduction of the reflex gain to avoid spinal instability. The experimental data support this dependence for the investigated abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Reflex time-delay and gain dependence showed that a delayed reflex latency could have relevant influence on spinal stability, if subjects do not adapt their reflex amplitudes. Based on the model and the experimental results, the relationship between muscle reflex response latency and the maximum of the reflex amplitude should be considered for evaluation of (patho) physiological data. We recommend that training procedures should focus on speeding up the delayed reflex response as well as on increasing the amplitude of these reflexes.

  2. Parallel reflex pathways from flexor muscle afferents evoking resetting and flexion enhancement during fictive locomotion and scratch in the cat.

    PubMed

    Stecina, Katinka; Quevedo, Jorge; McCrea, David A

    2005-11-15

    Reflex actions of muscle afferents in hindlimb flexor nerves were examined on ipsilateral motoneurone activity recorded in peripheral nerves during midbrain stimulation-evoked fictive locomotion and during fictive scratch in decerebrate cats. Trains of stimuli (15-30 shocks at 200 Hz) were delivered during the flexion phase at intensities sufficient to activate both group I and II afferents (5 times threshold, T). In many preparations tibialis anterior (TA) nerve stimulation terminated ongoing flexion and reset the locomotor cycle to extension (19/31 experiments) while extensor digitorum longus (EDL) stimulation increased and prolonged the ongoing flexor phase activity (20/33 preparations). The effects of sartorius, iliopsoas and peroneus longus muscle afferent stimulation were qualitatively similar to those of EDL nerve. Resetting to extension was seen only with higher intensity stimulation (5T) while ongoing flexor activity was often enhanced at group I intensity (2T) stimulation. The effects of flexor nerve stimulation were qualitatively similar during fictive scratch. Reflex reversals were consistently observed in some fictive locomotor preparations. In those cases, EDL stimulation produced a resetting to extension and TA stimulation prolonged the ongoing flexion phase. Occasionally reflex reversals occurred spontaneously during only one of several stimulus presentations. The variable and opposite actions of flexor afferents on the locomotor step cycle indicate the existence of parallel spinal reflex pathways. A hypothetical organization of reflex pathways from flexor muscle afferents to the spinal pattern generator networks with competing actions of group I and group II afferents on the flexor and extensor portions of this central circuitry is proposed.

  3. Reflex (unloading) and (defensive capitulation) responses in human neck muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Corna, S; Ito, Y; von Brevern, M; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-01-01

    1. We studied unloading and stretch responses in human neck muscle during manoeuvres in which the head pulled against a 2-3 kg weight which could be abruptly released or applied electromagnetically. 2. During head tracking in pitch, unloading of the weight induced inhibition of EMG in the contracting sternocleidomastoid at a mean latency of 24.9 ms in normal subjects and at 41 ms in bilateral labyrinthine-defective subjects, with antagonist (trapezius) excitation at 30.5 and 41.3 ms, respectively. During tracking in yaw, unloading induced inhibition in the contracting splenius capitis (SpC) at a mean latency of 20.4 ms in normal subjects and 25 ms in labyrinthine-defective subjects, with excitation in the antagonist SpC at 22.2 and 24 ms, respectively. 3. If subjects tried to resist an unexpected sideways tug on the head a burst occurred in the stretched SpC at a mean latency of 53.5 ms. When subjects relaxed there was excitation of the shortening of SpC at 75.9 ms, which assisted the imposed motion and is possibly a "defensive reflex". PMID:8910241

  4. Defining the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold in human participants: A comparison of different scoring criteria

    PubMed Central

    Rhudy, Jamie L.; France, Christopher R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) paradigm in clinical and experimental pain research, there is currently no consensus on how best to define NFR threshold. Accordingly, the present studies were designed to assess the accuracy and reliability of different NFR threshold scoring criteria. Study 1 compared 13 scoring criteria in their accuracy for identifying the presence of the NFR, then generated empirically derived cut-points for the best criteria, and examined the test-retest reliability of NFR thresholds derived from these cut-points. Study 2 evaluated the replicability of these findings in an independent sample. Results from the two studies suggested that standardized peak (NFR Interval Peak z score) and mean (NFR Interval z score) biceps femoris electromyogram (EMG) activity were accurate and reliable criteria for defining NFR threshold. Acknowledging that cut-points may need to be adjusted for different research designs, graphs depicting sensitivity and specificity across a range of cut-points have been provided to facilitate researcher’s decision-making. It is hoped that the results of these studies will promote a standard NFR threshold assessment methodology, and further encourage the application of the NFR paradigm in the investigation of mechanisms and characteristics of both painful and non-painful diseases. PMID:17070999

  5. The effects of neural synchronization and peripheral compression on the acoustic-reflex threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wehlau, Matthias; Mauermann, Manfred; Dau, Torsten; Kollmeier, Birger

    2005-05-01

    This study investigates the acoustic reflex threshold (ART) dependency on stimulus phase utilizing low-level reflex audiometry [Neumann et al., Audiol. Neuro-Otol. 1, 359-369 (1996)]. The goal is to obtain optimal broadband stimuli for elicitation of the acoustic reflex and to obtain objective determinations of cochlear hearing loss. Three types of tone complexes with different phase characteristics were investigated: A stimulus that compensates for basilar-membrane dispersion, thus causing a large overall neural synchrony (basilar-membrane tone complex-BMTC), the temporally inversed stimulus (iBMTC), and random-phase tone complexes (rTC). The ARTs were measured in eight normal-hearing and six hearing-impaired subjects. Five different conditions of peak amplitude and stimulus repetition rate were used for each stimulus type. The results of the present study suggest that the ART is influenced by at least two different factors: (a) the degree of synchrony of neural activity across frequency, and (b) the fast-acting compression mechanism in the cochlea that is reduced in the case of a sensorineural hearing loss. The results allow a clear distinction of the two subjects groups based on the different ART for the utilized types and conditions of the stimuli. These differences might be useful for objective recruitment detection in clinical diagnostics. .

  6. The patellar reflex: does activity of quadriceps femoris muscles reflect leg movement?

    PubMed

    Dafkin, Chloe; Green, Andrew; Kerr, Samantha; McKinon, Warrick

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of spinal reflexes has traditionally been performed by clinicians with minimal need for recording equipment, where doctors rely on their training and may use established subjective reflex rating scales. With advances in technology, it is now possible to assess reflexes objectively. This study compared two objective methods of assessing patellar reflex magnitude, duration, and latency, namely electromyography (EMG) of the quadriceps muscles and kinematic assessment of the leg movement around the knee joint. Reflexes of 24 healthy participants were assessed and seven variables were found to describe each reflex. These were the change in knee angle, the velocity of the reflex, the time to maximum knee angle, the biomechanical movement latency, the EMG maximum amplitude, the negative peak duration, and the EMG latency. Spearman's rank correlation tests were run in order to compare all of the variables. The results showed that there were positive correlations between EMG maximum amplitude and the change in knee angle (R(2) = 0.75; P < 0.0001) as well as the EMG maximum amplitude and the velocity of the reflex (R(2) = 0.30; P = 0.0058). There was also a negative correlation between EMG maximum amplitude and the biomechanical movement latency (R(2) = 0.35; P = 0.0024). The results show that there is a relationship between muscle activity and the actual visual movement of the leg assessed using kinematics. This relationship is closest between kinematic measurements and EMG measures of reflex amplitude.

  7. Effects of opioid blockade on nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and nociceptive responding in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Louisa; Ring, Christopher; France, Christopher R.; McIntyre, David; Martin, Una

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension and risk for hypertension have been associated with reduced pain sensitivity. It has been hypothesised that endogenous opioids contribute to this hypertensive hypoalgesia. The nociceptive flexion reflex can be used as a tool to investigate modulation of nociceptive transmission at spinal level. The current study employed a double-blind placebo-controlled design to compare the effects of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and placebo on nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds and nociceptive responding in unmedicated patients with essential hypertension and normotensive individuals. Neither nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds nor nociceptive responding differed between hypertensives and normotensives during placebo or naltrexone. These data provide no support for the hypothesis that essential hypertension is characterised by higher levels endogenous opioids in the central nervous system and reveal no association between blood pressure status and nociceptive flexion reflex responses. PMID:18436318

  8. Muscle reflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure: the role of exercise conditioning.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Sinoway, L I

    2000-03-01

    Muscle reflex control of sympathetic nerve activity has been an area of considerable investigation. During exercise, the capacity of the peripheral vasculature to dilate far exceeds the maximal attainable levels of cardiac output. The activation of sympathetic nervous system and engagement of the myogenic reflex serve as the controlling influence between the heart and the muscle vasculature to maintain blood pressure (BP). Two basic theories of neural control have evolved. The first termed "central command", suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. According to the second theory the stimulation of mechanical and chemical afferents in exercising muscle lead to engagement of the "exercise pressor reflex". Some earlier studies suggested that group III muscle afferent fibers are predominantly mechanically sensitive whereas unmyelinated group IV muscle afferents respond to chemical stimuli. In recent years new evidence is emerging which challenges the concept of functional differentiation of muscle afferents as well as the classic description of muscle "mechano" and "metabo" receptors. Studies measuring concentrations of interstitial substances during exercise suggest that K(+) and phosphate, but not H(+) and lactate, may be important muscle afferent stimulants. The role of adenosine as a muscle afferent stimulant remains an area of debate. There is strong evidence that sympathetic vasoconstriction due to muscle reflex engagement plays an important role in restricting blood flow to the exercising muscle. In heart failure (HF), exercise leads to premature fatigue and accumulation of muscle metabolites resulting in a greater degree of muscle reflex engagement and in the process further decreasing the muscle blood flow. Conditioning leads to an increased ability of the muscle to maintain aerobic metabolism, lower interstitial accumulation of metabolites, less muscle reflex engagement and

  9. Gating of trigemino-facial reflex from low-threshold trigeminal and extratrigeminal cutaneous fibres in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, A; Scarpini, C

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the size of the test components (R1 and R2) of the trigemino-facial reflex were studied after electrical subliminal conditioning stimulation were applied to the trigeminal, median and sural nerves. After conditioning activation of the trigeminal nerve (below the reflex threshold), the early R1 reflex component showed phasic facilitation, peaking at about 50 ms of interstimulus delay, followed by a long-lasting inhibition recovering at 300-400 ms. The same conditioning stimulation resulted in a monotonic inhibition of the late R2, starting at 15-20 ms, with a maximum at 100-150 ms and lasting 300-400 ms. Intensity threshold for both the R1 and R2 changes ranged from 0.90 to 0.95 times the perception threshold. A similar longlasting inhibition of the R2 reflex response was also seen after conditioning stimulation applied to low-threshold cutaneous afferents of the median and sural nerves. The minimum effective conditioning-test interval was 25-30 ms and 40-45 ms respectively and lasted 600-700 ms. By contrast the early R1 reflex response exhibited a slight long-lasting facilitation with a time course similar to that of the R2 inhibition. The threshold intensity to obtain facilitation of the R1 and inhibition of the R2 test responses after conditioning volley in the median and sural nerves was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 times the perception threshold. These results demonstrate that low-threshold cutaneous afferents from trigeminal and limb nerves exert powerful control on trigeminal reflex pathways, probably via a common neural substrate. There is evidence that, in addition to any post-synaptic mechanism which might be operating, presynaptic control is a primary factor contributing to these changes. Images PMID:1328539

  10. Simultaneous Measurement of Noise-Activated Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex and Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex. PMID:16568366

  11. Simultaneous measurement of noise-activated middle-ear muscle reflex and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shawn S; Keefe, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex.

  12. Reflex influences on muscle spindle activity in relaxed human leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Gandevia, S C; Miller, S; Aniss, A M; Burke, D

    1986-07-01

    The study was designed to determine whether low-threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents from the foot reflexly activate gamma-motoneurons innervating relaxed muscles of the leg. In 15 experiments multiunit recordings were made from 21 nerve fascicles innervating triceps surae or tibialis anterior. In a further nine experiments the activity of 19 identified single muscle spindle afferents was recorded, 13 from triceps surae, 5 from tibialis anterior, and 1 from extensor digitorum longus. Trains of electrical stimuli (5 stimuli, 300 Hz) were delivered to the sural nerve at the ankle (intensity, twice sensory threshold) and the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle (intensity, 1.1 times motor threshold for the small muscles of the foot). In addition, a tap on the appropriate tendon at varying times after the stimuli was used to assess the dynamic responsiveness of the afferents under study. The conditioning electrical stimuli did not change the discharge of single spindle afferents. Recordings of rectified and averaged multiunit activity also revealed no change in the overall level of background neural activity following the electrical stimuli. The afferent responses to tendon taps did not differ significantly whether or not they were preceded by stimulation of the sural or posterior tibial nerves. These results suggest that low-threshold afferents from the foot do not produce significant activation of fusimotor neurons in relaxed leg muscles, at least as judged by their ability to alter the discharge of muscle spindle afferents. As there may be no effective background activity in fusimotor neurons innervating relaxed human muscles, it is possible that these inputs from the foot could influence the fusimotor system during voluntary contractions when the fusimotor neurons have been brought to firing threshold. In one subject trains of stimuli were delivered to the posterior tibial nerve at painful levels (30 times motor threshold). They produced an acceleration of the

  13. Functional role of muscle reflexes for force generation in the decerebrate walking cat.

    PubMed

    Stein, R B; Misiaszek, J E; Pearson, K G

    2000-06-15

    To quantify the importance of reflexes due to muscle length changes in generating force during walking, we studied high decerebrate cats that walked on a treadmill. One leg was denervated except for the triceps surae and a few other selected muscles. The triceps surae muscles are ankle extensor muscles that attach to the Achilles' tendon which was cut and connected to a muscle puller. In some steps the EMG activity triggered the puller to move the muscle through the pattern of length changes that are normally produced by ankle movements in intact cats walking over ground (simulated walking). In other steps the muscles were held isometrically. The EMG and force produced during the two types of steps were compared. On average about 50 % more EMG was generated during the E2 part of the simulated stance phase in the triceps surae muscles, but not in other muscles studied. Force was increased significantly over the entire stance phase by about 20 %, when muscle stretches simulating walking were applied. However, during much of the stance phase the triceps surae muscles are shortening and so would produce less force. The effect of shortening was assessed in control experiments in which these muscles were stimulated at a constant frequency, either isometrically or during simulated walking movements. By combining data from the walking and control experiments, we estimate that about 35 % of the force produced in the cat ankle extensors during stance is produced by reflexes due to muscle length changes. Other sensory inputs may also contribute to force production, but the total reflex contribution will vary under different conditions of speed, length, loading, task difficulty, etc. Since a substantial percentage of the force in the stance phase of walking is normally produced by muscle reflexes, this force can be continuously adjusted up or down, if the muscles receive extra stretch or unloading during a particular step cycle.

  14. Role of reflex dynamics in spinal stability: intrinsic muscle stiffness alone is insufficient for stability.

    PubMed

    Moorhouse, Kevin M; Granata, Kevin P

    2007-01-01

    Spinal stability is related to both the intrinsic stiffness of active muscle as well as neuromuscular reflex response. However, existing analyses of spinal stability ignore the role of the reflex response, focusing solely on the intrinsic muscle stiffness associated with voluntary activation patterns in the torso musculature. The goal of this study was to empirically characterize the role of reflex components of spinal stability during voluntary trunk extension exertions. Pseudorandom position perturbations of the torso and associated driving forces were recorded in 11 healthy adults. Nonlinear systems-identification analyses of the measured data provided an estimate of total systems dynamics that explained 81% of the movement variability. Proportional intrinsic response was less than zero in more than 60% of the trials, e.g. mean value of P(INT) during the 20% maximum voluntary exertion trunk extension exertions -415+/-354N/m. The negative value indicated that the intrinsic muscle stiffness was not sufficient to stabilize the spine without reflex response. Reflexes accounted for 42% of the total stabilizing trunk stiffness. Both intrinsic and reflex components of stiffness increased significantly with trunk extension effort. Results reveal that reflex dynamics are a necessary component in the stabilizing control of spinal stability.

  15. Role of Reflex Dynamics in Spinal Stability: Intrinsic Muscle Stiffness Alone is Insufficient for Stability

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Kevin M.; Granata, Kevin P.

    2006-01-01

    Spinal stability is related to both the intrinsic stiffness of active muscle as well as neuromuscular reflex response. However, existing analyses of spinal stability ignore the role of the reflex response, focusing solely on the intrinsic muscle stiffness associated with voluntary activation patterns in the torso musculature. The goal of this study was to empirically characterize the role of reflex components of spinal stability during voluntary trunk extension exertions. Pseudorandom position perturbations of the torso and associated driving forces were recorded in 11 healthy adults. Nonlinear systems-identification analyses of the measured data provided an estimate of total systems dynamics that explained 81% of the movement variability. Proportional intrinsic response was less than zero in more than 60% of the trials, e.g. mean value of PINT during the 20% maximum voluntary exertion trunk extension exertions 415±354 N/m. The negative value indicated that the intrinsic muscle stiffness was not sufficient to stabilize the spine without reflex response. Reflexes accounted for 42% of the total stabilizing trunk stiffness. Both intrinsic and reflex components of stiffness increased significantly with trunk extension effort. Results reveal that reflex dynamics are a necessary component in the stabilizing control of spinal stability. PMID:16782106

  16. Trunk Muscle Reflex Amplitudes Increased in Patients With Subacute, Recurrent LBP Treated With a 10-Week Stabilization Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Navalgund, Anand; Buford, John A.; Briggs, Mathew S.; Givens, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Altered trunk muscle reflexes have been observed in patients with low back pain (LBP). Altered reflexes may contribute to impaired postural control, and possibly recurrence of LBP. Specific stabilization exercise (SSE) programs have been shown to decrease the risk of LBP recurrence in a select group of patients with acute, first episode LBP. It is not known if trunk muscle reflex responses improve with resolution of subacute, recurrent LBP when treated with a SSE program. A perturbation test was used to compare trunk muscle reflexes in patients with subacute, recurrent LBP, before and after 10 weeks of a SSE program and a group of matched control subjects (CNTL). The LBP group pre therapy had delayed trunk muscle reflexes compared with the CNTL group. Post therapy reflex latencies remained delayed, but amplitudes increased. Increased reflex amplitudes could limit excessive movement of the spine when perturbed; potentially helping prevent recurrence. PMID:22964879

  17. Muscle, reflex and central components in the control of the ankle joint in healthy and spastic man.

    PubMed

    Sinkjaer, T

    1997-01-01

    In understanding the control of the ankle joint during different motor tasks, we have to investigate at least three components, namely the influence of i) the passive and intrinsic properties of the intact and active muscle system around the joint (termed the non-reflex component), ii) the mechanical importance of the stretch reflex in the stretched and unloaded muscles, and iii) the supraspinal control of the stretch reflex. This thesis is dealing with the importance of the three components in healthy and spastic persons during sitting, standing, and walking. The results are based on stretch reflex and H-reflex measurements from the ankle extensor muscles. During stretch reflex experiments the foot was mounted to a platform (portable during walking) from which the ankle joint torque and the position were measured. To elicit a stretch reflex, the ankle joint was rotated by a strong motor connected to the platform. The mechanical importance of the stretch reflex was investigated by measuring the changes in joint torque. Electrically, the stretch reflex was recorded as the compound muscle action potential through bipolar surface EMG electrodes placed over the soleus muscle. During H-reflex experiments, the tibial nerve was stimulated at the popliteal fossa and the H-reflex recorded over the soleus muscle as during stretch reflex experiments. To investigate how the contractile properties of a muscle in humans depend on the history of activation, we investigated the intrinsic stiffness of the ankle extensors in healthy subjects. At matched background contraction in sitting subjects, a prolonged contraction increased the intrinsic muscle stiffness by 49%. Muscle yielding has been considered especially important for understanding the reflex compensation. We found a general lack of muscle yield and a mechanically important non-reflex stiffness of the ankle extensors showing that non-reflex stiffness is a prominent factor in normal movements of the ankle joint. In both

  18. Identifying Otosclerosis with Aural Acoustical Tests of Absorbance, Group Delay, Acoustic Reflex Threshold, and Otoacoustic Emissions.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Douglas H; Archer, Kelly L; Schmid, Kendra K; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Feeney, M Patrick; Hunter, Lisa L

    2017-10-01

    Otosclerosis is a progressive middle-ear disease that affects conductive transmission through the middle ear. Ear-canal acoustic tests may be useful in the diagnosis of conductive disorders. This study addressed the degree to which results from a battery of ear-canal tests, which include wideband reflectance, acoustic stapedius muscle reflex threshold (ASRT), and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), were effective in quantifying a risk of otosclerosis and in evaluating middle-ear function in ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. To evaluate the ability of the test battery to classify ears as normal or otosclerotic, measure the accuracy of reflectance in classifying ears as normal or otosclerotic, and evaluate the similarity of responses in normal ears compared with ears after surgical intervention for otosclerosis. A quasi-experimental cross-sectional study incorporating case control was used. Three groups were studied: one diagnosed with otosclerosis before corrective surgery, a group that received corrective surgery for otosclerosis, and a control group. The test groups included 23 ears (13 right and 10 left) with normal hearing from 16 participants (4 male and 12 female), 12 ears (7 right and 5 left) diagnosed with otosclerosis from 9 participants (3 male and 6 female), and 13 ears (4 right and 9 left) after surgical intervention from 10 participants (2 male and 8 female). Participants received audiometric evaluations and clinical immittance testing. Experimental tests performed included ASRT tests with wideband reference signal (0.25-8 kHz), reflectance tests (0.25-8 kHz), which were parameterized by absorbance and group delay at ambient pressure and at swept tympanometric pressures, and TEOAE tests using chirp stimuli (1-8 kHz). ASRTs were measured in ipsilateral and contralateral conditions using tonal and broadband noise activators. Experimental ASRT tests were based on the difference in wideband-absorbed sound power before and after

  19. Contribution of spindle reflexes to post-inspiratory activity in the canine external intercostal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Berdah, Stéphane V; De Troyer, André

    2001-01-01

    The external intercostal muscles have greater post-inspiratory activity than the parasternal intercostal muscles and are more abundantly supplied with muscle spindles. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that spindle afferent inputs play a major role in determining this activity. The electrical activity of the external and parasternal intercostal muscles in the rostral interspaces was recorded in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing dogs, and the ribs were manipulated so as to alter their normal caudal displacement and the normal lengthening of the muscles in early expiration. Post-inspiratory activity in the external intercostal muscles showed a reflex decrease when the caudal motion of the ribs and the lengthening of the muscles was impeded, and it showed a reflex increase when the rate of caudal rib motion and muscle lengthening was increased. In contrast, the small post-inspiratory activity in the parasternal intercostal muscles remained unchanged. When the two ribs making up the interspace investigated were locked to keep muscle length constant, post-inspiratory activity in the external intercostal muscles was reduced and no longer responded to cranial rib manipulation. These observations confirm that afferent inputs from muscle receptors, presumably muscle spindles, are a primary determinant of post-inspiratory activity in the canine external intercostal muscles. In anaesthetized animals, the contribution of central control mechanisms to this activity is small. PMID:11483716

  20. Effects of contraction intensity on muscle fascicle and stretch reflex behavior in the human triceps surae.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Neil J; Peltonen, Jussi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Komi, Paavo V; Avela, Janne; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Voigt, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The aims of this study were to examine changes in the distribution of a stretch to the muscle fascicles with changes in contraction intensity in the human triceps surae and to relate fascicle stretch responses to short-latency stretch reflex behavior. Thirteen healthy subjects were seated in an ankle ergometer, and dorsiflexion stretches (8 degrees ; 250 degrees /s) were applied to the triceps surae at different moment levels (0-100% of maximal voluntary contraction). Surface EMG was recorded in the medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior muscles, and ultrasound was used to measure medial gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle lengths. At low forces, reflex amplitudes increased despite a lack of change or even a decrease in fascicle stretch velocities. At high forces, lower fascicle stretch velocities coincided with smaller stretch reflexes. The results revealed a decline in fascicle stretch velocity of over 50% between passive conditions and maximal force levels in the major muscles of the triceps surae. This is likely to be an important factor related to the decline in stretch reflex amplitudes at high forces. Because short-latency stretch reflexes contribute to force production and stiffness regulation of human muscle fibers, a reduction in afferent feedback from muscle spindles could decrease the efficacy of human movements involving the triceps surae, particularly where high force production is required.

  1. Effect of muscle relaxants on experimental jaw-muscle pain and jaw-stretch reflexes: a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of two muscle relaxants (tolperisone hydrochloride and pridinol mesilate) on experimental jaw-muscle pain and jaw-stretch reflexes. Fifteen healthy men participated in three randomised sessions separated by at least 1 week. In each session 300 mg tolperisone, 8 mg pridinol mesilate or placebo was administered orally as a single dose. One hour after drug administration 0.3 ml hypertonic saline (5.8%) was injected into the right masseter to produce muscle pain. Subjects continuously rated their perceived pain intensity on an electronic 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured and short-latency reflex responses were evoked in the pre-contracted (15% maximal voluntary contraction) masseter and temporalis muscles by a standardised stretch device (1 mm displacement, 10 ms ramp time) before (baseline), 1 h after medication (post-drug), during ongoing experimental muscle pain (pain-post-drug), and 15 min after pain had vanished (post-pain). Analysis of variance demonstrated significantly lower VAS peak pain scores (5.9 +/- 0.4 cm) after administration of tolperisone hydrochloride compared with pridinol mesilate (6.8 +/- 0.4 cm) and placebo (6.6 +/- 0.4 cm) (P=0.020). Administration of pridinol mesilate was associated with a significant decrease in PPTs compared with tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo (P=0.002) after medication, but not after experimental jaw-muscle pain. The normalised peak-to-peak amplitude of the stretch reflexes were not significantly influenced by the test medication (P=0.762), but were in all sessions significantly facilitated during ongoing experimental jaw-muscle pain (P=0.034). In conclusion, tolperisone hydrochloride provides a small, albeit significant reduction in the perceived intensity of experimental jaw-muscle pain whereas the present dose had no effect on the short-latency jaw

  2. Reflex Responsiveness of a Human Hand Muscle When Controlling Isometric Force and Joint Position

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Katrina S.; Barry, Benjamin K.; Riley, Zachary A.; Enoka, Roger M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study compared reflex responsiveness of the first dorsal interosseus muscle during two tasks that employ different strategies to stabilize the finger while exerting the same net muscle torque. Methods Healthy human subjects performed two motor tasks that involved either pushing up against a rigid restraint to exert a constant isometric force equal to 20% of maximum, or maintaining a constant angle at the metacarpophalangeal joint while supporting an equivalent inertial load. Each task consisted of six 40-s contractions during which electrical and mechanical stimuli were delivered. Results The amplitude of short and long latency reflex responses to mechanical stretch did not differ significantly between tasks. In contrast, reflexes evoked by electrical stimulation were significantly greater when supporting the inertial load. Conclusions Agonist motor neurons exhibited heightened reflex responsiveness to synaptic input from heteronymous afferents when controlling the position of an inertial load. Task differences in the reflex response to electrical stimulation were not reflected in the response to mechanical perturbation, indicating a difference in the efficacy of the pathways that mediate these effects. Significance Results from this study suggest that modulation of spinal reflex pathways may contribute to differences in the control of force and position during isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseus muscle. PMID:17646129

  3. Effects of postural threat on spinal stretch reflexes: evidence for increased muscle spindle sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Horslen, Brian C; Murnaghan, Chantelle D; Inglis, J Timothy; Chua, Romeo; Carpenter, Mark G

    2013-08-01

    Standing balance is often threatened in everyday life. These threats typically involve scenarios in which either the likelihood or the consequence of falling is higher than normal. When cats are placed in these scenarios they respond by increasing the sensitivity of muscle spindles imbedded in the leg muscles, presumably to increase balance-relevant afferent information available to the nervous system. At present, it is unknown whether humans also respond to such postural threats by altering muscle spindle sensitivity. Here we present two studies that probed the effects of postural threat on spinal stretch reflexes. In study 1 we manipulated the threat associated with an increased consequence of a fall by having subjects stand at the edge of an elevated surface (3.2 m). In study 2 we manipulated the threat by increasing the likelihood of a fall by occasionally tilting the support surface on which subjects stood. In both scenarios we used Hoffmann (H) and tendon stretch (T) reflexes to probe the spinal stretch reflex circuit of the soleus muscle. We observed increased T-reflex amplitudes and unchanged H-reflex amplitudes in both threat scenarios. These results suggest that the synaptic state of the spinal stretch reflex is unaffected by postural threat and that therefore the muscle spindles activated in the T-reflexes must be more sensitive in the threatening conditions. We propose that this increase in sensitivity may function to satisfy the conflicting needs to restrict movement with threat, while maintaining a certain amount of sensory information related to postural control.

  4. Stretch reflex excitability of the anti-gravity ankle extensor muscle in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, N; Nakazawa, K; Yamamoto, S-I; Nozaki, D; Akai, M; Yano, H

    2004-01-01

    To examine whether the stretch reflex excitability of the soleus muscle changes with age, stretch reflexes at rest (REST) and during weak voluntary contractions (ACT) were elicited in 18 older and 14 younger subjects. The amplitude of the stretch reflex responses and gain, defined as the gradient of the regression line for the relation between stretch reflex responses against the angular velocity of the applied perturbation, were evaluated in each short-latency (M1) and two long-latency components (M2 and M3). It was found that in the older group, both the amplitude and gain of the M1 component did not change from the REST to the ACT conditions, whereas in the younger group both variables significantly increased from the REST to ACT conditions. The latency of the M1 component was significantly shorter under the REST condition (older vs. younger: 51.8 +/- 7.37 vs. 55.1 +/- 8.69 ms), while no group differences were found in those variables under the ACT condition, suggesting that the muscle-tendon complexes of SOL muscles of the older subjects were less elastic and had less slack, probably due to age-related histochemical alterations. Further, the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex), elicited during the REST condition in 10 older and 11 younger subjects showed no significant differences, suggesting that the soleus motoneuron response to the Ia input was comparable between the two subject groups. The histochemical alterations occurring with the ageing process might augment the short-latency stretch reflex in the SOL muscle without enhancement of motoneuronal excitability, and this effect might be masked when the muscle is voluntarily activated.

  5. Central hyperexcitability as measured with nociceptive flexor reflex threshold in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Stone, Andrew; Vicenzino, Bill

    2011-08-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal conditions are increasingly conceived as involving altered central nervous system processing, and impaired nociceptive flexor reflex (NFR) appears to reflect altered central nervous system processing. The primary objective was to synthesize the evidence for impaired NFR in these conditions. The secondary objective was to evaluate the NFR stimuli parameters employed by reviewed studies. Electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library were searched from the mid-1960s to June 2010. Experimental reports were systematically reviewed and meta-analysis (where possible) was performed. NFR thresholds and parameters of NFR stimuli were extracted. Sixteen trials were identified, 11 of which were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Compared to healthy controls, standardized mean differences in NFR threshold were significantly lower in subjects with primary headache (-0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.77 to -0.13, P=0.005), fibromyalgia (-0.63; 95% CI -0.93 to -0.34, P<0.0001), knee pain (-1.51; 95% CI -2.10 to -0.93, P<0.00001) and whiplash (-0.73; 95% CI -1.11 to -0.35, P=0.0002). Employed stimuli parameters vary between studies, with inter-pulse duration (P=0.044) being identified by multiple regression analysis as independent predictors of the variability in NFR threshold in healthy controls. The results indicate that there is evidence of central hyperexcitability in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Our review also suggests that shorter inter-pulse duration tends to yield smaller variability in NFR threshold. However, further research investigating optimal stimulation parameters is still warranted.

  6. Interaction between vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes on sympathetic activity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence from animals indicates that skeletal muscle afferents activate the vestibular nuclei and that both vestibular and skeletal muscle afferents have inputs to the ventrolateral medulla. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial pressure in humans. MSNA, arterial pressure, and heart rate were measured in 17 healthy subjects in the prone position during three experimental trials. The three trials were 2 min of 1) head-down rotation (HDR) to engage the vestibulosympathetic reflex, 2) isometric handgrip (IHG) at 30% maximal voluntary contraction to activate skeletal muscle afferents, and 3) HDR and IHG performed simultaneously. The order of the three trials was randomized. HDR and IHG performed alone increased total MSNA by 46 +/- 16 and 77 +/- 24 units, respectively (P < 0.01). During the HDR plus IHG trial, MSNA increased 142 +/- 38 units (P < 0.01). This increase was not significantly different from the sum of the individual trials (130 +/- 41 units). This finding was also observed with mean arterial pressure (sum = 21 +/- 2 mmHg and HDR + IHG = 22 +/- 2 mmHg). These findings suggest that there is an additive interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure when the vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes are engaged simultaneously in humans. Therefore, no central modulation exists between these two reflexes with regard to MSNA output in humans.

  7. Interaction between vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes on sympathetic activity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Evidence from animals indicates that skeletal muscle afferents activate the vestibular nuclei and that both vestibular and skeletal muscle afferents have inputs to the ventrolateral medulla. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial pressure in humans. MSNA, arterial pressure, and heart rate were measured in 17 healthy subjects in the prone position during three experimental trials. The three trials were 2 min of 1) head-down rotation (HDR) to engage the vestibulosympathetic reflex, 2) isometric handgrip (IHG) at 30% maximal voluntary contraction to activate skeletal muscle afferents, and 3) HDR and IHG performed simultaneously. The order of the three trials was randomized. HDR and IHG performed alone increased total MSNA by 46 +/- 16 and 77 +/- 24 units, respectively (P < 0.01). During the HDR plus IHG trial, MSNA increased 142 +/- 38 units (P < 0.01). This increase was not significantly different from the sum of the individual trials (130 +/- 41 units). This finding was also observed with mean arterial pressure (sum = 21 +/- 2 mmHg and HDR + IHG = 22 +/- 2 mmHg). These findings suggest that there is an additive interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure when the vestibulosympathetic and skeletal muscle reflexes are engaged simultaneously in humans. Therefore, no central modulation exists between these two reflexes with regard to MSNA output in humans.

  8. F response and H reflex analysis of physiological unity of gravity and antigravity muscles in man.

    PubMed

    García, H A; Fisher, M A

    1977-01-01

    Observational differences between reflex (H reflex) and antidromic (F response) activation of segmental motoneurons by a peripheral electrical stimulus are described. In contrast to H reflexes, the percentage of F responses found after a series of stimuli is directly related to the pick-up field of the recording electrode consistent with this response being due to the variable activation of a small fraction of the available motoneuron pool. Despite the differing physiological mechanisms, both F responses and H reflexes can be used to demonstrate similar relative "central excitatory states" for antigravity muscles (i.e. extensors in the lower extremity and flexors in the upper extremity) and their antagonist gravity muscles. H reflexes were elicited not only in their usual location in certain antigravity muscles but also in unusual locations by length/tension changes in agonist and antagonist groups as well as by passive stretch. The data argue for the physiological unity of similarly acting gravity and antigravity muscles as well as supporting a meaningful role of group II afferents in normal segmental motoneuron pool excitability.

  9. Decoupling of stretch reflex and background muscle activity during anticipatory postural adjustments in humans.

    PubMed

    Vedula, Siddharth; Kearney, Robert E; Wagner, Ross; Stapley, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    We studied the evolution of stretch reflexes in relation to background electromyographic (EMG) activity in the soleus muscle preceding the onset of voluntary arm raise movements. Our objective was to investigate if changes in reflex EMG and muscle activity occur simultaneously and are similarly scaled in amplitude. Ten human subjects stood with each foot on pedals able to exert short dorsiflexor pulses during stance. Subjects were asked to product consistent voluntary arm raise movements to a target upon a visual cue. In (1/4) of trials, no pulse perturbations were given, but in the remaining (3/4)'s of all trials pulses were given randomly during a 600-ms period, from 400 ms before until 200 ms after the onset of the movements. Perturbation trials were sorted into 20-ms bins post hoc, and the amplitude of the reflex EMG component was calculated and compared to the EMG activity obtained when no pulses were given. Results showed that despite exhibiting similar profiles over time, the background EMG consistently inhibited before the reflex EMG did. However, times of reactivation (rebound) were variable across subjects, with background EMG activating before reflex for some subjects and vice versa for others. The minimum values of inhibition, time of inhibition and time of rebound for background and reflex EMG measures did not show significant linear correlations when all subjects' data were considered. These results suggest that reflex and background EMG components of anticipatory postural adjustments evolve differently in time and amplitude. This has implications for the independent control of reflexes and voluntary muscle activity.

  10. Modulation of Ankle Muscle Postural Reflexes in Stroke: Influence of Weight-bearing Load

    PubMed Central

    Marigold, Daniel S.; Eng, Janice J.; Inglis, J. Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Objective Given the known sensorimotor deficits and asymmetric weight-bearing posture in stroke, the aim of this study was to determine whether stroke affects the modulation of standing postural reflexes with varying weight-bearing load. Methods Ten individuals with chronic stroke and 10 healthy older adult controls were exposed to unexpected forward and backward platform translations while standing. Three different stance conditions were imposed: increased weight-bearing load, decreased weight-bearing load, and self-selected stance. Surface EMG from bilateral ankle dorsiflexors (tibialis anterior) and extensors (gastrocnemius) were recorded and the magnitude of background muscle activity (prior to the platform translation) and postural reflex onset latency and magnitude (75 ms following reflex onset) were determined. Results Load modulation of ankle extensors was found in controls and individuals with stroke. Although controls demonstrated modulation of ankle dorsiflexors to different loads, individuals with stroke did not show this modulation. Further, load did not change the onset latency of postural reflexes of the individuals with stroke. Conclusion The delayed paretic muscle onset latencies in conjunction with impaired modulation of ankle dorsiflexor postural reflexes may contribute to the instability and frequent falls observed among individuals with stroke. Significance The results provide some insight into standing postural reflexes following stroke. PMID:15546787

  11. Trunk muscle reflexes are elicited by small continuous perturbations in healthy subjects and patients with low-back pain.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Daniel; Larivière, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) has been recognized as the leading cause of disability worldwide. Lumbar instability has been considered as an important mechanism of LBP and one potential contributor to lumbar stability is trunk muscle reflex activity. However, due to the differences in experimental paradigms used to quantify trunk mechanics and trunk reflexes it remains unclear as to what extent the reflex pathway contributes to overall lumbar stability. The goal of this work was to determine to what extent reflexes of various trunk muscles were elicited by the small continuous perturbations normally used to quantify trunk mechanics. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured bilaterally from 3 trunk extensor muscles and 3 trunk flexor muscles at four epochs: 25-50ms, 50-75ms, 75-100ms and 100-125ms following each perturbation. Reflex activity was seen in all muscles as 34 of the 48 muscle-epoch combinations showed a significant reflex response to either perturbations in the forward or backward direction. However, the reflex EMG activity did not correlate with mechanical estimates of the reflex response. Thus, even though reflexes are indeed elicited by the small perturbations used to quantify trunk mechanics, their exact contribution to overall lumbar stability remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat.

    PubMed

    Nichols, T R

    1999-02-01

    The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can

  13. Abnormal reflex activation of hamstring muscles in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Graham M; Granger, Nicolas; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J; Jeffery, Nick D

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) in dogs are poorly understood. In this study hamstring muscle reflexes in response to cranial tibial translation were analysed to determine whether these active stabilisers of the stifle joint are differently activated in dogs with CCLR compared to control dogs. In a prospective clinical study reflex muscle activity from the lateral and medial hamstring muscles (biceps femoris and semimembranosus) was recorded using surface electrodes in control dogs (n=21) and dogs with CCLR (n=22). These electromyographic recordings were analysed using an algorithm previously validated in humans. The hamstring reflex was reliably and reproducibly recorded in normal dogs. Both a short latency response (SLR, 17.6±2.1ms) and a medium latency response (MLR, 37.7±2.7ms) could be identified. In dogs with unilateral CCLR, the SLR and MLR were not significantly different between the affected and the unaffected limbs, but the MLR latency of both affected and unaffected limbs in CCLR dogs were significantly prolonged compared to controls. In conclusion, the hamstring reflex can be recorded in dogs and the MLR is prolonged in dogs with CCLR. Since both affected and unaffected limbs exhibit prolonged MLR, it is possible that abnormal hamstring reflex activation is a mechanism by which progressive CCL damage may occur. The methodology allows for further investigation of the relationship between neuromuscular imbalance and CCLR or limitations in functional recovery following surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eccentric exercise inhibits the H reflex in the middle part of the trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Vangsgaard, Steffen; Nørgaard, Lars T; Flaskager, Brian K; Søgaard, Karen; Taylor, Janet L; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the modulation of the H reflex immediately after and 24 h after eccentric exercise in the presence of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and (2) test the reproducibility of the H reflex in trapezius across days. H reflexes were recorded from the dominant middle trapezius muscle by electrical stimulation of the C3/4 cervical nerve in ten healthy subjects. DOMS was induced by eccentric exercise of the dominant shoulder. H reflexes were obtained in four sessions: "24 h before", "Pre", "Post", and "24 h after" eccentric exercise. Ratios of maximal H reflex and M wave responses (H (max)/M (max)) were compared between sessions. In addition, a between session comparison was done for the ratios of H reflex amplitudes (H (i_75)/M (max), and H (i_50)/M (max)) obtained from the stimulus intensity needed to obtain 75 and 50 % of H (max) at "24 h before". No ratio changes were found when comparing "24 h before" and "Pre" recordings. A decrease in H (i_50)/M (max) was found at "Post" (P < 0.05) and decreases in both H (i_75)/M (max) and H (i_50)/M (max) were observed at "24 h after" (P < 0.05). This study presented evidence that an acceptable day-to-day reproducibility of the H reflex could be obtained with the applied experimental setup. Furthermore, immediately after and 24 h after exercise a stronger stimulus intensity was needed to reach the same magnitude of the H reflex reflecting that the recruitment curve was shifted to the right. This modulation of the stimulus-response relationship could be caused by presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferent fibres' input to the motoneuron by group III and IV afferents.

  15. Muscle Stiffness and Spinal Stretch Reflex Sensitivity in the Triceps Surae

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, J. Troy; Padua, Darin A; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2008-01-01

    Context: Greater musculotendinous stiffness may enhance spinal stretch reflex sensitivity by improving mechanical coupling of the muscle spindle and the stretch stimulus. This heightened sensitivity would correspond with a shorter latency and higher-amplitude reflex response, potentially enhancing joint stability. Objective: To compare spinal stretch reflex latency and amplitude across groups that differed in musculotendinous stiffness. Design: Static group comparisons. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty physically active individuals (20 men, 20 women). Intervention(s): We verified a sex difference in musculotendinous stiffness and compared spinal stretch reflex latency and amplitude in high-stiffness (men) and low-stiffness (women) groups. We also evaluated relationships between musculotendinous stiffness and spinal stretch reflex latency and amplitude, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Triceps surae musculotendinous stiffness and soleus spinal stretch reflex latency and amplitude were assessed at 30% of a maximal voluntary isometric plantar-flexion contraction. Results: The high-stiffness group demonstrated significantly greater stiffness (137.41 ± 26.99 N/cm) than the low-stiffness group did (91.06 ± 20.10 N/cm). However, reflex latency (high stiffness = 50.11 ± 2.07 milliseconds, low stiffness = 48.26 ± 2.40 milliseconds) and amplitude (high stiffness = 0.28% ± 0.12% maximum motor response, low stiffness = 0.31% ± 0.16% maximum motor response) did not differ significantly across stiffness groups. Neither reflex latency (r = .053, P = .746) nor amplitude (r = .073, P = .653) was related significantly to musculotendinous stiffness. Conclusions: A moderate level of pretension (eg, 30%) likely eliminates series elastic slack; thus, a greater change in force per unit-of-length change (ie, heightened stiffness) would have minimal effects on coupling of the muscle spindle and the stretch stimulus and, therefore, on spinal

  16. Voluntary and reflex control of human back muscles during induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Zedka, Milan; Prochazka, Arthur; Knight, Brian; Gillard, Debby; Gauthier, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Back pain is known to change motor patterns of the trunk. The purpose of this study was to examine the motor output of the erector spinae (ES) muscles during pain in the lumbar region. First, their voluntary activation was assessed during flexion and re-extension of the trunk. Second, effects of cutaneous and muscle pain on the ES stretch reflex were measured, since increased stretch reflex gain has been suggested to underlie increased muscle tone in painful muscles. The trunk movement and electromyographical (EMG) signals from the right and left ES during pain were compared with values before pain. Controlled muscle pain was induced by infusion of 5% saline into the right lumbar ES. Cutaneous pain was elicited by mechanical or electrical stimulation of the dorsal lumbar skin. The stretch reflex was evoked by rapidly indenting the right lumbar ES with a servo-motor prodder. The results from the voluntary task show that muscle pain decreased the modulation depth of ES EMG activity. This pattern was associated with a decreased range and velocity of motion of the painful body segment, which would normally serve to avoid further injury. Interestingly, when subjects overcame this guarding tendency and made exactly the same movements during pain as before pain, the EMG modulation depth was still reduced. The results seem to reconcile the controversy of previous studies, in which both hyper- and hypoactivity of back muscles in pain have been reported. In the tapped muscle, the EMG response consisted of two peaks (latency 19.3 ± 2.1 and 44.6 ± 2.5 ms, respectively) followed by a trough. On the contralateral side the first response was a trough (26.2 ± 3.2 ms) while the second (46.4 ± 4.3 ms) was a peak, similar to the second peak on the tapped side. Cutaneous pain had no effect on the short-latency response but significantly increased the second response on the tapped side. Surprisingly, deep muscle pain had no effect on the stretch reflex. A short-latency reciprocal

  17. Electromyography of superficial and deep neck muscles during isometric, voluntary, and reflex contractions.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Brault, John R; Hedenstierna, Sofia; Inglis, J Timothy

    2007-02-01

    Increasingly complex models of the neck neuromusculature need detailed muscle and kinematic data for proper validation. The goal of this study was to measure the electromyographic activity of superficial and deep neck muscles during tasks involving isometric, voluntary, and reflexively evoked contractions of the neck muscles. Three male subjects (28-41 years) had electromyographic (EMG) fine wires inserted into the left sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were placed over the left sternohyoid muscle. Subjects then performed: (i) maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in the eight directions (45 deg intervals) from the neutral posture; (ii) 50 N isometric contractions with a slow sweep of the force direction through 720 deg; (iii) voluntary oscillatory head movements in flexion and extension; and (iv) initially relaxed reflex muscle activations to a forward acceleration while seated on a sled. Isometric contractions were performed against an overhead load cell and movement dynamics were measured using six-axis accelerometry on the head and torso. In all three subjects, the two anterior neck muscles had similar preferred activation directions and acted synergistically in both dynamic tasks. With the exception of splenius capitis, the posterior and posterolateral neck muscles also showed consistent activation directions and acted synergistically during the voluntary motions, but not during the sled perturbations. These findings suggest that the common numerical-modeling assumption that all anterior muscles act synergistically as flexors is reasonable, but that the related assumption that all posterior muscles act synergistically as extensors is not. Despite the small number of subjects, the data presented here can be used to inform and validate a neck model at three levels of increasing neuromuscular-kinematic complexity: muscles generating forces

  18. Trunk muscle activation during golf swing: Baseline and threshold.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanoreceptors around the tooth evoke inhibitory and excitatory reflexes in the human masseter muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, P; Türker, K S; Miles, T S

    1993-01-01

    1. The reflex responses evoked in the human masseter muscle by controlled mechanical stimulation of an incisor tooth were examined electromyographically. The stimuli were (slow) pushes and (brisk) taps of about 0.5-3 N peak force, applied orthogonally to the labial surface. 2. The brisk taps elicited a short-latency inhibitory reflex that was often followed by an excitatory peak, as has been described earlier. The inhibition increased as the taps became stronger. 3. Slow pushes evoked a long-latency, primarily excitatory response. The excitation increased with stronger, faster rise-time pushes; however, with the stronger stimuli, the short-latency inhibitory response often became evident before the onset of the excitation. 4. The reflex responses to 3 N pushes and 2 N taps were abolished when the receptors around the tooth were blocked with local anaesthetic, indicating that the response was elicited from receptors located within the periodontal area. 5. Prolonged, rapid-onset displacements evoked a complex reflex response that combined the characteristics of the taps and the pushes. 6. The most likely explanation for the different responses evoked by the pushes and taps is that the patterns of afferent activity elicited by the slow and fast tooth displacements activated different interneuronal pathways to motoneurones. 7. The inhibitory response to taps is essentially a protective reflex which probably serves to reduce the activity of the jaw-closing muscles when one bites unexpectedly on hard objects. It is suggested that the excitatory response may contribute to the muscle activity required to hold food between the teeth during chewing, or may act as a load compensation reflex to control chewing force. PMID:8229826

  20. Effects of osteocytes on vibration-induced reflex muscle activity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karamehmetoğlu, Safak Sahir; Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Ekmekçi, Hakan; Bahadir, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether osteocytes have an effect on reflex myoelectrical activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) in postmenopausal women. Participants were classified into 2 groups: the low bone mineral density (BMD) group (n = 37) and normal BMD group (n = 43). Hip BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyography data recorded from the adductor longus muscle were processed to obtain vibration-induced reflex myoelectrical activity. Changes in plasma sclerostin (SOST) levels with WBV were expressed as a standardized vibration-induced SOST index. The standardized vibration-induced SOST index was 1.03 ± 0.24 in the low BMD group and 0.99 ± 0.33 in the normal BMD group. For plasma SOST levels, no group-by-time interaction was found. The resting myoelectrical activities of adductor muscles increased significantly during WBV in both groups. However, there was no significant difference in the main effects of WBV on resting myoelectrical activity between the groups. The standardized vibration-induced plasma SOST index was found to be a significant independent predictor of the standardized vibration-induced reflex myoelectrical activity of the adductor muscle in both groups. This study suggests that osteocytes serve as mechanoreceptors of reflex electromyography during WBV.

  1. Assessment of auditory brainstem function in lead-exposed children using stapedius muscle reflexes.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Buchanan, Leo H; Ortega, Fernando; van der Velde, Jeannette; Borg, Erik

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurological integrity and physiological status of the auditory brainstem tracts and nuclei in children with chronic lead (Pb) exposure using non-invasive acoustic stapedius reflex (ASR) measurements of afferent and efferent-neuromuscular auditory function. Following audiological examinations, uncrossed (ipsilateral) and crossed (contralateral) brainstem ASR responses were evoked by pure tone (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz), and broadband noise (bandwidth: 125-4000 Hz) stimulus activators. The ASR threshold (ASRT), amplitude growth, and decay/fatigue were measured by conventional clinical middle ear immittance methods in a group of Andean children (age range: 2-18 years) with a history of chronic environmental Pb exposure from occupational Pb glazing. Blood lead (PbB) levels of the study group (n=117) ranged from 4.0 to 83.7 μg/dL with a mean PbB level of 33.5 μg/dL (SD: 23.6; median: 33.0: CDC III Classification). The PbB distribution data indicated that 77.8% (n=91) of the children had PbB levels greater than the CDC action line of 10 μg/dL. Repeatable, normal ASRTs were elicited for ipsilateral (mean: ≤90 dB HL) and contralateral (mean: ≤97 dB HL) stimulation for each acoustic activator. Spearman Rho correlation analysis indicated no significant association between PbB level and ipsilateral or contralateral ASRT for any of the stimulus activators. The ASR amplitude growth results showed typical growth functions with no Pb-associated aberrations. No statistical association was found between ASR decay/adaptation (ASRD) and PbB level for any of the stimulus activators. The results of stapedius muscle reflex testing using several stimulus activators showed no significant relationship between PbB level and the physiological integrity of the auditory brainstem mediated ASR responses in children with chronic Pb exposure and elevated PbB levels.

  2. Reflex inhibition of normal cramp following electrical stimulation of the muscle tendon.

    PubMed

    Khan, Serajul I; Burne, John A

    2007-09-01

    Muscle cramp was induced in one head of the gastrocnemius muscle (GA) in eight of thirteen subjects using maximum voluntary contraction when the muscle was in the shortened position. Cramp in GA was painful, involuntary, and localized. Induction of cramp was indicated by the presence of electromyographic (EMG) activity in one head of GA while the other head remained silent. In all cramping subjects, reflex inhibition of cramp electrical activity was observed following Achilles tendon electrical stimulation and they all reported subjective relief of cramp. Thus muscle cramp can be inhibited by stimulation of tendon afferents in the cramped muscle. When the inhibition of cramp-generated EMG and voluntary EMG was compared at similar mean EMG levels, the area and timing of the two phases of inhibition (I(1), I(2)) did not differ significantly. This strongly suggests that the same reflex pathway was the source of the inhibition in both cases. Thus the cramp-generated EMG is also likely to be driven by spinal synaptic input to the motorneurons. We have found that the muscle conditions that appear necessary to facilitate cramp, a near to maximal contraction of the shortened muscle, are also the conditions that render the inhibition generated by tendon afferents ineffective. When the strength of tendon inhibition in cramping subjects was compared with that in subjects that failed to cramp, it was found to be significantly weaker under the same experimental conditions. It is likely that reduced inhibitory feedback from tendon afferents has an important role in generating cramp.

  3. Muscle afferent potential (`A-wave') in the surface electromyogram of a phasic stretch reflex in normal humans

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex. M.; Michie, Patricia T.; Glue, Leonard C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper tested the hypothesis that the afferent potential elicited by a tendon tap in an isometrically recorded phasic stretch reflex can be detected in the surface EMG of normal humans when appropriate techniques are used. These techniques involved (1) training the subjects to relax mentally and physically so that the EMG was silent before and immediately after the diphasic MAP which reflects a highly synchronous discharge of afferent impulses from low threshold muscle stretch receptors after a tendon tap, and (2) using a data retrieval computer to summate stimulus-locked potentials in the EMG over a series of 16 samples using taps of uniform peak force and duration on the Achilles tendon to elicit the tendon jerk in the calf muscles. A discrete, diphasic potential (`A-wave') was recorded from EMG electrodes placed on the surface of the skin over the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The `A-wave' afferent potential had the opposite polarity to the corresponding efferent MAP. Under control conditions of relaxation the `A-wave' had a latency after the onset of the tap of 2 msec, the peak to peak amplitude was of the order of 5 μV and the duration was in the range of 6 to 10 msec. Further experiments were conducted to show that the `A-wave' (1) was not an artefact of the instrumentation used, (2) had a threshold at low intensities of stimulation, and (3) could be reliably augmented by using a Jendrassik manoeuvre compared with the potential observed during control (relaxation) conditions. The results support the conclusion that the `A-wave' emanates from the pool of muscle spindles which discharges impulses along group Ia nerve fibres in response to the phasic stretch stimulus because the primary ending of the spindles is known to initiate the stretch reflex and the spindles can be sensitized by fusimotor impulses so that their threshold is lowered as a result of a Jendrassik manoeuvre. The finding has important implications for the

  4. Phase-dependent reflex reversal in human leg muscles during walking.

    PubMed

    Yang, J F; Stein, R B

    1990-05-01

    1. Reflex responses during walking were elicited in humans by stimulation of the tibial nerve at the ankle. The stimulus intensity was controlled by monitoring the M-wave from an intrinsic foot muscle. Responses were observed in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SO), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The most reproducible responses were observed at a middle latency between 50 and 90 ms. The responses were most likely of cutaneous origin, because they closely resembled the responses to stimulation of a purely cutaneous nerve, the sural nerve. 2. A reversal in the direction of the middle latency response from excitation to inhibition was observed for the first time within single muscles during walking. Evidence for a reversal was seen in all three muscles examined and in all seven subjects. 3. The reflex reversal could not be elicited in standing. An inhibition whose amplitude varied in a linear fashion with stimulus intensity and background activation level was always observed at middle latency. The responses elicited during standing resembled those during the stance phase of walking. The two tasks shared some common movement goals and appeared to make use of similar reflex pathways.

  5. Phase-dependent modulation of cutaneous reflexes in tibialis anterior muscle during passive stepping.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Kamibayashi, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Makoto; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cutaneous reflex elicited in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle would be modulated in a phase-dependent manner while human subjects were passively stepping on a treadmill (treadmill stepping) or in the air (air stepping). The passive stepping was produced by a robotic gait trainer, Lokomat. The cutaneous reflexes following electric stimulation to the distal tibial nerve were recorded at ten different phases of a step cycle under the condition of tonic dorsiflexion [10% of maximum electromyography activity (EMGmax)]. Cutaneous reflex EMG responses with peak latencies of 70-120 ms [middle latency responses (MLR)] were then analysed. The results showed that there were no visible differences in the background EMG activities at the ten phases or two passive stepping conditions. During treadmill stepping, however, the magnitude of the facilitatory reflex responses between the late stance and the early swing phase was strongly enhanced, whereas no clear modulation of the MLR during air stepping was observed. These results suggest that the load-related afferent information plays a key role in the modulation of the cutaneous reflex during human walking.

  6. Dynamic stability of spine using stability-based optimization and muscle spindle reflex.

    PubMed

    Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Hemami, Hooshang; Barin, Kamran; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2008-02-01

    A computational method for simulation of 3-D movement of the trunk under the control of 48 anatomically oriented muscle actions was developed. Neural excitation of muscles was set based on inverse dynamics approach along with the stability-based optimization. The effect of muscle spindle reflex response on the trunk movement stability was evaluated upon the application of a perturbation moment. The method was used to simulate the trunk movement from the upright standing to 60 degrees of flexion. Incorporation of the stability condition as an additional constraint in the optimization resulted in an increase in antagonistic activities demonstrating that the antagonistic co-activation acts to increase the trunk stability in response to self-induced postural internal perturbation. In presence of a 30 Nm flexion perturbation moment, muscle spindles decreased the induced deviation of the position and velocity profiles from the desired ones. The stability-generated co-activation decreased the reflexive response of muscle spindles to the perturbation demonstrating that the rise in muscle co-activation can ameliorate the corruption of afferent neural sensory system at the expense of higher loading of the spine.

  7. Effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction on vesical and rectal function with identification of puborectalis-rectovesical inhibitory reflex and levator-rectovesical excitatory reflex.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-08-01

    changes. Repetition of the test using saline instead of xylocaine resulted in rectal and vesical pressure responses similar to those without the use of saline. In conclusion, the decline in rectal and vesical responses upon PR muscle contraction indicates a reflex relationship which we term 'puborectalis rectovesical inhibitory reflex'. This reflex is suggested to abort the urge to defecate or urinate. In contrast, LA muscle contraction produced rectal and vesical pressure elevation which is suggested to be mediated through the 'levator rectovesical excitatory reflex'. 'This reflex is probably evoked to promote rectal and vesical evacuation.

  8. Electrophysiological aspects of the middle ear muscle reflex in the rat: latency, rise time and effect on sound transmission.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, H; Kingma, H; Kluge, C; Marres, E H

    1990-10-01

    The latency, the rise time and the influence of the acoustic reflex on sound transmission were investigated in the adult rat during ketamin anesthesia. This was done by recordings of the cochlear microphonics (CM) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the reflex responses of the tensor tympani muscle. The acoustic reflex was elicited by contralateral acoustic stimuli of which the intensity and frequency was varied. Ipsilaterally, the effect on sound transmission was determined by estimating the change in amplitude of the CM's of ipsilateral administered subliminal stimuli. It was shown that both the tensor tympani muscle and the stapedius muscle contribute in the reflex. The latency as well as the rise time of the reflex determined by CM recordings showed to be short (minimal values: 12 and 7 ms respectively). The mean latency of the tensor tympani muscle reflex, measured by EMG, was about 7 ms. The attenuation of 0.25-8 kHz tone bursts upto 115 dB SPL is limited to a mean maximum of 15 dB SPL. The maximal attenuation was shown to occur at 1 kHz. Frequencies above 2 kHz appeared to be the best elicitor of the middle ear muscle reflex.

  9. Between-day reliability of the trapezius muscle H-reflex and M-wave.

    PubMed

    Vangsgaard, Steffen; Hansen, Ernst A; Madeleine, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the between-day reliability of the trapezius muscle H-reflex and M-wave. Sixteen healthy subjects were studied on 2 consecutive days. Trapezius muscle H-reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation of the C3/4 cervical nerves; M-waves were evoked by electrical stimulation of the accessory nerve. Relative reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1 ). Absolute reliability was estimated by computing the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest real difference (SRD). Bland-Altman plots were constructed to detect any systematic bias. Variables showed substantial to excellent relative reliability (ICC = 0.70-0.99). The relative SEM ranged from 1.4% to 34.8%; relative SRD ranged from 3.8% to 96.5%. No systematic bias was present in the data. The amplitude and latency of the trapezius muscle H-reflex and M-wave in healthy young subjects can be measured reliably across days. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Effect of strength-building training on manifestation of pressor reflex from working muscles receptors].

    PubMed

    Bravyĭ, Ia R; Bersenev, E Iu; Makarov, V A; Tarasova, O S; Borovik, A S; Vinogradova, O L

    2011-01-01

    Ten young normal volunteers and 8 armrestlers worked with forearm muscles till refusal at 30% of maximal arbitrary force. Work was either static or rhythmic with alternation of 20-s period of contraction and relaxation and followed by post-work arterial occlusion of the forearm muscles (PWAO). Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and muscular vessels-related sympathetic activity (MRSA) were measured continuously. MRSA was registered in n. peroneus using the microneurographic technique. Static work and subsequent PWAO produced different BP and MRSA neither in sportsmen nor amateurs. On the contrary, rhythmic work followed by PWAO suppressed the muscle pressor reflex in sportsmen significantly. The authors consider possible origination of the effect by change in energy supply to working muscles, enhanced extraction of metabolites, and sensory decrement of sportsmen's muscular receptors.

  11. Modulation of cutaneous reflexes in human upper limb muscles during arm cycling is independent of activity in the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F

    2005-02-01

    The amplitudes and signs of cutaneous reflexes are modulated during rhythmic movements of the arms and legs (during walking and arm or leg cycling for instance). This reflex modulation is frequently independent of the background muscle activity and may involve central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature and degree of coupling between the upper limbs during arm cycling, with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes. Responses to electrical stimulations of the right, superficial radial nerve (five 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz) were recorded bilaterally in six arm muscles of eight participants during arm cycling involving only the limb ipsilateral to the stimulation, only the limb contralateral to the stimulation, and bilateral movement when the limbs were both in-phase and 180 degrees out of phase. The pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation throughout the arm cycle was independent of the functional state of the limb contralateral to the recording site, irrespective of whether recordings were made ipsilateral or contralateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, cutaneous reflexes were significantly (p<0.05) modulated with arm position in only 8% of cases in which the limb containing the responding muscle was either stationary or being moved passively by the experimenter. The results show that there is relatively weak coupling between the arms with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic, cyclical arm movements. This suggests a loose connection between the CPGs for each arm that regulate muscle activity and reflex amplitude during rhythmic movement.

  12. Reflex and cerebellar influences on α and on `rhythmic' and `tonic' γ activity in the intercostal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Corda, M.; von Euler, C.; Lennerstrand, G.

    1966-01-01

    1. Efferent intercostal α and γ activity and afferent intercostal muscle spindle activity were studied in decerebrate cats in response to stimulation of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and to postural and other reflexes. 2. Low threshold intercostal responses were elicited from lobuli IV and V of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum. 3. The existence of two functionally different types of intercostal γ neurones has been confirmed. These are the `rhythmic' or `specifically respiratory' γ neurones, and the `tonic' γ neurones. 4. In response to cerebellar stimulation, facilitatory, inhibitory and diphasic tetanic and post-tetanic effects were obtained from α and the two types of γ fibres in both external and internal intercostal nerve branches. 5. Generally both inspiratory and expiratory α and γ activity was facilitated in response to tetanic stimulation at contralateral stimulus sites, and inhibited in response to stimulation of ipsilateral sites. 6. `Rhythmic' γ activity appeared to be rather closely linked to the respiratory α activity but the balance between `rhythmic' γ and α was often changed in response to cerebellar stimulation, as indicated by the responses of primary muscle spindle afferents. 7. The `tonic' γ neurones were as a rule more responsive to cerebellar stimulation than were the α and `rhythmic' γ neurones. Long-lasting post-tetanic effects were much more prominent in the `tonic' γ fibres than in the α or `rhythmic' γ fibres. 8. `Rhythmic' γ activity was abolished after cervical transections of the cord. `Tonic' γ activity remained in the spinal preparations although usually at a different discharge rate. 9. `Tonic' γ neurones were more responsive than the `rhythmic' γ neurones to the proprioceptive γ reflex elicited by passive movements of the chest wall as well as to other spinal and supraspinal reflexes. 10. Both `dynamic' and `static' γ fibres seem to be represented in the group of `tonic' intercostal γ neurones. 11

  13. Facilitation and habituation of the startle reflex over the tonically active biceps brachii muscle contralateral to electrical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Alaid, Ssuhir; Tyagi, Indu; Kornhuber, Malte

    2012-10-03

    The aim of the present investigation was to explore the impact of muscle contraction on startle reflex responses after electrical stimuli (single or trains of 3) and to study startle reflex habituation. The electromyogram was recorded over the tonically active biceps brachii muscle in 19 healthy subjects contralateral to electrical stimuli (9-12mA) that were delivered at 1.0 and 0.4Hz over the superficial radial nerve. The muscle contraction level was varied by loading weight on the subject's bent arm (0.0, 1.0 or 1.5kg). Furthermore, short term reflex habituation was investigated using 30 blocks of 5 subsequent stimuli. Startle response amplitudes gained significantly (p<0.05) after (i) train stimuli as compared with single stimuli, during (ii) high versus low levels of muscle contraction, and at (iii) 0.4Hz versus 1.0Hz stimuli. Startle reflex amplitudes decreased significantly by the influence of preceding stimuli (p<0.05). This study provides evidence that the startle reflex can be significantly influenced by weight load, i.e. by volitional influences. Startle reflex investigation over a contracted limb muscle results in a high probability of startle release and thereby improved detection of SR habituation following preceding stimuli.

  14. Effect of sympathetic nervous system activation on the tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Passatore, M

    1993-01-01

    1. In precollicular decerebrate rabbits we investigated the effect of sympathetic stimulation, at frequencies within the physiological range, on the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in jaw closing muscles by small amplitude vibrations applied to the mandible (15-50 microns, 150-180 Hz). The EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter muscle and the force developed by the reflex was measured through an isometric transducer connected with the mandibular symphysis. 2. Unilateral stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic by the TVR, and a marked decrease or disappearance of the ipsilateral EMG activity. No significant changes were detected in the EMG contralateral to the stimulated nerve. Bilateral CSN stimulation reduced by 60-90% the force reflexly produced by the jaw closing muscles and strongly decreased or suppressed EMG activity on both sides. This effect was often preceded by a transient TVR enhancement, very variable in amplitude and duration, which was concomitant with the modest increase in pulmonary ventilation induced by the sympathetic stimulation. 3. During bilateral CSN stimulation, an increase in the vibration amplitude by a factor of 1.5-2.5 was sufficient to restore the TVR reduced by sympathetic stimulation. 4. The depressant action exerted by sympathetic activation on the TVR is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors, since it was almost completely abolished by the I.V. administration of either phentolamine or prazosin, this last drug being a selective antagonist of alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The sympathetically induced decrease in the TVR was not mimicked by manoeuvres producing a large and sudden reduction or abolition of the blood flow to jaw muscles, such as unilateral or bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery. 5. The effect of sympathetic stimulation was not significantly modified after denervation of the inferior dental arch and/or anaesthesia of the temporomandibular joint, i.e. after having reduced

  15. Age-related impaired reflex sensitivity in a human hand muscle.

    PubMed

    Corden, D M; Lippold, O C

    1996-10-01

    1. The rectified and averaged electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) in normal male and female human subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 67 yr. It was elicited by a brief stretch, given to the outstretched forefinger. 2. The responses to stretch consisted of components W30, the monosynaptic stretch reflex and W60, which is likely to arise in the skin and nonmuscular structures. The figures 30 and 60 refer to the mean latencies, in milliseconds, of the respective waveforms (W). 3. For a group of subjects > 30 yr of age, W30 was significantly smaller than in a group under this age. The size of W60 was not related to age and the W30/W60 ratio was < 0.45 in the older subjects. In the younger group, the ratio was always above 0.5. 4. The fact that the age-related reflex impairment affects only W30 and not W60, indicates that central processing in the motor neuron pool is unlikely to be the mechanism involved in the impairment. 5. Control experiments show that changes in frictional resistance in muscles, joints, and tendons with age, are not large enough to account for these results. 6. Neuromuscular block did not occur in these experiments and could not be implicated in the impaired reflex sensitivity.

  16. Short-Term Plasticity in a Monosynaptic Reflex Pathway to Forearm Muscles after Continuous Robot-Assisted Passive Stepping

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Kamibayashi, Kiyotaka; Kitamura, Taku; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E. Paul; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    Both active and passive rhythmic limb movements reduce the amplitude of spinal cord Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in muscles of moving and distant limbs. This could have clinical utility in remote modulation of the pathologically hyperactive reflexes found in spasticity after stroke or spinal cord injury. However, such clinical translation is currently hampered by a lack of critical information regarding the minimum or effective duration of passive movement needed for modulating spinal cord excitability. We therefore investigated the H-reflex modulation in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle during and after various durations (5, 10, 15, and 30 min) of passive stepping in 11 neurologically normal subjects. Passive stepping was performed by a robotic gait trainer system (Lokomat®) while a single pulse of electrical stimulation to the median nerve elicited H-reflexes in the FCR. The amplitude of the FCR H-reflex was significantly suppressed during passive stepping. Although 30 min of passive stepping was sufficient to elicit a persistent H-reflex suppression that lasted up to 15 min, 5 min of passive stepping was not. The duration of H-reflex suppression correlated with that of the stepping. These findings suggest that the accumulation of stepping-related afferent feedback from the leg plays a role in generating short-term interlimb plasticity in the circuitry of the FCR H-reflex. PMID:27499737

  17. Dynamic spatial tuning of cervical muscle reflexes to multidirectional seated perturbations.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Brolin, Karin; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2015-02-15

    Human volunteers were exposed experimentally to multidirectional seated perturbations. To determine the activation patterns, spatial distribution and preferred directions of reflexively activated cervical muscles for human model development and validation. Models of the human head and neck are used to predict occupant kinematics and injuries in motor vehicle collisions. Because of a dearth of relevant experimental data, few models use activation schemes based on in vivo recordings of muscle activation and instead assume uniform activation levels for all muscles within presumed agonist or antagonist groups. Data recorded from individual cervical muscles are needed to validate or refute this assumption. Eight subjects (6 males, 2 females) were exposed to seated perturbations in 8 directions. Electromyography was measured with wire electrodes inserted into the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, levator scapulae, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus muscles. Surface electrodes were used to measure sternohyoid activity. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized with recordings from maximum voluntary contractions. The multidirectional perturbations produced activation patterns that varied with direction within and between muscles. Sternocleidomastoid and sternohyoid activated similarly in forward and forward oblique directions. The semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, and multifidus exhibited similar spatial patterns and preferred directions, but varied in activation levels. Levator scapulae and trapezius activity generally remained low, and splenius capitis activity varied widely between subjects. All muscles showed muscle- and direction-specific contraction levels. Models should implement muscle- and direction-specific activation schemes during simulations of the head and neck responses to omnidirectional horizontal perturbations where muscle forces influence kinematics, such as during emergency maneuvers

  18. Experimental muscle pain decreases the frequency threshold of electrically elicited muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Mariano; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Farina, Dario

    2007-09-01

    This study in humans tested the hypothesis that nociceptive muscle afferent input facilitates the occurrence of muscle cramps. In 13 healthy adults, muscle cramps were experimentally induced in the foot by stimulating the tibialis posterior nerve at the ankle with 2-s bursts of stimuli separated by 30 s, with stimulation frequency increasing by 2-Hz increments from 10 Hz until the cramp appeared. The minimum stimulation frequency that induced the cramp was defined "cramp frequency threshold". In 2 days, elicitation of the cramp was performed in the two-feet with and without (baseline condition) injection of hypertonic (painful condition) or isotonic (control condition) saline into the deep midportion of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle, from where surface EMG signals were recorded. The cramp frequency threshold was lower for the painful condition with respect to its baseline (mean +/- SE, hypertonic saline: 25.7 +/- 2.1 Hz, corresponding baseline: 31.2 +/- 2.8 Hz; P < 0.01) while there was no difference between the threshold with isotonic injection with respect to baseline. EMG average rectified value and power spectral frequency were higher during the cramp than immediately before the stimulation that elicited the cramp (pre-cramp: 13.9 +/- 1.6 muV and 75.4 +/- 3.8 Hz, respectively; post-cramp: 19.9 +/- 3.2 muV and 101.6 +/- 6.0 Hz; P < 0.05). The results suggest that nociceptive muscle afferent activity induced by injection of hypertonic saline facilitates the generation of electrically elicited muscle cramps.

  19. Modulation of reflex responses in hand muscles during rhythmical finger tasks in a subject with writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ruiping; Bush, Brian M H

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine phase- and task-dependent modulation of stretch reflexes during repetitive finger movements in writer's cramp, and compare them with normal controls from our previous study. A subject with writer's cramp conducted two rhythmic tasks, index finger abduction (RFA) and a pen-squeezing (RPS) task akin to handwriting. Stretch reflexes were evoked by mechanical perturbations at random phases of each task. Surface electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from two hand muscles, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS). The reflex response and background EMG activity of each muscle were modulated in a phase-dependent manner in both tasks. However, they varied largely in phase during the RFA task, but in approximately inverse phase-relationship during RPS. Reflex sensitivity, as represented by the slope of the linear regression between response and background, was much lower for both muscles in the 'writing' task (RPS) than in the RFA task with its positively correlated responses. These phase- and task-related modulation patterns differed dramatically from those observed in our control subjects, where reflex responses were modulated largely in phase with background activity and reflex sensitivity was much higher, particularly in FDI during RFA and FDS during RPS. The altered reflex modulation patterns in writer's cramp may reflect deficiencies of integration of proprioceptive afferent inputs and reduced inhibition at cortical and spinal levels during writing performance. Results from this case study support clinically identified task-specific feature of focal hand dystonia.

  20. Lactate threshold by muscle electrical impedance in professional rowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotta, B.; Coutinho, A. B. B.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

    2017-04-01

    Lactate threshold (LT) is one of the physiological parameters usually used in rowing sport training prescription because it indicates the transitions from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Assessment of LT is classically based on a series of values of blood lactate concentrations obtained during progressive exercise tests and thus has an invasive aspect. The feasibility of noninvasive LT estimative through bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) data collected in thigh muscles during rowing ergometer exercise tests was investigated. Nineteen professional rowers, age 19 (mean) ± 4.8 (standard deviation) yr, height 187.3 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 83 ± 7.7 kg, and training experience of 7 ± 4 yr, were evaluated in a rowing ergometer progressive test with paired measures of blood lactate concentration and BIS in thigh muscles. Bioelectrical impedance data were obtained by using a bipolar method of spectroscopy based on the current response to a voltage step. An electrical model was used to interpret BIS data and to derive parameters that were investigated to estimate LT noninvasively. From the serial blood lactate measurements, LT was also determined through Dmax method (LTDmax). The zero crossing of the second derivative of kinetic of the capacitance electrode (Ce), one of the BIS parameters, was used to estimate LT. The agreement between the LT estimates through BIS (LTBIS) and through Dmax method (LTDmax) was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots, leading to a mean difference between the estimates of just 0.07 W and a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.85. This result supports the utilization of the proposed method based on BIS parameters for estimating noninvasively the lactate threshold in rowing.

  1. Crossed responses found in human trapezius muscles are not H-reflexes.

    PubMed

    Vangsgaard, Steffen; Nørgaard, Lars T; Madeleine, Pascal; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-03-01

    We sought to confirm the presence of crossed short-latency reflexes in trapezius. Mmax and Hmax were measured in the ipsilateral trapezius in 10 subjects by percutaneous electrical stimulation of the accessory nerve and the cervical nerves of C3/4 respectively. Repeated stimulation of the C3/4 cervical nerves was performed during 3 different tasks (relaxation, contraction of ipsilateral side, contraction of contralateral side). Ipsilaterally, responses increased significantly with an increase in the prestimulus electromyogram (EMG) and decreased significantly with a decrease in prestimulus EMG. Contralateral potentials increased significantly with contraction of the trapezius ipsilateral to the stimulus compared with contraction of the muscle in which they were recorded and decreased significantly with increasing distance from the ipsilateral side. We found ipsilateral and contralateral responses consistent with previous findings. However, we conclude that the contralateral response in trapezius is not a crossed reflex. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reflex pathways connect receptors in the human lower leg to the erector spinae muscles of the lower back.

    PubMed

    Clair, J M; Okuma, Y; Misiaszek, J E; Collins, D F

    2009-06-01

    Reflex pathways connect all four limbs in humans. Presently, we tested the hypothesis that reflexes also link sensory receptors in the lower leg with muscles of the lower back (erector spinae; ES). Taps were applied to the right Achilles' tendon and electromyographic activity was recorded from the right soleus and bilaterally from ES. Reflexes were compared between sitting and standing and between standing with the eyes open versus closed. Reflexes were evoked bilaterally in ES and consisted of an early latency excitation, a medium latency inhibition, and a longer latency excitation. During sitting but not standing, the early excitation was larger in the ES muscle ipsilateral to the stimulation (iES) than in the contralateral ES (cES). During standing but not sitting, the longer latency excitation in cES was larger than in iES. This response in cES was also larger during standing compared to sitting. Responses were not significantly different between the eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Taps applied to the lateral calcaneus (heel taps) evoked responses in ES that were not significantly different in amplitude or latency than those evoked by tendon taps, despite a 75-94% reduction in the amplitude of the soleus stretch reflex evoked by the heel taps. Electrical stimulation of the sural nerve, a purely cutaneous nerve at the ankle, evoked ES reflexes that were not significantly different in amplitude but had significantly longer latencies than those evoked by the tendon and heel taps. These results support the hypothesis that reflex pathways connect receptors in the lower leg with muscles of the lower back and show that that the amplitude of these reflexes is modulated by task. Responses evoked by stimulation of the sural nerve establish that reflex pathways connect the ES muscles with cutaneous receptors of the foot. In contrast, the large volley in muscle spindle afferents induced by the tendon taps compared to the heel taps did not alter the ES responses

  3. Prolonged Intermittent Trunk Flexion Increases Trunk Muscles Reflex Gains and Trunk Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Wamerdam, Jeffrey; Kingma, Idsart; Sarabon, Nejc; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged, intermittent flexion on trunk neuromuscular control. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of passive upper body support during flexion were investigated. Twenty one healthy young volunteers participated during two separate visits in which they performed 1 hour of intermittent 60 seconds flexion and 30 seconds rest cycles. Flexion was set at 80% lumbar flexion and was performed with or without upper body support. Before and after intermittent flexion exposure, lumbar range of motion was measured using inertial measurement units and trunk stability was assessed during perturbations applied in the forward direction with a force controlled actuator. Closed-loop system identification was used to determine the trunk translational admittance and reflexes as frequency response functions. The admittance describes the actuator displacement as a function of contact force and to assess reflexes muscle activation was related to actuator displacement. Trunk admittance gain decreased after unsupported flexion, while reflex gain and lumbar range of motion increased after both conditions. Significant interaction effects confirmed a larger increase in lumbar range of motion and reflex gains at most frequencies analysed following unsupported flexion in comparison to supported flexion, probably compensating for decreased passive tissue stiffness. In contrast with some previous studies we found that prolonged intermittent flexion decreased trunk admittance, which implies an increase of the lumped intrinsic and reflexive stiffness. This would compensate for decreased stiffness at the cost of an increase in cumulative low back load. Taking into account the differences between conditions it would be preferable to offer upper body support during activities that require prolonged trunk flexion. PMID:27768688

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Trunk Flexion Increases Trunk Muscles Reflex Gains and Trunk Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Voglar, Matej; Wamerdam, Jeffrey; Kingma, Idsart; Sarabon, Nejc; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged, intermittent flexion on trunk neuromuscular control. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of passive upper body support during flexion were investigated. Twenty one healthy young volunteers participated during two separate visits in which they performed 1 hour of intermittent 60 seconds flexion and 30 seconds rest cycles. Flexion was set at 80% lumbar flexion and was performed with or without upper body support. Before and after intermittent flexion exposure, lumbar range of motion was measured using inertial measurement units and trunk stability was assessed during perturbations applied in the forward direction with a force controlled actuator. Closed-loop system identification was used to determine the trunk translational admittance and reflexes as frequency response functions. The admittance describes the actuator displacement as a function of contact force and to assess reflexes muscle activation was related to actuator displacement. Trunk admittance gain decreased after unsupported flexion, while reflex gain and lumbar range of motion increased after both conditions. Significant interaction effects confirmed a larger increase in lumbar range of motion and reflex gains at most frequencies analysed following unsupported flexion in comparison to supported flexion, probably compensating for decreased passive tissue stiffness. In contrast with some previous studies we found that prolonged intermittent flexion decreased trunk admittance, which implies an increase of the lumped intrinsic and reflexive stiffness. This would compensate for decreased stiffness at the cost of an increase in cumulative low back load. Taking into account the differences between conditions it would be preferable to offer upper body support during activities that require prolonged trunk flexion.

  5. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, İlhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Şafak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15

  6. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Ozkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Safak Sahir

    2014-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15.2% (p=0.031) in the exercise group and increased by

  7. Pelvic floor muscle reflex activity during coughing - an exploratory and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Luginbuehl, Helena; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Annette; Christen, Regula; Oberli, Bettina; Eichelberger, Patric; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-12-01

    Activities that provoke stress urinary incontinence (SUI) rapidly increase the intra-abdominal pressure and the impact loading on the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs). Coughing can cause urinary leakage and is often used to test SUI. However, PFM characteristics during coughing, including their reliability, have not been investigated. Here, we used electromyography (EMG) to describe PFM pre-activity and reflexivity during coughing and examined the reliability of the measurements. This was an exploratory and reliability study including 11 young healthy women to characterize EMG reflex activity in PFMs during coughing. We describe 6 variables, averaged over 3 coughs per subject, and tested their reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 3,1 [ICC(3,1)] and ICC(3,k), related standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal difference [MD]). The variables represented the mean EMG activity for PFMs during 30-ms time intervals of pre-activity (initial time point of coughing [T0] and minus 30ms) and reflex activity (T0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-120 and 120-150ms after T0) of stretch-reflex latency responses. The mean %EMG (normalized to maximal voluntary PFM contraction) for EMG variables was 35.1 to 52.2 and was significantly higher during coughing than for PFM activity at rest (mean 24.9±3.7%EMG; P<0.05). ICC(3,k) ranged from 0.67 to 0.91 (SEM 6.1-13.3%EMG and MD 16.7-36.8%EMG) and was higher than ICC(3,1) (range 0.40-0.77; SEM 9.0-18.0%EMG, MD 24.9-50.0%EMG). PFM activity during reflex latency response time intervals during coughing was significantly higher than at rest, which suggests PFM pre-activity and reflex activity during coughing. Although we standardized coughing, EMG variables for PFM activity showed poor reliability [good to excellent ICC(3,k) and fair to excellent ICC(3,1) but high SEM and MD]. Therefore, coughing is expected to be heterogeneous, with low reliability, in clinical test situations. Potential crosstalk from other muscles involved in coughing could

  8. Temporal profile of the effects of regional anesthesia on the cutaneous reflexes of foot muscles.

    PubMed

    Mota, Isabella A; Fernandes, João B; Cardoso, Marcio N; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Kofler, Markus; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the effects of an anesthetic sciatic nerve block on the cutaneomuscular reflex (cMR) and the cutaneous silent period (cSP) of foot muscles, in order to investigate further the type of fibers involved in their generation. In 14 neurologically normal patients with indication for surgical treatment of hallux valgus, we recorded from the extensor digitorum brevis muscle the reflex responses elicited by high-intensity electrical stimulation of the big toe at various time periods, ranging from 0 to 20 min, after ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve popliteal anesthetic block. The first effect was a delay in cSP onset latency, with no changes in end latency. The cMR remained unaltered up to when subjects were no longer able to maintain the contraction. The effects of local anesthetics on peripheral nerves allow for recognition of the different types of fibers contributing to the cMR and the cSP in muscles of the lower limb.

  9. Modulation of soleus H-reflex during shortening and lengthening muscle actions in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cartwright, Colleen

    2015-02-28

    The H-reflex is dependently modulated during isometric and anisometric muscle actions. However, the manner of the H-reflex modulation during dynamic muscle movements in relation to ageing is less stated in the literature. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ageing on soleus (SOL) H-reflex modulation during dynamic muscle actions. Twenty young (24 ± 4 years of age) and 20 older adults (73 ± 5 years of age) voluntarily participated in the study. The SOL H-reflex was measured during passive and active shortening and lengthening muscle actions in a sitting position. The older group showed a lower ratio of the maximal amplitude of H-reflex to M-wave (SOL Hmax/Mmax) during the passive lengthening than that during the passive shortening (shortening: 0.40 ± 0.22 vs. lengthening: 0.15 ± 0.10, P < 0.05), whereas the SOL Hmax/Mmax ratio of the young group was significantly higher during the shortening than that during the lengthening contractions at maximal effort (shortening: 0.51 ± 0.26 vs. lengthening: 0.37 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). These results suggested different modulations of group Ia afferent inputs to the SOL motoneurons during passive and active dynamic muscle actions between young and older adults.

  10. Selective recruitment of high-threshold human motor units during voluntary isotonic lengthening of active muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, A; Romanò, C; Schieppati, M

    1989-01-01

    threshold torque of recruitment among all the units. In addition, the amplitudes of both the action potential and the threshold torque were higher in the case of L units than in the case of S and S + L units. Most L units could be voluntarily recruited only in the case of ballistic isometric or isotonic contraction. 5. Occasionally, L units were directly activated by electrical stimulation of motor fibres and their conduction velocity was in the higher range for alpha-axons. In contrast, nerve stimulation could induce a reflex activation of S and S + L units.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2585297

  11. Acoustic reflex and general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Z

    1983-01-01

    Infant and small children are not always able to cooperate in impedance measurements. For this reason it was decided, -in special cases, -to perform acoustic reflex examination under general anaesthesia. The first report on stapedius reflex and general anaesthesia was published by Mink et al. in 1981. Under the effect of Tiobutabarbital, Propanidid and Diazepam there is no reflex response. Acoustic reflex can be elicited with Ketamin-hydrochlorid and Alphaxalone-alphadolone acetate narcosis. The reflex threshold remains unchanged and the amplitude of muscle contraction is somewhat increased. The method was used: 1. to assess the type and degree of hearing loss in children with cleft palate and/or lip prior to surgery. 2. to exclude neuromuscular disorders with indication of pharyngoplasties. 3. to quantify hearing level in children--mostly multiply handicapped--with retarded speech development. The results of Behavioral Observation and Impedance Audiometry are discussed and evaluated.

  12. The proprioceptive reflex control of the intercostal muscles during their voluntary activation

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. Newsom; Sears, T. A.

    1970-01-01

    1. A quantitative study has been made of the reflex effects of sudden changes in mechanical load on contracting human intercostal muscles during willed breathing movements involving the chest wall. Averaging techniques were applied to recordings of electromyogram (EMG) and lung volume, and to other parameters of breathing. 2. Load changes were effected for brief periods (10-150 msec) at any predetermined lung volume by sudden connexion of the airway to a pressure source variable between ± 80 cm H2O so that respiratory movement could be either assisted or opposed. In some experiments airway resistance was suddenly reduced by porting from a high to a low resistance external airway. 3. Contracting inspiratory and expiratory intercostal muscles showed a `silent period' with unloading which is attributed to the sudden withdrawal from intercostal motoneurones of monosynaptic excitation of muscle spindle origin. 4. For both inspiratory and expiratory intercostal muscles the typical immediate effect of an increase in load was an inhibitory response (IR) with a latency of about 22 msec followed by an excitatory response (ER) with a latency of 50-60 msec. 5. It was established using brief duration stimuli (< 40 msec) that the IR depended on mechanical events associated with the onset of stimulation, whereas stimuli greater than 40 msec in duration were required to evoke the ER. 6. For constant expiratory flow rate and a constant load, the ER of expiratory intercostal muscles increased as lung volume decreased within the limits set by maximal activation of the motoneurone pool as residual volume was approached. 7. The ER to a constant load increased directly with the expiratory flow rate at which the load applied, also within limits set by maximal activation of the motoneurone pool. 8. For a given load, the ER during phonation was greater than that occurring at a similar expiratory flow rate without phonation when the resistance of the phonating larynx was mimicked by an

  13. Muscle weakness and lack of reflex gain adaptation predominate during post-stroke posture control of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Meskers, Carel GM; Schouten, Alfred C; de Groot, Jurriaan H; de Vlugt, Erwin; van Hilten, Bob JJ; van der Helm, Frans CT; Arendzen, Hans JH

    2009-01-01

    Background Instead of hyper-reflexia as sole paradigm, post-stroke movement disorders are currently considered the result of a complex interplay between neuronal and muscular properties, modified by level of activity. We used a closed loop system identification technique to quantify individual contributors to wrist joint stiffness during an active posture task. Methods Continuous random torque perturbations applied to the wrist joint by a haptic manipulator had to be resisted maximally. Reflex provoking conditions were applied i.e. additional viscous loads and reduced perturbation signal bandwidth. Linear system identification and neuromuscular modeling were used to separate joint stiffness into the intrinsic resistance of the muscles including co-contraction and the reflex mediated contribution. Results Compared to an age and sex matched control group, patients showed an overall 50% drop in intrinsic elasticity while their reflexive contribution did not respond to provoking conditions. Patients showed an increased mechanical stability compared to control subjects. Conclusion Post stroke, we found active posture tasking to be dominated by: 1) muscle weakness and 2) lack of reflex adaptation. This adds to existing doubts on reflex blocking therapy as the sole paradigm to improve active task performance and draws attention to muscle strength and power recovery and the role of the inability to modulate reflexes in post stroke movement disorders. PMID:19627607

  14. Oxidative stress exaggerates skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation in rats with hypertension induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Koba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Kano, Naoko; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Muscle contraction stimulates thin fiber muscle afferents and evokes reflex sympathoexcitation. In hypertension, this reflex is exaggerated. ANG II, which is elevated in hypertension, has been reported to trigger the production of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that increased ANG II in hypertension exaggerates skeletal muscle contraction-evoked reflex sympathoexcitation by inducing oxidative stress in the muscle. In rats, subcutaneous infusion of ANG II at 450 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) for 14 days significantly (P < 0.05) elevated blood pressure compared with sham-operated (sham) rats. Electrically induced 30-s hindlimb muscle contraction in decerebrate rats with hypertension evoked larger renal sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses [+1,173 ± 212 arbitrary units (AU) and +35 ± 5 mmHg, n = 10] compared with sham normotensive rats (+419 ± 103 AU and +13 ± 2 mmHg, n = 11). Tempol, a SOD mimetic, injected intra-arterially into the hindlimb circulation significantly reduced responses in hypertensive rats, whereas this compound had no effect on responses in sham rats. Tiron, another SOD mimetic, also significantly reduced reflex renal sympathetic and pressor responses in a subset of hypertensive rats (n = 10). Generation of muscle superoxide, as evaluated by dihydroethidium staining, was increased in hypertensive rats. RT-PCR and immunoblot experiments showed that mRNA and protein for gp91(phox), a NADPH oxidase subunit, in skeletal muscle tissue were upregulated in hypertensive rats. Taken together, hese results suggest that increased ANG II in hypertension induces oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, thereby exaggerating the muscle reflex.

  15. Recruitment properties and significance of short latency reflexes in neck and eye muscles evoked by brief lateral head accelerations.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, James G; Dennis, Danielle L; Govender, Sendhil; Chen, Peggy; Todd, Neil P McAngus

    2014-09-01

    Short lateral head accelerations were applied to investigate the recruitment properties of the reflexes underlying the earliest ocular and cervical electromyographic reflex responses to these disturbances. Components of both reflexes are vestibular dependent and have been termed "ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials" and "cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials", respectively. Previous investigations using a unilateral vestibular stimulus have indicated that some but not all these vestibular-dependent reflexes show a simple power law relationship to stimulus intensity. In particular, crossed otolith-ocular reflexes showed evidence of an inflection separating two types of behaviour. The present stimulus acts bilaterally, and only the earliest crossed otolith-ocular reflex, previously shown to have a strictly unilateral origin, showed evidence of an inflection. Reflex changes in ocular torsion could, in principle, correct for the changes associated with translation for an elevated eye, but our findings indicated that the responses were consistent with previous reports of tilt-type reflexes. For the neck, both vestibular and segmental (muscle spindle) reflexes were evoked and followed power law relationships, without any clear separation in sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence of "tilt-like" reflexes evoked by lateral acceleration and suggest that the departure from a power law occurs as a consequence of a unilateral crossed pathway. For the neck, responses to transients are likely to always consist of both vestibular and non-vestibular (segmental) components. Most of the translation-evoked ocular and cervical reflexes appear to follow power law relationship to stimulus amplitude over a physiological range.

  16. Re-examination of the possible role of Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindle reflexes in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation muscle stretching.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Literature concerning the theoretical role of spinal reflex circuits and their sensorimotor signals in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) muscle stretching techniques was examined. Reviewed data do not support the assertion commonly made in PNF literature that contraction of a stretched muscle prior to further stretch, or contraction of opposing muscles during muscle stretch, produces relaxation of the stretched muscle. Further, following contraction of a stretched muscle, inhibition of the stretch reflex response lasts only 1 s. Studies examined suggested that decreases in the response amplitude of the Hoffmann and muscle stretch reflexes following a contraction of a stretched muscle are not due to the activation of Golgi tendon organs, as commonly purported, but instead may be due to presynaptic inhibition of the muscle spindle sensory signal. The current view on the complex manner by which the spinal cord processes proprioceptive signals was discussed. The ability of acute PNF stretching procedures to often produce a joint range of motion greater than that observed with static stretching must be explained by mechanisms other than the spinal processing of proprioceptive information. Studies reviewed indicate that changes in the ability to tolerate stretch and/or the viscoelastic properties of the stretched muscle, induced by PNF procedures, are possible mechanisms.

  17. Use of Posterior Root-Muscle Reflexes in Peripheral Nerve Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Ross M; Brown, Justin M; Gertsch, Jeffrey H; Allison, David W

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that a mixed-agent general anesthetic regimen of volatile gas and intravenous anesthetic or total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) is required to obtain adequate transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs) to detect and hopefully prevent injury during brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve surgery. But even under ideal general anesthetic conditions, TcMEPs are not always detectable in every muscle monitored, and are prone to anesthetic fade, especially when neuropathic or injured tissue is monitored. TcMEP sensitivity to general anesthesia can be especially problematic during peripheral nerve surgery where there is often only one or a few essential muscles required to provide adequate monitoring; thus, maximum fidelity is essential. However, there is an anesthetic-resistant high-fidelity modality available to successfully monitor the motor component of distant peripheral nerves originating from the cauda equina. Percutaneus transabdominal electrical stimulation elicits a relatively anesthetic-resistant, robust motor response in muscles innervated by cauda equina nerve roots. We report the successful use of posterior root-muscle (PRM) reflex to monitor the decompression of the sciatic nerve at its bifurcation in a 22-year-old female with a history of severe sciatic nerve neuropathic pain and muscle weakness following benign thigh tumor resection.

  18. Modulation of the stretch reflex of jaw-closing muscles in different modes and phases of respiration.

    PubMed

    Otani-Saito, K; Ono, T; Ishiwata, Y; Kuroda, T

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how changes in the mode of respiration affect the electromyographic activity of human jaw-closing muscles. Fifteen men were examined in this study. A pair of surface electrodes was attached bilaterally to the masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles for electromyographic recording. Respiratory movements of the chest wall and nasal airflow were recorded simultaneously. Recordings were performed with subjects in the sitting position during quiet nasal and oral respiration. The stretch reflex of jaw-closing muscles was elicited by randomly tapping the chin with an impulse hammer. In 11 subjects, we measured nasal resistance with a rhinomanometer. The amplitude of electromyographic activities of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles during oral respiration was significantly less than that during nasal respiration, whereas that of the posterior temporalis muscle showed no significant difference between the different modes of respiration. Furthermore, the reduction in the amplitude of the electromyographic activity was more evident in the inspiratory phase during oral respiration. There was a significant positive correlation between the ratio of the reflex amplitude during inspiration in the 2 respiratory modes and nasal resistance for the masseter muscle, but not for the anterior temporalis muscle. These results suggest that the reflexive electromyographic activity of some human jaw-closing muscles is modulated during oral respiration.

  19. Short-latency inhibitory reflex responses to inspiratory loading of the scalene muscles are impaired in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McBain, Rachel A; Hudson, Anna L; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2015-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether the reflex inhibition in the electromyographic activity of scalene muscles in response to inspiratory muscle loading is present in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury and to examine whether the intercostal muscle afferents are critical for genesis of the reflex. What is the main finding and its importance? The lack of reflex inhibition in response to inspiratory loading in individuals with complete cervical spinal cord injury suggests that the reflex critically requires input from intercostal afferents and/or an intact intersegmental neural network. In healthy individuals, transient loading of inspiratory muscles with a brief inspiratory occlusion produces a short-latency inhibitory response (IR) in the electromyographic activity of scalene muscles at ∼40 ms, followed by an excitatory response (ER). It has been argued that this reflex plays a protective role in neuromuscular control of the inspiratory muscles and that it is co-ordinated by spinal segmental or supraspinal circuits. In this study, the reflex response to airway occlusion was recorded bilaterally from scalene muscles in 14 subjects and from the right costal diaphragm in seven subjects with spinal cord injury [SCI, C4-C6; American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) A]. The incidence, latency and size of the reflex were compared with previously published data from able-bodied subjects. Only two subjects with SCI showed an IR, and six subjects had an ER. Latencies to the onset and peak of the IR and ER were 5-50 ms longer than in able-bodied subjects. However, when reflexes were identified, their size in individuals with SCI was similar to that of control subjects. We conclude that afferents from the scalene muscles and diaphragm are insufficient in most subjects with SCI to evoke the usual inhibition to airway occlusion and that input from chest wall afferents below the spinal cord lesion may be

  20. Effect of probe frequency and gender on click-rate-induced facilitation of the acoustic reflex thresholds.

    PubMed

    Rawool, V W

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of probe frequency and gender on the click-rate-induced facilitation of the acoustic reflex thresholds (ARTs). ARTs were measured by delivering clicks at the repetition rates of 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300/sec. The probe tones were 226, 678 and 1000 Hz. Rate-induced facilitation (RIF) was calculated for each subject, for each of the probe tones, by subtracting the minimum ART from the maximum ART. The mixed MANOVA on the RIF revealed no significant main effects or interactions for gender or probe tone frequency. However, paired comparisons revealed that the RIF values obtained from male subjects with the 1000 Hz probe tones were significantly lower than those obtained from the female subjects with all the probe tone frequencies. The results suggest that RIF can be studied with higher probe tones, but gender differences need to be considered if the probe tone is 1000 Hz.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) in the masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Takata, Y; Nakajima, T; Yamada, Y

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited by high-frequency vibration in evaluating masticatory muscle excitability. The experiment was performed on 16 male adult volunteers, 20 to 45 years of age, without spontaneous pain or tenderness in the masticatory muscles. The subjects were seated in a chair in a fixed head position with the mouth kept open with a bite block. TVR was elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the mandible (approximately 15 m/s2, 160 Hz). An electromyogram (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from the masseter muscles and analyzed quantitatively using an arbitrary index (TVR index) calculated from the response. Bite force was measured during clenching using a pressure-sensitive foil. Wide variations in the TVR index (maximum, 22.7%; minimum, 0.9%, average, 7.7%) were observed among individuals. The mean index for five subjects with a clenching habit was significantly higher than that for 11 subjects without a history of clenching. Tolperisone HCl (100 mg taken orally), a gamma-drive depressant, was found to reduce the response for 2 hours. There was a negative correlation (r = -.504, P < .05) between bite force and TVR index when the values on both sides were compared. The TVR may be of use in evaluating masseter muscle excitability.

  2. Refined distribution of myelinated trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres in Mueller's muscle as the mechanoreceptors to induce involuntary reflexive contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Hirasawa, Chihiro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2009-11-01

    Stretching of mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle induces reflexive contraction of not only the levator muscle but also the frontalis muscle as two different eyelid-opening muscles. Previously, we reported that fine neural myelinated structures, acting as mechanoreceptors, were found in the proximal Mueller's muscle. Since there is a risk of misunderstanding that the middle and distal Mueller's muscle does not contain mechanoreceptors and can be invalidated or resected, the accurate distribution of myelinated trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres as mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle was refined horizontally in this study. We explored 10 whole Mueller's muscles between the levator muscle and the tarsus of the upper eyelids obtained from five Japanese cadavers. The specimens were serially sliced along the horizontal plane and stained with HE, S-100 protein to determine the presence of Schwann cells, and smooth muscle actin antibody to determine the presence of Mueller's smooth muscle fibres. Although all myelinated nerve fibres in the intermuscular connective tissues among the sympathetically innervated Mueller's multi-unit smooth muscle fibres may not correspond to the proprioceptive nerve fibres, the nerve bundles consisting of multiple myelinated nerve fibres were well distributed in the proximal Mueller's muscle, and single myelinated nerve fibres were well distributed in the middle and distal Mueller's muscle. We believe that the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle consist of myelinated proprioceptive nerve fibres with nerve endings possibly attached to collagen fibres in the intermuscular connective tissues present among Mueller's smooth muscle fibres. As the myelinated nerve fibres innervate the middle and distal Mueller's muscle to a greater extent than those in the proximal Mueller's muscle, the former may be more important as mechanoreceptors than the latter and should not be invalidated or excised during surgery for treatment of blepharoptosis to

  3. Neural control of rhythmic human arm movement: phase dependence and task modulation of hoffmann reflexes in forearm muscles.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F; Frigon, Alain; Hoogenboom, Nienke

    2003-01-01

    Although we move our arms rhythmically during walking, running, and swimming, we know little about the neural control of such movements. Our working hypothesis is that neural mechanisms controlling rhythmic movements are similar in the human lumbar and cervical spinal cord. Thus reflex modulation during rhythmic arm movement should be similar to that seen during leg movement. Our main experimental hypotheses were that the amplitude of H-reflexes in the forearm muscles would be modulated during arm movement (i.e., phase-dependent) and would be inhibited during cycling compared with static contraction (i.e., task-dependent). Furthermore, to determine the locus of any modulation, we tested the effect that active and passive movement of the ipsilateral (relative to stimulated arm) and contralateral arm had on H-reflex amplitude. Subjects performed rhythmic arm cycling on a custom-made hydraulic ergometer in which the two arms could be constrained to move together (180 degrees out of phase) or could rotate independently. Position of the stimulated limb in the movement cycle is described with respect to the clock face. H-reflexes were evoked at 12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions during static contraction as well as during rhythmic arm movements. Reflex amplitudes were compared between tasks at equal M wave amplitudes and similar levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the target muscle. Surface EMG recordings were obtained bilaterally from flexor carpi radialis as well as from other muscles controlling the wrist, elbow, and shoulder. Compared with reflexes evoked during static contractions, movement of the stimulated limb attenuated H-reflexes by 50.8% (P < 0.005), 65.3% (P < 0.001), and 52.6% (P < 0.001) for bilateral, active ipsilateral, and passive ipsilateral movements, respectively. In contrast, movement of the contralateral limb did not significantly alter H-reflex amplitude. H-reflexes were also modulated by limb position (P < 0.005). Thus task- and phase

  4. Anatomically remote muscle contraction facilitates patellar tendon reflex reinforcement while mental activity does not: a within-participants experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Jendrassik maneuver (JM) is a remote facilitation muscular contraction shown to affect amplitude and temporal components of the human stretch reflex. Conflicting theoretical models exist regarding the neurological mechanism related to its ability to reinforce reflex parameters. One mechanism involves the gamma motoneurons of the fusimotor system, which are subject to both physical and mental activity. A second mechanism describes reduced alpha motoneuron presynaptic inhibition, which is not subject to mental activity. In the current study, we determined if mental activity could be used to create a reflex facilitation comparable to a remote muscle contraction. Method Using a within-participants design, we investigated the relative effect of the JM and a successfully employed mental task (Stroop task) on the amplitude and temporal components of the patellar tendon reflex. Results We found that the addition of mental activity had no influence on the patellar tendon reflex parameters measured, while the JM provided facilitation (increased reflex amplitude, decreased total reflex time). Conclusion The findings from this study support the view that the mechanism for the JM is a reduction in presynaptic inhibition of alpha motoneurons as it is influenced by physical and not mental activity. PMID:22958619

  5. Limb segment vibration modulates spinal reflex excitability and muscle mRNA expression after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Tseng, Shih-Chiao; McHenry, Colleen L.; Littmann, Andrew E.; Suneja, Manish; Shields, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of various doses of vertical oscillation (vibration) on soleus H-reflex amplitude and post-activation depression in individuals with and without SCI. We also explored the acute effect of short-term limb vibration on skeletal muscle mRNA expression of genes associated with spinal plasticity. Methods Six healthy adults and five chronic complete SCI subjects received vibratory stimulation of their tibia over three different gravitational accelerations (0.3g, 0.6g, and 1.2g) at a fixed frequency (30 Hz). Soleus H-reflexes were measured before, during, and after vibration. Two additional chronic complete SCI subjects had soleus muscle biopsies 3 h following a single bout of vibration. Results H-reflex amplitude was depressed over 83% in both groups during vibration. This vibratory-induced inhibition lasted over 2 min in the control group, but not in the SCI group. Post-activation depression was modulated during the long-lasting vibratory inhibition. A single bout of mechanical oscillation altered mRNA expression from selected genes associated with synaptic plasticity. Conclusions Vibration of the lower leg inhibits the H-reflex amplitude, influences post-activation depression, and alters skeletal muscle mRNA expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. Significance Limb segment vibration may offer a long term method to reduce spinal reflex excitability after SCI. PMID:21963319

  6. Fusimotor reflexes in relaxed forearm muscles produced by cutaneous afferents from the human hand.

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, S C; Wilson, L; Cordo, P J; Burke, D

    1994-01-01

    1. This study was designed to determine whether cutaneous receptors in the hand exert reflex effects on fusimotor neurones innervating relaxed muscles. Recordings were made from fifty-four muscle spindle afferents in the radial nerve while the arm was held relaxed in a supporting frame. Cutaneous afferents were activated by trains of stimuli at non-noxious levels to the superficial radial nerve or to the palmar surface of the fingers. 2. For the population of muscle spindle afferents, the mean discharge rate was 7.1 +/- 6.4 Hz (range 0-24 Hz). Thirty-three per cent had no background discharge, and this occurred significantly more often in finger extensors than wrist extensors. 3. Trains of cutaneous stimuli produced no change in the discharge rates of the majority of spindle endings irrespective of whether the spindle afferent had a background discharge or was given one by muscle stretch. However, with two of forty afferents, the stimuli produced an increase in discharge at latencies of 135 and 155 ms. 4. With a further fourteen muscle spindle endings, the dynamic responses to stretch were measured 100-400 ms after the trains of cutaneous stimuli. For four spindle afferents there was a statistically significant change in the dynamic response to stretch occurring at conditioned-stretch intervals of 100-200 ms. For two afferents the dynamic response decreased by 17 and 26% and for two others it increased by about 24 and 37%. 5. While these results support the view that the level of background fusimotor drive is low in the relaxed state, they suggest that there is some dynamic fusimotor drive to completely relaxed muscles operating on the human hand, and that this drive can be altered reflexly by cutaneous afferent inputs from the hand. Images Figure 4 PMID:7837105

  7. Determination of an Optimal Threshold Value for Muscle Activity Detection in EMG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Özgünen, Kerem Tuncay; Çelik, Umut; Kurdak, Sanlı Sadi

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that one needs to use a threshold value in the detection of muscle activity timing in electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. However, the algorithm for threshold determination lacks an agreement between the investigators. In this study we aimed to determine a proper threshold value in an incremental cycling exercise for accurate EMG signal analysis. Nine healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled until exhaustion. EMG recordings were performed on four low extremity muscle groups; gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), soleus (SOL) and vastus medialis (VM). We have analyzed our data using three different threshold levels: 25%, 35% and 45% of the mean RMS EMG value. We compared the appropriateness of these threshold values using two criteria: (1) significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts and (2) proximity of the regression line of the actual and estimated number of bursts to the line of identity. It had been possible to find a significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts with the 25, 35 and 45% threshold values for the GL muscle. Correlation analyses for the VM muscle had shown that the number of bursts estimated with the 35% threshold value was found to be significantly correlated with the actual number of bursts. For the GM muscle, it had been possible to predict the burst number by using either the 35% or 45% threshold value and for the SOL muscle the 25% threshold value was found as the best predictor for actual number of burst estimation. Detailed analyses of the actual and estimated number of bursts had shown that success of threshold estimation may differ among muscle groups. Evaluation of our data had clearly shown that it is important to select proper threshold values for correct EMG signal analyses. Using a single threshold value for different exercise intensities and different muscle groups may cause misleading results. Key points α priori

  8. Acoustic Reflex Thresholds in Normal and Cochlear-Impaired Ears: Effects of No-Response Rates on 90th Percentiles in a Large Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Stanley A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Ninetieth percentile cutoffs for acoustic reflex thresholds (ART) were determined for a sample of 1,374 adult subjects with normal hearing and sensorineural loss of cochlear origin. It was found that 12.2 percent had one ear ART elevated above the ninetieth percentile, but only 5.6 percent had more than one elevated ART. (DB)

  9. Task-specific depression of the soleus H-reflex after cocontraction training of antagonistic ankle muscles.

    PubMed

    Perez, Monica A; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens B

    2007-12-01

    Ballet dancers have small soleus (SOL) H-reflex amplitudes, which may be related to frequent use of cocontraction of antagonistic ankle muscles. Indeed, SOL H-reflexes are depressed during cocontraction compared with plantarflexion at matched background EMG level. We investigated the effect of 30-min training of simultaneous activation of ankle dorsi- and plantarflexor muscles (cocontraction task) on the SOL H-reflex in 10 healthy volunteers. Measurements were taken during cocontraction. After training, there was a significant improvement in the ability of the subjects to perform a stable cocontraction. SOL H-reflex recruitment curves and H-max/M-max ratios were decreased after cocontraction training but not after 30 min of static dorsi or plantarflexion. The decreased H-reflex size correlated with improved motor performance. No changes in SOL and tibialis anterior (TA) EMG activity or EMG power were observed, suggesting that increased presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents is a likely mechanism for H-reflex depression. In different sessions we measured SOL and TA motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), TMS-elicited suppression of SOL EMG, and coherence between electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (Cz) and TA and SOL EMG. SOL and TA MEPs were depressed, whereas TMS-elicited suppression of SOL EMG and coherence were increased after training. Decreased excitability of corticospinal neurons due to increased intracortical inhibition seems a likely explanation of these observations. Our results indicate that the depression in H-reflex observed during a cocontraction task can be trained and that repeated performance of tasks involving cocontraction may lead to prolonged changes in reflex and corticospinal excitability.

  10. The reflex excitation of the soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat caused by vibration applied to its tendon

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P. B. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. Vibration was applied longitudinally to the fully innervated soleus muscle of the decerebrate cat by attaching its tendon to a vibrator. Vibration at frequencies of 50-500/sec with amplitudes of 10 μ upwards caused the muscle to contract reflexly for as long as the vibration was maintained. The response was recorded myographically by a myograph mounted upon the vibrator, and electromyographically by gross `belly-tendon' leads. The reflex contraction produced several hundred g wt. of tension and involved too many motor units for their discharges to be separable. The maintained reflex was abolished by making the preparation spinal or by anaesthetizing it with pentobarbitone, but it persisted after removing the cerebellum. 2. The minimum latency for the appearance of the reflex response at the beginning of a period of vibration was about 10 msec. The latency of cessation of the response at the end of vibration was similarly short. 3. On increasing the amplitude of vibration at any particular frequency in the range 100-300/sec the resulting reflex tension increased to an approximate plateau for amplitudes of vibration of 100-200 μ. Further increase in the amplitude decreased the size of the contraction, though there was no such reduction in records of the `integrated' electromyogram. 4. Such large amplitudes of vibration also reduced the tension, and shortened the duration, of a twitch contraction of the muscle elicited by stimulating its nerve. The strength of a tetanic contraction was much less affected by vibration than was that of the twitch contraction, and the muscle action potential elicited by stimulation of the nerve was unaffected. Thus, large-amplitude vibration influenced the contractile mechanism of the muscle (cf. Buchtal & Kaiser, 1951). 5. Increasing the frequency of vibration increased the value of the plateau tension reached on increasing the amplitude. The effect was, however, relatively small and the largest increase seen was 3 g wt. of

  11. Effects of exercise-induced low back pain on intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflexes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily M; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2013-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to (1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and (2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  13. Acute effects of high-frequency microfocal vibratory stimulation on the H reflex of the soleus muscle. A double-blind study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Enrico; Paone, Paolo; Tassorelli, Cristina; De Icco, Roberto; Moglia, Arrigo; Alvisi, Elena; Marchetta, Lucky; Fresia, Mauro; Montini, Alessandra; Calabrese, Marzia; Versiglia, Vittorio; Sandrini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study in healthy subjects examined the effects of a system delivering focal microvibrations at high frequency (Equistasi®) on tonic vibration stimulus (TVS)-induced inhibition of the soleus muscle H reflex. High-frequency microvibrations significantly increased the inhibitory effect of TVS on the H reflex for up to three minutes. Moreover, Equistasi® also significantly reduced alpha-motoneuron excitability, as indicated by the changes in the ratio between the maximum-amplitude H reflex (Hmax reflex) and the maximum-amplitude muscle response (Mmax response); this effect was due to reduction of the amplitude of the H reflex because the amplitude of muscle response remained unchanged. The present findings indicate that Equistasi® has a modulatory effect on proprioceptive reflex circuits. Therefore, Equistasi® might interfere with some mechanisms involved in both physiological and pathophysiological control of movement and of posture. PMID:26727706

  14. Spinal reflexes in ankle flexor and extensor muscles after chronic central nervous system lesions and functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Estabrooks, Kristen L; Chong, Suling; Stein, Richard B

    2009-02-01

    Spinal reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory reflexes of ankle extensor and flexor muscles were investigated in ambulatory participants with chronic central nervous system (CNS) lesions causing foot drop as a function of time after lesion and stimulator use. Thirty-nine participants with progressive (eg, secondary progressive MS) and 36 with generally nonprogressive (eg, stroke) conditions were studied. The tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus maximum H-reflex/M-wave (Hmax/Mmax) ratios and maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) were measured and compared with those in age-matched control participants. Reciprocal inhibition was measured as a depression of the ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity produced by antagonist muscle-nerve stimulation. Participants with CNS lesions had significantly higher soleus Hmax/Mmax ratios than control participants, and reduced voluntary modulation of the reflexes occurred in both muscles. Reciprocal inhibition of soleus from common peroneal (CP) nerve stimulation was not significantly different from controls in either group. Inhibition of the TA by tibial nerve stimulation decreased and was eventually replaced by excitation in participants with nonprogressive disorders. No significant change occurred in progressive disorders. Use of a foot drop stimulator increased the TA, but not the soleus MVC overall. H-reflexes only showed small changes. Reciprocal inhibition of the TA increased considerably, while that of the soleus muscle decreased toward control values. Disorders that produce foot drop also produce reflex changes, some of which only develop over a period of years or even decades. Regular use of a foot drop stimulator strengthens voluntary pathways and changes some reflexes toward control values. Thus, stimulators may provide multiple benefits to people with foot drop.

  15. The plantar cushion reflex circuit: an oligosynaptic cutaneous reflex

    PubMed Central

    Egger, M. David; Wall, Patrick D.

    1971-01-01

    1. Reflex toe extension elicited by pressure on the plantar cushion (PC) was studied in cats anaesthetized with Dial. Receptive fields and adequate stimuli for the reflex were evaluated. It was concluded that the receptors for the reflex were chiefly cutaneous pressure receptors in PC. 2. The fastest impulses from the PC receptors for this reflex are conducted to the spinal cord at about 64 m/sec via fibres about 10-11 μm in diameter, i.e. the largest afferent fibres from PC. The motoneurones active in the reflex mainly supplied the intrinsic plantar muscles. Most active axons ran in the S1 ventral root. 3. Extracellular recordings of interneurones in the dorsal horn of L7 spinal segment revealed that many units at the medial edge of the dorsal horn, chiefly in Rexed's laminae IV and V, were activated by stimuli similar to those eliciting the PC—toe extension reflex. These were termed intermediate threshold PC units. Some of these medially located units were activated monosynaptically by PC stimulation. Intermediate threshold PC units activated disynaptically or polysynaptically were also found in this medial region of the dorsal horn, as well as ventrolaterally and caudally in lamina V. 4. No intermediate threshold PC units sent axons into dorsolateral ipsilateral thoracic white matter, in contrast to lower threshold PC units, 42% of which were driven by lateral column stimulation. 5. Extracellular and intracellular recordings were made from motoneurones activated by adequate stimuli for the reflex. Minimum latencies of EPSPs revealed that, for the fastest component of the reflex, at most two interneurones could be interposed between a primary sensory neurone and a motoneurone. 6. Although convergence of low threshold PC units on to intermediate threshold PC units or on to motoneurones may play a part in the PC—toe extension reflex, it appears probable that the two populations of intermediate threshold PC interneurones described above, that is, the

  16. Pathophysiology of human heart failure: importance of skeletal muscle myopathy and reflexes.

    PubMed

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    In the last 20 years there has been mounting evidence that chronic heart failure (CHF) has a complex pathophysiology, which begins with an abnormality of the heart as a 'primum movens', but involves adaptive changes in many body parts, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, renal, neuroendocrine, haemostatic, immune and inflammatory systems. Alterations in skeletal muscle are also of importance in limiting functional capacity in patients with CHF, because reduced physical activity plays some part in the muscle alterations in CHF. On the whole, these abnormalities resemble those induced by physical deconditioning. Moreover, the overactivation of signals originating from skeletal muscle receptors (mechano-metaboreceptors) is an intriguing hypothesis proposed to explain the origin of symptoms and the beneficial effect of exercise training in the CHF syndrome. These reflexes may contribute to sympathetic overactivation, to exercise intolerance and to the progression of CHF syndrome. The so-called metaboreflex has been reported to be hyperactive in CHF and to be responsible for a paradoxical increase in systemic vascular resistance and decrease in cardiac output whenever activated in these patients. This report is a brief summary of the latest news in this area of research.

  17. Aging alters muscle reflex control of autonomic cardiovascular responses to rhythmic contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Simranjit K; Weavil, Joshua C; Venturelli, Massimo; Rossman, Matthew J; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bledsoe, Amber D; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the influence of aging on the group III/IV muscle afferents in the exercise pressor reflex-mediated cardiovascular response to rhythmic exercise. Nine old (OLD; 68 ± 2 yr) and nine young (YNG; 24 ± 2 yr) males performed single-leg knee extensor exercise (15 W, 30 W, 80% max) under control conditions and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing feedback from group III/IV leg muscle afferents. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, leg blood flow (QL), systemic (SVC) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were continuously determined. With no hemodynamic effect at rest, fentanyl blockade during exercise attenuated both cardiac output and QL ∼17% in YNG, while the decrease in cardiac output in OLD (∼5%) was significantly smaller with no impact on QL (P = 0.8). Therefore, in the face of similar significant ∼7% reduction in MAP during exercise with fentanyl blockade in both groups, LVC significantly increased ∼11% in OLD, but decreased ∼8% in YNG. The opposing direction of change was reflected in SVC with a significant ∼5% increase in OLD and a ∼12% decrease in YNG. Thus while cardiac output seems to account for the majority of group III/IV-mediated MAP responses in YNG, the impact of neural feedback on the heart may decrease with age and alterations in SVC become more prominent in mediating the similar exercise pressor reflex in OLD. Interestingly, in terms of peripheral hemodynamics, while group III/IV-mediated feedback plays a clear role in increasing LVC during exercise in the YNG, these afferents seem to actually reduce LVC in OLD. These peripheral findings may help explain the limited exercise-induced peripheral vasodilation often associated with aging.

  18. Nitric oxide and noradrenaline contribute to the temperature threshold of the axon reflex response to gradual local heating in human skin.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Belinda L; Meendering, Jessica R; Wong, Brett J; Minson, Christopher T

    2006-05-01

    The initial skin blood flow response to rapid local heating is an axon reflex, which may be mediated by calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P released from C-fibres. We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) and noradrenaline on the temperature threshold for the axon reflex during gradual local heating. 36 subjects participated in two studies. Using microdialysis, we examined the following interventions: NO synthase inhibition (10 mM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME); low-dose NO infusion (1.0 microM sodium nitroprusside, SNP); adrenergic blockade (10 mM bretylium tosylate); and low-dose (0.1 microM) noradrenaline infusion. Laser-Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux. Skin was heated at a rate of 0.1 degrees C min(-1) from 33 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Compared to control skin sites, the axon reflex response was shifted to a higher temperature in 4 subjects in the L-NAME sites (control, 37.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, n = 16; L-NAME, 39.8 +/- 0.1 degrees C, n = 4; P < 0.001) and absent in 12 subjects. The response was also absent in L-NAME plus low-dose SNP sites and not altered by low-dose SNP infusion alone. Adrenergic blockade, with and without low-dose noradrenaline infusion, also abolished the axon reflex response in all subjects. Low-dose noradrenaline infusion alone shifted the axon reflex to a significantly lower temperature threshold compared to control sites (control, 38.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C; noradrenaline, 37.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C, P < 0.05, n = 5). These results suggest that endogenous NO and noradrenaline contribute to the temperature threshold of the axon reflex response during gradual local heating of the skin.

  19. Effect of angular velocity on soleus and medial gastrocnemius H-reflex during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Robbe, Alice; Pousson, Michel; Martin, Alain

    2009-10-01

    At rest, the H-reflex is lower during lengthening than shortening actions. During passive lengthening, both soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) H-reflex amplitudes decrease with increasing angular velocity. This study was designed to investigate whether H-reflex amplitude is affected by angular velocity during concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Experiments were performed on nine healthy men. At a constant angular velocity of 60 degrees /s and 20 degrees /s, maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during concentric and eccentric MVC (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). Regardless of the muscle, H(max)/M(max) was lower during lengthening than shortening actions and the H(sup)/M(sup) ratio was higher than H(max)/M(max) during lengthening actions. Whereas no action type and angular velocity effects on the MG H(sup)/M(sup) were found, the SOL H(sup)/M(sup) was lower during eccentric than concentric MVC and this depression was increased with higher angular velocity. Our findings indicate that the depression of the H-reflex amplitude during eccentric compared to concentric MVC depends mainly on the amount of inhibition induced by lengthening action. In conclusion, H-reflex should be evoked during both passive and active dynamic trials to evaluate the plasticity of the spinal loop.

  20. Effects of 6-week whole body vibration training on the reflex response of the ankle muscles: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fernando; Rubio, Jacobo A; Ramos, Domingo J; Esteban, Paula; Mendizábal, Susana; Jiménez, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The ligament sprain of the lateral ankle is the most frequent injury that occurs when participating in sports. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a training method that has been recently introduced as a rehabilitative tool for treatment of athletes. It has been hypothesized that the transmission of mechanical oscillations from the vibrating platform may lead to physiological changes in muscle spindles, joint mechanoreceptors, as well as improve balance. [corrected] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 6-week WBV training program on the reflex response mechanism of the peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in ankle inversion at 30º from horizontal, in a static position. This study was a single-blinded and randomized controlled trial. Forty-four healthy, physically active participants were randomly split into two groups: the experimental group (n = 26) (the WBV training) and control group (n = 18). Reaction time (RT), maximum electromyographic (EMG) peak (peak EMG), time to the maximum peak EMG (peak EMG time) and reflex electrical activity of all the muscles were assessed before and after the WBV training through surface EMG. After 6-weeks WBV training, there were no significant changes in the variables analysed for all the muscles involved. A 6-week WBV training does not improve the reflex response mechanism of the lateral stabilizing muscles of the ankle. 1b.

  1. Temporal, but not Directional, Prior Knowledge Shortens Muscle Reflex Latency in Response to Sudden Transition of Support Surface During Walking.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Masahiro; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system takes advantage of prior knowledge about potential upcoming perturbations for modulating postural reflexes. There are two distinct aspects of prior knowledge: spatial and temporal. This study investigated how each of spatial and temporal prior knowledge contributes to the shortening of muscle response latency. Eleven participants walked on a split-belt treadmill and perturbed by sudden acceleration or deceleration of the right belt at right foot contact. Spatial prior knowledge was given by instruction of possible direction (e.g., only acceleration) of upcoming perturbation at the beginning of an experimental session. Temporal prior knowledge was given to subjects by warning tones at foot contact during three consecutive strides before the perturbation. In response to acceleration perturbation, reflexive muscle activity was observed in soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) muscles. Onset latency of the GAS response was shorter (72 ms vs. 58 ms) when subjects knew the timing of the upcoming perturbation, whereas the latency was independent of directional prior knowledge. SOL onset latency (44 ms) was not influenced by directional nor temporal prior knowledge. Although spinal neural circuit that mediates short-latency reflex was not influenced by the prior knowledge, excitability in supra-spinal neural circuit that mediates medium- and long-latency reflex might be enhanced by knowing the timing of the upcoming perturbation.

  2. Electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    The levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles, despite consisting of slow-twitch fibres that involuntarily sustain eyelid-opening and eyebrow-raising against gravity. To compensate for this anatomical defect, this study hypothetically proposes that initial voluntary contraction of the levator fast-twitch muscle fibres stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle and evokes proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study sought to determine whether unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle could induce electromyographic responses in the frontalis muscles, with monitoring responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles. The study population included 27 normal subjects and 23 subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, who displayed persistently raised eyebrows on primary gaze and light eyelid closure. The stimulation induced a short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle of all subjects and long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of normal subjects. However, it did not induce long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed R1 and/or R2 responses. The stimulation might reach not only the proprioceptive fibres, but also other sensory fibres related to the blink or corneal reflex. The experimental system can provoke a monosynaptic short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle, probably through the mesencephalic trigeminal proprioceptive neuron and the frontalis motor neuron, and polysynaptic long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles through an unknown pathway. The latter neural circuit appeared to be engaged by the circumstances of aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

  3. The Dynamics of the Stapedial Acoustic Reflex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sherrin Mary

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis aims to separate the neural and muscular components of the stapedial acoustic reflex, both anatomically and physiologically. It aims to present an hypothesis to account for the differences between ipsilateral and contralateral reflex characteristics which have so far been unexplained, and achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the reflex dynamics. A technique enabling faithful reproduction of the time course of the reflex is used throughout the experimental work. The technique measures tympanic membrane displacement as a result of reflex stapedius muscle contraction. The recorded response can be directly related to the mechanics of the middle ear and stapedius muscle contraction. Some development of the technique is undertaken by the author. A model of the reflex neural arc and stapedius muscle dynamics is evolved that is based upon a second order system. The model is unique in that it includes a latency in the ipsilateral negative feedback loop. Oscillations commonly observed on reflex responses are seen to be produced because of the inclusion of a latency in the feedback loop. The model demonstrates and explains the complex relationships between neural and muscle dynamic parameters observed in the experimental work. This more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between the stapedius dynamics and the neural arc of the reflex would not usually have been possible using human subjects, coupled with a non-invasive measurement technique. Evidence from the experimental work revealed the ipsilateral reflex to have, on average, a 5 dB lower threshold than the contralateral reflex. The oscillatory charcteristics, and the steady state response, of the contralateral reflex are also seen to be significantly different from those of the ipsilateral reflex. An hypothesis to account for the experimental observations is proposed. It is propounded that chemical neurotransmitters

  4. Reflexes in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Richard D; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-04-01

    Psychiatric patients often do not cooperate fully with the neurologic examination. Reflexes virtually bypass patient effort and are difficult to consciously determine. This article reviews muscle stretch (deep tendon) reflexes, and pathological reflexes including the extensor plantar (Babinski) and primitive release reflexes. Topics include findings in common psychiatric and neurologic conditions and methods for eliciting these signs.

  5. Efficacy and tolerance of repeated oral doses of tolperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm: results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Pratzel, H G; Alken, R G; Ramm, S

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of oral tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm) in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm was assessed in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 138 patients, aged between 20 and 75 years, with painful reflex muscle spasm associated with diseases of the spinal column or proximal joints were enrolled in eight rehabilitation centers. Patients were randomized to receive either 300 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo for a period of 21 days. Both treatment groups recovered during the 3 weeks rehabilitation program. However, tolperisone hydrochloride proved to be significantly superior to placebo: the change score of the pressure pain threshold as the primary target parameter significantly increased during therapy with tolperisone hydrochloride (P = 0.03, valid-case-analysis) compared to the results obtained on placebo treatment. The overall assessment of efficacy by the patient also demonstrated significant differences in favor of tolperisone hydrochloride. Best results were seen in patients aged between 40 and 60 years with a history of complaints shorter than 1 year and with concomitant physical therapy. The evaluation of safety data, i.e., adverse events, biochemical and hematological laboratory parameters, demonstrated no differences between tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo. As a conclusion tolperisone hydrochloride represents an effective and safe treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm without the typical side effects of centrally active muscle relaxants.

  6. Femoral Artery Occlusion Increases Muscle Pressor Reflex and Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Li, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has an important contribution to pathophysiological changes of homeostasis under conditions of oxygen deprivation as well as ischemia. We examined the effects of femoral artery occlusion on HIF-1α expression in sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats. Also, we examined cardiovascular responses to static muscle contraction following femoral occlusion. We hypothesized that hindlimb vascular insufficiency increases the levels of sensory nerves’ HIF-1α and augments autonomic responses induced by activation of muscle afferent nerves. In addition, we examined if the reflex cardiovascular responses were altered as HIF-1α was increased in the DRG neurons. Our data show that HIF-1α was significantly increased in the lumbar DRG neurons 6, 24 and 72 hours after femoral artery ligation as compared with sham control. Administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a stabilizer of HIF-α, significantly increased HIF-1α in the lumbar DRG neurons. Furthermore, femoral occlusion enhanced the reflex pressor response to muscle contraction; however, the response was not altered by injection of DMOG. Overall, our results indicate that 1) femoral artery occlusion increases HIF-1α levels of in DRG neurons and contraction-induced pressor response; and 2) an increase in HIF-1α of DRG neurons per se may not alter the muscle pressor reflex. PMID:25346936

  7. Evidence for sustained cortical involvement in peripheral stretch reflex during the full long latency reflex period.

    PubMed

    Perenboom, M J L; Van de Ruit, M; De Groot, J H; Schouten, A C; Meskers, C G M

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation of reflexes to environment and task at hand is a key mechanism in optimal motor control, possibly regulated by the cortex. In order to locate the corticospinal integration, i.e. spinal or supraspinal, and to study the critical temporal window of reflex adaptation, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and upper extremity muscle stretch reflexes at high temporal precision. In twelve participants (age 49 ± 13 years, eight male), afferent signals were evoked by 40 ms ramp and subsequent hold stretches of the m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR). Motor conduction delays (TMS time of arrival at the muscle) and TMS-motor threshold were individually assessed. Subsequently TMS pulses at 96% of active motor threshold were applied with a resolution of 5-10 ms between 10 ms before and 120 ms after onset of series of FCR stretches. Controlled for the individually assessed motor conduction delay, subthreshold TMS was found to significantly augment EMG responses between 60 and 90 ms after stretch onset. This sensitive temporal window suggests a cortical integration consistent with a long latency reflex period rather than a spinal integration consistent with a short latency reflex period. The potential cortical role in reflex adaptation extends over the full long latency reflex period, suggesting adaptive mechanisms beyond reflex onset. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The cutaneous trunci muscle reflex: a predictor of recovery in dogs with acute thoracolumbar myelopathies caused by intervertebral disc extrusions.

    PubMed

    Muguet-Chanoit, Audrey C; Olby, Natasha J; Lim, Ji-Hey; Gallagher, Ryan; Niman, Zachary; Dillard, Stacy; Campbell, James; Early, Peter; Mariani, Christopher L; Muñana, Karen R; Freeman, Courtenay; Platt, Simon R; Kent, Marc; Giovanella, Carley; Longshore, Randall C

    2012-02-01

    To determine whether changes in the cutaneous trunci muscle (CTM) reflex are an early predictor of outcome in dogs with severe acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE). Multicenter prospective cohort study. Dogs (n = 36) with acute IVDE causing paraplegia, loss of nociception in pelvic limbs and tail, and an abnormal CTM reflex postoperatively. The caudal border of the CTM reflex was established 24 hours after surgery and at discharge, and was reported as moving cranially, caudally, or staying static. Dogs were re-evaluated at 12-20 weeks and at 7-36 months postoperatively. Outcome was classified as improved or unimproved, successful or unsuccessful, and ascending myelomalacia or not, and compared with early movement of the CTM reflex by construction of contingency tables and performing a Fisher's exact test. By discharge (mean, 4.7 days; SD = 2.10), CTM reflex progression was caudal in 19 dogs, static in 11, and cranial in 6. Five of 6 dogs with cranial movement developed ascending myelomalacia (P < .0001). Seventeen of 19 dogs with caudal movement showed an improvement by 12-20 weeks (P = .0046) and none developed ascending myelomalacia (P = .0013). Postoperative changes of the caudal border of the CTM reflex are an early indicator of outcome in dogs with severe acute IVDE. Cranial movement of the CTM reflex is significantly associated with the development of ascending myelomalacia. Caudal movement is significantly associated with improvement, but not associated with a long-term successful outcome. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Changes in stationary upright standing and proprioceptive reflex control of foot muscles after fatiguing static foot inversion.

    PubMed

    Vie, Bruno; Gomez, Nicolas; Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Weber, Jean Paul; Jammes, Yves

    2013-06-21

    We searched for the consequences of a maximal static foot inversion sustained until exhaustion on the post-exercise stationary upright standing and the proprioceptive control of the foot muscles. Twelve healthy subjects executed an unilateral maximal static foot inversion during which continuous power spectrum analyses of surface electromyograms of the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles were performed. Superimposed pulse trains (twitch interpolation) were delivered to the TA muscle to identify "central" or "peripheral" fatigue. Before and after the fatiguing task, we measured (1) the repartition of the plantar and barycentre surfaces with a computerized stationary platform, (2) the peak contractile TA response to electrical stimulation (TA twitch), (3) the tonic vibratory response (TVR) of TA and GM muscles, and (4) the Hoffman reflex. During static exercise, "central" fatigue was diagnosed in 5/12 subjects whereas in the 7 others "peripheral" TA fatigue was deduced from the absence of response to twitch interpolation and the post-exercise decrease in twitch amplitude. The sustained foot inversion was associated with reduced median frequency in TA but not in PL and GM muscles. After static exercise, in all subjects both the mean plantar and rearfoot surfaces increased, indicating a foot eversion, the TVR amplitude decreased in TA but did not vary in GM, and the Hoffman reflex remained unchanged. Whatever was the mechanism of fatigue during the maximal foot inversion task, the facilitating myotatic reflex was constantly altered in foot invertor muscles. This could explain the prevailing action of the antagonistic evertor muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acoustic Reflexes in Normal-Hearing Adults, Typically Developing Children, and Children with Suspected Auditory Processing Disorder: Thresholds, Real-Ear Corrections, and the Role of Static Compliance on Estimates.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Udit; Allan, Chris; Allen, Prudence

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested elevated reflex thresholds in children with auditory processing disorders (APDs). However, some aspects of the child's ear such as ear canal volume and static compliance of the middle ear could possibly affect the measurements of reflex thresholds and thus impact its interpretation. Sound levels used to elicit reflexes in a child's ear may be higher than predicted by calibration in a standard 2-cc coupler, and lower static compliance could make visualization of very small changes in impedance at threshold difficult. For this purpose, it is important to evaluate threshold data with consideration of differences between children and adults. A set of studies were conducted. The first compared reflex thresholds obtained using standard clinical procedures in children with suspected APD to that of typically developing children and adults to test the replicability of previous studies. The second study examined the impact of ear canal volume on estimates of reflex thresholds by applying real-ear corrections. Lastly, the relationship between static compliance and reflex threshold estimates was explored. The research is a set of case-control studies with a repeated measures design. The first study included data from 20 normal-hearing adults, 28 typically developing children, and 66 children suspected of having an APD. The second study included 28 normal-hearing adults and 30 typically developing children. In the first study, crossed and uncrossed reflex thresholds were measured in 5-dB step size. Reflex thresholds were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). In the second study, uncrossed reflex thresholds, real-ear correction, ear canal volume, and static compliance were measured. Reflex thresholds were measured using a 1-dB step size. The effect of real-ear correction and static compliance on reflex threshold was examined using RM-ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient, respectively. Study 1 replicated previous

  11. The neonatal acoustic reflex.

    PubMed

    Weatherby, L A; Bennett, M J

    1980-01-01

    Probe tones from 220 Hz to 2 000 Hz were used to measure the static and dynamic acoustic impedance of 44 neonates. Acoustic reflex thresholds to broad band noise were obtained from every neonate tested when employing the higher frequency probe tones. The reflex threshold levels measured are similar to those of adults. The static impedance values are discussed to give a possible explanation of why reflex thresholds cannot be detected using conventional 220 Hz impedance bridges.

  12. Excitation of the extraocular muscles in decerebrate cats during the vestibulo-ocular reflex in three-dimensional space.

    PubMed

    Baker, J F; Peterson, B W

    1991-01-01

    (1) Vestibulo-ocular reflex excitation of the six extraocular muscles was studied by recording their electromyographic activity in decerebrate cats during oscillations about horizontal and vertical axes, at frequencies from 0.07 to 4 Hz. Animals were oriented in many different positions and rotated about axes that lay in the horizontal, frontal, or sagittal planes defined by our coordinate system. (2) The strengths of modulation (gains) of the responses of all extraocular muscles were a sinusoidal function of the orientation of the rotation axis within a coordinate plane, and this function was nearly independent of rotation frequency. (3) The responses were used to determine an axis of maximal excitation for each of the extraocular muscles by the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Antagonistic muscle pairs were found to have best axes in nearly opposite directions, confirming their operation as pairs. (4) Excitation of the medial and lateral rectus could be explained by input from the paired horizontal semicircular canals, with essentially no convergent input from vertical canals. (5) Excitation of the vertical rectus and oblique muscles could be explained by convergent inputs from the vertical canals with little or no horizontal canal input.

  13. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness After Inspiratory Threshold Loading in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sunita; Sheel, A. William; Road, Jeremy D.; Reid, W. Darlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Skeletal muscle damage occurs following high-intensity or unaccustomed exercise; however, it is difficult to monitor damage to the respiratory muscles, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to use clinical measures to investigate the presence of skeletal muscle damage in the inspiratory muscles. Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent 60 minutes of voluntary inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) at 70% of maximal inspiratory pressure. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures, delayed onset muscle soreness on a visual analogue scale and plasma creatine kinase were measured prior to ITL, and at repeated time points after ITL (4, 24 and 48 hours post-ITL). Results: Delayed onset muscle soreness was present in all subjects 24 hours following ITL (intensity = 22 ± 6 mm; significantly higher than baseline p = 0.02). Muscle soreness was reported primarily in the anterior neck region, and was correlated to the amount of work done by the inspiratory muscles during ITL (r = 0.72, p = 0.02). However, no significant change was observed in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures or creatine kinase. Conclusions: These findings suggest that an intense bout of ITL results in muscle soreness primarily in the accessory muscles of inspiration, however, may be insufficient to cause significant muscle damage in healthy adults. PMID:20467514

  14. Strain and load thresholds for cervical muscle recruitment in response to quasi-static tensile stretch of the caprine C5-C6 facet joint capsule.

    PubMed

    Azar, Nadia R; Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Chen, Chaoyang; Lu, Ying; Cavanaugh, John M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the response of cervical muscles to physiologic tensile stretch of cervical facet joint capsule (FJC) at a quasi-static displacement rate of 0.5mm/s. In vivo caprine left C5-C6 FJC preparations were subjected to an incremental tensile displacement paradigm. EMG activity was recorded during FJC stretch from the right trapezius (TR) and multifidus (MF) muscle groups at the C5 and C6 levels and bilaterally from the sternomastoid (SM) and longus colli (LC) muscle groups at the C5-C6 level. Onset of muscular activity was later analyzed using visual and computer-based methods. Capsule load and strain at the time of onset were recorded and compared between the muscle groups. Results indicated capsule load was a better indicator of the tensile stretch thresholds for muscular recruitment than capsule strain. MF responded at significantly smaller capsule loads than TR and LC, while TR and LC activation loads were not significantly different. SM did not respond to physiologic FJC stretch. Muscle group recruitment order reflected the muscles' fiber type compositions and functional roles in the spine. This study provides the first evidence that the cervical ligamento-muscular reflex pathways are activated via tensile FJC stretch and extend to superficial and deep musculature on the anterior and posterior aspects of the neck, ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of FJC stretch.

  15. Effects of a new centrally acting muscle relaxant, NK433 (lanperisone hydrochloride) on spinal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Sakitama, K; Ozawa, Y; Aoto, N; Tomita, H; Ishikawa, M

    1997-10-22

    (-)-(R)-2-methyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-4'-trifluoromethylpropiophenone++ + monohydrochloride, lanperisone hydrochloride (NK433) administered intravenously or orally depressed the mono- and polysynaptic reflex potential, dorsal root reflex potential, flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers, patellar and flexor reflexes. These effects were reduced by spinal transection. NK433 inhibited the facilitation of the flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers that was induced by intrathecal administration of noradrenaline-HCl. (+)-(1R,2R)-2-methyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1-pr opanol (LPS-9)-HCl, a metabolite of NK433, also inhibited the spinal reflexes. Given orally, NK433 had effects more than three times stronger and tending to be longer-lasting than those of eperisone-HCl. These results suggest that NK433 exerts a non-selective inhibition on spinal reflexes and that inhibition of the descending noradrenergic tonic facilitation within the spinal cord is involved in the mechanism of spinal reflex depression by NK433. LPS-9 could contribute to the potent activity of NK433 after oral administration.

  16. Spatial coordination by descending vestibular signals. 1. Reflex excitation of neck muscles in alert and decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Banovetz, J M; Peterson, B W; Baker, J F

    1995-01-01

    Electromyographic activity of dorsal neck muscles and neck torques was recorded to study vestibulocollic, cervicocollic, and combined reflexes in alert and decerebrate cats during rotations of the whole body, the body except for the head, and the head but not the rest of the body. Cats were rotated about many axes that lay in the frontal, sagittal, and horizontal planes using sinusoidal 0.25-Hz waveforms or sum-of-sinusoid wave-forms. Robust electromyographic responses were recorded from six muscles, with response directionality that in most cases did not show strong dependence on the reflex tested or on other factors including exact neck angle, stimulus amplitude from 5 degrees to 60 degrees, and intact versus decerebrate state. Based on the strength of responses to rotations about all the tested axes, neck muscles could be characterized by maximal activation direction vectors representing the axis and direction of rotation in three-dimensional space that was most excitatory during reflex responses. Responses to rotations about axes that lay in a coordinate plane were predicted by a cosine function of the angle between the axis under test and the maximally excitatory axis in the plane. All muscles were excited by the nose down phase of pitch rotation and by yaw and roll away from the side on which the muscle lay. Biventer cervicis was best activated by rotations with axes near nose-down pitch, and its axis of maximal activation also had small, approximately equal components of yaw and roll toward the contralateral side. Complexus was best excited by rotations with axes nearest roll, but with large components along all three axes. Occipitoscapularis was best excited by rotations about axes near pitch, but with a moderately large contralateral yaw component and a smaller but significant contralateral roll component. Splenius was best excited by rotations with a large component of contralateral yaw, considerable nose-down pitch, and a smaller component of

  17. Habituation behavior of the medium-latency reflex over the anterior tibial muscle after electrical stimulation of the sural nerve.

    PubMed

    Alaid, S; Hanke, D; Kornhuber, M

    2014-11-07

    Over human leg muscles, three motor responses (MR) can commonly be elicited, namely short-latency reflex (SLR), medium-latency reflex (MLR), and long-latency reflex (LLR). The MLR is less well understood than SLR and LLR. As the response to subsequent stimuli may be used to characterize central influences of an MR, we were interested, whether the MLR differs from SLR and LLR with respect to its habituation and facilitation behavior. MR were examined over the anterior tibial (TA) muscle at different contraction levels after electrical single or train stimuli (time intervals of 3 ms) over the ipsilateral sural nerve. Furthermore, MR were selectively averaged after each of four subsequent stimuli (1Hz, 0.4 Hz, trains-of-3). After single stimuli, the peak latency values were 46.2±2.3 ms, 88.0±5.8 ms (MLR), and 131.7±22.2 ms (LLR). All three MR gained similarly strong and significantly in amplitude when up to 10 kg of weight was loaded compared with no weight load. After train stimuli, the LLR but not SLR and MLR gained significantly in amplitude as compared with single stimuli. Different to SLR and LLR, the MLR showed significant habituation behavior at a stimulus repetition rate of 1Hz but not of 0.4 Hz. Thus, inhibitory interneurons seem to be involved in the MLR pathway.

  18. Reflex receptive fields for human withdrawal reflexes elicited by non-painful and painful electrical stimulation of the foot sole.

    PubMed

    Andersen, O K; Sonnenborg, F A; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2001-04-01

    Human withdrawal reflex receptive fields (RRFs) were assessed for 4 different electrical stimulus intensities, ranging from below the pain threshold (PTh) to up to two times the PTh intensity (0.8x, 1.2x, 1.6x, and 2.0xPTh). Thirteen subjects participated, and the reflexes were recorded in a sitting position. The stimuli were delivered in random order to 12 positions distributed over the foot sole. Tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) reflexes were recorded. Further, knee and ankle joint angle changes were recorded. The strongest reflexes were seen in the TA compared with the other 3 muscles. Dorsi-flexion dominated distal to the talocrural joint corresponding to the TA receptive field area. An expansion of the RRF for the TA and GM was seen when increasing the stimulus intensity from 0.8xPTh to 1.2xPTh and from 1.2xPTh to 1.6xPTh, indicating a gradually increasing reflex threshold towards the border, where TA contraction is inappropriate in a withdrawal reaction. For the BF and VL, the borders of the RRF areas were not detected. By integrating the reflex size within the RRF (i.e. the reflex volume), gradually increasing reflexes for increasing stimulus intensity were seen in all 4 muscles tested, most clearly in the TA and GM. The subjective pain intensity correlated to the reflex volume for the TA, GM, and BF. In conclusion, the highest reflex sensitivity was seen in the centre of the RRF, while the stimulus intensity needed for eliciting a reflex increased towards the receptive field border. Within the RRF, stronger reflexes were evoked for increasing stimulus intensity. The limit in the size of the receptive field size for the TA and GM supports a modular withdrawal reflex organisation.

  19. Single low-threshold afferents innervating the skin of the human foot modulate ongoing muscle activity in the upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Bent, Leah R; Lowrey, Catherine R

    2013-03-01

    We have shown for the first time that single cutaneous afferents in the foot dorsum have significant reflex coupling to motoneurons supplying muscles in the upper limb, particularly posterior deltoid and triceps brachii. These observations strengthen what we know from whole nerve stimulation, that skin on the foot and ankle can contribute to the modulation of interlimb muscles in distant innervation territories. The current work provides evidence of the mechanism behind the reflex, where one single skin afferent can evoke a reflex response, rather than a population. Nineteen of forty-one (46%) single cutaneous afferents isolated in the dorsum or plantar surface of the foot elicited a significant modulation of muscle activity in the upper limb. Identification of single afferents in this reflex indicates the strength of the connection and, ultimately, the importance of foot skin in interlimb coordination. The median response magnitude was 2.29% of background EMG, and the size of the evoked response did not significantly differ among the four mechanoreceptor classes (P > 0.1). Interestingly, although the distribution of afferents types did not differ across the foot dorsum, there was a significantly greater coupling response from receptors located on the medial aspect of the foot dorsum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the most consistent coupling with upper limb muscles was demonstrated by type I afferents (fast and slowly adapting). This work contributes to the current literature on receptor specificity, supporting the view that individual classes of cutaneous afferents may subserve specific roles in kinesthesia, reflexes, and tactile perception.

  20. Hoffmann reflex is increased after 14 days of daily repeated Achilles tendon vibration for the soleus but not for the gastrocnemii muscles.

    PubMed

    Lapole, Thomas; Pérot, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study, Achilles tendon vibrations were enough to improve the triceps surae (TS) activation capacities and also to slightly increase TS Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) obtained by summing up soleus (Sol) and gastrocnemii (GM and GL) EMGs. The purpose of the present study was to analyze separately Sol and GM or GL reflexes to account for different effects of the vibrations on the reflex excitability of the slow soleus and of the gastrocnemii muscles. A control group (n = 13) and a vibration group (n = 16) were tested in pre-test and post-test conditions. The Achilles tendon vibration program consisted of 1 h of daily vibration (frequency: 50 Hz) applied during 14 days. Maximal Sol, GM and GL H-reflexes, and M-waves were recorded, and their H(max)/M(max) ratios gave the index of reflex excitability. After the vibration protocol, only Sol H(max)/M(max) was enhanced (p < 0.001). The enhanced Sol reflex excitability after vibration is in favor of a decrease in the pre-synaptic inhibition due to the repeated vibrations and the high solicitation of the reflex pathway. Those results of a short period of vibration applied at rest may be limited to the soleus because of its high density in muscle spindles and slow motor units, both structures being very sensitive to vibrations.

  1. The effects of centrally acting muscle relaxants on the intrathecal noradrenaline-induced facilitation of the flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakitama, K

    1993-11-01

    The effects of centrally acting muscle relaxants on the flexor reflex mediated by group II afferent fibers (group II flexor reflex) in anesthetized intact rats and on the intrathecal noradrenaline-HCl-induced facilitation of the group II flexor reflex in anesthetized spinal rats were investigated. In anesthetized intact rats, mephenesin, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen inhibited the group II flexor reflex dose-dependently, whereas the inhibitory effect of tizanidine-HCl was bell-shaped. The effect of diazepam tended to be saturated. In anesthetized spinal rats, mephenesin, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl, diazepam and baclofen also depressed the group II flexor reflex, but tizanidine-HCl slightly increased it. The intrathecal noradrenaline-HCl-induced facilitation of the group II flexor reflex was not affected by mephenesin or diazepam, but was inhibited by tizanidine-HCl, tolperisone-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen. These results suggest that compounds with centrally acting muscle relaxant activity depress the group II flexor reflex in different manners, and the inhibition of descending noradrenergic tonic facilitation within the spinal cord participates in the depressant action of the group II flexor reflex produced by tolperisone-HCl, tizanidine-HCl, chlorpromazine-HCl and baclofen.

  2. Inspiratory muscle performance relative to the ventilatory threshold in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Formanek, D; Wanke, T; Lahrmann, H; Rauscher, H; Popp, W; Zwick, H

    1993-10-01

    Inspiratory muscle performance, ventilation, and gas exchange were studied during exercise in healthy subjects to look for typical changes of pattern of contraction at the ventilatory threshold (VT). The steepening of the slope of carbon dioxide output (VCO2) vs oxygen uptake (VO2) at the VT was accompanied by a nonlinear increase of the mean rate of esophageal pressure development (Pes/TI) vs the esophageal pressure time index (PTIes) reflecting both the relative force (Pbreath/Pesmax) and duration (TI/TTOT) required for inspiration. The esophageal pressure time integral within one breath (Pbreath.dTI) was one of the best single predictors of the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2) at the VT. Moreover, we presented inspiratory muscle load indices as a mirror image of breathing pattern, with the obvious advantage that the ventilation component can be compared with better established methods of presenting ventilatory output. Inspiratory muscle performance during exercise should link the increased metabolic rate to ventilatory output. We conclude that 1) there exists an inspiratory muscle threshold that is well correlated to commonly used gas exchange thresholds, and 2) the efficiency of ventilation and gas exchange during exercise could be linked to pressure and timing of inspiratory muscle contraction.

  3. Comparison of trunk muscle reflex activation patterns between active and passive trunk flexion-extension loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of trunk flexion-extension loading on the neuromuscular reflexive latencies and amplitude responses of the trunk musculature. Eighteen male and female subjects (18-27yrs) participated in active and passive trunk flexion extension, performed ∼7days apart. Subjects performed 60 trunk flexion-extension repetitions. Surface electromyography (EMG) was collected bilaterally from paraspinal and abdominal muscles. In the active condition, subjects volitionally moved their trunks, while in the passive condition the dynamometer controlled the movements. The trunk was perturbed before and immediately after 30 repetitions. Latency of muscle onset, latency of first peak, latency of maximum peak, and peak EMG amplitude were evaluated. No differences between conditions, sides, or perturbation session were apparent. Overall latencies were shorter in females (p<.05) and abdominal muscles compared to paraspinals (p<.05). Thoracic paraspinal muscle amplitudes were greater than all other muscles (p<.05). Based upon the present results, the neuromuscular system engages trunk flexor muscles prior to the paraspinals in order to provide possible stabilization of the trunk when flexor moments are generated. Overall, the results indicate no difference in response of the neuromuscular system to active or passive repetitive loading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effect of sympathetic stimulation on activities of masseter muscle spindles and the jaw jerk reflex in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, R; Ikehara, A; Nokubi, T; Morimoto, T

    1995-01-01

    1. To evaluate sympathetic effects on jaw muscles, the discharges of masseter muscle spindle afferents, jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities and blood flow changes were compared in anaesthetized decerebrate rats before and during electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk. 2. To eliminate the possibility of efferent control from the trigeminal motoneurones, muscle spindle activity was recorded from the cut peripheral end of the masseter nerve. The absence of a sympathetic component in the masseter nerve was confirmed by the horseradish peroxidase method. 3. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve at frequencies within the physiological range reduced muscle spindle afferent discharges evoked by passive jaw opening. 4. Sympathetic stimulation also reduced the EMG activity evoked by the jaw jerk reflex, which may reflect a sympathetic effect on spindle afferents. After cessation of stimulation, a transient increase in EMG activity was observed, which may be due to efferent supply from the trigeminal motoneurones. During rhythmical jaw movements, no sympathetic effect on EMG activity was detected. 5. The above sympathetic effect on muscle spindle afferents and EMG activity was independent of blood flow changes. PMID:7776235

  5. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  6. The functional effectiveness of neck muscle reflexes for head-righting in response to sudden fall.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Corna, S; von Brevern, M; Bronstein, A; Gresty, M

    1997-11-01

    Reflex head-righting in normal and labyrinthine-defective (LD) subjects was compared to identify the relative functional effectiveness of vestibular-collic and cervico-collic myotactic reflexes. To restrict stimuli largely to the head and neck, subjects lay supine, supported up to the shoulders on a horizontal bed with their head supported in a sling over the edge. The head fell freely as the sling was released with an electromagnetic catch. Head drops were delivered with the subjects instructed to relax and accept the fall passively or to actively right the head as fast as possible. With both instructions, righting responses in normal subjects commenced with electromyographic (EMG) bursts in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) at 24.5 ms latency, which was reflected in a deceleration of the downwards head velocity. The latency of the earliest EMG responses in LD subjects was 67.4 ms, accompanied by similar deceleration. It is assumed that the earliest response in normal subjects is vestibular, whereas in LDs the SCM stretch reflex is the earliest response. These reflexes are followed at circa 100 ms by more intense EMG activity due to voluntary movement, but braking of head fall is evident before voluntary activity takes effect. Righting was more effective in normal subjects than in LDs, and when "active" normal subjects made more vigorous righting responses than when "passive"; whereas active righting in LDs was no better than passive. The results demonstrate that reflex responses contribute significantly to head-righting. The vestibular contribution gives an advantage over stretch reflexes alone and also assists in voluntary enhancement of reflex responses.

  7. A threshold-based approach for muscle contraction detection from surface EMG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morantes, Gaudi; Fernández, Gerardo; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals are commonly used as control signals in prosthetic and orthotic devices. Super cial electrodes are placed on the skin of the subject to acquire its muscular activity through this signal. The muscle contraction episode is then in charge of activating and deactivating these devices. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard" to detect muscle contraction, leading to delayed responses and false and missed detections. This fact motivated us to propose a new approach that compares a smoothed version of the SEMG signal with a xed threshold, in order to detect muscle contraction episodes. After preprocessing the SEMG signal, the smoothed version is obtained using a moving average lter, where three di erent window lengths has been evaluated. The detector was tuned by maximizing sensitivity and speci city and evaluated using SEMG signals obtained from the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles, taken during the walking of ve subjects. Compared with traditional detection methods, we obtain a reduction of 3 ms in the detection delay, an increase of 8% in sensitivity but a decrease of 15% in speci city. Future work is directed to the inclusion of a temporal threshold (a double-threshold approach) to minimize false detections and reduce detection delays.

  8. Increases in vocalization and motor reflex thresholds are influenced by the site of morphine microinjection: comparisons following administration into the periaqueductal gray, ventral medulla, and spinal subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Borszcz, G S

    1995-06-01

    The relative influence of morphine microinjected into the periaqueductal gray, ventral medulla (nucleus raphé magnus or nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis), or spinal subarachnoid space on the thresholds of responses organized at spinal (spinal motor reflexes, SMRs), medullary (vocalizations elicited during shock, VDSs), and rhinencephalic-diencephalic (vocalization after discharges, VADs) levels of the neuraxis was assessed. Dose-dependent increases in response thresholds differed with the site of morphine injection. These results indicate that the mu-opiate-receptor-linked systems in the mesencephalon, medulla, and spinal cord exert differential antinociceptive effects on pain behaviors organized at different levels of the neuraxis. A hypothesis is offered regarding the mechanisms through which morphine inhibits nociceptive transmission through various levels of the CNS. VADs are promoted as a model system for analyzing the affective-motivational dimension of the pain experience.

  9. Surgical desensitisation of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle relieves chronic tension-type headache caused by tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle in patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    Proprioceptively innervated intramuscular connective tissues in Müller's muscle function as exterior mechanoreceptors to induce reflex contraction of the levator and occipitofrontalis muscles. In aponeurotic blepharoptosis, since the levator aponeurosis is disinserted from the tarsus, stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle is increased even on primary gaze to induce phasic and tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle. It was hypothesised that in certain patients with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, the presence of tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle due to the sensitised mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle, can cause chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) associated with occipitofrontalis tenderness. To verify this hypothesis, this study evaluated (1) what differentiates patients with CTTH from patients without CTTH, (2) how pharmacological contraction of Müller's smooth muscle fibres as a method for desensitising the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle affects electromyographic activity of the frontalis muscle, and (3) how surgical aponeurotic reinsertion to desensitise the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle electromyographically or subjectively affects activities of the occipitofrontalis muscle or CTTH. It was found that patients had sustained CTTH when light eyelid closure did not markedly reduce eyebrow elevation. However, pharmacological contraction of Müller's smooth muscle fibres or surgery to desensitise the mechanoreceptor electromyographically reduced the tonic contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle on primary gaze and subjectively relieved aponeurotic blepharoptosis-associated CTTH. Over-stretching of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle on primary gaze may induce CTTH due to tonic reflexive contraction of the occipitofrontalis muscle. Therefore, surgical desensitisation of the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle appears to relieve CTTH.

  10. Evoked H-reflex and V-wave responses during maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Martin, Alain

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the modulations of H-reflex and V-wave responses during passive and maximal active dynamic actions. Experiments were performed on 16 healthy males [age: 24 +/- 4 (SD) yr]. Maximal H-reflexes (Hmax) and M-waves (MmaxR) were evoked at the same muscle length during passive isometric, shortening and lengthening actions and during maximal voluntary isometric, concentric, and eccentric plantar-flexion. In all contraction types, supra-maximal stimulus intensity was used to evoke the superimposed maximal M wave (MmaxA) and V wave (V) of the soleus muscle. At rest, the Hmax/MmaxR ratio was significantly reduced during lengthening with respect to isometric and shortening actions (P < 0.05). For each action type, the ratio between H reflex superimposed to the contraction (Hsup) and MmaxA was not different from Hmax/MmaxR ratio. When plantar flexors were maximally voluntary activated, the Hsup/MmaxA ratio was still lower during eccentric contraction as compared with isometric and concentric efforts (0.33 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.02 and 0.50 +/- 0.03, P < 0.001), whereas V/MmaxA ratios were similar for all contraction types (isometric 0.26 +/- 0.02; concentric 0.23 +/- 0.03, and eccentric 0.24 +/- 0.02; P > 0.05). The V/MmaxA ratio was significantly lower than Hsup/MmaxA during isometric and concentric MVC (P < 0.001). No difference was observed between V/MmaxA and Hsup/MmaxA ratios during eccentric efforts. The H-reflex modulations, present during lengthening actions, were mainly attributed to presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents and to homosynaptic postactivation depression. Results on V wave and H reflex suggest that during eccentric MVC, the spinal loop is specifically modulated by the supra-spinal centers and/or neural mechanisms at spinal level.

  11. Effect of procaine infiltration into biceps brachii muscle in man on supraspinal control of reflex transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Peter D.

    1973-01-01

    Sensitivity of the tonic stretch reflex (TSR) of biceps brachii in normal man was measured at different levels of voluntary contraction before and after gamma efferent nerve fibres were selectively blocked by infiltration of dilute procaine. The procaine infiltration reduced TSR sensitivity to one half of its control value. It had no effect, however, on the slope of the relation between TSR gain and level of voluntary contraction. It was concluded that the increase in TSR sensitivity associated with voluntary contraction was not mediated by the gamma efferent fibres and control of reflex transmission is therefore not the main function of the fusimotor system. PMID:4348038

  12. Changes in H reflex and neuromechanical properties of the trapezius muscle after 5 weeks of eccentric training: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vangsgaard, Steffen; Taylor, Janet L; Hansen, Ernst A; Madeleine, Pascal

    2014-06-15

    Trapezius muscle Hoffman (H) reflexes were obtained to investigate the neural adaptations induced by a 5-wk strength training regimen, based solely on eccentric contractions of the shoulder muscles. Twenty-nine healthy subjects were randomized into an eccentric training group (n = 15) and a reference group (n = 14). The eccentric training program consisted of nine training sessions of eccentric exercise performed over a 5-wk period. H-reflex recruitment curves, the maximal M wave (Mmax), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, rate of force development (RFD), and electromyographic (EMG) voluntary activity were recorded before and after training. H reflexes were recorded from the middle part of the trapezius muscle by electrical stimulation of the C3/4 cervical nerves; Mmax was measured by electrical stimulation of the accessory nerve. Eccentric strength training resulted in significant increases in the maximal trapezius muscle H reflex (Hmax) (21.4% [5.5-37.3]; P = 0.01), MVC force (26.4% [15.0-37.7]; P < 0.01), and RFD (24.6% [3.2-46.0]; P = 0.025), while no significant changes were observed in the reference group. Mmax remained unchanged in both groups. A significant positive correlation was found between the change in MVC force and the change in EMG voluntary activity in the training group (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). These results indicate that the net excitability of the trapezius muscle H-reflex pathway increased after 5 wk of eccentric training. This is the first study to investigate and document changes in the trapezius muscle H reflex following eccentric strength training.

  13. Spatial control of reflexes, posture and movement in normal conditions and after neurological lesions

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Anatol G.; Levin, Mindy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Control of reflexes is usually associated with central modulation of their sensitivity (gain) or phase-dependent inhibition and facilitation of their influences on motoneurons (reflex gating). Accumulated empirical findings show that the gain modulation and reflex gating are secondary, emergent properties of central control of spatial thresholds at which reflexes become functional. In this way, the system pre-determines, in a feedforward and task-specific way, where, in a spatial domain or a frame of reference, muscles are allowed to work without directly prescribing EMG activity and forces. This control strategy is illustrated by considering reflex adaptation to repeated muscle stretches in healthy subjects, a process associated with implicit learning and generalization. It has also been shown that spasticity, rigidity, weakness and other neurological motor deficits may have a common source – limitations in the range of spatial threshold control elicited by neural lesions. PMID:28149391

  14. A comparative study of changes operated by sympathetic nervous system activation on spindle afferent discharge and on tonic vibration reflex in rabbit jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Passatore, M; Deriu, F; Grassi, C; Roatta, S

    1996-03-07

    The effect of sympathetic activation on the spindle afferent response to vibratory stimuli eliciting the tonic vibration reflex in jaw closing muscles was studied in precollicularly decerebrate rabbits. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk, at frequencies within the physiologic range, consistently induced a decrease in spindle response to muscle vibration, which was often preceded by a transient enhancement. Spindle discharge was usually correlated with the EMG activity in the masseter muscle and the tension reflexly developed by jaw muscles. The changes in spindle response to vibration were superimposed on variations of the basal discharge which exhibited different patterns in the studied units, increases in the firing rate being more frequently observed. These effects were mimicked by close arterial injection of the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Data presented here suggest that sympathetically-induced modifications of the tonic vibration reflex are due to changes exerted on muscle spindle afferent information.

  15. Molecular and physiological events in respiratory muscles and blood of rats exposed to inspiratory threshold loading.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Álvarez, Marisol; Sabaté-Brescó, Marina; Vilà-Ubach, Mònica; Gáldiz, Juan B; Alvarez, Francisco J; Casadevall, Carme; Gea, Joaquim; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-05-01

    High-intensity exercise induces oxidative stress and inflammatory events in muscles. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α may alter muscle protein metabolism or promote muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that a program of noninvasive chronic inspiratory loading of different intensities induces a differential pattern of physiological, molecular, and cellular events within rat diaphragms. Antioxidants and TNF-α blockade may influence those events. In the diaphragm, gastrocnemius, and blood of rats exposed to high-intensity inspiratory threshold loads (2 hour every 24 hours for 14 days), with and without treatment with N-acetyl cysteine or infliximab (anti-TNF-α antibody), inflammatory cells and cytokines, superoxide anion production, myogenesis markers, and muscle structure were explored. In all animals, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and body weight were determined. High-intensity inspiratory loading for 2 weeks caused a decline in MIP and body weight, and in the diaphragm induced a reduction in fast-twitch fiber proportions and sizes, whereas inflammatory cells and cytokine levels, including TNF-α immunohistochemical expression, superoxide anion, internal nuclei counts, and markers of myogenesis were increased. Blockade of TNF-α improved respiratory muscle function and structure, and animal weight, and, in the diaphragm, reduced inflammatory cell numbers and superoxide anion production drastically while inducing larger increases in protein and messenger RNA levels and immunohistochemical expression of TNF-α, internal nuclei, and markers of muscle regeneration. Blunting of TNF-α also induced a reduction in blood inflammatory cytokines and superoxide anion production. We conclude that TNF-α synthesized by inflammatory cells or myofibers could have differential effects on muscle structure and function in response to chronic, noninvasive, high-intensity inspiratory threshold loading.

  16. Low anaerobic threshold and increased skeletal muscle lactate production in subjects with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ciammola, Andrea; Sassone, Jenny; Sciacco, Monica; Mencacci, Niccolò E; Ripolone, Michela; Bizzi, Caterina; Colciago, Clarissa; Moggio, Maurizio; Parati, Gianfranco; Silani, Vincenzo; Malfatto, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial defects that affect cellular energy metabolism have long been implicated in the etiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Indeed, several studies have found defects in the mitochondrial functions of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues of HD patients. In this study, we investigated the in vivo oxidative metabolism of exercising muscle in HD patients. Ventilatory and cardiometabolic parameters and plasma lactate concentrations were monitored during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise in twenty-five HD subjects and twenty-five healthy subjects. The total exercise capacity was normal in HD subjects but notably the HD patients and presymptomatic mutation carriers had a lower anaerobic threshold than the control subjects. The low anaerobic threshold of HD patients was associated with an increase in the concentration of plasma lactate. We also analyzed in vitro muscular cell cultures and found that HD cells produce more lactate than the cells of healthy subjects. Finally, we analyzed skeletal muscle samples by electron microscopy and we observed striking mitochondrial structural abnormalities in two out of seven HD subjects. Our findings confirm mitochondrial abnormalities in HD patients' skeletal muscle and suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction is reflected functionally in a low anaerobic threshold and an increased lactate synthesis during intense physical exercise. Copyright © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Electromyographic fatigue threshold of the biceps brachii muscle during dynamic contraction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A S C; Gonçalves, M; Cardozo, A C; Barbosa, F S S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold (EMGFT) of the biceps brachii muscle bilaterally during the elbow flexion in tests performed in different times. 30 second test, 1 minute test and fatiguing test, in concentric (CC) and eccentric (EC) phases. Nine healthy young men performed the elbow flexion with loads corresponding at 25%, 35% and 45% of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) in separate days. The results indicated that the test applied for the biceps brachii muscle during elbow flexion induced a progressive increment of EMG activity with time indicating muscle fatigue and allowed the identification of the EMGFT. The three tests presented no difference of EMGFT between CC and EC phases bilaterally.

  18. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs.

  19. Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, D. P.; Aagaard, P.; Simonsen, E. B.; Farley, C. T.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses.A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level.We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s-1) and running (3.0 m s-1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by 30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9% Mmax) than running (-2.5% Mmax; P < 0.001). At all levels of EMG, walking H-reflex amplitudes were higher than running H-reflex amplitudes by a constant amount. We conclude that the nervous system adjusts H-reflex threshold but not H-reflex gain between walking and running. These findings provide insight into potential neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion.

  20. Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, D. P.; Aagaard, P.; Simonsen, E. B.; Farley, C. T.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses.A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level.We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s-1) and running (3.0 m s-1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by 30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9% Mmax) than running (-2.5% Mmax; P < 0.001). At all levels of EMG, walking H-reflex amplitudes were higher than running H-reflex amplitudes by a constant amount. We conclude that the nervous system adjusts H-reflex threshold but not H-reflex gain between walking and running. These findings provide insight into potential neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion.

  1. Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P; Aagaard, Per; Simonsen, Erik B; Farley, Claire T; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2001-01-01

    The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses. A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level. We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s−1) and running (3.0 m s−1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by ≈30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9%Mmax) than running (-2.5%Mmax; P < 0.001). At all levels of EMG, walking H-reflex amplitudes were higher than running H-reflex amplitudes by a constant amount. We conclude that the nervous system adjusts H-reflex threshold but not H-reflex gain between walking and running. These findings provide insight into potential neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion. PMID:11136869

  2. Bradykinin does not acutely sensitize the reflex pressor response during hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch in decerebrate rats.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Korynne S; Smith, Joshua R; Esau, Peter J; Kempf, Evan A; Hopkins, Tyler D; Copp, Steven W

    2017-10-01

    Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechanogated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats would acutely augment (i.e., sensitize) the increase in blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity during hindlimb muscle stretch to a greater extent in rats with a ligated femoral artery than in rats with a freely perfused femoral artery. The pressor response during static hindlimb muscle stretch was compared before and after hindlimb arterial injection of 0.5 µg of bradykinin. Injection of bradykinin increased blood pressure to a greater extent in "ligated" (n = 10) than "freely perfused" (n = 10) rats. The increase in blood pressure during hindlimb muscle stretch, however, was not different before vs. after bradykinin injection in freely perfused (14 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 mmHg for pre- and post-bradykinin, respectively, P = 0.62) or ligated (15 ± 3 and 14 ± 2 mmHg for pre- and post-bradykinin, respectively, P = 0.80) rats. Likewise, the increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity during stretch was not different before vs. after bradykinin injection in either group of rats. We conclude that bradykinin did not acutely sensitize the pressor response during hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch in freely perfused or ligated decerebrate rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. An Intelligent Computerized Stretch Reflex Measurement System For Clinical And Investigative Neurology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, P. M.; Chutkow, J. G.; Riggs, M. T.; Cristiano, V. D.

    1987-05-01

    We describe the design of a reliable, user-friendly preprototype system for quantifying the tendon stretch reflexes in humans and large mammals. A hand-held, instrumented reflex gun, the impactor of which contains a single force sensor, interfaces with a computer. The resulting test system can deliver sequences of reproducible stimuli at graded intensities and adjustable durations to a muscle's tendon ("tendon taps"), measure the impacting force of each tap, and record the subsequent reflex muscle contraction from the same tendon -- all automatically. The parameters of the reflex muscle contraction include latency; mechanical threshold; and peak time, peak magnitude, and settling time. The results of clinical tests presented in this paper illustrate the system's potential usefulness in detecting neurologic dysfunction affecting the tendon stretch reflexes, in documenting the course of neurologic illnesses and their response to therapy, and in clinical and laboratory neurologic research.

  4. Parecoxib increases muscle pain threshold and relieves shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hufei; Liu, Xinhe; Jiang, Hongye; Liu, Zimeng; Zhang, Xu-Yu; Xie, Hong-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP) remains a common problem after laparoscopies. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pressure pain threshold (PPT) of different muscles and PLSP after gynecologic laparoscopy, and to explore the effect of parecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on the changes of PPT. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups; group P and group C. In group P, parecoxib 40 mg was intravenously infused at 30 minutes before surgery and 8 and 20 hours after surgery. In group C, normal saline was infused at the corresponding time point. PPT assessment was performed 1 day before surgery and at postoperative 24 hours by using a pressure algometer at bilateral shoulder muscles (levator scapulae and supraspinatus) and forearm (flexor carpi ulnaris). Meanwhile, bilateral shoulder pain was evaluated through visual analog scale score at 24 hours after surgery. Preoperative PPT level of the shoulder, but not of the forearm, was significantly and negatively correlated with the intensity of ipsilateral PLSP. In group C, PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, decreased after laparoscopy at postoperative 24 hours. The use of parecoxib significantly improved the decline of PPT levels of bilateral shoulder muscles (all P<0.01). Meanwhile, parecoxib reduced the incidence of PLSP (group P: 45% vs group C: 83.3%; odds ratio: 0.164; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.382; P<0.001) and the intensity of bilateral shoulder pain (both P<0.01). Preoperative PPT levels of shoulder muscles are closely associated with the severity of shoulder pain after gynecologic laparoscopy. PPT levels of shoulder muscles, but not of forearm muscles, significantly decreased after surgery. Parecoxib improved the decrease of PPT and relieved PLSP.

  5. Experimental study of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) with graded stimuli.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Indu; Sharma, Rajeev; Khurana, A K

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effect of graded mechanical stimuli on occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR). The experiments were carried out in twenty albino rabbits of either sex weighing between 1-2 kg. Changes in heart rate and/or cardiac rhythm (oculocardiac reflex) were studied by applying traction with progressively increasing weights to medial rectus muscle. Mean threshold value of square wave mechanical stimulus just sufficient to produce oculocardiac reflex was found to be 19 +/- 8.52 g. As the traction weights were progressively increased, more and more decrease in heart rate was observed. It was concluded that once the threshold value of stimulus was reached, the oculocardiac reflex showed a graded response with progressively increasing traction weights.

  6. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus.

  7. The temporal relationship of thresholds between muscle activity and ventilation during bicycle ramp exercise in community dwelling elderly males

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kentaro; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Satoshi; Higuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the appearance time of the ventilatory threshold point and the electromyographic threshold in the activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris long head and gastrocnemius lateral head muscles during ramp cycling exercise in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven community dwelling elderly males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise testing with an expiratory gas analyzer and surface electromyography to evaluate the tested muscle activities during ramp exercise. [Results] The electromyographic threshold for rectus femoris was not valid because the slope after electromyographic threshold was not significant as compared to that before electromyographic threshold. The slope of the regression line for vastus lateralis was significantly decreased after electromyographic threshold while biceps femoris and gastrocnemius were increased. The electromyographic threshold appearance times for vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius were significantly earlier than ventilatory threshold point. There were no difference in electromyographic threshold appearance times among three muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the increase in the slope of the regression line after electromyographic threshold for vastus lateralis was decreased, possibly indicating to postpone muscular fatigue resulting from the activation of biceps femoris and gastrocnemius as biarticular antagonists. This recruitment pattern might be an elderly-specific strategy. PMID:27942152

  8. The effect of tone-reducing orthotic devices on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Aileen; Bach, Timothy; Rogers, Douglas; Bernhardt, Julie

    2010-03-01

    Orthoses are commonly prescribed for the management of spasticity but their neurophysiologic effect on spasticity remains unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three tone-reducing devices (dynamic foot orthosis, muscle stretch, and orthokinetic compression garment) on soleus muscle reflex excitability while standing in patients with spasticity following stroke. A repeated measures intervention study was conducted on 13 patients with stroke selected from a sample of convenience. A custom-made dynamic foot orthosis, a range of motion walker to stretch the soleus muscle and class 1 and class 2 orthokinetic compression garments were assessed using the ratio of maximum Hoffmann reflex amplitude to maximum M-response amplitude (Hmax:Mmax) to determine their effect on soleus muscle reflex excitability. Only 10 subjects were able to complete the testing. There were no significant treatment effects for the interventions (F=1.208, df=3.232, p=0.328); however, when analyzed subject-by-subject, two subjects responded to the dynamic foot orthosis and one of those two subjects also responded to the class 1 orthokinetic compression garment. Overall, the results demonstrated that the tone-reducing devices had no significant effect on soleus reflex excitability suggesting that these tone-reducing orthotic devices have no significant neurophysiologic effect on spasticity.

  9. Relation between changes in long-latency stretch reflexes and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease--comparison before and after unilateral pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, R; Hashimoto, T; Tada, T; Ikeda, S

    2001-10-01

    To study the effects of posteroventral pallidotomy on both the size of long-latency stretch reflex (LLR) and the muscle stiffness in the wrist flexor muscles. Eleven consecutive patients (right-handed, 6 men and 5 women) underwent left-side microelectrode-guided pallidotomy. The LLR of the contralesional forearm was studied at baseline and 2-3 months after surgery while patients continued to take their optimal medical regimens ('on' period). Patients were instructed not to respond to the perturbation (passive mode) or to oppose the mechanical extensor perturbation (active mode). The stretch reflex evoked by extension perturbations of the wrist consisted of a short-latency reflex (M1) and an LLR (M2). Pallidotomy had no effects on the size of M1 components in both passive and active mode and on that of M2 component in the passive mode, however, it significantly reduced M2 component in the active mode (P<0.05). The inherent muscle stiffness over 60 ms period of mechanical stretch was not influenced by pallidotomy in any experimental condition (preoperative vs. postoperative or passive mode vs. active mode). The hand displacement following M2 component increased significantly after pallidotomy in both passive (P<0.005) and active mode (P<0.05). The inverted value of the displacement following M2 component correlated with the size of M2 component (r=0.60, P<0.001). Pallidotomy decreased the transcortical reflex gain, probably at cortical level, and consequently reduced muscle stiffness.

  10. [Loss of voluntary control and retention of automatic reflex in certain muscles innervated by cranial nerves in 2 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Lapresle, J; Salisachs, P

    1976-02-01

    The authors present two clinical observations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (A.L.S.) in which a loss of voluntary control was associated with retention of automatic and reflex activity of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. In the first case the face and swallowing were affected, in the second the movements of the eyes. These phenomena are exceptional in A.L.S.

  11. Dual Modulation of Nociception and Cardiovascular Reflexes during Peripheral Ischemia through P2Y1 Receptor-Dependent Sensitization of Muscle Afferents.

    PubMed

    Queme, Luis F; Ross, Jessica L; Lu, Peilin; Hudgins, Renita C; Jankowski, Michael P

    2016-01-06

    Numerous musculoskeletal pain disorders are based in dysfunction of peripheral perfusion and are often comorbid with altered cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction/exercise. We have recently found in mice that 24 h peripheral ischemia induced by a surgical occlusion of the brachial artery (BAO) induces increased paw-guarding behaviors, mechanical hypersensitivity, and decreased grip strength. These behavioral changes corresponded to increased heat sensitivity as well as an increase in the numbers of chemosensitive group III/IV muscle afferents as assessed by an ex vivo forepaw muscles/median and ulnar nerves/dorsal root ganglion (DRG)/spinal cord (SC) recording preparation. Behaviors also corresponded to specific upregulation of the ADP-responsive P2Y1 receptor in the DRGs. Since group III/IV muscle afferents have separately been associated with regulating muscle nociception and exercise pressor reflexes (EPRs), and P2Y1 has been linked to heat responsiveness and phenotypic switching in cutaneous afferents, we sought to determine whether upregulation of P2Y1 was responsible for the observed alterations in muscle afferent function, leading to modulation of muscle pain-related behaviors and EPRs after BAO. Using an afferent-specific siRNA knockdown strategy, we found that inhibition of P2Y1 during BAO not only prevented the increased mean blood pressure after forced exercise, but also significantly reduced alterations in pain-related behaviors. Selective P2Y1 knockdown also prevented the increased firing to heat stimuli and the BAO-induced phenotypic switch in chemosensitive muscle afferents, potentially through regulating membrane expression of acid sensing ion channel 3. These results suggest that enhanced P2Y1 in muscle afferents during ischemic-like conditions may dually regulate muscle nociception and cardiovascular reflexes. Our current results suggest that P2Y1 modulates heat responsiveness and chemosensation in muscle afferents to play a key role in

  12. Tissue engineering the mechanosensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc: sensory neuron innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers

    PubMed Central

    Rumsey, John W; Das, Mainak; Bhalkikar, Abhijeet; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J

    2010-01-01

    The sensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc, composed of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers and type Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons, converts mechanical information regarding muscle length and stretch to electrical action potentials and relays them to the central nervous system. Utilizing a non-biological substrate, surface patterning photolithography and a serum-free medium formulation a co-culture system was developed that facilitated functional interactions between intrafusal muscle fibers and sensory neurons. The presence of annulospiral wrappings (ASWs) and flower spray endings (FSEs), both physiologically relevant morphologies in sensory neuron-intrafusal fiber interactions, were demonstrated and quantified using immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, two proposed components of the mammalian mechanosensory transduction system, BNaC1 and PICK1, were both identified at the ASWs and FSEs. To verify functionality of the mechanoreceptor elements the system was integrated with a MEMS cantilever device, and Ca2+ currents were imaged along the length of an axon innervating an intrafusal fiber when stretched by cantilever deflection. This system provides a platform for examining the role of this mechanosensory complex in the pathology of myotonic and muscular dystrophies, peripheral neuropathy, and spasticity inducing diseases like Parkinson's. These studies will also assist in engineering fine motor control for prosthetic devices by improving our understanding of mechanosensitive feedback. PMID:20708792

  13. [Stapedial reflex under auditory masking of bone canal: 1- The effect of white noise on threshold values].

    PubMed

    Cassano, P; Mininni, F; Paulillo, A

    1983-11-30

    The authors have studied the behaviour of the A.R. threshold under bone way masking sent to the vertex. The masking caused changings of the recorded track; a change of the compliance was observed in the 60% of the subjects and a rythmic waving of the (isoelectric) line was observed in 40% of the subjects. Upon these changes the A.R. were recorded for the tone test sent at similar values (almost equal) at those recorded without any kind of masker, even if a threshold shift sometimes big, existed because of the high intensity of the masking noise. The authors are making further researches to explain the meaning of these changes.

  14. The role of muscle spindles in the development of the monosynaptic stretch reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Li, LingYing

    2012-01-01

    Muscle sensory axons induce the development of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers in muscle spindles during development, but the role that the intrafusal fibers may play in the development of the central projections of these Ia sensory axons is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the influence of intrafusal fibers in muscle spindles on the formation of monosynaptic connections between Ia (muscle spindle) sensory axons and motoneurons (MNs) using two transgenic strains of mice. Deletion of the ErbB2 receptor from developing myotubes disrupts the formation of intrafusal muscle fibers and causes a nearly complete absence of functional synaptic connections between Ia axons and MNs. Monosynaptic connectivity can be fully restored by postnatal administration of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and the synaptic connections in NT-3-treated mice are as specific as in wild-type mice. Deletion of the Egr3 transcription factor also impairs the development of intrafusal muscle fibers and disrupts synaptic connectivity between Ia axons and MNs. Postnatal injections of NT-3 restore the normal strengths and specificity of Ia–motoneuronal connections in these mice as well. Severe deficits in intrafusal fiber development, therefore, do not disrupt the establishment of normal, selective patterns of connections between Ia axons and MNs, although these connections require the presence of NT-3, normally supplied by intrafusal fibers, to be functional. PMID:22490553

  15. Therapeutic effects of anti-gravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, corticospinal tract activities, and muscle stiffness in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Parvin, Sh; Taghiloo, A; Irani, A; Mirbagheri, M Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response. We quantified muscle stiffness by sonoelastography images of the affected muscles. We quantified CST activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We performed the evaluations before and after training for both groups. H response latency and maximum M-wave amplitude were improved in experimental group after training compared to control group. Two children of experimental group had TMS response. Major parameters of TMS (i.e. peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP), latency of MEP, cortical silent period, and intensity of pulse) improved for both of them. Three parameters of texture analysis of sonoelastography images were improved for experimental group (i.e. contrast, entropy, and shear wave velocity). These findings indicate that AlterG training can improve reflexes, muscle stiffness, and CST activity in children with spastic hemiplegic CP and can be considered as a therapeutic tool to improve neuromuscular abnormalities occurring secondary to CP.

  16. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in other age groups. These include: Moro reflex Sucking reflex (sucks when area around mouth is touched) ... side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly ...

  17. Estrogen attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in female cats.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Petra M; Kaufman, M P

    2003-10-01

    In humans, the pressor and muscle sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise are less in women than in men. The difference has been attributed to the effect of estrogen on the exercise pressor reflex. Estrogen receptors are abundant in areas of the dorsal horn receiving input from group III and IV muscle afferents, which comprise the sensory limb of the exercise pressor reflex arc. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of estrogen on the spinal pathway of the exercise pressor reflex arc. Previously, we found that the threshold concentration of 17beta-estradiol needed to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in male decerebrate cats was 10 microg/ml (Schmitt PM and Kaufman MP. J Appl Physiol 94: 1431-1436, 2003). The threshold concentration for female cats, however, is not known. Consequently, we applied 17beta-estradiol to a well covering the L6-S1 spinal cord in decerebrate female cats. The exercise pressor reflex was evoked by electrical stimulation of the L7 or S1 ventral root, a maneuver that caused the hindlimb muscles to contract statically. We found that the pressor response to contraction averaged 38 +/- 7 mmHg before the application of 17beta-estradiol (0.01 microg/ml) to the spinal cord, whereas it averaged only 23 +/- 4 mmHg 30 min after application (P < 0.05). Recovery of the pressor response to contraction was not obtained for 2 h after application of 17beta-estradiol. Application of 17beta-estradiol in a dose of 0.001 microg/ml had no effect on the exercise pressor reflex (n = 5). We conclude that the concentration of 17beta-estradiol required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex is 1,000 times more dilute in female cats than that needed to attenuate this reflex in male cats.

  18. Effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle in rats: possible implications of neuronal mechanisms in the development of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Jiro; Yamagata, Masatsune; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Moriya, Hideshige

    2005-05-01

    The effect of noxious electrical stimulation of the peroneal nerve on the stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the hamstring muscle (semitendinous) was studied. To verify the following hypothetical mechanisms underlying tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation: stretch reflex muscle activity of hamstrings is increased by painful inputs from an injured spinal nerve root and the increased stretch reflex muscle activity is maintained by central sensitization. It is reported that stretch reflex activity of the trunk muscles is induced by noxious stimulation of the sciatic nerve and maintained by central sensitization. In spinalized rats (transected spinal cord), the peroneal nerve was stimulated electrically as a conditioning stimulus. Stretch reflex electromyogram activity of the semitendinous muscle was recorded before and after the conditioning stimulus. Even after electrical stimulation was terminated, an increased stretch reflex activity of the hamstring muscle was observed. It is likely that a central sensitization mechanism at the spinal cord level was involved in the increased reflex activity. Central sensitization may play a part in the neuronal mechanisms of tight hamstrings in lumbar disc herniation.

  19. Motor cortical plasticity in extrinsic hand muscles is determined by the resting thresholds of overlapping representations.

    PubMed

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the properties that govern the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interventions is critical to clinical application. Extrapolation to clinical populations has been limited by high inter-subject variability and a focus on intrinsic muscles of the hand in healthy populations. Therefore, the current study assessed variability of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a patterned TMS protocol, across an agonist-antagonist pair of extrinsic muscles of the hand. Secondarily, we assessed whether concurrent agonist contraction could enhance the efficacy of cTBS. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were simultaneously recorded from the agonist flexor (FCR) and antagonist extensor (ECR) carpi radialis before and after cTBS over the FCR hotspot. cTBS was delivered with the FCR relaxed (cTBS-Relax) or during isometric wrist flexion (cTBS-Contract). cTBS-Relax suppressed FCR MEPs evoked from the FCR hotspot. However, the extent of FCR MEP suppression was strongly correlated with the relative difference between FCR and ECR resting motor thresholds. cTBS-Contract decreased FCR suppression but increased suppression of ECR MEPs elicited from the FCR hotspot. The magnitude of ECR MEP suppression following cTBS-Contract was independent of the threshold-amplitude relationships observed with cTBS-Relax. Contraction alone had no effect confirming the effect of cTBS-Contract was driven by the interaction between neuromuscular activity and cTBS. Interactions across muscle representations should be taken into account when predicting cTBS outcomes in healthy and clinical populations. Contraction during cTBS may be a useful means of focusing aftereffects when differences in baseline excitability across overlapping agonist-antagonist cortical representations may mitigate the inhibitory effect of cTBS. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inspiratory muscle performance relative to the anaerobic threshold in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Wanke, T; Formanek, D; Lahrmann, H; Merkle, M; Rauscher, H; Zwick, H

    1993-09-01

    Rehabilitation programmes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require exercise training above the anaerobic threshold. However, not all COPD patients develop metabolic acidosis during exercise. The hypothesis of this study was that non-exercise variables, characterizing the mechanical load on the inspiratory muscles during breathing at rest, can be used to reliably predict which patients with COPD are not able to develop metabolic acidosis during exercise. Thirty participants with COPD performed a symptom-limited cycle ergometer test. The oesophageal pressure/time index (PTIoes: the product of pressure magnitude and duration), the mean rate of pressure development during inspiration (Poes/TI), and the mean airway resistance (Raw)/maximal oesophageal pressure (Poesmax) ratio served as indices for the mechanical load on the inspiratory muscles. The oxygen uptake (VO2) at which plasma standard bicarbonate was seen to decrease from its baseline value was taken as the anaerboic threshold (AT). Mean Raw was significantly higher in those patients in whom the AT could not be detected. No other lung function parameters measured at rest allowed the accurate selection of those patients who did or did not develop exercise metabolic acidosis. On the other hand, Raw/Poesmax, PTIoes and Poes/TI were significantly different in the two patient groups. Additionally, whereas in the patient group with identifiable AT exercise hyperpnoea produced a non-linear increase of Poes/TI with respect to PTIoes above the AT, in the patient group without identifiable AT there was a linear relationship between Poes/TI and PTIoes throughout exercise. We conclude that the determination of inspiratory muscle load indices at rest may be useful in pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, for identifying those patients with COPD who do not develop exercise induced metabolic acidosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Flexion reflex modulation during stepping in human spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Knikou, Maria; Angeli, Claudia A; Ferreira, Christie K; Harkema, Susan J

    2009-07-01

    The flexion reflex modulation pattern was investigated in nine people with a chronic spinal cord injury during stepping using body weight support on a treadmill and manual assistance by therapists. Body weight support was provided by an upper body harness and was adjusted for each subject to promote the best stepping pattern with the least manual assistance required by the therapists. The flexion reflex was elicited by sural nerve stimulation with a 30 ms pulse train at 1.2-2 times the tibialis anterior reflex threshold. During stepping, stimuli were randomly dispersed across the gait cycle which was divided into 16 equal bins. A long latency (>110 ms) flexion reflex was present in all subjects, while a short (>30 ms) and a medium latency (>70 ms) flexion reflex were present only in three subjects. For each response, the non-stimulated EMG was subtracted from the stimulated EMG at identical time windows and bins, normalized to the maximal corresponding EMG, and significant differences were established with a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The long latency flexion reflex was facilitated at late stance and during the swing-to-stance transition phase. A reflex depression was present from heel strike until mid-stance and during the swing-to-stance transition phase. The short and medium latency flexion reflexes were depressed during mid-stance followed by facilitation during the stance-to-swing transition phase. Regardless of the latency, facilitatory flexion responses during the swing phase coincided with decreased activity of ipsilateral ankle extensors. The flexion reflex was modulated in a phase dependent manner, a behavior that was absent for the soleus H-reflex in most of these patients (Knikou et al. in Exp Brain Res 193:397-407, 2009). We propose that training should selectively target spinal reflex circuits in which extensor muscles and reflexes are involved in order to maximize sensorimotor recovery in these patients.

  2. The Effects of Temporal and Spatial Predictions on Stretch Reflexes of Ankle Flexor and Extensor Muscles While Standing

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how stretch reflex (SR) responses in the ankle extensor (soleus: SOL) and flexor (tibialis anterior: TA) muscles would be modulated with temporal and/or spatial predictions of external perturbations and whether their effects are specific to the standing posture. SR responses in the SOL/TA were elicited by imposing quick ankle toes-up/toes-down rotations while standing upright and in the supine position. We designed four experimental conditions based on pre-information about perturbations: no information (No Cue), the timing of the perturbation onset (TIM), the direction of the perturbation (DIR), and both the timing and direction of the perturbation (TIM/DIR). Each condition was separated and its order was counterbalanced. In the SR of TA evoked by toes-down rotation, integrated electromyography activities of the late component were significantly reduced in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with those in the No Cue and DIR conditions. The occurrence rate of late SR components that reflects how often the reflex response was observed was also lower in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with that in the No Cue and DIR conditions. On the other hand, no significant changes were seen among the four conditions in the early SR component in the TA and both SR components in the SOL. The same results in the occurrence rate were found in the supine position. The present results suggest (1) only temporal predictions have a remarkable effect on the SR excitability of the TA, and (2) this effect is independent of posture. PMID:27385043

  3. The Effects of Temporal and Spatial Predictions on Stretch Reflexes of Ankle Flexor and Extensor Muscles While Standing.

    PubMed

    Fujio, Kimiya; Obata, Hiroki; Kawashima, Noritaka; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how stretch reflex (SR) responses in the ankle extensor (soleus: SOL) and flexor (tibialis anterior: TA) muscles would be modulated with temporal and/or spatial predictions of external perturbations and whether their effects are specific to the standing posture. SR responses in the SOL/TA were elicited by imposing quick ankle toes-up/toes-down rotations while standing upright and in the supine position. We designed four experimental conditions based on pre-information about perturbations: no information (No Cue), the timing of the perturbation onset (TIM), the direction of the perturbation (DIR), and both the timing and direction of the perturbation (TIM/DIR). Each condition was separated and its order was counterbalanced. In the SR of TA evoked by toes-down rotation, integrated electromyography activities of the late component were significantly reduced in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with those in the No Cue and DIR conditions. The occurrence rate of late SR components that reflects how often the reflex response was observed was also lower in the TIM and TIM/DIR conditions as compared with that in the No Cue and DIR conditions. On the other hand, no significant changes were seen among the four conditions in the early SR component in the TA and both SR components in the SOL. The same results in the occurrence rate were found in the supine position. The present results suggest (1) only temporal predictions have a remarkable effect on the SR excitability of the TA, and (2) this effect is independent of posture.

  4. Involuntary reflexive pelvic floor muscle training in addition to standard training versus standard training alone for women with stress urinary incontinence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luginbuehl, Helena; Lehmann, Corinne; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Annette; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2015-11-17

    Pelvic floor muscle training is effective and recommended as first-line therapy for female patients with stress urinary incontinence. However, standard pelvic floor physiotherapy concentrates on voluntary contractions even though the situations provoking stress urinary incontinence (for example, sneezing, coughing, running) require involuntary fast reflexive pelvic floor muscle contractions. Training procedures for involuntary reflexive muscle contractions are widely implemented in rehabilitation and sports but not yet in pelvic floor rehabilitation. Therefore, the research group developed a training protocol including standard physiotherapy and in addition focused on involuntary reflexive pelvic floor muscle contractions. The aim of the planned study is to compare this newly developed physiotherapy program (experimental group) and the standard physiotherapy program (control group) regarding their effect on stress urinary incontinence. The working hypothesis is that the experimental group focusing on involuntary reflexive muscle contractions will have a higher improvement of continence measured by the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence (short form), and - regarding secondary and tertiary outcomes - higher pelvic floor muscle activity during stress urinary incontinence provoking activities, better pad-test results, higher quality of life scores (International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire) and higher intravaginal muscle strength (digitally tested) from before to after the intervention phase. This study is designed as a prospective, triple-blinded (participant, investigator, outcome assessor), randomized controlled trial with two physiotherapy intervention groups with a 6-month follow-up including 48 stress urinary incontinent women per group. For both groups the intervention will last 16 weeks and will include 9 personal physiotherapy consultations and 78 short home training sessions (weeks 1

  5. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors.

    PubMed

    Kurtzer, Isaac; Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50-100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors.

  6. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors

    PubMed Central

    Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50–100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors. PMID:26864766

  7. Role of the middle ear muscle apparatus in mechanisms of speech signal discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroz, B. S.; Bazarov, V. G.; Sachenko, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method of impedance reflexometry was used to examine 101 students with hearing impairment in order to clarify the interrelation between speech discrimination and the state of the middle ear muscles. Ability to discriminate speech signals depends to some extent on the functional state of intraaural muscles. Speech discrimination was greatly impaired in the absence of stapedial muscle acoustic reflex, in the presence of low thresholds of stimulation and in very small values of reflex amplitude increase. Discrimination was not impeded in positive AR, high values of relative thresholds and normal increase of reflex amplitude in response to speech signals with augmenting intensity.

  8. Thresholds of cortical activation of muscle spindles and α motoneurones of the baboon's hand

    PubMed Central

    Koeze, T. H.; Phillips, C. G.; Sheridan, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    1. Much current thinking about voluntary movement assumes that the segmental γ loops can function as a servomechanism operated by the brain. However, the α motoneurones of the baboon's hand receive a powerful monosynaptic (CM) projection from the precentral gyrus. If servo-driving from the same cortical area is to be possible, it must project independently to the fusimotor neurones and have sufficient power to increase the afferent signalling from the muscle spindles. The cortical thresholds for contraction of m. extensor digitorum communis and for acceleration of the discharges of its muscle spindles have therefore been compared. 2. Significant results in this context require that the spindles studied be coupled in parallel with the responding extrafusal muscle fibres. Many spindles were not unloaded by the submaximal contractions evoked by cortical stimulation, although all so tested were unloaded by maximal motor nerve twitches. Reasons are given for thinking that such apparent lack of parallel coupling is an artifact of complex intramuscular anatomy and limitation of shortening by `isometric' myography. 3. A brief burst of corticospinal volleys at 500/sec, which is specially effective in exciting α motoneurones over the CM projection, failed to excite spindle afferents at or below the threshold for a cortical `twitch'. 4. In a few epileptiform discharges, bursts of spindle acceleration occurred independently of the clonic contractions. A relatively direct and independent cortico-fusimotor (CF) projection may therefore exist. 5. Prolonged near-threshold stimulation at 50-100/sec, which allows time for temporal summation in the less direct projections (e.g. cortico-interneuronal, cortico-rubro-spinal) and does not cause frequency-potentiation at CM synapses, gives abundant evidence of independent α and fusimotor projections, whose actions hardly outlast the stimulation period. 6. Although independent CF projections would permit servo-driving in natural

  9. A comparison of the Acapella and a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer for sputum clearance in bronchiectasis-A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Naraparaju, Sushmitha; Vaishali, K; Venkatesan, Prem; Acharya, Vishak

    2010-08-01

    Inspiratory muscle training is used to specifically strengthen the respiratory muscles. Controversy exists regarding the use of inspiratory muscle training as a method of facilitating airways clearance. Acapella is already known to be effective in airway clearance. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of the Acapella and a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer as a method of airway clearance in subjects with bronchiectasis and to determine patient preference between the two techniques. Thirty patients (10 males, 20 females) mean age of 50.67+/-6.37 (mean+/-SD) with a history of expectoration of more than 30 ml sputum per day were recruited. The sequence of therapy was allocated by block randomization. Assessment and familiarization session was performed on day 1. Treatments employing the Acapella and inspiratory muscle trainer were done on days 2 and 3. Treatment order and allocation was determined by block randomization. Sputum volume was measured during and 2 hours after the treatment and patient treatment preference was recorded. A statistically significant difference was found in the sputum volume expectorated after treatment with the Acapella (7.16+/-1.12 ml) compared with the threshold inspiratory muscle trainer (6.46+/-1.08 ml). Patients preferred Acapella in terms of usefulness of clearing secretions. The present study demonstrated increased sputum clearance following the use of the Acapella when compared to the threshold inspiratory muscle trainer. In addition, the Acapella was preferred by patients who judged that it was more useful in clearing secretions.

  10. Effect of thumb anaesthesia on weight perception, muscle activity and the stretch reflex in man.

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, C D; Rothwell, J C; Traub, M M

    1979-01-01

    1. We have confirmed the results of Gandevia & McCloskey (1977) on the effect of thumb anaesthesia on perception of weights lifted by the thumb. Weights lifted by flexion feel heavier and weights lifted by extension feel lighter. 2. The change in size of the long-latency stretch reflex in flexor pollicis longus or extensor pollicis longus after thumb anaesthesia cannot explain the effect on weight perception by removal or augmentation of the background servo assistance to muscular contraction. 3. During smooth thumb flexion, thumb anaesthesia increases e.m.g. activity in flexor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus for any given opposing torque. 4. During smooth thumb extension the opposite occurs: e.m.g. activity in both extensor and flexor pollicis longus decreases. 5. Clamping the thumb at the proximal phalanx to limit movement solely to the interphalangeal joint reduces or abolishes the effect of anaesthesia on both weight perception and e.m.g. activity during both flexion or extension tasks. 6. Gandevia & McCloskey's findings on the distorting effects of thumb anaesthesia on weight perception cannot be used to support the hypothesis of an efferent monitoring system of the sense of effort. Our results emphasize the close functional relationship between cutaneous and joint afferent information and motor control. PMID:512948

  11. Alleviation of Motor Impairments in Patients with Cerebral Palsy: Acute Effects of Whole-body Vibration on Stretch Reflex Response, Voluntary Muscle Activation and Mobility.

    PubMed

    Krause, Anne; Schönau, Eckhard; Gollhofer, Albert; Duran, Ibrahim; Ferrari-Malik, Anja; Freyler, Kathrin; Ritzmann, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Individuals suffering from cerebral palsy (CP) often have involuntary, reflex-evoked muscle activity resulting in spastic hyperreflexia. Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to reduce reflex activity in healthy subjects, but evidence in CP patients is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to establish the acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects of WBV in subjects with spastic CP. 44 children with spastic CP were tested on neuromuscular activation and kinematics before and immediately after a 1-min bout of WBV (16-25 Hz, 1.5-3 mm). Assessment included (1) recordings of stretch reflex (SR) activity of the triceps surae, (2) electromyography (EMG) measurements of maximal voluntary muscle activation of lower limb muscles, and (3) neuromuscular activation during active range of motion (aROM). We recorded EMG of m. soleus (SOL), m. gastrocnemius medialis (GM), m. tibialis anterior, m. vastus medialis, m. rectus femoris, and m. biceps femoris. Angular excursion was recorded by goniometry of the ankle and knee joint. After WBV, (1) SOL SRs were decreased (p < 0.01) while (2) maximal voluntary activation (p < 0.05) and (3) angular excursion in the knee joint (p < 0.01) were significantly increased. No changes could be observed for GM SR amplitudes or ankle joint excursion. Neuromuscular coordination expressed by greater agonist-antagonist ratios during aROM was significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The findings point toward acute neuromuscular and kinematic effects following one bout of WBV. Protocols demonstrate that pathological reflex responses are reduced (spinal level), while the execution of voluntary movement (supraspinal level) is improved in regards to kinematic and neuromuscular control. This facilitation of muscle and joint control is probably due to a reduction of spasticity-associated spinal excitability in favor of giving access for greater supraspinal input during voluntary motor control.

  12. Using acoustic reflex threshold, auditory brainstem response and loudness judgments to investigate changes in neural gain following acute unilateral deprivation in normal hearing adults.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Hannah; Plack, Christopher J; Schaette, Roland; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral auditory deprivation induces a reduction in the acoustic reflex threshold (ART) and an increase in loudness. These findings have been interpreted as a compensatory change in neural gain, governed by changes in excitatory and inhibitory neural inputs. There is also evidence to suggest that changes in neural gain can be measured using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The present study extended Munro et al. (2014) [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 315-322] by investigating changes after 4 days of unilateral earplug use to: (i) ART, (ii) ABR and (iii) loudness. Because changes may occur during the post-deprivation test session (day 4), ART measurements were taken 1 h and 2 h post-earplug removal. There was a significant reduction in ART in the treatment ear immediately after the removal of the earplug, which is consistent with a compensatory increase in neural gain. A novel finding was the significant return of ARTs to baseline within 2 h of earplug removal. A second novel finding was a significant decrease in the mean amplitude of ABR wave V in the treatment ear, but a significant increase in the control ear, both after 4 days of deprivation. These changes in the ABR are in the opposite direction to those predicted. We were unable to replicate the change in loudness reported in previous deprivation studies; however, the short period of earplug use may have contributed to this null finding.

  13. Caffeine thresholds for contraction in electrophoretically typed, mechanically skinned muscle fibres from SHR and WKY rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, S K; Stephenson, D G; Stephenson, G M

    2001-02-01

    Caffeine was used as a tool to investigate whether the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) properties in single. mechanically skinned fibres dissected from soleus muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) differ from those in fibres of the same type from age-matched, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The fibres were typed electrophoretically based on myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition. Here we show evidence that the ratio between the caffeine thresholds for contraction at maximal and endogenous resting SR-Ca2+ (Rcaff-th) can be used as an indicator for distinguishing between slow-type SR (Rcaff-th>or =0.73) and fast-type SR (Rcaff-th<0.73). Based on this indicator, 47.5% of the SHR-soleus fibres identified as type I displayed fast-type SR characteristics and 40% of the SHR-soleus fibres identified as type II displayed slow-type SR characteristics. This result explains the shorter contraction and faster relaxation of soleus muscles in SHRs and also suggests that SR with fast-type characteristics can co-exist with slow-twitch MHC isoforms and vice versa.

  14. Acoustic reflex measurement.

    PubMed

    Schairer, Kim S; Feeney, M Patrick; Sanford, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    Middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) measurements have been a part of the standard clinical immittance test battery for decades as a cross-check with the behavioral audiogram and as a way to separate cochlear from retrocochlear pathologies. MEMR responses are measured in the ear canal by using a probe stimulus (e.g., single frequency or broadband noise) to monitor admittance changes elicited by a reflex-activating stimulus. In the clinical MEMR procedures, one test yields changes in a single measurement (i.e., admittance) at a single pure tone (e.g., 226 or 1000 Hz). In contrast, for the wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) procedure,one test yields information about multiple measurements (e.g., admittance, power reflectance, absorbance) across a wide frequency range (e.g., 250 to 8000 Hz analysis bandwidth of the probe). One benefit of the WAI method is that the MEMR can be identified in a single test regardless of the frequency at which the maximum shift in the immittance measurement occurs; this is beneficial because maximal shifts in immittance vary as a function of age and other factors. Another benefit is that the wideband response analysis yields lower MEMR thresholds than with the clinical procedures. Lower MEMR thresholds would allow for MEMR decay tests in ears in which the activator levels could not be safely presented. Finally, the WAI procedures can be automated with objective identification of the MEMR, which would allow for use in newborn and other screening programs in which the tests are completed by nonaudiological personnel.

  15. Sex-related differences in descending norepinephrine and serotonin controls of spinal withdrawal reflex during intramuscular saline induced muscle nociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jing; Jin, Lin; Zhao, Ye; Sui, Mei-Yu; Huang, Li; Tan, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yan-Ke; You, Hao-Jun

    2011-04-01

    Sex-associated differences in the perception and modulation of pain have widely been reported in humans as well as animals. The aim of the present study performed in conscious rats of both sexes was to systematically investigate the role of sex in endogenous descending controls of nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex during experimental muscle pain elicited by intramuscular (i.m.) injection with different doses (0.1-0.4 ml of 0.9-5.8%) of saline. Ipsilateral i.m. injection of 0.2-0.4 ml, but not 0.1 ml, isotonic (0.9%, IT) saline elicited long lasting (about 7d), secondary and contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia in female rats, whereas male rats exhibited a bilateral, short-term (less than 1d) mechanical hyperalgesia only during the exposure to 0.4 ml IT saline injection (P < 0.05). A bolus of 0.4 ml, but not 0.1-0.2 ml, IT saline significantly induced a one-week, secondary and contralateral heat hypoalgesia in both male and female rats (P < 0.05). In contrast to the IT saline injection, 0.1 ml hypertonic (5.8%, HT) saline started to evoke bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in male and female rats. During the HT saline induced muscle nociception, mechanical hyperalgesia in female rats was greater in magnitude and longer in duration than that of in male rats (P < 0.05). Heat hypoalgesia was bilaterally found in male rats receiving either 0.2 ml or 0.4 ml HT saline injection, whereas female rats showed heat hypoalgesia, subjected only to the 0.4 ml HT saline injection (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). Intrathecal (i.th.) administration of either 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA) or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) significantly attenuated the HT saline induced heat hypoalgesia, not mechanical hyperalgesia, in male rats. By contrast, in female rats i.th. 6-OHDA markedly blocked heat hypoalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia was prevented by 5,7-DHT treatment. It is suggested that i.m. injection of saline dose-dependently elicits ipsilateral secondary and contralateral

  16. [Use of conditioned reflex therapy in patients with masticatory muscles hypertension].

    PubMed

    Trezubov, V N; Bulycheva, E A

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the thoughts on the nature and origin of disorders of masticatory muscles and temporor joint. The authors incline to opinion of their psychosomatic origin. In connection with this point of view the methods of investigations were added by the psychosomatic approach (Eysenk, Spilberger-Hanin, Lichko, Vassermann): so the methods of direct and indirect psychotherapy (behavior therapy and placebo), the same as psychopharmaco-therapy were included in complex rehabilitation. As behaviour therapy method the computer videoautotraining with biological adaptive reverse connection was used. 185 patients (61 men and 124 women) in age of 16-70 (mean age: 34,9+/-1,3 years old) were investigated. Complete recovery or significant improvement of health took place in 97% of patients, insufficient effect - 3% of investigative patients.

  17. Contraction threshold and the "hump" component of charge movement in frog skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The delayed component of intramembranous charge movement (hump, I gamma) was studied around the contraction threshold in cut skeletal muscle fibers of the frog (Rana esculenta) in a single Vaseline-gap voltage clamp. Charges (Q) were computed as 50-ms integrals of the ON (QON) and OFF (QOFF) of the asymmetric currents after subtracting a baseline. The hump appeared in parallel with an excess of QON over QOFF by approximately 2.5 nC/mu F. Caffeine (0.75 mM) not only shifted the contraction threshold but moved both the hump and the difference between the ON and OFF charges to more negative membrane potentials. When using 10-mV voltage steps on top of different prepulse levels, the delayed component, if present, was more readily observable. The voltage dependences of the ON and OFF charges measured with these pulses were clearly different: QON had a maximum at or slightly above the contraction threshold, while QOFF increased monotonically in the voltage range examined. Caffeine (0.75 mM) shifted this voltage dependence of QON toward more negative membrane potentials, while that of QOFF was hardly influenced. These results show that the delayed component of intramembranous charge movement either is much slower during the OFF than during the ON, or returns to the OFF position during the pulse. Tetracaine (25 microM) had similar effects on the charge movement currents, shifting the voltage dependence on the ON charge in parallel with the contraction threshold, but to more positive membrane potentials, and leaving QOFF essentially unchanged. The direct difference between the charge movement measured in the presence of caffeine and in control solution was either biphasic or resembled the component isolated by tetracaine, suggesting a common site of caffeine and tetracaine action. The results can be understood if the released Ca plays a direct role in the generation of the hump, as proposed in the first paper of this series (Csernoch et al. 1991. J. Gen. Physiol. 97

  18. Increased PDE5 activity and decreased Rho kinase and PKC activities in colonic muscle from caveolin-1-/- mice impair the peristaltic reflex and propulsion.

    PubMed

    Mahavadi, Sunila; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Kumar, Divya P; Clay, Chereena; Ross, Gracious; Akbarali, Hamid I; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2013-12-01

    Caveolae are specialized regions of the plasma membrane that concentrate receptors and associated signaling molecules critical in regulation of cellular response to transmitters and hormones. We have determined the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) deletion, caveolin-1 siRNA, and caveolar disruption in mice on the signaling pathways that mediate contraction and relaxation in colonic smooth muscle and on the components of the peristaltic reflex in isolated tissue and propulsion in intact colonic segments. In Cav-1-/- mice, both relaxation and contraction were decreased in smooth muscle cells and muscle strips, as well as during both phases of the peristaltic reflex and colonic propulsion. The decrease in relaxation in response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor was accompanied by a decrease in cGMP levels and an increase in phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity. Relaxation by a PDE5-resistant cGMP analog was not affected in smooth muscle of Cav-1-/- mice, suggesting that inhibition of relaxation was due to augmentation of PDE5 activity. Similar effects on relaxation, PDE5 and cGMP were obtained in muscle cells upon disruption of caveolae by methyl-β-cyclodextrin or suppression of Cav-1. Sustained contraction mediated via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity is regulated by Rho kinase and PKC via phosphorylation of two endogenous inhibitors of MLCP: myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit (MYPT1) and 17-kDa PKC-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17), respectively. The activity of both enzymes and phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17 were decreased in smooth muscle from Cav-1-/- mice. We conclude that the integrity of caveolae is essential for contractile and relaxant activity in colonic smooth muscle and the maintenance of neuromuscular function at organ level.

  19. Increased PDE5 activity and decreased Rho kinase and PKC activities in colonic muscle from caveolin-1−/− mice impair the peristaltic reflex and propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Mahavadi, Sunila; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Kumar, Divya P.; Clay, Chereena; Ross, Gracious; Akbarali, Hamid I.; Grider, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Caveolae are specialized regions of the plasma membrane that concentrate receptors and associated signaling molecules critical in regulation of cellular response to transmitters and hormones. We have determined the effects of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) deletion, caveolin-1 siRNA, and caveolar disruption in mice on the signaling pathways that mediate contraction and relaxation in colonic smooth muscle and on the components of the peristaltic reflex in isolated tissue and propulsion in intact colonic segments. In Cav-1−/− mice, both relaxation and contraction were decreased in smooth muscle cells and muscle strips, as well as during both phases of the peristaltic reflex and colonic propulsion. The decrease in relaxation in response to the nitric oxide (NO) donor was accompanied by a decrease in cGMP levels and an increase in phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity. Relaxation by a PDE5-resistant cGMP analog was not affected in smooth muscle of Cav-1−/− mice, suggesting that inhibition of relaxation was due to augmentation of PDE5 activity. Similar effects on relaxation, PDE5 and cGMP were obtained in muscle cells upon disruption of caveolae by methyl-β-cyclodextrin or suppression of Cav-1. Sustained contraction mediated via inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity is regulated by Rho kinase and PKC via phosphorylation of two endogenous inhibitors of MLCP: myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit (MYPT1) and 17-kDa PKC-potentiated protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor protein (CPI-17), respectively. The activity of both enzymes and phosphorylation of MYPT1 and CPI-17 were decreased in smooth muscle from Cav-1−/− mice. We conclude that the integrity of caveolae is essential for contractile and relaxant activity in colonic smooth muscle and the maintenance of neuromuscular function at organ level. PMID:24157969

  20. The impact of rectification on the electrically evoked long-latency reflex of the biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Alaid, Ssuhir; Kornhuber, Malte E

    2013-11-27

    Long latency reflexes (LLR) were elicited electrically and obtained by full wave rectified and non-rectified data recordings in 10 healthy subjects. After single or train stimuli (sensory radial nerve; interstimulus interval 3ms) amplitude and peak latency values were measured over the bent biceps brachii (BB) muscle, either without or with 1.5kg weight load. After rectification, mean LLR amplitude values made up 30% of the non-rectified data, independent from the stimulus type and weight load. In the non-rectified data, a significant gain in amplitude resulted from train stimuli compared with single stimuli, and from weight load compared to no weight load. No such significant difference was detected when rectified data were analysed. Furthermore, average amplitude values of rectified and non-rectified curves were studied using 11 sine waves and damped sine waves with equal phase intervals that were varied from 0° up to 34.4°. Phase shifts ranging from 10° to 25° resulted in excess amplitude decline of rectified data compared with non-rectified data. The long and polysynaptic course that LLR information takes leads to considerable overlap of responses to subsequent stimuli. This overlap of motor unit potentials forming the LLR obviously results in excess amplitude cancellation after rectification as shown for sine and damped sine waves. Rectification leads to an increase in the frequency content of the data that renders it prone to phase cancellation. In the present study, this cancellation was harmful as it prevented detection of important factors of influence such as stimulus strength and motor unit recruitment level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of leg muscle tendon vibration on group Ia and group II reflex responses to stance perturbation in humans.

    PubMed

    Bove, Marco; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco

    2003-07-15

    Stretching the soleus (Sol) muscle during sudden toe-up rotations of the supporting platform in a standing subject evokes a short-latency response (SLR) and a medium-latency response (MLR). The aim of the present investigation was to further explore the afferent and spinal pathways mediating the SLR and MLR in lower limb muscles by means of tendon vibration. In seven subjects, toe-up or toe-down rotations were performed under: (1) control, (2) continuous bilateral vibration at 90 Hz of Achilles' tendon or tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, and (3) post-vibration conditions. Sol and TA background EMG activity and reflex responses were bilaterally recorded and analysed. Toe-up rotations induced SLRs and MLRs in Sol at average latencies of 40 and 66 ms, respectively. During vibration, the latency of both responses increased by about 2 ms. The area of the SLR significantly decreased during vibration, regardless of the underlying background activity, and almost returned to control value post-vibration. The area of Sol MLR was less influenced by vibration than SLR, the reduction being negligible with relatively high background activity. However, contrary to SLR, MLR was even more reduced post-vibration. Toe-down rotations induced no SLR in the TA, while a MLR was evoked at about 81 ms. The area of TA MLR decreased slightly during vibration but much more post-vibration. SLRs and MLRs were differently affected by changing the vibration frequency to 30 Hz: vibration had a negligible effect on the SLR, but still produced a significant effect on the MLR. The independence from the background EMG of the inhibitory effect of vibration upon the SLR suggests that vibration removes a constant amount of the Ia afferent input. This can be accounted for by either presynaptic inhibition of group Ia fibres or a 'busy-line' phenomenon. The differential effect of vibration on SLRs and MLRs is compatible with the notions that spindle primaries have a higher sensitivity to vibration than

  2. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  3. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  4. Effects of leg muscle tendon vibration on group Ia and group II reflex responses to stance perturbation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Marco; Nardone, Antonio; Schieppati, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Stretching the soleus (Sol) muscle during sudden toe-up rotations of the supporting platform in a standing subject evokes a short-latency response (SLR) and a medium-latency response (MLR). The aim of the present investigation was to further explore the afferent and spinal pathways mediating the SLR and MLR in lower limb muscles by means of tendon vibration. In seven subjects, toe-up or toe-down rotations were performed under: (1) control, (2) continuous bilateral vibration at 90 Hz of Achilles' tendon or tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, and (3) post-vibration conditions. Sol and TA background EMG activity and reflex responses were bilaterally recorded and analysed. Toe-up rotations induced SLRs and MLRs in Sol at average latencies of 40 and 66 ms, respectively. During vibration, the latency of both responses increased by about 2 ms. The area of the SLR significantly decreased during vibration, regardless of the underlying background activity, and almost returned to control value post-vibration. The area of Sol MLR was less influenced by vibration than SLR, the reduction being negligible with relatively high background activity. However, contrary to SLR, MLR was even more reduced post-vibration. Toe-down rotations induced no SLR in the TA, while a MLR was evoked at about 81 ms. The area of TA MLR decreased slightly during vibration but much more post-vibration. SLRs and MLRs were differently affected by changing the vibration frequency to 30 Hz: vibration had a negligible effect on the SLR, but still produced a significant effect on the MLR. The independence from the background EMG of the inhibitory effect of vibration upon the SLR suggests that vibration removes a constant amount of the Ia afferent input. This can be accounted for by either presynaptic inhibition of group Ia fibres or a ‘busy-line' phenomenon. The differential effect of vibration on SLRs and MLRs is compatible with the notions that spindle primaries have a higher sensitivity to vibration than

  5. Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex dynamic and static changes in spastic hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sun G.; Ren, Yupeng; Liu, Lin; Roth, Elliot J.; Rymer, W. Zev

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes tonic and phasic stretch reflex and stiffness and viscosity changes associated with spastic hemiparesis. Perturbations were applied to the ankle of 27 hemiparetic and 36 healthy subjects under relaxed or active contracting conditions. A nonlinear delay differential equation model characterized phasic and tonic stretch reflex gains, elastic stiffness, and viscous damping. Tendon reflex was characterized with reflex gain and threshold. Reflexively, tonic reflex gain was increased in spastic ankles at rest (P < 0.038) and was not regulated with muscle contraction, indicating impaired tonic stretch reflex. Phasic-reflex gain in spastic plantar flexors was higher and increased faster with plantar flexor contraction (P < 0.012) than controls (P < 0.023) and higher in dorsi-flexors at lower torques (P < 0.038), primarily because of its increase at rest (P = 0.045), indicating exaggerated phasic stretch reflex especially in more spastic plantar flexors, which showed higher phasic stretch reflex gain than dorsi-flexors (P < 0.032). Spasticity was associated with increased tendon reflex gain (P = 0.002) and decreased threshold (P < 0.001). Mechanically, stiffness in spastic ankles was higher than that in controls across plantar flexion/dorsi-flexion torque levels (P < 0.032), and the more spastic plantar flexors were stiffer than dorsi-flexors at comparable torques (P < 0.031). Increased stiffness in spastic ankles was mainly due to passive stiffness increase (P < 0.001), indicating increased connective tissues/shortened fascicles. Viscous damping in spastic ankles was increased across the plantar flexion torque levels and at lower dorsi-flexion torques, reflecting increased passive viscous damping (P = 0.033). The more spastic plantar flexors showed higher viscous damping than dorsi-flexors at comparable torque levels (P < 0.047). Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex changes in spastic hemiparesis may help to evaluate and treat

  6. Quantifying the deep tendon reflex using varying tendon indentation depths: applications to spasticity.

    PubMed

    Chardon, Matthieu K; Rymer, W Zev; Suresh, Nina L

    2014-03-01

    The deep tendon reflex (DTR) is often utilized to characterize the neuromuscular health of individuals because it is cheap, quick to implement, and requires limited equipment. However, DTR assessment is unreliable and assessor-dependent improve the reliability of the DTR assessment, we devised a novel standardization procedure. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that the neuromuscular state of a muscle changes systematically with respect to the indentation depth of its tendon. We tested the hypothesis by progressively indenting the biceps tendons on each side of nine hemiplegic stroke survivors to different depths, and then superimposing a series of brief controlled taps at each indentation depth to elicit a reflex response. Our results show that there exists a unique indentation depth at which reflex responses are consistently recorded (termed the Reflex Threshold) with increasing amplitude along increasing indentation depth. We further show that the reflex threshold depth is systematically smaller on the affected side of stroke survivors and that it is negatively correlated with the Modified Ashworth Score (VAF 70%). Our procedure also enables measurement of passive mechanical properties at the indentation location. In conclusion, our study shows that controlling for the indentation depth of the tendon of a muscle alters its reflex response predictably. Our novel device and method could be used to estimate neuromuscular changes in muscle (e.g., spasticity). Although some refinement is needed, this method opens the door to more reliable quantification of the DTR.

  7. Early modification of stretch reflex in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bergui, M; Paglia, G; Lopiano, L; Quattrocolo, G; Bergamini, L; Bergamasco, B

    1993-07-01

    We stretched quadriceps femoris in healthy subjects and in patients with a recent diagnosis of PD in order to assess whether modifications of the long-latency component of the stretch reflex is an early event in the course of Parkinson's disease (PD). We found a modified mechanical and electromyographic (EMG) behavior in stretching relaxed muscles of patients while voluntary activation greatly reduced differences between normal and Parkinsonian subjects, suggesting that a lower threshold of the response is an early sign in PD.

  8. Electrical stimulation cramp threshold frequency correlates well with the occurrence of skeletal muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C; Knight, Kenneth L

    2009-03-01

    The minimum electrical stimulation frequency (HZ) at which a muscle cramps is termed threshold frequency (TF). TF is theorized to represent one's predisposition to cramping; however, TF and cramp occurrence have never been correlated. We hypothesized that TF would be lower in individuals with a cramp history and lower on the second of two days of testing; genetics may partially explain this lower TF. Cramp TF was measured in 19 subjects with (Group 1), and 12 subjects without (Group 2), a cramp history. Group 1 had a lower TF (14.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 25.5 +/- 1.6 HZ; P < 0.001) and a higher family history of cramping than Group 2 (89% vs. 27%; P < 0.001). TF was lower on day 2 (18.3 +/- 0.26 HZ) than day 1 (19.7 +/- 0.25 HZ; P = 0.03). Lower TFs are correlated with cramp history, supporting the inference that lower TFs may represent increased predisposition toward cramping. TF may be used to identify individuals at risk of cramping.

  9. TETANUS TOXIN REDUCES LOCAL AND DESCENDING REGULATION OF THE H-REFLEX

    PubMed Central

    MATTHEWS, CHRISTOPHER C.; FISHMAN, PAUL S.; WITTENBERG, GEORGE F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Skeletal muscles that are under the influence of tetanus toxin show an exaggerated reflex response to stretch. We examined which changes in the stretch reflex may underlie the exaggerated response. Methods H-reflexes were obtained from the tibialis anterior (TA) and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles in rats 7 days after intramuscular injection of tetanus toxin into the TA. Results We found effects of the toxin on the threshold, amplitude, and duration of H-waves from the TA. The toxin inhibited rate-dependent depression in the FDB between the stimulation frequencies of 0.5–50 HZ and when a conditioning magnetic stimulus applied to the brain preceded a test electrical stimulus delivered to the plantar nerve. Conclusions Tetanus toxin increased the amplitude of the H-wave and reduced the normal depression of H-wave amplitude that is associated with closely timed stimuli, two phenomena that could contribute to hyperactivity of the stretch reflex. PMID:24772492

  10. Similarity in shape, timing and amplitude of H- and T-reflex potentials concurrently recorded along the broad skin area over soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Mineva, A; Dushanova, J; Gerilovsky, L

    1993-06-01

    Variations in shape, timing and amplitude of both mono- and bipolarly measured H- and T-reflex potentials can be influenced to a great extent by the muscle architecture and the peculiarities of the extracellular potential field. The "best point" for bipolar measurements, where the amplitude of the bipolar H- and T-potentials is maximal, occurred for the various subjects at a distance of 3.0 to 5.0 cm below the insertion of the gastrocnemii on the Achilles tendon. In contrast, the corresponding "best point" for monopolar H- and T-potentials is located 5.0 to 9.0 cm below the gastrocnemii insertion. The shape, total duration and timing of H- and T-potentials, concurrently measured at the various points along soleus muscle are similar. When the amplitude of the monopolar H- and T-potentials are levelled at the "best point" for monopolar measurements, the changes in the amplitude of both sets of potentials, monopolarly and bipolarly measured along soleus muscle, are identical. These results imply similar efferent outputs for both H- and T-reflexes, i.e. recruitment of motoneurons of comparable size.

  11. Changes in the Achilles tendon reflexes following Skylab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Hordinsky, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Postflight measurements of Achilles tendon reflex duration on Skylab crewmen indicate a state of disequilibrium between the flexor and extensor muscle groups with an initial decrease in reflex duration. As the muscles regain strength and mass there occurs an overcompensation reflected by increased reflex duration. Finally, when a normal neuromuscular state is reached the reflex duration returns to baseline value.

  12. Changes in the Achilles tendon reflexes following Skylab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Hordinsky, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Postflight measurements of Achilles tendon reflex duration on Skylab crewmen indicate a state of disequilibrium between the flexor and extensor muscle groups with an initial decrease in reflex duration. As the muscles regain strength and mass there occurs an overcompensation reflected by increased reflex duration. Finally, when a normal neuromuscular state is reached the reflex duration returns to baseline value.

  13. Convergence of flexor reflex and corticospinal inputs on tibialis anterior network in humans.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Ann S; Uttaro, Denise; McDonough, Maureen P; Krivis, Lisa I; Knikou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Integration between descending and ascending inputs at supraspinal and spinal levels is a key characteristic of neural control of movement. In this study, we characterized convergence of the flexor reflex and corticospinal inputs on the tibialis anterior (TA) network in healthy human subjects. Specifically, we characterized the modulation profiles of the spinal TA flexor reflex following subthreshold and suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also characterized the modulation profiles of the TA motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following medial arch foot stimulation at sensory and above reflex threshold. TA flexor reflexes were evoked following stimulation of the medial arch of the foot with a 30 ms pulse train at innocuous intensities. TA MEPs were evoked following TMS of the leg motor cortex area. TMS at 0.7 and at 1.2 MEP resting threshold increased the TA flexor reflex when TMS was delivered 40-100 ms after foot stimulation, and decreased the TA flexor reflex when TMS was delivered 25-110 ms before foot stimulation. Foot stimulation at sensory and above flexor reflex threshold induced a similar time-dependent modulation in resting TA MEPs, that were facilitated when foot stimulation was delivered 40-100 ms before TMS. The flexor reflex and MEPs recorded from the medial hamstring muscle were modulated in a similar manner to that observed for the TA flexor reflex and MEP. Cutaneomuscular afferents from the distal foot can increase the output of the leg motor cortex area. Descending motor volleys that directly or indirectly depolarize flexor motoneurons increase the output of the spinal FRA interneuronal network. The parallel facilitation of flexor MEPs and flexor reflexes is likely cortical in origin. Afferent mediated facilitation of corticospinal excitability can be utilized to strengthen motor cortex output in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  14. Earth-referenced handrail contact facilitates interlimb cutaneous reflexes during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Erin V; Zehr, E Paul

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the gating of interlimb cutaneous reflexes is altered by holding an earth-referenced handrail during locomotion. In the first experiment, subjects performed locomotor tasks of varying difficulty (level walking, incline walking, and stair climbing) while lightly holding an earth-referenced rail. In the second experiment, the extent of rail contact and nature of the rail stability (e.g., fixed vs. mobile rail) were varied while subjects performed incline walking. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by delivering trains of electrical stimulation to the sural nerve at the ankle. EMG data were collected continuously from muscles in the upper and lower limbs and trunk. Results showed that modulation of reflexes across the body changed when the rail was held. Most interestingly, a facilitatory reflex in the shoulder extensor posterior deltoid emerged during swing phase only when subjects held a rail. This facilitatory reflex was largest during the more challenging tasks of incline walking and stair climbing, A similar reflex facilitation was observed in the elbow extensor triceps brachii. The observed facilitation of reflexes in triceps brachii and posterior deltoid was specifically expressed only when subjects held an earth-referenced rail. This suggests that interlimb reflexes in arm extensors may be enhanced to make use of a supportive handrail for stability during gait. Therefore, holding a rail may cause global changes in reflex thresholds across the body that may have widespread functional relevance for assisting in the maintenance of postural stability during locomotion.

  15. Establishing between-session reliability of TMS-conditioned soleus H-reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gray, W A; Sabatier, M J; Kesar, T M; Borich, M R

    2017-02-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can be used to evaluate descending corticomotor influences on spinal reflex excitability through modulation of the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex). The purpose of this study was to characterize between-session reliability of cortical, spinal, and cortical-conditioned spinal excitability measures collected from the soleus muscle. Thirteen able-bodied young adult participants were tested over four sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify between-session reliability of active motor threshold (AMT), unconditioned H-reflexes (expressed as a percentage of Mmax), and conditioned H-reflexes using short-latency facilitation (SLF) and long-latency facilitation (LLF). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to assess associations between H-reflex facilitation and unconditioned H-reflex amplitude. Between-session reliability for SLF (ICC=0.71) was higher than for LLF (ICC=0.45), was excellent for AMT (ICC=0.95), and was moderate for unconditioned H-reflexes (ICC=0.63). Our results suggest moderate-to-good reliability of SLF and LLF to evaluate cortical influences on spinal reflex excitability across multiple testing sessions in able-bodied individuals.

  16. Reflex transmission to lumbar α-motoneurones in the mouse similar and different to those in the cat.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Eike D; Kalezic, Ivana; Dibaj, Payam; Steffens, Heinz

    2013-07-01

    Investigation and interpretation of defective motor circuitries in transgenic mice required further basic results from wild-type mice. Therefore, we investigated the lumbar motor reflex pattern in anaesthetised mice using intracellular motoneuronal recording and monosynaptic reflex testing. Thresholds and latencies in mice were similar to those in cats: thresholds for monosynaptic (group I) EPSPs were slightly above 1T (T=threshold for the lowest threshold fibres), around 1.5T for group II EPSPs and above 10T for group III EPSPs; group I EPSPs were maximal with a stimulus strength around 2T, group II EPSPs were maximal with 5-8T; latencies to the group I incoming volley were below 1ms for monosynaptic group I EPSPs, around 3ms for polysynaptic group II EPSPs and above 4ms for polysynaptic group III EPSPs. In contrast to reflex actions in the cat, monosynaptic gastrocnemius-soleus reflexes were facilitated by conditioning stimulation of the peroneal, sural and tibial nerves, i.e. by a variety of different, probably flexor reflex afferents. This facilitation persisted after high lumbar spinalisation indicating an independency to supraspinal influences. Nociceptive muscle afferents facilitated the peroneal monosynaptic reflex while nociceptive cutaneous afferents from the foot sole inhibited the ipsilateral but facilitated the contralateral peroneal reflex. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Changes in electrical pain threshold of fascia and muscle after initial and secondary bouts of elbow flexor eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wing Yin; Blazevich, Anthony J; Newton, Michael J; Wu, Sam Shi Xuan; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated changes in electrical pain threshold (EPT) after repeated eccentric exercise bouts to test the hypothesis that fascia would become more sensitive than muscle when greater delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is induced. Ten young men performed two eccentric exercise bouts (ECC1, ECC2) consisting of ten sets of six maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with the same arm separated by 4 weeks. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, range of motion, muscle soreness assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured before, immediately after and 1-5 days after exercise. EPT was assessed in the biceps brachii fascia (BBF), biceps brachii muscle, and brachialis fascia (BF) 1 day before, immediately after, and 1, 2 and 4 days after exercise. All measures showed smaller changes (P < 0.05) after ECC2 than ECC1. EPT decreased after both bouts and the largest decreases were evident at 2 days post-exercise (P < 0.05). The decreases in EPT after ECC1 were greater (P < 0.05) for both BBF (Baseline: 1.45 ± 0.23 mA, 2 days post-exercise: 0.13 ± 0.11 mA) and BF (1.64 ± 0.29 mA, 0.26 ± 0.2 mA) than muscle (1.56 ± 0.29 mA, 0.69 ± 0.33 mA). Changes in EPT were correlated with the changes in PPT (r = 0.63-0.87, P ≤ 0.05) but not with VAS (r = -0.01 to 0.50). These results show that fascia becomes more sensitive than muscle to electrical stimulation after the initial eccentric exercise, suggesting that damage inflammation to fascia than muscle fibres is more associated with DOMS.

  18. Suppression of jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes during swallowing in the cat.

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Ishiwata, Y; Kuroda, T; Nakamura, Y

    1999-11-01

    Jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes can be evoked by innocuous as well as noxious afferents from intra-oral structures. It has been reported that the amplitude of the jaw-opening reflex evoked by weak electrical stimulation of the upper lip is subject not only to tonic suppression but also to phase-linked modulation during mastication. In this study, we investigated whether the jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes are modulated during swallowing. Data were obtained from 8 chloralose-anesthetized cats. Reflexes were monitored by electromyographic activities recorded from the anterior digastric, genioglossus, and styloglossus muscles and, after paralysis, by the efferent discharge in the digastric and hypoglossal nerves. Swallowing was elicited either by water dropped on the tongue or by repetitive stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes were evoked by stimulation of the lingual nerve, and the evoked afferent volley was recorded from the Gasserian ganglion so that the threshold of the lingual nerve could be determined. The following results were obtained: (1) The jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes evoked by stimulation of the low-threshold, but not high-threshold, lingual afferents were remarkably suppressed during swallowing; and (2) both the jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes evoked by low-threshold lingual afferents were suppressed during fictive swallowing after the animals were paralyzed. We conclude that the jaw-opening and trigemino-hypoglossal reflexes evoked by low-threshold lingual afferents are suppressed during swallowing by a central motor program.

  19. Nociceptive trigeminocervical reflexes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Mariano; Coppola, Gianluca; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Di Fabio, Roberto; Padua, Luca; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    Electrical stimulation of the supraorbital trigeminal nerve branch induces trigeminocervical reflex responses (TCRs) in the neck muscles. The purpose of this study was to elicit more nociceptive TCR responses through preferential activation of the nociceptive afferents with a concentric surface electrode. We recorded TCRs in 10 healthy subjects using both a standard (sTCR) and a nociceptive (nTCR) concentric surface electrode. We compared the baseline parameters, stimulus intensity/response, recovery, and habituation curves recorded for the two types of electrode, and assessed the effects of local anaesthesia. Compared with the sTCRs, nTCRs showed a significantly longer latency of the late reflex component, as well as lower pain and higher reflex thresholds. They also showed a different recovery cycle and stimulus intensity/response curve, but similar habituation rate. Local anaesthesia attenuated by 85% the late reflex response to stimulation by the concentric electrode, and by only 15% the response to standard electrode stimulation. The differences observed stimulating with these two electrode types may be due to their different activation of the afferent fibres. If this study were extended to patients affected by primary headaches, TCR monitoring could emerge as a sensitive tool for detecting changes in nociceptive transmission at the level of trigeminocervical complex. 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressure-time cell death threshold for albino rat skeletal muscles as related to pressure sore biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Engelberg, Santiego; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Deep pressure sores (DPS) are associated with inadequate soft tissue perfusion and excessive tissue deformation over critical time durations, as well as with ischemia-reperfusion cycles and deficiency of the lymphatic system. Muscle tissue shows the lowest tolerance to pressure injuries, compared with more superficial tissues. In this communication, we present new histopathology data for muscle tissue of albino (Sprague-Dawley) rats exposed to pressures for 15 or 30 min. These data are superimposed with an extensive literature review of all previous histopathology reported for albino rat skeletal muscles subjected to pressure. The pooled data enabled a new mathematical characterization of the pressure-time threshold for cell death in striated muscle of rats, in the form of a sigmoid pressure-time relation, which extends the previous pressure-time relation to the shorter exposure periods. We found that for pressure exposures shorter than 1 h, the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death and the exposure time has little or no effect: even relatively short exposures (15 min - 1 h) to pressures greater than 32 kPa (240 mmHg) cause cell death in rat muscle tissue. For exposures of 2 h or over, again the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death: pressures greater than 9 kPa (67 mmHg) applied for over 2 h consistently cause muscle cell death. For the intermediate exposures (between 1 and 2 h), the magnitude of cell-death-causing pressure strongly depends on the time of exposure, i.e., critical pressure levels drop from 32 to 9 kPa. The present sigmoidal pressure-time cell death threshold is useful for design of studies in albino rat models of DPS, and may also be helpful in numerical simulations of DPS development, where there is often a need to extrapolate from tissue pressures to biological damage.

  1. Diagnostic REM sleep muscle activity thresholds in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine whether visual and automated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In iRBD patients (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 30) with and without OSA, we visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, tonic, and "any" muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and automated REM atonia index (RAI). Group RSWA metrics were analyzed with regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in iRBD patients than in controls (p <0.01). Muscle activity (phasic, "any") cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were as follows: submentalis (SM) (15.8%, 19.5%), anterior tibialis (AT) (29.7%, 29.7%), and combined SM/AT (39.5%, 39.5%). The tonic muscle activity cutoff was 0.70% and RAI (SM) cutoff 0.86. The phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were 0.66 s for SM and 0.71 s for AT. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved the sensitivity and specificity of iRBD diagnosis. This study provides evidence for quantitative RSWA diagnostic thresholds applicable in iRBD patients with OSA. Our findings in this study were very similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD), consistent with a common mechanism and presumed underlying etiology of synucleinopathy in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of 12-week Tai Chi training on soleus H-reflex and muscle strength in older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Crowley, Zachary; Zhou, Shi; Cartwright, Colleen

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12-week Tai Chi (TC) training on the soleus (SOL) H-reflex modulation and plantarflexion muscle strength in older adults. Twenty volunteers were assigned into training (N = 14; 72.2 ± 3.7 years of age) and control (N = 6; 74.2 ± 6.1 years of age) groups. The participants in the TC group practiced Yang style TC 1 h per session, 3 sessions per week, for 12 weeks, guided by a qualified TC instructor. The ratio of the maximal peak-to-peak amplitude of SOL H-reflex (H (max)) to M-wave (M (max)) was determined during bipedal standing under four sensory conditions: stable surface and eyes open (SO), stable surface and eyes closed (SC), unstable surface and eyes open (UO), and unstable surface and eyes closed (UC). The maximal isometric plantarflexion muscle strength was also assessed by using a dynamometer. The results showed that the SOL H (max)/M (max) ratio increased significantly after the 12 weeks of TC training under the SC (37.0%), UO (33.3%) and UC (36.0%) conditions (P < 0.05). The maximal plantarflexion strength also improved significantly after training (19.8%; P < 0.05). In contrast, the control group showed no significant changes in all measurements after the 12 weeks.

  3. Caring Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Rossman, Gretchen B.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief summary of the seven articles in this special issue through the lens of the concept of "caring reflexivity". In joining "caring" and "reflexivity", we deepen the conversation about what constitutes reflexivity, encouraging an explicit focus on the relational. Revisiting the first article,…

  4. Caring Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Rossman, Gretchen B.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief summary of the seven articles in this special issue through the lens of the concept of "caring reflexivity". In joining "caring" and "reflexivity", we deepen the conversation about what constitutes reflexivity, encouraging an explicit focus on the relational. Revisiting the first article,…

  5. Applicability of a threshold loading device for inspiratory muscle testing and training in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R; De Rosie, J; Long, S; Dolmage, T; Avendano, M A

    1989-09-01

    We evaluated application of a Pth device for testing inspiratory muscle endurance among patients with severe but stable COPD. Endurance time in five patients was reproducible. Magnitude of variability was +/- 1.26 minutes with a range of +/- 0.19 to +/- 2.28 minutes. Eleven inpatients completed inspiratory muscle training twice daily for four weeks in addition to their usual program of respiratory rehabilitation. The mean age of our experimental cohort was 65 years; FEV1, 33 +/- 12 percent predicted; and Dsb, 42 +/- 7 percent predicted. Baseline measurements showed no significant differences in pulmonary function, exercise tolerance, inspiratory muscle strength or inspiratory muscle endurance between control and study groups. Following training, the study group significantly improved inspiratory muscle endurance as evidenced by an increase in endurance time while breathing against the same absolute external Pth load used during baseline assessments. There were no associated changes in lung mechanics, muscle strength or exercise tolerance.

  6. Tonic vibration reflexes and background force level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, James R.; Dizio, Paul; Fisk, John

    1992-01-01

    On earth, the functional stretch reflex is an important component in the maintenance of posture and muscle tone. In parabolic flight experiments, it is evaluated whether the functional stretch reflex, as reflected in the tonic vibration reflex, adjusts appropriately for changes in background gravitoinertial force level. Virtually immediate alterations of appropriate sign occurred.

  7. GABAB receptors in the NTS mediate the inhibitory effect of trigeminal nociceptive inputs on parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the rat masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hisayoshi; Izumi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-15

    The present study was designed to examine whether trigeminal nociceptive inputs are involved in the modulation of parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the jaw muscles. This was accomplished by investigating the effects of noxious stimulation to the orofacial area with capsaicin, and by microinjecting GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor agonists or antagonists into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), on masseter hemodynamics in urethane-anesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the cervical vagus nerve (cVN) in sympathectomized animals bilaterally increased blood flow in the masseter muscle (MBF). Increases in MBF evoked by cVN stimulation were markedly reduced following injection of capsaicin into the anterior tongue in the distribution of the lingual nerve or lower lip, but not when injected into the skin of the dorsum of the foot. Intravenous administration of either phentolamine or propranolol had no effect on the inhibitory effects of capsaicin injection on the increases of MBF evoked by cVN stimulation, which were largely abolished by microinjecting the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen into the NTS. Microinjection of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-35348 into the NTS markedly attenuated the capsaicin-induced inhibition of MBF increase evoked by cVN stimulation, while microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline did not. Our results indicate that trigeminal nociceptive inputs inhibit vagal-parasympathetic reflex vasodilation in the masseter muscle and suggest that the activation of GABA(B) rather than GABA(A) receptors underlies the observed inhibition in the NTS.

  8. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression is lower in areas of the nucleus tractus solitarius excited by skeletal muscle reflexes in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masaki; Downey, Ryan M.; Squiers, John J.; Squiers, Kathryn E.; Smith, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The functions of the skeletal muscle exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and its mechanically sensitive component are augmented in hypertension producing exaggerated increases in blood pressure during exercise. Afferent information from the EPR is processed in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Within the NT, nitric oxide (NO), produced via l-arginine oxidation by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), buffers the pressor response to EPR activation. Therefore, EPR overactivity may manifest as a decrease in NO production due to reductions in nNOS. We hypothesized that nNOS protein expression is lower in the NTS of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Further, we examined whether nNOS is expressed with FOS, a marker of neuronal excitation induced by EPR activation. The EPR and mechanoreflex were intermittently activated for 1 h via hindlimb static contraction or stretch, respectively. These maneuvers produced significantly greater pressor responses in SHR during the first 25 min of stimulation. Within the NTS, nNOS expression was lower from −14.9 to −13.4 bregma in SHR compared with WKY. For example, at −14.5 bregma the number of NTS nNOS-positive cells in SHR (13 ± 1) was significantly less than WKY (23 ± 2). However, the number of FOS-positive cells after muscle contraction in this area was not different (WKY = 82 ± 18; SHR = 75 ± 8). In both groups, FOS-expressing neurons were located within the same areas of the NTS as neurons containing nNOS. These findings demonstrate that nNOS protein expression is lower within NTS areas excited by skeletal muscle reflexes in hypertensive rats. PMID:23564306

  9. The combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and stretching on muscle hardness and pressure pain threshold.

    PubMed

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hisayoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Yokoi, Yuka; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ogoma, Yoshiro; Abe, Koji

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the immediate effects of a combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching protocol. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy young males volunteered to participate in this study. The inclusion criterion was a straight leg raising range of motion of less than 70 degrees. [Methods] Subjects performed two protocols: 1) stretching (S group) of the medial hamstrings, and 2) tanscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (100 Hz) with stretching (TS group). The TS group included a 20-minute electrical stimulation period followed by 10 minutes of stretching. The S group performed 10 minutes of stretching. Muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion were analyzed to evaluate the effects. The data were collected before transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (T1), before stretching (T2), immediately after stretching (T3), and 10 minutes after stretching (T4). [Results] Combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching had significantly beneficial effects on muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion at T2, T3, and T4 compared with T1. [Conclusion] These results support the belief that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with stretching is effective in reducing pain and decreasing muscle hardness, thus increasing range of motion.

  10. The combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and stretching on muscle hardness and pressure pain threshold

    PubMed Central

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Ogihara, Hisayoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Yokoi, Yuka; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Ogoma, Yoshiro; Abe, Koji

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the immediate effects of a combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching protocol. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy young males volunteered to participate in this study. The inclusion criterion was a straight leg raising range of motion of less than 70 degrees. [Methods] Subjects performed two protocols: 1) stretching (S group) of the medial hamstrings, and 2) tanscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (100 Hz) with stretching (TS group). The TS group included a 20-minute electrical stimulation period followed by 10 minutes of stretching. The S group performed 10 minutes of stretching. Muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion were analyzed to evaluate the effects. The data were collected before transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (T1), before stretching (T2), immediately after stretching (T3), and 10 minutes after stretching (T4). [Results] Combined transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and stretching had significantly beneficial effects on muscle hardness, pressure pain threshold, and straight leg raising range of motion at T2, T3, and T4 compared with T1. [Conclusion] These results support the belief that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with stretching is effective in reducing pain and decreasing muscle hardness, thus increasing range of motion. PMID:27190439

  11. Stapedial reflex in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Murofushi, T; Yamane, M; Osanai, R

    1992-01-01

    In 27 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), stapedial reflexes were measured using impedance audiometry and compared with those of 11 age-matched control subjects. The reflex threshold of PD patients was lower than that of control subjects. A prolongation of contraction time (C50) and relaxation time (D50) was revealed. Between patients with and without L-dopa, there was no significant difference for any reflex parameter. But, the D50 of patients without anticholinergic drugs was longer than that of patients with anticholinergic drugs. The authors could not find any relationship between the severity of PD and the reflex parameters. The authors assume that the prolongation of reflex parameters might be attributed to the hyperactivity of the indirect pathways of the stapedial reflex.

  12. The history of examination of reflexes.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    In the late 1800s, Wilhelm Erb, Joseph Babinski, William Gowers, and others helped develop the neurologic examination as we know it today. Erb was one of the first to emphasize a detailed and systematic neurologic exam and was co-discoverer of the muscle stretch reflex, Gowers began studying the knee jerk shortly after it was described, and Babinski focused on finding reliable signs that could differentiate organic from hysterical paralysis. These physicians and others emphasized the bedside examination of reflexes, which have been an important part of the neurologic examination ever since. This review will focus on the history of the examination of the following muscle stretch and superficial/cutaneous reflexes: knee jerk, jaw jerk, deep abdominal reflexes, superficial abdominal reflexes, plantar reflex/Babinski sign, and palmomental reflex. The history of reflex grading will also be discussed.

  13. Operant conditioning to increase ankle control or decrease reflex excitability improves reflex modulation and walking function in chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Manella, Kathleen J; Roach, Kathryn E; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2013-06-01

    Ankle clonus is common after spinal cord injury (SCI) and is attributed to loss of supraspinally mediated inhibition of soleus stretch reflexes and maladaptive reorganization of spinal reflex pathways. The maladaptive reorganization underlying ankle clonus is associated with other abnormalities, such as coactivation and reciprocal facilitation of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL), which contribute to impaired walking ability in individuals with motor-incomplete SCI. Operant conditioning can increase muscle activation and decrease stretch reflexes in individuals with SCI. We compared two operant conditioning-based interventions in individuals with ankle clonus and impaired walking ability due to SCI. Training included either voluntary TA activation (TA↑) to enhance supraspinal drive or SOL H-reflex suppression (SOL↓) to modulate reflex pathways at the spinal cord level. We measured clonus duration, plantar flexor reflex threshold angle, timed toe tapping, dorsiflexion (DF) active range of motion, lower extremity motor scores (LEMS), walking foot clearance, speed and distance, SOL H-reflex amplitude modulation as an index of reciprocal inhibition, presynaptic inhibition, low-frequency depression, and SOL-to-TA clonus coactivation ratio. TA↑ decreased plantar flexor reflex threshold angle (-4.33°) and DF active range-of-motion angle (-4.32°) and increased LEMS of DF (+0.8 points), total LEMS of the training leg (+2.2 points), and nontraining leg (+0.8 points), and increased walking foot clearance (+ 4.8 mm) and distance (+12.09 m). SOL↓ decreased SOL-to-TA coactivation ratio (-0.21), increased nontraining leg LEMS (+1.8 points), walking speed (+0.02 m/s), and distance (+6.25 m). In sum, we found increased voluntary control associated with TA↑ outcomes and decreased reflex excitability associated with SOL↓ outcomes.

  14. Nociceptive withdrawal reflexes evoked by uniform-temperature laser heat stimulation of large skin areas in humans.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole Kaeseler; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-02-15

    Nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) were evoked by brief (200 ms) painful CO(2) laser stimulation at five intensities (1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 x pain threshold) applied to nine sites (2 cm(2)) separated by 1.7 cm on the dorsal side of the foot and anterior part of the lower leg of 14 healthy volunteers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the characteristics of NWRs evoked by a natural stimulation modality. The reflexes were measured as the electromyographic response from the iliopsoas (ILI), quadriceps vastus lateralis (QVL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) muscles. Stimulus-response relationships between heat intensity and the reflex magnitude and correlation between perceived pain intensity and reflex magnitude were observed in the ILI, QVL, BF, and TA but not the SOL. No significant differences in reflex magnitude were found between the stimulation sites. NWRs were evoked more often in flexor muscles than extensor muscles, indicating a non-site-specific reflex organization. The paper presents a new method to evoke NWRs by uniform-temperature laser heat stimulation of large skin areas in humans. These heat evoked reflexes had a stimulus-response relationship.

  15. Soleus H-reflex recruitment is not altered in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Schindler-Ivens, Sheila M; Shields, Richard K

    2004-05-01

    To determine whether spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with elevated monosynaptic reflex excitability. One-way experimental. Research laboratory. Convenience sample of 9 subjects (8 men, 1 woman) with chronic and complete SCI and 20 persons (14 men, 6 women) with no neurologic impairment. Subjects with SCI exhibited lower-extremity spasticity as indicated by velocity-dependent increased resistance to passive muscle stretch, abnormally brisk deep tendon reflexes, involuntary lower-extremity flexion and/or extension spasms, and clonus. Soleus H-reflex recruitment curves were elicited in all subjects. Soleus H-reflex threshold (HTH), gain (HGN), and amplitude (HPP). There was no difference between subjects with and without SCI in HTH, HGN, or HPP. Spasticity in people with chronic and complete SCI was not associated with increased excitability of the connections between Ia afferent projections and motoneurons. Factors extrinsic to these connections may have a role in spasticity caused by SCI.

  16. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    SciTech Connect

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.

    1986-11-01

    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local /sup 133/Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients.

  17. Jaw-Opening Reflex and Corticobulbar Motor Excitability Changes During Quiet Sleep in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Dongyuan; Lavigne, Gilles J.; Lee, Jye-Chang; Adachi, Kazunori; Sessle, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that the reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles is reduced during sleep. Design: Polysomnographic recordings in the electrophysiological study. Setting: University sleep research laboratories. Participants and Interventions: The reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability of jaw muscles was determined during the quiet awake state (QW) and quiet sleep (QS) in monkeys (n = 4). Measurements and Results: During QS sleep, compared to QW periods, both tongue stimulation-evoked jaw-opening reflex peak and root mean square amplitudes were significantly decreased with stimulations at 2-3.5 × thresholds (P < 0.001). The jaw-opening reflex latency during sleep was also significantly longer than during QW. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) within the cortical masticatory area induced rhythmic jaw movements at a stable threshold (≤ 60 μA) during QW; but during QS, ICMS failed to induce any rhythmic jaw movements at the maximum ICMS intensity used, although sustained jaw-opening movements were evoked at significantly increased threshold (P < 0.001) in one of the monkeys. Similarly, during QW, ICMS within face primary motor cortex induced orofacial twitches at a stable threshold (≤ 35 μA), but the ICMS thresholds were elevated during QS. Soon after the animal awoke, rhythmic jaw movements and orofacial twitches could be evoked at thresholds similar to those before QS. Conclusions: The results suggest that the excitability of reflex and corticobulbar-evoked activity in the jaw motor system is depressed during QS. Citation: Yao D; Lavigne GJ; Lee JC; Adachi K; Sessle BJ. Jaw-opening reflex and corticobulbar motor excitability changes during quiet sleep in non-human primates. SLEEP 2013;36(2):269-280. PMID:23372275

  18. Adductor T reflex abnormalities in patients with decreased patellar reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Deneri, Ersin; Ozkul, Ayca; Sair, Ahmet; Yaycioglu, Soner

    2009-08-01

    The adductor reflex (AR) is a tendon reflex that has various features that differ from other tendon reflexes. This reflex was tested in different disorders presenting with diminished patellar reflexes such as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), L2-L4 radiculopathy, and distal symmetric diabetic neuropathy (diabetic PNP). The AR and crossed-AR (elicited by tapping the contralateral patellar tendon) were recorded using concentric needle electrodes. Additionally, the patellar T reflex (vm-TR) and vastus medialis H reflex (vm-HR) were recorded using surface electrodes. AR was recorded in only one out of eight patients with DLRPN, but it was recorded in 21 out of 22 patients with L2-L4 radiculopathy (95.5%). Of these reflexes, only AR showed prolonged latency in the L2-L4 radiculopathy group. The latencies of AR, vm-TR, and vm-HR were prolonged in patients with diabetic PNP. We conclude that AR can be useful in the differential diagnosis of some lower motor neuron disorders that present with patellar reflex disturbance. Muscle Nerve 40: 264-270, 2009.

  19. Development of the Stretch Reflex in the Newborn: Reciprocal Excitation and Reflex Irradiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklebust, Barbara M.; Gottlieb, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    When tendon jerk reflexes were tested in seven newborns from one- to three-days old, stretch reflex responses in all major muscle groups of the lower limb were elicited. This "irradiation of reflexes" is a normal phenomenon in newborns, with the pathway becoming suppressed during normal maturation. In individuals with cerebral palsy,…

  20. Development of the Stretch Reflex in the Newborn: Reciprocal Excitation and Reflex Irradiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklebust, Barbara M.; Gottlieb, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    When tendon jerk reflexes were tested in seven newborns from one- to three-days old, stretch reflex responses in all major muscle groups of the lower limb were elicited. This "irradiation of reflexes" is a normal phenomenon in newborns, with the pathway becoming suppressed during normal maturation. In individuals with cerebral palsy,…

  1. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alexei; Oltvai, Zoltán N

    2011-04-29

    Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  2. Molecular Crowding Defines a Common Origin for the Warburg Effect in Proliferating Cells and the Lactate Threshold in Muscle Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Alexei; Oltvai, Zoltán N.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions. PMID:21559344

  3. Forces, movements and reflexes produced by pushing human teeth.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan J J; Mason, Andrew G; Cadden, Samuel W

    2012-05-01

    Pushing a tooth results in movement of the tooth and reflex inhibition of activity in jaw-closing muscles. The aims of this study were to determine how much tooth movement is required to elicit such reflexes and whether this is dependent on the point of force application to the tooth. Eight experiments were performed on six volunteer subjects. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from a masseter muscle while the subjects produced approximately 12.5 % of the EMG associated with maximal clenching. Reflexes were evoked by pushing at two positions (incisal and cervical) on an upper central incisor. The forces applied and the resulting movements of the tooth were recorded. There was a linear relationship between force and movement regardless of whether the force was incisal or cervical (Pearson's r = 0.91 and r = 0.93 respectively). There were no differences between the slopes or intercepts for these relationships (ANCOVA p = 0.42, p = 0.46 respectively). There were linear relationships between the logarithms of force or movement and the resulting inhibitory reflexes (r = 0.81, 0.79, 0.81 and 0.74 for incisal and cervical forces and incisal and cervical movements, respectively). Again, there were no significant differences between the slopes for these relationships (ANCOVA p = 0.75, p = 0.46 for force and movement, respectively). There were no significant differences between the reflex thresholds for incisal and cervical stimuli in terms of force (0.23 and 0.25 N, ANCOVA p = 0.1) or movement (9.7 and 8.5 μm, ANCOVA p = 0.22). Thus, it appears that neither tooth movements nor jaw reflexes are dependent on the point of force application to a tooth.

  4. Moro reflex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes This is a normal reflex present in newborn infants. Absence of the Moro reflex in an infant ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  5. Modulation of heat evoked nociceptive withdrawal reflexes by painful intramuscular conditioning stimulation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ole K; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2006-10-01

    Convergence between cutaneous heat nociceptors and muscles afferents was investigated by applying a phasic, conditioning electrical stimulus to the tibialis anterior muscle (a train of five 1 ms pulses over 21 ms) at varying time intervals relative to a thermal test stimulus used for evoking the withdrawal reflex in humans. The 200 ms thermal stimulus was applied on the dorsum of the foot at an intensity of two times the pain threshold. The conditioning electrical stimulus was applied at an intensity of two times the pain threshold via a set of intramuscular needle electrodes. The conditioning-test interval was varied between -400 ms and 8,000 ms at 17 different intervals. The mean reflex onset latency of reflexes evoked by thermal stimuli alone was 354 +/- 9 ms. A facilitation of the reflex was seen when the conditioning stimulus was applied 275 ms (174 +/- 30% compared to control) and 300 ms (162 +/- 32% compared to control) after the test stimulus onset indicating sensory convergence between muscle afferents (group I-III) and cutaneous Adelta heat nociceptors arriving simultaneously at the spinal cord.

  6. Physiological characteristics of low-threshold mechanoreceptors in joints, muscle and skin in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Macefield, Vaughan G

    2005-01-01

    1. The development of microneurography, in which an insulated tungsten microelectrode is inserted into an accessible peripheral or cranial nerve in awake human subjects, has allowed detailed analyses of the signalling capacities of single mechanoreceptive afferents from the skin, muscles and joints. For example, we know much about how the two classes of rapidly adapting (Meissner and Pacinian) and two classes of slowly adapting (Merkel and Ruffini) cutaneous mechanoreceptors encode forces applied normal or tangential to the skin of the hand and the similarities and differences in glabrous versus non-glabrous skin (and receptors associated with hairs). We also know about stretch- and force-sensitive endings in muscle (the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ, respectively) and how they behave during passive or active movements or during isometric contractions. In addition, we have characterized the firing properties of mechanoreceptors in the joint capsules of the fingers. However, we know little about sensory nerves in the periosteum, other than that nociceptors and Pacinian corpuscles exist. 2. In addition to studies on the physiology of sensory endings in human subjects, microstimulation through the recording microelectrode has revealed how the brain deals with the sensory information conveyed by a single afferent. From this work, we know that there is specificity in the sensory channels: electrical stimulation of a single Meissner or Pacinian corpuscle generates frequency dependent illusions of 'flutter' or 'vibration', whereas microstimulation of a single Merkel afferent can produce a percept of 'pressure' and stimulation of a single joint afferent can evoke a sensation of 'joint rotation'. Interestingly, the input from a single Ruffini ending in the skin cannot be perceived and the same is true of muscle spindle afferents. So, where does this leave us with osseoperception from the mouth? Given that the periodontal receptors in the vicinity have been lost

  7. Buccopalpebral reflex in Parkinson disease and blink reflex study.

    PubMed

    Unal, Yasemin; Kutlu, Gulnihal; Erdal, Abidin; Inan, Levent E

    2013-07-01

    To define a new primitive reflex named the buccopalpebral reflex (BPR), and to investigate this reflex clinically and neurophysiologically in patients with Parkinson disease. This prospectively designed study included 17 patients, 9 BPR positive patients, and 8 BPR negative patients in Ankara Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, and was carried out between January and December 2008. All patients had Parkinson disease without any medication. Using the blink reflex technique, 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve were stimulated. Additionally, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Unified Parkinson`s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Hoehn and Yahr Score (HYS), the blink frequency, and the duration of Parkinson disease was also matched between the 2 groups. In patients with positive BPR, 5 had tremor and the remaining 4 had bradykinesia as a dominant symptom, while all other patients with negative BPR had only tremor. When blink reflex findings were compared between the 2 groups, R2 and contralateral R2 latencies that were taken by supraorbital stimulus were significantly shorter in the BPR positive patients. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of MMSE, UPDRS, HYS, and frequency of blinking, and duration of illness between the 2 groups. This reflex may be an indicator of sensitivity or decrease of threshold level such as Myerson`s sign, in which there is no inhibition in glabella reflex. The blink reflex findings support this hypothesis.

  8. The canine phrenic-to-intercostal reflex

    PubMed Central

    De Troyer, André

    1998-01-01

    Paralysis of the diaphragm in the dog causes a non-vagal, non-chemical increase in the activity of the inspiratory intercostal muscles. In the present studies, the hypothesis was tested that phrenic afferent fibres may elicit a reflex inhibition of inspiratory intercostal activity. The electrical activity of the three groups of inspiratory intercostal muscles (parasternal intercostals, external intercostals, levator costae) was recorded in twenty vagotomized, spontaneously breathing dogs, and the proximal end of one or both C5 phrenic nerve roots was stimulated during inspiration. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral C5 phrenic roots caused an immediate reduction in inspiratory intercostal activity. This reduction was abolished when phrenic stimulation was repeated after section of the C5 dorsal roots. The reduction in external intercostal and levator costae activity during bilateral C5 afferent stimulation appeared when the stimulus strength was 3 times the motor threshold and it increased in magnitude when stimulus intensity was increased further. In contrast, the reduction in parasternal intercostal activity occurred only when the stimulus strength was 12 times the motor threshold. These observations confirm the hypothesis that diaphragmatic receptors may reflexly inhibit efferent activity to the inspiratory intercostal muscles, in particular the external intercostals and levator costae. This inhibition appears to be primarily mediated by small myelinated fibres. PMID:9518742

  9. Neural Mechanisms Influencing Interlimb Coordination during Locomotion in Humans: Presynaptic Modulation of Forearm H-Reflexes during Leg Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A.; Klarner, Taryn; Barss, Trevor S.; Hundza, Sandra R.; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Presynaptic inhibition of transmission between Ia afferent terminals and alpha motoneurons (Ia PSI) is a major control mechanism associated with soleus H-reflex modulation during human locomotion. Rhythmic arm cycling suppresses soleus H-reflex amplitude by increasing segmental Ia PSI. There is a reciprocal organization in the human nervous system such that arm cycling modulates H-reflexes in leg muscles and leg cycling modulates H-reflexes in forearm muscles. However, comparatively little is known about mechanisms subserving the effects from leg to arm. Using a conditioning-test (C-T) stimulation paradigm, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in Ia PSI underlie the modulation of H-reflexes in forearm flexor muscles during leg cycling. Subjects performed leg cycling and static activation while H-reflexes were evoked in forearm flexor muscles. H-reflexes were conditioned with either electrical stimuli to the radial nerve (to increase Ia PSI; C-T interval  = 20 ms) or to the superficial radial (SR) nerve (to reduce Ia PSI; C-T interval  = 37–47 ms). While stationary, H-reflex amplitudes were significantly suppressed by radial nerve conditioning and facilitated by SR nerve conditioning. Leg cycling suppressed H-reflex amplitudes and the amount of this suppression was increased with radial nerve conditioning. SR conditioning stimulation removed the suppression of H-reflex amplitude resulting from leg cycling. Interestingly, these effects and interactions on H-reflex amplitudes were observed with subthreshold conditioning stimulus intensities (radial n., ∼0.6×MT; SR n., ∼ perceptual threshold) that did not have clear post synaptic effects. That is, did not evoke reflexes in the surface EMG of forearm flexor muscles. We conclude that the interaction between leg cycling and somatosensory conditioning of forearm H-reflex amplitudes is mediated by modulation of Ia PSI pathways. Overall our results support a conservation of neural

  10. Neural mechanisms influencing interlimb coordination during locomotion in humans: presynaptic modulation of forearm H-reflexes during leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Klarner, Taryn; Barss, Trevor S; Hundza, Sandra R; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E Paul

    2013-01-01

    Presynaptic inhibition of transmission between Ia afferent terminals and alpha motoneurons (Ia PSI) is a major control mechanism associated with soleus H-reflex modulation during human locomotion. Rhythmic arm cycling suppresses soleus H-reflex amplitude by increasing segmental Ia PSI. There is a reciprocal organization in the human nervous system such that arm cycling modulates H-reflexes in leg muscles and leg cycling modulates H-reflexes in forearm muscles. However, comparatively little is known about mechanisms subserving the effects from leg to arm. Using a conditioning-test (C-T) stimulation paradigm, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in Ia PSI underlie the modulation of H-reflexes in forearm flexor muscles during leg cycling. Subjects performed leg cycling and static activation while H-reflexes were evoked in forearm flexor muscles. H-reflexes were conditioned with either electrical stimuli to the radial nerve (to increase Ia PSI; C-T interval  = 20 ms) or to the superficial radial (SR) nerve (to reduce Ia PSI; C-T interval  = 37-47 ms). While stationary, H-reflex amplitudes were significantly suppressed by radial nerve conditioning and facilitated by SR nerve conditioning. Leg cycling suppressed H-reflex amplitudes and the amount of this suppression was increased with radial nerve conditioning. SR conditioning stimulation removed the suppression of H-reflex amplitude resulting from leg cycling. Interestingly, these effects and interactions on H-reflex amplitudes were observed with subthreshold conditioning stimulus intensities (radial n., ∼0.6×MT; SR n., ∼ perceptual threshold) that did not have clear post synaptic effects. That is, did not evoke reflexes in the surface EMG of forearm flexor muscles. We conclude that the interaction between leg cycling and somatosensory conditioning of forearm H-reflex amplitudes is mediated by modulation of Ia PSI pathways. Overall our results support a conservation of neural

  11. Neuromuscular consequences of reflexive covert orienting.

    PubMed

    Corneil, Brian D; Munoz, Douglas P; Chapman, Brendan B; Admans, Tania; Cushing, Sharon L

    2008-01-01

    Visual stimulus presentation activates the oculomotor network without requiring a gaze shift. Here, we demonstrate that primate neck muscles are recruited during such reflexive covert orienting in a manner that parallels activity recorded from the superior colliculus (SC). Our results indicate the presence of a brainstem circuit whereby reflexive covert orienting is prevented from shifting gaze, but recruits neck muscles, predicting that similarities between SC and neck muscle activity should extend to other cognitive processes that are known to influence SC activity.

  12. Are Electrically Induced Muscle Cramps Able to Increase the Cramp Threshold Frequency, When Induced Once a Week?

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Link, Tobias Walter; Montag, Johannes Caspar Konrad; McCourt, Molly Leigh; Mester, Joachim

    2015-09-28

    The cramp threshold frequency (CTF) is known to be positively correlated with the individual cramp susceptibility. Here we assessed CTF changes after two bouts of electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMCs). The EIMCs (6×5 sec) were unilaterally induced twice (separated by one week) in the gastrocnemius of an intervention group (n=8), while 5 participants served as control. The CTF increased from 25.1±4.6 Hz at baseline to 31.4±9.0 Hz and 31.7±8.5 Hz 24 h after bout 1 and 2 (P<0.05). Thereafter, the CTF declined following both bouts to reach values of 28.0±6.7 Hz and 29.1±7.7 Hz after 72 h after bout 1 and 2. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and perceived discomfort during cramps was lower after bout 2 (P<0.05). CTF, CK, and discomfort did not change in CG. That is, a single bout of EIMCs induces a 24 h CTF increment and a second bout sustains this effect, while perceived discomfort and muscle damage decreases. This short term effect may help athletes to reduce the cramp susceptibility for an important match.

  13. Regulation of skeletal muscle transcriptome in elderly men after 6 weeks of endurance training at lactate threshold intensity.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Isabelle; Yoshioka, Mayumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tobina, Takuro; Paradis, René; Shono, Naoko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; St-Amand, Jonny

    2010-11-01

    A compromised muscle function due to aging, sarcopenia and reduced level of physical activity can lead to metabolic complications and chronic diseases. Endurance exercise counters these diseases by inducing beneficial adaptations whose molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have investigated the transcriptomic changes following mild-intensity endurance training in skeletal muscle of elderly men. Seven healthy subjects followed an exercise program of cycle ergometer training at lactate threshold (LT) level for 60 min/day, five times/week during six weeks. Physiological and transcriptomic changes were analyzed before and after training. LT training decreased percentage body fat and fasting levels of plasma glucose, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase levels. Transcriptomic analysis revealed fast-to-slow fiber type transition, increased amount of mtDNA encoded transcripts and modulation of 12 transcripts notably related to extracellular matrix (ECM), oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), as well as partially characterized and novel transcripts. The training simultaneously induced the expression of genes related to slow fiber type transition, OXPHOS and ECM, which might contribute to the improvement of glucose and lipid metabolisms and whole body aerobic capacity.

  14. The initial effects of an upper extremity neural mobilization technique on muscle fatigue and pressure pain threshold of healthy adults: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Ji, Sang Gu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an upper extremity neural mobilization technique on delayed onset muscle soreness. [Subjects] Forty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: a nerve mobilization group (experimental) and a control group. [Methods] The subjects of the experimental group were administered a median nerve mobilization technique and ultrasound for the biceps brachii muscle. The subjects in the control group were only administered ultrasound for the biceps brachii muscle. Muscle fatigue and the pressure pain threshold were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in all variables, compared to pre-intervention. Furthermore, the control group showed significant improvements in the pressure pain threshold, compared to pre-intervention. Significant differences in the post-intervention gains in muscle fatigue and pressure pain threshold were found between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Application of the upper extremity neural mobilization technique is considered to have a positive effect on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness. PMID:27134351

  15. Neural control of rhythmic, cyclical human arm movement: task dependency, nerve specificity and phase modulation of cutaneous reflexes.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E P; Kido, A

    2001-12-15

    1. The organization and pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation during rhythmic cyclical movements of the human upper limbs has received much less attention than that afforded the lower limb. Our working hypothesis is that control mechanisms underlying the modulation of cutaneous reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm movement are similar to those that control reflex modulation in the leg. Thus, we hypothesized that cutaneous reflexes would show task dependency and nerve specificity in the upper limb during rhythmic cyclical arm movement as has been demonstrated in the human lower limb. 2. EMG was recorded from 10 muscles crossing the human shoulder, elbow and wrist joints while bilateral whole arm rhythmic cyclical movements were performed on a custom-made, hydraulic apparatus. 3. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked with trains (5 x 1.0 ms pulses at 300 Hz) of electrical stimulation delivered at non-noxious intensities (approximately 2 x threshold for radiating parasthesia) to the superficial radial, median and ulnar nerves innervating the hand. 4. Cutaneous reflexes were typically modulated with the movement cycle (i.e. phase dependency was observed). There was evidence for nerve specificity of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic movement of the upper limbs. Task-dependent modulation was also seen as cutaneous reflexes were of larger amplitude or inhibitory (reflex reversal) during arm cycling as compared to static contraction. 5. While there are some differences in the patterns of cutaneous reflex modulation seen between the arms and legs, it is concluded that cutaneous reflexes are modulated similarly in the upper and lower limbs implicating similar motor control mechanisms.

  16. Neural control of rhythmic, cyclical human arm movement: task dependency, nerve specificity and phase modulation of cutaneous reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, E Paul; Kido, Aiko

    2001-01-01

    The organization and pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation during rhythmic cyclical movements of the human upper limbs has received much less attention than that afforded the lower limb. Our working hypothesis is that control mechanisms underlying the modulation of cutaneous reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm movement are similar to those that control reflex modulation in the leg. Thus, we hypothesized that cutaneous reflexes would show task dependency and nerve specificity in the upper limb during rhythmic cyclical arm movement as has been demonstrated in the human lower limb. EMG was recorded from 10 muscles crossing the human shoulder, elbow and wrist joints while bilateral whole arm rhythmic cyclical movements were performed on a custom-made, hydraulic apparatus. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked with trains (5× 1.0 ms pulses at 300 Hz) of electrical stimulation delivered at non-noxious intensities (∼2× threshold for radiating parasthesia) to the superficial radial, median and ulnar nerves innervating the hand. Cutaneous reflexes were typically modulated with the movement cycle (i.e. phase dependency was observed). There was evidence for nerve specificity of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic movement of the upper limbs. Task-dependent modulation was also seen as cutaneous reflexes were of larger amplitude or inhibitory (reflex reversal) during arm cycling as compared to static contraction. While there are some differences in the patterns of cutaneous reflex modulation seen between the arms and legs, it is concluded that cutaneous reflexes are modulated similarly in the upper and lower limbs implicating similar motor control mechanisms. PMID:11744775

  17. Are H-reflex and M-wave recruitment curve parameters related to aerobic capacity?

    PubMed

    Piscione, Julien; Grosset, Jean-François; Gamet, Didier; Pérot, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    Soleus Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude is affected by a training period and type and level of training are also well known to modify aerobic capacities. Previously, paired changes in H-reflex and aerobic capacity have been evidenced after endurance training. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between H- and M-recruitment curve parameters and aerobic capacity collected on a cohort of subjects (56 young men) that were not involved in regular physical training. Maximal H-reflex normalized with respect to maximal M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) was measured as well as other parameters of the H- or M-recruitment curves that provide information about the reflex or direct excitability of the motoneuron pool, such as thresholds of stimulus intensity to obtain H or M response (H(th) and M(th)), the ascending slope of H-reflex, or M-wave recruitment curves (H(slp) and M(slp)) and their ratio (H(slp)/M(slp)). Aerobic capacity, i.e., maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (MAP) were, respectively, estimated from a running field test and from an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Maximal oxygen consumption was only correlated with M(slp), an indicator of muscle fiber heterogeneity (p < 0.05), whereas MAP was not correlated with any of the tested parameters (p > 0.05). Although higher H-reflex are often described for subjects with a high aerobic capacity because of endurance training, at a basic level (i.e., without training period context) no correlation was observed between maximal H-reflex and aerobic capacity. Thus, none of the H-reflex or M-wave recruitment curve parameters, except M(slp), was related to the aerobic capacity of young, untrained male subjects.

  18. Suppression of cutaneous reflexes by a conditioning pulse during human walking.

    PubMed

    Bastiaanse, C M; Degen, S; Baken, B C M; Dietz, V; Duysens, J

    2006-06-01

    There are two ways in which responses to successive unexpected stimuli are attenuated, namely through habituation and conditioning. For the latter, it suffices that the unexpected stimulus is preceded by another just perceivable stimulus. In spinal cord reflexes this is termed conditioning, while in brainstem reflexes this is usually referred to as prepulse inhibition. Cutaneous reflexes in Tibialis Anterior (TA) are particularly strong during gait and they are thought to involve a transcortical loop. Can these reflexes be suppressed by giving a brief pulse prior to a reflex-evoking pulse given to the same nerve? To examine this question, electromyographic signals were recorded in healthy humans during walking. Sural nerve stimulation (train of five pulses (1 ms duration)) at 200 Hz were applied at two times perception threshold during different phases of the step cycle. The preceding pulse (single pulse of 1 ms at same intensity) was applied to the same nerve 150 ms before the reflex-evoking pulse train. Conditioning stimulation with a single pulse lowered significantly the following reflex response in the ipsilateral TA but much less in other muscles such as biceps femoris. The preceding pulse did not disturb the phase-dependent modulation or the typical reflex reversal. The finding that TA is selectively involved indicates that the suppressing mechanism may involve the motor cortex, which is known to be involved in the control of TA. The conditioning pulse did not cause a reduction in background activity. Therefore, the suppression of the reflex responses points to a premotoneuronal source such as presynaptic inhibition.

  19. The vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans: neural interactions between cardiovascular reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    1. Over the past 5 years, there has been emerging evidence that the vestibular system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in humans. We have studied this issue in humans by using head-down rotation (HDR) in the prone position. 2. These studies have clearly demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf vascular resistance during HDR. These responses are mediated by engagement of the otolith organs and not the semicircular canals. 3. However, differential activation of sympathetic nerve activity has been observed during HDR. Unlike MSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity does not increase with HDR. 4. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes (i.e. barorereflexes and skeletal muscle reflexes) has shown an additive interaction for MSNA. 5. The additive interaction between the baroreflexes and vestibulosympathetic reflex suggests that the vestibular system may assist in defending against orthostatic challenges in humans by elevating MSNA beyond that of the baroreflexes. 6. In addition, the further increase in MSNA via otolith stimulation during isometric handgrip, when arterial pressure is elevated markedly, indicates that the vestibulosympathetic reflex is a powerful activator of MSNA and may contribute to blood pressure and flow regulation during dynamic exercise. 7. Future studies will help evaluate the importance of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in clinical conditions associated with orthostatic hypotension.

  20. The vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans: neural interactions between cardiovascular reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    1. Over the past 5 years, there has been emerging evidence that the vestibular system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in humans. We have studied this issue in humans by using head-down rotation (HDR) in the prone position. 2. These studies have clearly demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf vascular resistance during HDR. These responses are mediated by engagement of the otolith organs and not the semicircular canals. 3. However, differential activation of sympathetic nerve activity has been observed during HDR. Unlike MSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity does not increase with HDR. 4. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes (i.e. barorereflexes and skeletal muscle reflexes) has shown an additive interaction for MSNA. 5. The additive interaction between the baroreflexes and vestibulosympathetic reflex suggests that the vestibular system may assist in defending against orthostatic challenges in humans by elevating MSNA beyond that of the baroreflexes. 6. In addition, the further increase in MSNA via otolith stimulation during isometric handgrip, when arterial pressure is elevated markedly, indicates that the vestibulosympathetic reflex is a powerful activator of MSNA and may contribute to blood pressure and flow regulation during dynamic exercise. 7. Future studies will help evaluate the importance of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in clinical conditions associated with orthostatic hypotension.

  1. Pain pressure threshold of a muscle tender spot increases following local and non-local rolling massage.

    PubMed

    Aboodarda, S J; Spence, A J; Button, Duane C

    2015-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effect of rolling massage on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in individuals with tender spots in their plantar flexor muscles. In a randomized control trial and single blinded study, tender spots were identified in 150 participants' plantar flexor muscles (gastrocnemius or soleus). Then participants were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups (n = 30): 1) heavy rolling massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-R), 2) heavy rolling massage on the contralateral calf (Contra-R), 3) light stroking of the skin with roller massager on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Sham), 4) manual massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-M) and 5) no intervention (Control). PPT was measured at 30 s and up to 15 min post-intervention via a pressure algometer. At 30 s post-intervention, the Ipsi-R (24 %) and Contra-R (21 %) demonstrated higher (p < 0.03) PPT values compared with Control and Sham. During 15 min post-intervention, PPT was higher (p < 0.05) following Ipsi-R (19.2 %), Contra-R (15.9 %) and Ipsi-M (10.9 %) compared with Control. There was no difference between the effects of three deep tissue massages (Ipsi-R, Ipsi-M and Contra-R) on PPT. Whereas the increased PPT following ipsilateral massage (Ipsi-R and Ipsi-M) might be attributed to the release of fibrous adhesions; the non-localized effect of rolling massage on the contralateral limb suggests that other mechanisms such as a central pain-modulatory system play a role in mediation of perceived pain following brief tissue massage. Overall, rolling massage over a tender spot reduces pain perception. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02528812 ), August 19(th), 2015.

  2. Muscle Repositioning: Combining Subjective and Objective Feedbacks in the Teaching and Practice of a Reflex-Based Myofascial Release Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bertolucci, Luiz Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Muscle Repositioning (MR) is a new style of myofascial release that elicits involuntary motor reactions detectable by electromyography. This article* describes the principal theoretical and practical concepts of MR, and summarizes a workshop presented October 31, 2009, after the Second International Fascia Research Congress, held at Vrije Universitiet, Amsterdam. The manual mechanical input of MR integrates the client’s body segments into a block, which is evident as a result of the diagnostic manual oscillations the practitioner imparts to the client’s body. Segmental integration is achieved when the client’s body responds as a unit to the oscillatory assessment. It appears that manually sustaining the condition of segmental integration evokes involuntary muscle reactions, which reactions might correspond to mechanisms that maintain homeostasis, such as pandiculation. It might be that these reactions are part of the MR mechanism of action and underlie its clinically observed efficacy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. For the practitioner and the client alike, segmental integration provides unique sensations. In teaching MR, these paired sensations can be used as kinesthetic feedback resources, because quality of touch can be guided by the client’s reported sensations, which should match the practitioner’s sensations. Another form of feedback with respect to quality of touch is the visually discernable degree of segmental integration. Finally, because the involuntary motor activity elicited by the MR touch can be objectively monitored through electromyography and possibly other instrumented measurements, the MR approach might yield objectivity, precision, and reproducibility—features seldom found in manual therapies. PMID:21589699

  3. Vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of experiments designed to investigate postural reflex behavior during sustained weightlessness are discussed. The first is to investigate, during prolonged weightlessness with Hoffmann response (H-reflex) measurement procedures, vestibulo-spinal reflexes associated with vestibular (otolith) responses evoked during an applied linear acceleration. This objective includes not only an evaluation of otolith-induced changes in a major postural muscle but also an investigation with this technique of the adaptive process of the vestibular system and spinal reflex mechanisms to this unique environment. The second objective is to relate space motion sickness to the results of this investigation. Finally, a return to the vestibulo-spinal and postural reflexes to normal values following the flight will be examined. The flight experiment involves activation of nerve tissue (tibial N) with electrical shock and the recording of resulting muscle activity (soleus) with surface electrodes. Soleus/spinal H-reflex testing procedures will be used in conjuction with linear acceleration through the subject's X-axis.

  4. Intact thumb reflex in areflexic Guillain Barré syndrome: A novel phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Naik, Karkal Ravishankar; Saroja, Aralikatte Onkarappa; Mahajan, Manik

    2014-04-01

    Areflexia is one of the cardinal clinical features for the diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome. However, some patients may have sluggish proximal muscle stretch reflexes. Presence of thumb reflex, a distal stretch muscle reflex has not been documented in Guillain Barré syndrome. We prospectively evaluated thumb reflex in Guillain Barré syndrome patients and age matched controls from April to September 2013. There were 31 patients with Guillain Barré syndrome in whom thumb reflex could be elicited in all (24 brisk, 7 sluggish), whereas all the other muscle stretch reflexes were absent in 29 patients at presentation and the remaining two had sluggish biceps and quadriceps reflexes (P = 0.001). Serial examination revealed gradual diminution of the thumb reflex (P < 0.001). Rapid progression of weakness was associated with early loss of the thumb reflex. Thumb reflex, a distal stretch reflex is preserved in the early phase of Guillain Barré syndrome.

  5. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Evdokia; Papanikolaou, Dimitra-Tania; Koutsojannis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI) score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM) was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67) completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p < 0.05) in the tested muscles' PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold. PMID:27990302

  6. Cutaneous reflex modulation and self-induced reflex attenuation in cerebellar patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Calenbergh, Frank; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cutaneous reflexes is important in the neural control of walking, yet knowledge about underlying neural pathways is still incomplete. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum is involved. Here we evaluated the possible roles of the cerebellum in cutaneous reflex modulation and in attenuation of self-induced reflexes. First we checked whether leg muscle activity during walking was similar in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and in healthy control subjects. We then recorded cutaneous reflex activity in leg muscles during walking. Additionally, we compared reflexes after standard (computer triggered) stimuli with reflexes after self-induced stimuli for both groups. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity was increased in the patient group compared with the control subjects, suggesting a coactivation strategy to reduce instability of gait. Cutaneous reflex modulation was similar between healthy control subjects and cerebellar patients, but the latter appeared less able to attenuate reflexes to self-induced stimuli. This suggests that the cerebellum is not primarily involved in cutaneous reflex modulation but that it could act in attenuation of self-induced reflex responses. The latter role in locomotion would be consistent with the common view that the cerebellum predicts sensory consequences of movement. PMID:25392164

  7. Cutaneous reflex modulation and self-induced reflex attenuation in cerebellar patients.

    PubMed

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Swinnen, Stephan P; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Modulation of cutaneous reflexes is important in the neural control of walking, yet knowledge about underlying neural pathways is still incomplete. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum is involved. Here we evaluated the possible roles of the cerebellum in cutaneous reflex modulation and in attenuation of self-induced reflexes. First we checked whether leg muscle activity during walking was similar in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and in healthy control subjects. We then recorded cutaneous reflex activity in leg muscles during walking. Additionally, we compared reflexes after standard (computer triggered) stimuli with reflexes after self-induced stimuli for both groups. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity was increased in the patient group compared with the control subjects, suggesting a coactivation strategy to reduce instability of gait. Cutaneous reflex modulation was similar between healthy control subjects and cerebellar patients, but the latter appeared less able to attenuate reflexes to self-induced stimuli. This suggests that the cerebellum is not primarily involved in cutaneous reflex modulation but that it could act in attenuation of self-induced reflex responses. The latter role in locomotion would be consistent with the common view that the cerebellum predicts sensory consequences of movement. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The effect of stimulation of Golgi tendon organs and spindle receptors from hindlimb extensor muscles on supraspinal descending inhibitory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Magherini, P C; Pompeiano, O; Seguin, J J

    1973-02-01

    muscle stretch. Conditioning stimulation of a muscle nerve activated the supraspinal descending mechanism responsible for the inhibitory phase of the SBS reflex only when the high threshold group III muscle afferents (innervating pressure-pain receptors) had been recruited by the electric stimulus. This finding contrasts with the great availability of the system to the low threshold cutaneous afferents. The proprioceptive afferent volleys originating from Golgi tendon organs as well as from both primary and secondary endings of muscle spindles, contrary to the cutaneous and the high threshold muscle afferent volleys, were apparently unable to elicit not only a SBS reflex inhibition, but also any delayed facilitation of monosynaptic extensor reflexes attributable to inhibition of the cerebellar Purkinje cells.

  9. [Analgesic and muscle tonus normalizing effect of flupirtine retard in chronic back pain. Results of a standardized therapeutic evaluation applying objective methods for measuring pain pressure threshold, pain pressure tolerance and muscle tension].

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwefe, G H H; Uberall, M A

    2008-01-17

    Chronic back pain is mainly caused by painful tension in the back muscles. Thus, analgesics with muscle tone decreasing effects that apparently normalize increased muscle tonus through specific modes of action without disturbing normal muscular movement are an important therapeutic option. Flupirtine retard (Katadolon S long) has provided such an option since 2006. To impartially evaluate the muscle tonus normalizing effects of flupirtine retard by applying specific, objective test methods in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain under routine practice conditions. Prospective standardized evaluation of a treatment with flupirtine retard in 30 patients with continuous chronic, therapy refractory back pain. Measurement of general pain intensity, pain pressure threshold and pain pressure tolerance for trigger-point related pain and muscle tension in the affected back muscles before and during flupirtine retard treatment were performed in a standardized manner. In comparison to the reproducible, constant initial values, the two-week treatment with flupirtine retard led to a significant improvement in all measured muscle-specific indicators: pain pressure threshold (+48%), pain pressure tolerance (+27%) and depth of penetration in the muscle (+18%) (all values p < 0.001). These were also correlated with a clinically observable and statistically significant pain relief from an initial level of 7.0 +/- 1.3 to 3.0 +/- 1.4. Flupirtine retard was shown to be a useful, effective and very tolerable therapeutic option for patients with chronic back pain. The improvement of muscle disturbances which are responsible for the pain in addition to pain relief was shown firstly by objective measure methods.

  10. [Jaw opening reflex: a new electrophysiologic method for objective assessment of trigeminal sensory disorders. I. Method and normal values].

    PubMed

    Hassfeld, S; Meinck, H M

    1992-12-01

    Retrospective analysis of trigeminal nerve evoked potentials in 40 consecutive patients, most of them with traumatic nerve lesions, showed that in 12 cases no trigeminal nerve SEP were obtainable, and 11 of the remaining 28 patients had normal trigeminal nerve SEP. Therefore the jaw-opening reflex was investigated as a potential tool for electrophysiologic analysis of facial sensory disturbances. The jaw-opening reflex was investigated in 60 healthy subjects (31 female, 29 male) aged 23-82 years. It was elicited by electrical 0.1 ms square wave pulses delivered to the lower and upper lips and to the infraorbital region on either side at a rate below 1 per 5s. The EMG responses were recorded from the bilateral masseter and temporalis muscles at a moderate voluntary activation. Under these conditions, the jaw-opening reflex reveals itself as two inhibitory pauses of the ongoing EMG on both sides, the onset latency of the first EMG-suppression being 10-15 ms, and of the second 35-50 ms. Particular attention was paid to the stimulus strength at threshold (TR) to evoke the jaw-opening reflex. We found that the jaw-opening reflex was constantly evoked by weak stimuli applied to the 2nd and 3rd trigeminal branches. Bilateral reflex responses with unilateral stimulation were a regular finding. The reflex responses increase with increasing stimulus strength (Fig. 1). Moderate to forcible activation of the jaw closing muscles is a prerequisite for optimum recordings of the jaw-opening reflex (Fig. 2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The reflex effects of nonnoxious sural nerve stimulation on human triceps surae motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Kukulka, C G

    1994-05-01

    1. The effects of low-intensity electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral sural nerve on the reflex response of human triceps surae motor neurons were examined in 169 motor units recorded in 11 adult volunteers: 69 units from soleus (SOL), 48 units from lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and 52 units from medial gastrocnemius (MG). The reflex effects were assessed by the peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) technique, categorized according to onset latencies, and the magnitudes of effects were calculated as percent changes in baseline firing rates. 2. Sural stimulation evoked complex changes in motor-unit firing at onset latencies between 28 and 140 ms. The two most common responses seen in all muscles were a short-latency depression (D1) in firing (mean onset latency = 40 ms) in 42% of all units studied and a secondary enhancement (E2) in firing (mean onset latency = 72 ms) in 43% of all units. In LG, the D1 effect represented a mean decrease in firing of 52% which was statistically different from the changes in MG (42% decrease) and SOL (38% decrease). The magnitudes of E2 effects were similar across muscles with an average of 47% increase in firing. 3. No differences were found in the frequencies of occurrence for the enhancements in firing among the muscles studied. The main difference in reflex responses was the occurrence of an intermediate latency depression (D2) in 27% of the LG units with a mean onset latency of 72 ms. 4. Based on estimates of conduction times for activation of low-threshold cutaneous afferents, the short-latency D1 response likely represents an oligosynaptic spinal reflex with transmission times similar to the Ia reciprocal inhibitory pathway. These findings raise the question as to the possibility of low-threshold cutaneous afferents sharing common interneurons with low-threshold muscle afferent reflexes that have identical onset latencies. The complex reflex effects associated with low-level stimulation of a cutaneous nerve indicate a rich

  12. Effects of 4 weeks of low-load unilateral resistance training, with and without blood flow restriction, on strength, thickness, V wave, and H reflex of the soleus muscle in men.

    PubMed

    Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-07-01

    To test the effects of 4 weeks of unilateral low-load resistance training (LLRT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), muscle thickness, volitional wave (V wave), and Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) of the soleus muscle. Twenty-two males were randomly distributed into three groups: a control group (CTR; n = 8); a low-load blood flow restriction resistance training group (BFR-LLRT; n = 7), who were an inflatable cuff to occlude blood flow; and a low-load resistance training group without blood flow restriction (LLRT; n = 7). The training consisted of four sets of unilateral isometric LLRT (25% of MVC) three times a week over 4 weeks. MVC increased 33% (P < 0.001) and 22% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. The soleus thickness increased 9.5% (P < 0.001) and 6.5% (P < 0.01) in the trained leg of both BFR-LLRT and LLRT groups, respectively. However, neither MVC nor thickness changed in either of the legs tested in the CTR group (MVC -1 and -5%, and muscle thickness 1.9 and 1.2%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Moreover, V wave and H reflex did not change significantly in all the groups studied (Vwave/M wave ratio -7.9 and -2.6%, and H max/M max ratio -3.8 and -4%, for the control and trained leg, respectively). Collectively, the present data suggest that in spite of the changes occurring in soleus strength and thickness, 4 weeks of low-load resistance training, with or without BFR, does not cause any change in neural drive or motoneuronal excitability.

  13. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2017-01-01

    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  14. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.

    2017-01-01

    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component. PMID:28298835

  15. The effect of voluntary modulation of the sensory-motor rhythm during different mental tasks on H reflex.

    PubMed

    Jarjees, M; Vučković, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of the short-term modulation of the soleus H reflex through self-induced modulation of the sensory-motor rhythm (SMR) as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) at Cz. Sixteen healthy participants took part in one session of neuromodulation. Motor imagery and mental math were strategies for decreasing SMR, while neurofeedback was used to increase SMR. H reflex of the soleus muscle was elicited by stimulating tibial nerve when SMR reached a pre-defined threshold and was averaged over 5 trials. Neurofeedback and mental math both resulted in the statistically significant increase of H reflex (p=1.04·10(-6) and p=5.47·10(-5) respectively) while motor imagery produced the inconsistent direction of H reflex modulation (p=0.57). The average relative increase of H reflex amplitude was for neurofeedback 19.0±5.4%, mental math 11.1±3.6% and motor imagery 2.6±1.0%. A significant negative correlation existed between SMR amplitude and H reflex for all tasks at Cz and C4. It is possible to achieve a short-term modulation of H reflex through short-term modulation of SMR. Various mental tasks dominantly facilitate H reflex irrespective of direction of SMR modulation. Improving understanding of the influence of sensory-motor cortex on the monosynaptic reflex through the self-induced modulation of cortical activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Yates, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that vestibular nerve stimulation in the cat elicits a specific pattern of sympathetic nerve activation, such that responses are particularly large in the renal nerve. This patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes was the same in anesthetized and decerebrate preparations. In the present study, we report that inputs from skin and muscle also elicit a specific patterning of sympathetic outflow, which is distinct from that produced by vestibular stimulation. Renal, superior mesenteric, and lumbar colonic nerves respond most strongly to forelimb and hindlimb nerve stimulation (approximately 60% of maximal nerve activation), whereas external carotid and hypogastric nerves were least sensitive to these inputs (approximately 20% of maximal nerve activation). In contrast to vestibulosympathetic reflexes, the expression of responses to skin and muscle afferent activation differs in decerebrate and anesthetized animals. In baroreceptor-intact animals, somatosympathetic responses were strongly attenuated (to <20% of control in every nerve) by increasing blood pressure levels to >150 mmHg. These findings demonstrate that different types of somatic inputs elicit specific patterns of sympathetic nerve activation, presumably generated through distinct neural circuits.

  17. Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Yates, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that vestibular nerve stimulation in the cat elicits a specific pattern of sympathetic nerve activation, such that responses are particularly large in the renal nerve. This patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes was the same in anesthetized and decerebrate preparations. In the present study, we report that inputs from skin and muscle also elicit a specific patterning of sympathetic outflow, which is distinct from that produced by vestibular stimulation. Renal, superior mesenteric, and lumbar colonic nerves respond most strongly to forelimb and hindlimb nerve stimulation (approximately 60% of maximal nerve activation), whereas external carotid and hypogastric nerves were least sensitive to these inputs (approximately 20% of maximal nerve activation). In contrast to vestibulosympathetic reflexes, the expression of responses to skin and muscle afferent activation differs in decerebrate and anesthetized animals. In baroreceptor-intact animals, somatosympathetic responses were strongly attenuated (to <20% of control in every nerve) by increasing blood pressure levels to >150 mmHg. These findings demonstrate that different types of somatic inputs elicit specific patterns of sympathetic nerve activation, presumably generated through distinct neural circuits.

  18. Infantile reflexes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Infantile reflexes are tested and observed by medical professionals to evaluate neurological function and development. Absent or ... reflex is normally lost, or redevelopment of an infantile reflex in an older child or adult may ...

  19. Losing touch: age-related changes in plantar skin sensitivity, lower limb cutaneous reflex strength, and postural stability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ryan M; McKeown, Monica D; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy

    2016-10-01

    Age-related changes in the density, morphology, and physiology of plantar cutaneous receptors negatively impact the quality and quantity of balance-relevant information arising from the foot soles. Plantar perceptual sensitivity declines with age and may predict postural instability; however, alteration in lower limb cutaneous reflex strength may also explain greater instability in older adults and has yet to be investigated. We replicated the age-related decline in sensitivity by assessing monofilament and vibrotactile (30 and 250 Hz) detection thresholds near the first metatarsal head bilaterally in healthy young and older adults. We additionally applied continuous 30- and 250-Hz vibration to drive mechanically evoked reflex responses in the tibialis anterior muscle, measured via surface electromyography. To investigate potential relationships between plantar sensitivity, cutaneous reflex strength, and postural stability, we performed posturography in subjects during quiet standing without vision. Anteroposterior and mediolateral postural stability decreased with age, and increases in postural sway amplitude and frequency were significantly correlated with increases in plantar detection thresholds. With 30-Hz vibration, cutaneous reflexes were observed in 95% of young adults but in only 53% of older adults, and reflex gain, coherence, and cumulant density at 30 Hz were lower in older adults. Reflexes were not observed with 250-Hz vibration, suggesting this high-frequency cutaneous input is filtered out by motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior. Our findings have important implications for assessing the risk of balance impairment in older adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Convergence in reflex pathways from multiple cutaneous nerves innervating the foot depends upon the number of rhythmically active limbs during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Hundza, Sandra R; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Zehr, E Paul

    2014-01-01

    Neural output from the locomotor system for each arm and leg influences the spinal motoneuronal pools directly and indirectly through interneuronal (IN) reflex networks. While well documented in other species, less is known about the functions and features of convergence in common IN reflex system from cutaneous afferents innervating different foot regions during remote arm and leg movement in humans. The purpose of the present study was to use spatial facilitation to examine possible convergence in common reflex pathways during rhythmic locomotor limb movements. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked in ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle by stimulating (in random order) the sural nerve (SUR), the distal tibial nerve (TIB), and combined simultaneous stimulation of both nerves (TIB&SUR). Reflexes were evoked while participants performed rhythmic stepping and arm swinging movement with both arms and the leg contralateral to stimulation (ARM&LEG), with just arm movement (ARM) and with just contralateral leg movement (LEG). Stimulation intensities were just below threshold for evoking early latency (<80 ms to peak) reflexes. For each stimulus condition, rectified EMG signals were averaged while participants held static contractions in the stationary (stimulated) leg. During ARM&LEG movement, amplitudes of cutaneous reflexes evoked by combined TIB&SUR stimulation were significantly larger than simple mathematical summation of the amplitudes evoked by SUR or TIB alone. Interestingly, this extra facilitation seen during combined nerve stimulation was significantly reduced when performing ARM or LEG compared to ARM&LEG. We conclude that locomotor rhythmic limb movement induces excitation of common IN reflex pathways from cutaneous afferents innervating different foot regions. Importantly, activity in this pathway is most facilitated during ARM&LEG movement. These results suggest that transmission in IN reflex pathways is weighted according to the number of limbs directly engaged

  1. Variability in Hoffmann and tendon reflexes in healthy male subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, E.; Do, S.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    There is a time dependent decrease in amplitude of H- and T-reflexes during Zero-G exposure and subsequently an increase in the amplitude of the H-reflex 2-4 hours after return to a 1-G environment. These alterations have been attributed to the adaptation of the human neurosensory system to gravity. The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is an acknowledged method to determine the integrity of the monosynaptic reflex arc. However deep tendon reflexes (DTR's or T-reflexes), elicited by striking the tendon also utilize the entire reflex arc. The objective of this study was to compare the variability in latency and amplitude of the two reflexes in healthy subjects. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects, 27-43 years in age, 161-175 cm in height plus 60-86 Kg in weight, underwent weekly testing for four weeks with a Dan-Tec EMG counterpoint EMG system. Subjects were studied prone and surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left soleus muscles. The H-reflex was obtained by stimulating the tibial nerve in the politeal fossa with a 0.2 msec square wave pulse delivered at 2 Hz until the maximum H-reflex was obtained. The T-reflex was invoked by tapping the achilles tendon with a self triggering reflex hammer connected to the EMG system. The latencies and amplitudes for the H- and T-reflexes were measured. Results: These data indicate that the amplitudes of these reflexes varied considerably. However, latencies to invoked responses were consistent. The latency of the T-reflex was approximately 3-5 msec longer than the H-reflex. Conclusion: The T-reflex is easily obtained, requires less time, and is more comfortable to perform. Qualitative data can be obtained by deploying self triggering, force plated reflex hammers both in the 1-G and Zero-G environment.

  2. Provocation of aspiration reflexes and their effects on the pattern of cough and reflex apnea in cats.

    PubMed

    Poliacek, I; Tomori, Z; Simera, M; Barani, H; Visnovcova, N; Halasova, E; Donic, V; Jakus, J

    2009-11-01

    Aspiration reflexes (AspRs) manifesting as reflex spasmodic inspirations and their effects on motor pattern of tracheobronchial cough and reflex apnea were studied on 22 spontaneously breathing pentobarbitone-anesthetized cats. AspRs induced during cough inspiration enhanced peak inspiratory (P<0.01) and expiratory (P<0.02) esophageal pressures, amplitudes of diaphragm (P<0.01) and abdominal muscles (P<0.05) EMG activity, and prolonged the entire expiratory period (P<0.01) and total cycle duration (P<0.05) of cough. Transient inhibitions and splits of cough expiration frequently occurred with AspR within active cough expiratory period; however, cough spatiotemporal characteristics were not altered significantly. Sub-threshold nasopharyngeal stimulation failing to provoke AspR had no significant effects on coughing. Hering-Breuer inflation apnea was moderately prolonged by AspRs (20%; P<0.05), unlike the apnea produced by continual mechanical laryngeal stimulation. AspRs are inducible during tested behaviors interacting with their motor pattern. Central mechanisms involving pulmonary stretch receptor stimulation is suggested for modulation of cough and inflation apnea by AspR.

  3. Distribution and threshold expression of the tRNA(Lys) mutation in skeletal muscle of patients with myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF).

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, L; Karpati, G; Shoubridge, E A

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and expression of mutant mtDNAs carrying the A-to-G mutation at position 8344 in the tRNA(Lys) gene in the skeletal muscle of four patients with myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF). The proportion of mutant genomes was greater than 80% of total mtDNAs in muscle samples of all patients and was associated with a decrease in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The vast majority of myoblasts, cloned from the satellite-cell population in the same muscles, were homoplasmic for the mutation. The overall proportion of mutant mtDNAs in this population was similar to that in differentiated muscle, suggesting that the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNAs in skeletal muscle is determined either in the ovum or during early development and changes little with age. Translation of all mtDNA-encoded genes was severely depressed in homoplasmic mutant myoblast clones but not in heteroplasmic or wild-type clones. The threshold for biochemical expression of the mutation was determined in heteroplasmic myotubes formed by fusion of different proportions of mutant and wild-type myoblasts. The magnitude of the decrease in translation in myotubes containing mutant mtDNAs was protein specific. Complex I and IV subunits were more affected than complex V subunits, and there was a rough correlation with both protein size and number of lysine residues. Approximately 15% wild-type mtDNAs restored translation and COX activity to near normal levels. These results show that the A-to-G substitution in tRNA(Lys) is a functionally recessive mutation that can be rescued by intraorganellar complementation with a small proportion of wild-type mtDNAs and explain the steep threshold for expression of the MERRF clinical phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1334369

  4. Distribution and threshold expression of the tRNA[sup Lys] mutation in skeletal muscle of patients with myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF)

    SciTech Connect

    Boulet, L.; Karpati, G. ); Shoubridge, E.A. McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec )

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the distribution and expression of mutant mtDNAs carrying the A-to-G mutation at position 8344 in the tRNA[sup Lys] gene in the skeletal muscle of four patients with myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF). The proportion of mutant genomes was greater than 80% of total mtDNAs in muscle samples of all patients and was associated with a decrease in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The vast majority of myoblasts, cloned from the satellite-cell population in the same muscles, were homoplasmic for the mutation. The overall proportion of mutant mtDNAs in this population was similar to that in differentiated muscle, suggesting that the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNAs in skeletal muscle is determined either in the ovum or during early development and changes little with age. Translation of all mtDNA-encoded genes was severely depressed in homoplasmic mutant myoblast clones but not in heteroplasmic or wild-type clones. The threshold for biochemical expression of the mutation was determined in heteroplasmic myotubes formed by fusion of different proportions of mutant and wild-type myoblasts. The magnitude of the decrease in translation in myotubes containing mutant mtDNAs was protein specific. Complex I and IV subunits were more affected than complex V subunits, and there was a rough correlation with both protein size and number of lysine residues. Approximately 15% wild-type mtDNAs restored translation and COX activity to near normal levels. These results show that the A-to-G substitution in tRNA[sup Lys] is a functionally recessive mutation that can be rescued by intraorganellar complementation with a small proportion of wild-type mtDNAs and explain the steep threshold for expression of the MERRF clinical phenotype. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Torso flexion modulates stiffness and reflex response.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Rogers, E

    2007-08-01

    Neuromuscular factors that contribute to spinal stability include trunk stiffness from passive and active tissues as well as active feedback from reflex response in the paraspinal muscles. Trunk flexion postures are a recognized risk factor for occupational low-back pain and may influence these stabilizing control factors. Sixteen healthy adult subjects participated in an experiment to record trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex gain during voluntary isometric trunk extension exertions. The protocol was designed to achieve trunk flexion without concomitant influences of external gravitational moment, i.e., decouple the effects of trunk flexion posture from trunk moment. Systems identification analyses identified reflex gain by quantifying the relation between applied force disturbances and time-dependent EMG response in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Trunk stiffness was characterized from a second order model describing the dynamic relation between the force disturbances versus the kinematic response of the torso. Trunk stiffness increased significantly with flexion angle and exertion level. This was attributed to passive tissue contributions to stiffness. Reflex gain declined significantly with trunk flexion angle but increased with exertion level. These trends were attributed to correlated changes in baseline EMG recruitment in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Female subjects demonstrated greater reflex gain than males and the decline in reflex gain with flexion angle was greater in females than in males. Results reveal that torso flexion influences neuromuscular factors that control spinal stability and suggest that posture may contribute to the risk of instability injury.

  6. Quantitative assessment of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Helene; Zeiter, Stephan; Andersen, Ole K; Wieling, Ronald; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2014-04-22

    This study aimed to characterize the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and to define the nociceptive threshold in 25 healthy, non-medicated experimental sheep in standing posture. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral digital nerves of the right thoracic and the pelvic limb was performed and surface-electromyography (EMG) from the deltoid (all animals) and the femoral biceps (18 animals) or the peroneus tertius muscles (7 animals) was recorded. The behavioural reaction following each stimulation was scored on a scale from 0 (no reaction) to 5 (strong whole body reaction). A train-of-five 1ms constant-current pulse was used and current intensity was stepwise increased until NWR threshold intensity was reached. The NWR threshold intensity (It) was defined as the minimal stimulus intensity able to evoke a reflex with a minimal Root-Mean-Square amplitude (RMSA) of 20μV, a minimal duration of 10ms and a minimal reaction score of 1 (slight muscle contraction of the stimulated limb) within the time window of 20 to 130ms post-stimulation. Based on this value, further stimulations were performed below (0.9It) and above threshold (1.5It and 2It). The stimulus-response curve was described. Data are reported as medians and interquartile ranges. At the deltoid muscle It was 4.4mA (2.9-5.7) with an RMSA of 62μV (30-102). At the biceps femoris muscle It was 7.0mA (4.0-10.0) with an RMSA of 43μV (34-50) and at the peroneus tertius muscle It was 3.4mA (3.1-4.4) with an RMSA of 38μV (32-46). Above threshold, RMSA was significantly increased at all muscles. Below threshold, RMSA was only significantly smaller than at It for the peroneus tertius muscle but not for the other muscles. Data achieved in this study serve as reference for experimental or clinical applications of the conscious sheep model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Excess VO2 during ramp exercise is positively correlated to intercostal muscles deoxyhemoglobin levels above the gas exchange threshold in young trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ferid; Girard, Olivier; Tabka, Zouhair; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    We assessed respiratory muscles oxygenation responses during a ramp exercise to exhaustion and further explored their relationship with the non-linear increase of VO2 (VO2 excess) observed above the gas-exchange threshold. Ten male cyclists completed a ramp exercise to exhaustion on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 30Wmin(-1) with continuous monitoring of expired gases (breath-by-breath) and oxygenation status of intercostal muscles. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements were taken at rest and at exhaustion. The VO2 excess represents the difference between VO2max observed and VO2max expected using linear equation between the VO2 and the intensity before gas-exchange threshold. The deoxyhemoglobin remained unchanged until 60% of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and thereafter increased significantly by 37±18% and 40±22% at 80% and 100% of MAP, respectively. Additionally, the amplitude of deoxyhemoglobin increase between 60 and 100% of MAP positively correlated with the VO2 excess (r=0.69, p<0.05). Compared to exercise start, the oxygen tissue saturation index decreased from 80% of MAP (-4.8±3.2%, p<0.05) onwards. At exhaustion, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures declined by 7.8±16% and 12.6±10% (both p<0.05), respectively. In summary, our results suggest a significant contribution of respiratory muscles to the VO2 excess phenomenon.

  8. The relation between spasticity and muscle behavior during the swing phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Molenaers, Guy; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Monari, Davide; Feys, Hilde; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-12-01

    There is much debate about how spasticity contributes to the movement abnormalities seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). This study explored the relation between stretch reflex characteristics in passive muscles and markers of spasticity during gait. Twenty-four children with CP underwent 3D gait analysis at three walking velocity conditions (self-selected, faster and fastest). The gastrocnemius (GAS) and medial hamstrings (MEHs) were assessed at rest using an instrumented spasticity assessment that determined the stretch-reflex threshold, expressed in terms of muscle lengthening velocity. Muscle activation was quantified with root mean square electromyography (RMS-EMG) during passive muscle stretch and during the muscle lengthening periods in the swing phase of gait. Parameters from passive stretch were compared to those from gait analysis. In about half the children, GAS peak muscle lengthening velocity during the swing phase of gait did not exceed its stretch reflex threshold. In contrast, in the MEHs the threshold was always exceeded. In the GAS, stretch reflex thresholds were positively correlated to peak muscle lengthening velocity during the swing phase of gait at the faster (r = 0.46) and fastest (r = 0.54) walking conditions. In the MEHs, a similar relation was found, but only at the faster walking condition (r = 0.43). RMS-EMG during passive stretch showed moderate correlations to RMS-EMG during the swing phase of gait in the GAS (r = 0.46-0.56) and good correlations in the MEHs (r = 0.69-0.77) at all walking conditions. RMS-EMG during passive stretch showed no correlations to peak muscle lengthening velocity during gait. We conclude that a reduced stretch reflex threshold in the GAS and MEHs constrains peak muscle lengthening velocity during gait in children with CP. With increasing walking velocity, this constraint is more marked in the GAS, but not in the MEHs. Hyper-activation of stretch reflexes during passive stretch is related to

  9. Wireless quantified reflex device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoyne, Robert Charles

    The deep tendon reflex is a fundamental aspect of a neurological examination. The two major parameters of the tendon reflex are response and latency, which are presently evaluated qualitatively during a neurological examination. The reflex loop is capable of providing insight for the status and therapy response of both upper and lower motor neuron syndromes. Attempts have been made to ascertain reflex response and latency, however these systems are relatively complex, resource intensive, with issues of consistent and reliable accuracy. The solution presented is a wireless quantified reflex device using tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometers to obtain response based on acceleration waveform amplitude and latency derived from temporal acceleration waveform disparity. Three specific aims have been established for the proposed wireless quantified reflex device: 1. Demonstrate the wireless quantified reflex device is reliably capable of ascertaining quantified reflex response and latency using a quantified input. 2. Evaluate the precision of the device using an artificial reflex system. 3.Conduct a longitudinal study respective of subjects with healthy patellar tendon reflexes, using the wireless quantified reflex evaluation device to obtain quantified reflex response and latency. Aim 1 has led to the steady evolution of the wireless quantified reflex device from a singular two dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of measuring reflex response to a tandem three dimensional wireless accelerometer capable of reliably measuring reflex response and latency. The hypothesis for aim 1 is that a reflex quantification device can be established for reliably measuring reflex response and latency for the patellar tendon reflex, comprised of an integrated system of wireless three dimensional MEMS accelerometers. Aim 2 further emphasized the reliability of the wireless quantified reflex device by evaluating an artificial reflex system. The hypothesis for aim 2 is that

  10. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 ± 0.8 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.0–41.9 ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 ± 0.5 ms; 95% CI: 33.6–35.5 ms) and the mean difference was 6.2 ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.7–7.7 ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  11. Regulation of muscle stiffness during periodic length changes in the isolated abdomen of the hermit crab.

    PubMed

    Chapple, W D

    1997-09-01

    the mechanoreceptors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a robust feedforward regulation of abdominal stiffness during continuous disturbances is achieved by mechanoreceptors signalling the absolute value of changing forces; habituation of the reflex, its high-threshold for low frequency disturbances and the activation kinetics of the muscle further modify reflex dynamics.

  12. Evaluation of administration of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration on depression of a nociceptive withdrawal reflex evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ponies.

    PubMed

    Spadavecchia, Claudia; Levionnois, Olivier; Kronen, Peter W; Leandri, Massimo; Spadavecchia, Luciano; Schatzmann, Urs

    2006-05-01

    To investigate effects of isoflurane at approximately the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) of the forelimb of ponies as a method for quantifying anesthetic potency. 7 healthy adult Shetland ponies. Individual MAC (iMAC) for isoflurane was determined for each pony. Then, effects of isoflurane administered at 0.85, 0.95, and 1.05 iMAC on the NWR were assessed. At each concentration, the NWR threshold was defined electromyographically for the common digital extensor and deltoid muscles by stimulating the digital nerve; additional electrical stimulations (3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mA) were delivered, and the evoked activity was recorded and analyzed. After the end of anesthesia, the NWR threshold was assessed in standing ponies. Mean +/- SD MAC of isoflurane was 1.0 +/- 0.2%. The NWR thresholds for both muscles increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner during anesthesia, whereas they decreased in awake ponies. Significantly higher thresholds were found for the deltoid muscle, compared with thresholds for the common digital extensor muscle, in anesthetized ponies. At each iMAC tested, amplitudes of the reflex responses from both muscles increased as stimulus intensities increased from 3 to 40 mA. A concentration-dependent depression of evoked reflexes with reduction in slopes of the stimulus-response functions was detected. Anesthetic-induced changes in sensory-motor processing in ponies anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of approximately 1.0 MAC can be detected by assessment of NWR. This method will permit comparison of effects of inhaled anesthetics or anesthetic combinations on spinal processing in equids.

  13. Characteristics of the spino-bulbo-spinal reflex with evoked EMGs in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Miyazawa, T; Fujiwara, T

    1984-08-01

    Training in sports medicine and rehabilitation medicine requires the establishment of conditioned reflexes. Reinforcement of a conditioned reflex is more effective when it is part of a set of two or three reflexes. The late spinal reflexes appearing after conditioning were resolved into a stretch reflex and a spino-bulbo-spinal (SBS) reflex. H and M waves on the tibialis anterior muscle induced by tibial nerve stimulation were determined from the escape potential of the triceps sural muscle contraction. The tibial nerve and peroneal nerve were stimulated bilaterally, and H and M waves from the triceps sural muscle and tibialis anterior muscle were recorded bilaterally. The complete separation method of the late response and the time course of the stretch reflex and SBS reflex that composed the late response are described in this paper.

  14. The acoustic reflex in children without an hermetic seal.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H; Babecki, S; Thomas, C

    1980-01-01

    In clinical practice with children, the hermetic seal is either often not obtainable or is lost before acoustic reflex measures are obtained. In a recent study, Surr and Schuchman (Archives of Otolaryngology 102, 160--161, 1976.) found that in the majority of cases reflex thresholds could be measured in adults with normal middle ears in the absence of an hermetic seal. This study was designed to find out whether the conclusions of Surr and Schuchman could be extended to children. Sealed and unsealed reflexes were compared in 30 children, ages 3 to 7, with normal middle ears. Results indicated that: (1) approximately two-thirds of the children demonstrated reflexes in the unsealed condition; (2) differences between sealed and unsealed reflex thresholds were not clinically significant; (3) in most cases, unsealed reflexes were measurable at all frequencies or at none; (4) neither size of ear canal volume nor amplitude of the sealed reflex at 10 dB SL seemed to be related to the presence or absence of the unsealed reflex. It was concluded that reflex thresholds obtained in the absence of an hermetic seal may be considered valid but the absence of an unsealed reflex should not be considered diagnostically significant.

  15. Pressure pain thresholds assessed over temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy individuals, patients with tension-type headache, and those with migraine--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sanne; Petersen, Marie Weinreich; Svendsen, Anette Sand; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-08-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify and summarize the available scientific literature addressing pressure pain threshold (PPT) values over the temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles in healthy humans, patients with tension-type headache (TTH), and those with migraine both in males and females. Six relevant medical databases for the literature search were included: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, BioMed Central, and Embase. The search strategy was performed applying 15 keywords (eg, pressure pain threshold, temporalis muscle, tension type headache, pressure algometer) and their combinations. A total of 156 articles were identified, and 40 relevant articles were included. The main outcomes of the systematic review were extracted, and it was demonstrated that the PPT values in general were lower in patients compared with healthy subjects, and this was especially noted for temporalis in both females (migraine: 231.2 ± 38.3 kPa < TTH: 248.4 ± 39.3 kPa < healthy: 282.1 ± 70.8 kPa) and males (migraine: 225.5 ± 61.2 kPa < TTH: 264.2 ± 32.5 kPa < healthy: 314.8 ± 63.3 kPa). The masseter muscle seemed to be more sensitive than the other 2 muscles, in both females (healthy: masseter 194.1 ± 62.7 kPa < frontalis 277.5 ± 51.1 kPa < temporalis 282.1 ± 70.8 kPa) and males (healthy: masseter 248.2 ± 48.4 kPa < temporalis 314.8 ± 63.3 < frontalis 388 kPa). Females had lower PPT values than those of males in temporalis, masseter, and frontalis muscles. This work is the first to systematically review the scientific literature addressing PPT values over craniofacial muscles of healthy subjects, patients with TTH, and those with migraine to provide the PPT value ranges. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines was established to assist future studies including PPT assessments over craniofacial muscles.

  16. Reflexives in Veracruz Huastec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Peter G.

    A study examines various Huastec clause types that are reflexive in some sense, including ordinary reflexives, which involve co-reference. Two mutually exclusive morphosyntactic devices are used in Huastec: reflexive pronouns and verbal morphology. In this way, Huastec is like various European languages. Clauses involving reflexive pronouns and…

  17. The nasocardiac reflex.

    PubMed

    Baxandall, M L; Thorn, J L

    1988-06-01

    The oculocardiac reflex is well described and recognised in anaesthesia. The nasocardiac reflex is less well-known. We describe a clinical manifestation of this reflex and describe the relevant anatomy. This reflex may be obtunded during general anaesthesia. during general anaesthesia.

  18. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  19. Hyperekplexia and stiff-man syndrome: abnormal brainstem reflexes suggest a physiological relationship

    PubMed Central

    Khasani, S; Becker, K; Meinck, H

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Hyperekplexia and the stiff-man syndrome (SMS) are both conditions with exaggerated startle suggesting abnormal brainstem function. Investigation of brainstem reflexes may provide insight into disturbed reflex excitation and inhibition underlying these movement disorders. Patients and methods: Using four-channel EMG, we examined four trigeminal brainstem reflexes (monosynaptic masseter, masseter inhibitory, glabella, and orbicularis oculi blink reflexes) and their spread into pericranial muscles in five patients with familial hyperekplexia (FH), two with acquired hyperekplexia (AH), 10 with SMS, and 15 healthy control subjects. Results: Both FH/AH and SMS patients had abnormal propagation of brainstem reflexes into pericranial muscles. All patients with hyperekplexia showed an abnormal short-latency (15–20 ms) reflex in the trapezius muscle with a characteristic clinical appearance ("head retraction jerk") evoked by tactile or electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve, but normal monosynaptic masseter reflexes. Inhibitory brainstem reflexes were attenuated in some FH/AH patients. Four of 10 patients with SMS had similar short-latency reflexes in the neck muscles and frequently showed widespread enhancement of other excitatory reflexes, reflex spasms, and attenuation of inhibitory brainstem reflexes. Conclusion: Reflex excitation is exaggerated and inhibition is attenuated in both stiff-man syndrome and familial or acquired hyperekplexia, indicating a physiological relationship. Reflex transmission in the brainstem appears biased towards excitation which may imply dysfunction of inhibitory glycinergic or GABAergic interneurons, or both. PMID:15314112

  20. Hyperekplexia and stiff-man syndrome: abnormal brainstem reflexes suggest a physiological relationship.

    PubMed

    Khasani, S; Becker, K; Meinck, H-M

    2004-09-01

    Hyperekplexia and the stiff-man syndrome (SMS) are both conditions with exaggerated startle suggesting abnormal brainstem function. Investigation of brainstem reflexes may provide insight into disturbed reflex excitation and inhibition underlying these movement disorders. Using four-channel EMG, we examined four trigeminal brainstem reflexes (monosynaptic masseter, masseter inhibitory, glabella, and orbicularis oculi blink reflexes) and their spread into pericranial muscles in five patients with familial hyperekplexia (FH), two with acquired hyperekplexia (AH), 10 with SMS, and 15 healthy control subjects. Both FH/AH and SMS patients had abnormal propagation of brainstem reflexes into pericranial muscles. All patients with hyperekplexia showed an abnormal short-latency (15-20 ms) reflex in the trapezius muscle with a characteristic clinical appearance ("head retraction jerk") evoked by tactile or electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve, but normal monosynaptic masseter reflexes. Inhibitory brainstem reflexes were attenuated in some FH/AH patients. Four of 10 patients with SMS had similar short-latency reflexes in the neck muscles and frequently showed widespread enhancement of other excitatory reflexes, reflex spasms, and attenuation of inhibitory brainstem reflexes. Reflex excitation is exaggerated and inhibition is attenuated in both stiff-man syndrome and familial or acquired hyperekplexia, indicating a physiological relationship. Reflex transmission in the brainstem appears biased towards excitation which may imply dysfunction of inhibitory glycinergic or GABAergic interneurons, or both.

  1. Effect of different velocity loss thresholds during a power-oriented resistance training program on the mechanical capacities of lower-body muscles.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J; Feriche, Belén

    2017-09-11

    This study compared the effects of two velocity loss thresholds during a power-oriented resistance training program on the mechanical capacities of lower-body muscles. Twenty men were counterbalanced in two groups (VL10 and VL20) based on their maximum power capacity. Both groups used the same exercises, relative intensity and repetition volume, only differing in the velocity loss threshold of each set (VL10: 10% vs. VL20: 20%). Pre- and post-training assessments included an incremental loading test and a 15-m linear sprint to assess the force- and load-velocity relationships and athletic performance variables, respectively. No significant between-group differences (P > 0.05) were observed for the force-velocity relationship parameters (ES range = 0.15-0.42), the MPV attained against different external loads (ES range = 0.02-0.18) or the 15-m sprint time (ES = 0.09). A high between-participants variability was reported for the number of repetitions completed in each training set (CV = 30.3% for VL10 and 29.4% for VL20). These results suggest that both velocity loss thresholds induce similar changes on the lower-body function. The high and variable number of repetitions completed may compromise the velocity-based approach for prescribing and monitoring the repetition volume during a power-oriented resistance training program conducted with the countermovement jump exercise.

  2. Electrophysiological Correlates of the Threshold to Detection of Passive Motion: An Investigation in Professional Volleyball Athletes with and without Atrophy of the Infraspinatus Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Salles, José Inácio; Cossich, Victor Rodrigues Amaral; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim T.; Cagy, Maurício; Motta, Geraldo; Velasques, Bruna; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to compare the electrophysiological correlates of the threshold to detection of passive motion (TTDPM) among three groups: healthy individuals (control group), professional volleyball athletes with atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle on the dominant side, and athletes with no shoulder pathologies. More specifically, the study aims at assessing the effects of infraspinatus muscle atrophy on the cortical representation of the TTDPM. A proprioception testing device (PTD) was used to measure the TTDPM. The device passively moved the shoulder and participants were instructed to respond as soon as movement was detected (TTDPM) by pressing a button switch. Response latency was established as the delay between the stimulus (movement) and the response (button press). Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded simultaneously. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and subsequent post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in latency between the group of athletes without the atrophy when compared both to the group of athletes with the atrophy and to the control group. Furthermore, distinct patterns of cortical activity were observed in the three experimental groups. The results suggest that systematically trained motor abilities, as well as the atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle, change the cortical representation of the different stages of proprioceptive information processing and, ultimately, the cortical representation of the TTDPM. PMID:23484136

  3. Stretch reflex and Hoffmann reflex responses to osteopathic manipulative treatment in subjects with Achilles tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Howell, John N; Cabell, Karen S; Chila, Anthony G; Eland, David C

    2006-09-01

    Irvin M. Korr, PhD, hypothesized that sensitivity of the monosynaptic stretch reflex (ie, deep tendon reflex) plays a major role in the restriction-of-motion characteristic of somatic dysfunction, and that restoration of range of motion through osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) could be achieved by resetting of the stretch receptor gain. To test Korr's hypothesis in the context of Achilles tendinitis, examining whether OMT applied to patients with Achilles tendinitis reduces the strength of the stretch reflex. Subjects were recruited through public advertisements and referrals from healthcare professionals. There were no recruitment restrictions based on demographic factors. Amplitudes for stretch reflex and H-reflex (Hoffmann reflex) in the triceps surae muscles (the soleus together with the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius) were measured in subjects with diagnosed Achilles tendonitis (n=16), both before and after OMT. These measurements were also made in asymptomatic control subjects (n=15) before and after sham manipulative treatment. As predicated on the concepts of the strain-counterstrain model developed by Lawrence H. Jones, DO, the use of OMT produced a 23.1% decrease in the amplitude of the stretch reflex of the soleus (P<.05) in subjects with Achilles tendinitis. Similarly significant responses were measured in the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius in OMT subjects. The H-reflex was not significantly affected by OMT. In control subjects, neither reflex was significantly affected by sham manipulative treatment. By using a rating scale on questionnaires before treatment and daily for 7 days posttreatment, OMT subjects indicated significant clinical improvement in soreness, stiffness, and swelling. The reduction of stretch reflex amplitude with OMT, together with no change in H-reflex amplitude, is consistent with Korr's proprioceptive hypothesis for somatic dysfunction and patient treatment. Because subjects' soreness ratings

  4. Linear time delay methods and stability analyses of the human spine. Effects of neuromuscular reflex response.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Timothy C; Granata, Kevin P; Madigan, Michael L; Hendricks, Scott L

    2008-08-01

    Linear stability methods were applied to a biomechanical model of the human musculoskeletal spine to investigate effects of reflex gain and reflex delay on stability. Equations of motion represented a dynamic 18 degrees-of-freedom rigid-body model with time-delayed reflexes. Optimal muscle activation levels were identified by minimizing metabolic power with the constraints of equilibrium and stability with zero reflex time delay. Muscle activation levels and associated muscle forces were used to find the delay margin, i.e., the maximum reflex delay for which the system was stable. Results demonstrated that stiffness due to antagonistic co-contraction necessary for stability declined with increased proportional reflex gain. Reflex delay limited the maximum acceptable proportional reflex gain, i.e., long reflex delay required smaller maximum reflex gain to avoid instability. As differential reflex gain increased, there was a small increase in acceptable reflex delay. However, differential reflex gain with values near intrinsic damping caused the delay margin to approach zero. Forward-dynamic simulations of the fully nonlinear time-delayed system verified the linear results. The linear methods accurately found the delay margin below which the nonlinear system was asymptotically stable. These methods may aid future investigations in the role of reflexes in musculoskeletal stability.

  5. The lack of deep reflexes in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Messina, C; Tonali, P; Scoppetta, C

    1976-12-01

    Clinical and electrophysiological observations have been carried out on 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Neurological examination showed that the tendon reflexes were absent or weak in almost all cases, whereas the cutaneous reflexes were normal. Examination of both deep and superficial sensibility gave normal results. Electromyography confirmed widespread "myopathic" activity and myotonic discharges were recorded on insertion of the needle electrode and at rest. Motor and sensory conduction velocity in the ulnar nerve and motor conduction in the peroneal nerve proved to be normal. Repetitive supramaximal nerve stimulation showed in 10 cases a decrease in potential amplitude, more evident at higher frequencies of stimulation. In the 2 other cases, by contrast, an increase in amplitude was observed, and this was suggestive of a partial presynaptic block. The jaw reflex was absent in 5 cases and reduced in amplitude in the 7 other cases. The results of blink reflex investigations were normal, with the exception of 2 cases where no early response was elicited. Spinal monosynaptic reflexes were absent in 7 cases after both electrical (H reflex) and mechanical stimulation (T reflex), whereas the response to direct stimulation of nerve motor fibres (the M response) was always present, even though reduced in amplitude. Such data lead one to reject the hypothesis that the absence of deep reflexes is due to pathological change in the muscle spindles. It seems more likely that the selective atrophy of Type 1 muscle fibres, known to be involved in deep reflex responses, is responsible for the early disappearance of the tendon reflexes.

  6. Role of stretch reflex in voluntary movements. [of human foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, G. L.; Agarwal, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The stretch reflex is often described as a spinal servomechanism, a device for assisting in the regulation of muscle length. Observation of the EMG response to mechanical interruption of voluntary movements fails to demonstrate a significant role for spinal reflexes at 40 msec latency. Two functional responses with latencies of 120 msec and 200 msec, implying supraspinal mediation, are observed.

  7. Effects of Static Flexion-relaxation on Paraspinal Reflex Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; Rogers, Ellen; Moorhouse, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background. Static trunk flexion working postures and disturbed trunk muscle reflexes are related to increased risk of low-back pain. Animal studies conclude that these factors may be related; passive tissue strain in spinal ligaments causes subsequent short-term changes in reflex. Although studies have documented changes in the myoelectric onset angle of flexion-relaxation following prolonged static flexion and cyclic flexion we could find no published evidence related to the human reflex response of the trunk extensor muscles following a period of static flexion-relaxation loading. Methods. Eighteen subjects maintained static lumbar flexion for 15 min. Paraspinal muscle reflexes were elicited both before and after the flexion-relaxation protocol using pseudorandom stochastic force disturbances while recording EMG. Reflex gain was computed from the peak value of the impulse response function relating input force perturbation to EMG response using time-domain deconvolution analyses. Findings. Reflexes showed a trend toward increased gain after the period of flexion-relaxation (P < 0.055) and were increased with trunk extension exertion (P < 0.021). Significant gender differences in reflex gain were observed (P < 0.01). Interpretations. Occupational activities requiring extended periods of trunk flexion contribute to changes in reflex behavior of the paraspinal muscles. Results suggest potential mechanisms by which flexed posture work may contribute to low-back pain. Significant gender differences indicate risk analyses should consider personal factors when considering neuromuscular behavior. PMID:15567532

  8. Role of stretch reflex in voluntary movements. [of human foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, G. L.; Agarwal, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The stretch reflex is often described as a spinal servomechanism, a device for assisting in the regulation of muscle length. Observation of the EMG response to mechanical interruption of voluntary movements fails to demonstrate a significant role for spinal reflexes at 40 msec latency. Two functional responses with latencies of 120 msec and 200 msec, implying supraspinal mediation, are observed.

  9. Effects of stimulation of group I afferents from flexor muscles on heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes produced by Ia and descending inputs: a test for presynaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Enriquez, M

    1991-01-01

    1. In the chloralose anesthetized cat, conditioning stimulation of group I flexor afferents depresses the monosynaptic potentials generated by Ia afferents in single spinal motoneurons or in populations of motoneurons without affecting the monosynaptic potentials produced by stimulation of descending fibers in the ipsilateral ventromedial fasciculus (VMF). 2. Heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes was used to test changes in the presynaptic effectiveness of excitatory inputs with direct connections with motoneurons. We found that the heterosynaptic facilitation of Ia origin was reduced by conditioning stimulation of group I afferents from flexors, without affecting the heterosynaptic facilitation produced by stimulation of the VMF. 3. These results confirm and expand previous observations showing that the synaptic effectiveness of descending fibers synapsing with motoneurons is not subjected to a presynaptic control mechanism of the type acting on Ia fiber terminals, and provide further basis for the use of changes in heterosynaptic facilitation of monosynaptic reflexes of Ia origin as an estimate of changes in presynaptic inhibition of Ia fibers (Hultborn et al. 1987a).

  10. Vestibular reflexes of otolith origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Victor J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibular system and its role in the maintenance of posture and in motion sickness is investigated using cats as experimental subjects. The assumption is that better understanding of the physiology of vestibular pathways is not only of intrinsic value, but will help to explain and eventually alleviate the disturbances caused by vestibular malfunction, or by exposure to an unusual environment such as space. The first project deals with the influence on the spinal cord of stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth, particularly the otoliths. A second was concerned with the properties and neural basis of the tonic neck reflex. These two projects are related, because vestibulospinal and tonic neck reflexes interact in the maintenance of normal posture. The third project began with an interest in mechanisms of motion sickness, and eventually shifted to a study of central control of respiratory muscles involved in vomiting.

  11. Soleus H-Reflex Operant Conditioning Changes The H-Reflex Recruitment Curve

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Operant conditioning can gradually change the human soleus H-reflex. The protocol conditions the reflex near M-wave threshold. This study examined its impact on the reflexes at other stimulus strengths. Methods H-reflex recruitment curves were obtained before and after a 24-session exposure to an up-conditioning (HRup) or down-conditioning (HRdown) protocol and were compared. Results In both HRup and HRdown subjects, conditioning affected the entire H-reflex recruitment curve. In 5 of 6 HRup and 3 of 6 HRdown subjects, conditioning elevated (HRup) or depressed (HRdown), respectively, the entire curve. In the other HRup subject or the other 3 HRdown subjects, the curve was shifted to the left or to the right, respectively. Discussion H-reflex conditioning does not simply change the H-reflex to a stimulus of particular strength; it also changes the H-reflexes to stimuli of different strengths. Thus, it is likely to affect many actions in which this pathway participates. PMID:23281107

  12. Soleus H-reflex operant conditioning changes the H-reflex recruitment curve.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Aiko K; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-04-01

    Operant conditioning can gradually change the human soleus H-reflex. The protocol conditions the reflex near M-wave threshold. In this study we examine its impact on the reflexes at other stimulus strengths. H-reflex recruitment curves were obtained before and after a 24-session exposure to an up-conditioning (HRup) or a down-conditioning (HRdown) protocol and were compared. In both HRup and HRdown subjects, conditioning affected the entire H-reflex recruitment curve. In 5 of 6 HRup and 3 of 6 HRdown subjects, conditioning elevated (HRup) or depressed (HRdown), respectively, the entire curve. In the other HRup subject or the other 3 HRdown subjects, the curve was shifted to the left or to the right, respectively. H-reflex conditioning does not simply change the H-reflex to a stimulus of particular strength; it also changes the H-reflexes to stimuli of different strengths. Thus, it is likely to affect many actions in which this pathway participates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Embodied Self-Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagis, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on G. H. Mead and Merleau-Ponty, this paper aims to extend our understanding of self-reflexivity beyond the notion of a discursive, abstract, and symbolic process. It offers a framework for embodied self-reflexivity, which anchors the self in the reflexive capacity of bodily sensations. The data consist of two years of ethnographic…

  14. Embodied Self-Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagis, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on G. H. Mead and Merleau-Ponty, this paper aims to extend our understanding of self-reflexivity beyond the notion of a discursive, abstract, and symbolic process. It offers a framework for embodied self-reflexivity, which anchors the self in the reflexive capacity of bodily sensations. The data consist of two years of ethnographic…

  15. Reflex origin of parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Burne, J A

    1987-08-01

    The 8-Hz wrist tremor seen in normal subjects results from an oscillation in the spinal stretch reflex arc but the resting 4-Hz tremor of Parkinson's disease is believed to result from synchronization of motor unit activity by periodic descending inputs driven by an oscillator which resides within the brain. Accelerometer and smoothed EMG (0.8 to 16.0-Hz pass) recordings of resting tremor were taken from the upper limbs of 10 volunteers with Parkinson's disease for several different limb positions and while the limb was fixed to prevent tremor movements. The smoothed EMG and accelerometer records produced a complex periodic waveform with prominent 4- and 8-Hz components. Spectral analysis of both records produced large peaks at those frequencies which were harmonically related. The appearance of the regular tremor waveform in accelerometer and smoothed EMG records was greatly altered by changes in limb posture in all patients. Fixing of the shoulder and elbow joints only, also altered the smoothed EMG waveform and reduced the tremor amplitude. Fixing of the entire limb removed all signs of synchronization of motor unit activity in raw and smoothed EMG records. Similarly, the prominent 4- and 8-Hz peaks, found in the smoothed EMG power spectra from trembling muscles, were eliminated if the limb was effectively prevented from trembling. These experiments showed that the synchronization of motor unit activity at Parkinson's tremor frequency is wholly dependent on the oscillation in limb position and thus proprioceptive reflex activity. It is suggested that the known properties of the 4-Hz resting tremor of Parkinson's disease can be attributed to a flip-flop oscillation involving the mutually inhibitory connections between the spinal stretch reflexes of antagonist muscles. The supraspinal contribution to the tremor may thus be confined to an "aperiodic" descending facilitation of spinal reflex pathways.

  16. Computation of inverse functions in a model of cerebellar and reflex pathways allows to control a mobile mechanical segment.

    PubMed

    Ebadzadeh, M; Tondu, B; Darlot, C

    2005-01-01

    The command and control of limb movements by the cerebellar and reflex pathways are modeled by means of a circuit whose structure is deduced from functional constraints. One constraint is that fast limb movements must be accurate although they cannot be continuously controlled in closed loop by use of sensory signals. Thus, the pathways which process the motor orders must contain approximate inverse functions of the bio-mechanical functions of the limb and of the muscles. This can be achieved by means of parallel feedback loops, whose pattern turns out to be comparable to the anatomy of the cerebellar pathways. They contain neural networks able to anticipate the motor consequences of the motor orders, modeled by artificial neural networks whose connectivity is similar to that of the cerebellar cortex. These networks learn the direct biomechanical functions of the limbs and muscles by means of a supervised learning process. Teaching signals calculated from motor errors are sent to the learning sites, as, in the cerebellum, complex spikes issued from the inferior olive are conveyed to the Purkinje cells by climbing fibers. Learning rules are deduced by a differential calculation, as classical gradient rules, and they account for the long term depression which takes place in the dendritic arborizations of the Purkinje cells. Another constraint is that reflexes must not impede voluntary movements while remaining at any instant ready to oppose perturbations. Therefore, efferent copies of the motor orders are sent to the interneurones of the reflexes, where they cancel the sensory-motor consequences of the voluntary movements. After learning, the model is able to drive accurately, both in velocity and position, angular movements of a rod actuated by two pneumatic McKibben muscles. Reflexes comparable to the myotatic and tendinous reflexes, and stabilizing reactions comparable to the cerebellar sensory-motor reactions, reduce efficiently the effects of perturbing torques

  17. The effect of dry needling on pain, pressure pain threshold and disability in patients with a myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Karimi, Noureddin; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    Dry needling (DN) has been used recently by physical therapists as a therapy of choice for patients with myofascial trigger points (TrP). The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of DN in the treatment of TrPs in the upper trapezius (UT) muscle. A sample of convenience of 33 patients with TrP in the UT muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 16). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of trigger point compression technique (TCT) on MTP, while the patients in the experimental group received DN. Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were assessed for both groups before and after the treatment sessions. In addition, the Disability of Arm, Hand, and Shoulder (DASH) was administered. Statistical analysis (paired t-test) revealed a significant improvement in pain, PPT and DASH scores after treatment in the experimental (DN) and standard (TCT) group compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). The ANCOVA revealed significant differences between the DN and TCT groups on the post-measurement VAS score (P = 0.01). There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups on the post-measurement score of the PPT (P = 0.08) and DASH (P = 0.34). DN produces an improvement in pain intensity, PPT and DASH and may be prescribed for subjects with TrP in UT muscles especially when pain relief is the goal of the treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tissue engineering the mechanosensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc with human stem cells: Sensory neuron innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiufang; Colon, Alisha; Akanda, Nesar; Spradling, Severo; Stancescu, Maria; Martin, Candace; Hickman, James J

    2017-04-01

    Muscle spindles are sensory organs embedded in the belly of skeletal muscles that serve as mechanoreceptors detecting static and dynamic information about muscle length and stretch. Through their connection with proprioceptive sensory neurons, sensation of axial body position and muscle movement are transmitted to the central nervous system. Impairment of this sensory circuit causes motor deficits and has been linked to a wide range of diseases. To date, no defined human-based in vitro model of the proprioceptive sensory circuit has been developed. The goal of this study was to develop a human-based in vitro muscle sensory circuit utilizing human stem cells. A serum-free medium was developed to drive the induction of intrafusal fibers from human satellite cells by actuation of a neuregulin signaling pathway. Both bag and chain intrafusal fibers were generated and subsequently validated by phase microscopy and immunocytochemistry. When co-cultured with proprioceptive sensory neurons derived from human neuroprogenitors, mechanosensory nerve terminal structural features with intrafusal fibers were demonstrated. Most importantly, patch-clamp electrophysiological analysis of the intrafusal fibers indicated repetitive firing of human intrafusal fibers, which has not been observed in human extrafusal fibers.

  19. Deficits in Lower Limb Muscle Reflex Contraction Latency and Peak Force Are Associated With Impairments in Postural Control and Gross Motor Skills of Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Guo, X.; Wang, Yuling; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Stat, Grad; Ki, W.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional, exploratory study aimed to compare neuromuscular performance, balance and motor skills proficiencies of typically developing children and those with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and to determine associations of these neuromuscular factors with balance and motor skills performances in children with DCD. One hundred thirty children with DCD and 117 typically developing children participated in the study. Medial hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies in response to an unexpected posterior-to-anterior trunk perturbation were assessed by electromyography and accelerometer. Hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle peak force and time to peak force were quantified by dynamometer, and balance and motor skills performances were evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Independent t tests revealed that children with DCD had longer hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latencies (P < 0.001) and lower isometric peak forces (P < 0.001), but not times to peak forces (P > 0.025), than the controls. Multiple regression analysis accounting for basic demographics showed that gastrocnemius peak force was independently associated with the MABC balance subscore and ball skills subscore, accounting for 5.7% (P = 0.003) and 8.5% (P = 0.001) of the variance, respectively. Gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency also explained 11.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the MABC ball skills subscore. Children with DCD had delayed leg muscle activation onset times and lower isometric peak forces. Gastrocnemius peak force was associated with balance and ball skills performances, whereas timing of gastrocnemius muscle activation was a determinant of ball skill performance in the DCD population. PMID:26469921

  20. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O

    1997-12-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.

  1. Assessment of Hyperactive Reflexes in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactive reflexes are commonly observed in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) but there is a lack of convenient and quantitative characterizations. Patellar tendon reflexes were examined in nine SCI patients and ten healthy control subjects by tapping the tendon using a hand-held instrumented hammer at various knee flexion angles, and the tapping force, quadriceps EMG, and knee extension torque were measured to characterize patellar tendon reflexes quantitatively in terms of the tendon reflex gain (G tr), contraction rate (R c), and reflex loop time delay (t d). It was found that there are significant increases in G tr and R c and decrease in t d in patients with spinal cord injury as compared to the controls (P < 0.05). This study presented a convenient and quantitative method to evaluate reflex excitability and muscle contraction dynamics. With proper simplifications, it can potentially be used for quantitative diagnosis and outcome evaluations of hyperreflexia in clinical settings. PMID:25654084

  2. The exercise pressor reflex and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-03-01

    The exercise pressor reflex contributes to increases in cardiovascular and ventilatory function during exercise. These reflexive increases are caused by both mechanical stimulation and metabolic stimulation of group III and IV afferents with endings in contracting skeletal muscle. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex. Recently, an animal model of PAD was established which allows further investigation of possible mechanisms involved in this augmented reflex. Earlier studies have identified ASIC3 channels, bradykinin receptors, P2X receptors, endoperoxide receptors, and thromboxane receptors as playing a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats. This review focuses on recent studies using a rat model of PAD in order to determine possible mechanisms contributing to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in patients with this disease.

  3. Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Long-Latency Stretch Reflex Following Paired Stimulation from a Wearable Electronic Device.

    PubMed

    Foysal, K M Riashad; de Carvalho, Felipe; Baker, Stuart N

    2016-10-19

    The long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) in human elbow muscles probably depends on multiple pathways; one possible contributor is the reticulospinal tract. Here we attempted to induce plastic changes in the LLSR by pairing noninvasive stimuli that are known to activate reticulospinal pathways, at timings predicted to cause spike timing-dependent plasticity in the brainstem. In healthy human subjects, reflex responses in flexor muscles were recorded following extension perturbations at the elbow. Subjects were then fitted with a portable device that delivered auditory click stimuli through an earpiece, and electrical stimuli around motor threshold to the biceps muscle via surface electrodes. We tested the following four paradigms: biceps stimulus 10 ms before click (Bi-10ms-C); click 25 ms before biceps (C-25ms-Bi); click alone (C only); and biceps alone (Bi only). The average stimulus rate was 0.67 Hz. Subjects left the laboratory wearing the device and performed normal daily activities. Approximately 7 h later, they returned, and stretch reflexes were remeasured. The LLSR was significantly enhanced in the biceps muscle (on average by 49%) after the Bi-10ms-C paradigm, but was suppressed for C-25ms-Bi (by 31%); it was unchanged for Bi only and C only. No paradigm induced LLSR changes in the unstimulated brachioradialis muscle. Although we cannot exclude contributions from spinal or cortical pathways, our results are consistent with spike timing-dependent plasticity in reticulospinal circuits, specific to the stimulated muscle. This is the first demonstration that the LLSR can be modified via paired-pulse methods, and may open up new possibilities in motor systems neuroscience and rehabilitation.

  4. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  5. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  6. Study of cutaneous reflex compensation during locomotion after nerve section in the cat.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Geneviève; Bouyer, Laurent; Provencher, Janyne; Rossignol, Serge

    2007-06-01

    In the cat, section of all cutaneous nerves of the hindfeet except the tibial (Tib) nerve supplying the plantar surface results in a long-lasting decrease in the intensity of Tib stimulation needed for a threshold response in flexor muscles and an increase in the amplitude of the phase-dependent responses recorded in various muscles during locomotion. Stimulating through chronically implanted nerve cuffs ensured a stable stimulation over time. The increase in reflex amplitude was well above the small increase in the amplitude of the locomotor bursts themselves that results from the denervation. Short latency responses (P1) were seen in flexor muscles, especially at the knee (semitendinosus) and ankle (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus), with stimuli applied in the swing phase and also to a lesser degree in the later part of the cycle. Longer latency responses (P2) were increased in hip, knee, and ankle flexors, as well as in a contralateral extensor (vastus lateralis) when applied in late stance. Responses evoked from stimulating the proximal end of sectioned nerves were not larger than before neurectomy. This suggests that the increased responsiveness to Tib stimulation is not simply caused by an increase in motoneuron excitability, because this would have resulted in a nonspecific increase of responses to stimulation of any nerve. It is concluded that the adult locomotor system is capable of central reorganization to enhance specific remaining cutaneous reflex pathways after a partial cutaneous denervation of the paw.

  7. Surface EMG Recording of the Perioral Reflexes: Preliminary Observations on Stutterers and Nonstutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Surface electrodes were used to describe the perioral reflexes in seven stutterers and five nonstutterers and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained at electrode sites associated with the orbicularis oris inferior muscle and the depressor labia inferior muscle. A difference was noted in the pattern of reflex response between the two…

  8. Surface EMG Recording of the Perioral Reflexes: Preliminary Observations on Stutterers and Nonstutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Surface electrodes were used to describe the perioral reflexes in seven stutterers and five nonstutterers and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained at electrode sites associated with the orbicularis oris inferior muscle and the depressor labia inferior muscle. A difference was noted in the pattern of reflex response between the two…

  9. Deal breaker: semaphorin and specificity in the spinal stretch reflex circuit.

    PubMed

    Maro, Géraldine S; Shen, Kang; Cheng, Hwai-Jong

    2009-07-16

    Stretch reflex circuits are a prime example of wiring specificity in the vertebrate spinal cord. Homonymous sensory afferents and motoneurons typically form monosynaptic connections, while neurons innervating antagonistic or unrelated muscles do not. Pecho-Vrieseling et al. now show that the semaphorin Sema3E and its receptor Plexin-D1 prevent monosynaptic connectivity in the cutaneous maximus muscle stretch reflex circuit.

  10. Tonic adrenergic and serotonergic inhibition of a withdrawal reflex in rabbits subjected to different levels of surgical preparation.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, J; Simpson, D A; Clarke, R W

    1999-01-01

    The excitability of the heel-gastrocnemius withdrawal reflex pathway has been monitored in rabbits undergoing surgical preparation for electrophysiological experimentation under Saffan anaesthesia. Reflexes were evoked by percutaneous electrodes inserted at the heel and recorded as electromyograph signals from the ipsilateral medial gastrocnemius muscle. Two levels of surgery were carried out. The "full surgical" preparation was performed under deep Saffan anaesthesia. The trachea, carotid artery, jugular vein and intrathecal space (via a small laminectomy at L1) were cannulated, the animals were decerebrated by suction, and the left hindlimb was immobilized by screw clamps applied to the tibia and the femur. The sciatic nerve and its branches were exposed by bisection of the posterior biceps muscle and the anaesthetic was withdrawn. In the "reduced surgery" preparation, procedures were carried out with a lighter level of Saffan anaesthesia and operated tissues were infiltrated with local anaesthetic. Only the cannulations were performed in these animals. The excitability of the heel-gastrocnemius reflex declined throughout the full surgical preparation, with the median threshold increasing from 0.8 to 4.2 mA (n=19) and responses to suprathreshold stimuli reducing in size. Most of this effect was reversed after surgery was complete and anaesthesia withdrawn subsequent to decerebration. There were no significant changes in reflex excitability during the reduced surgery preparation (n = 15). Animals prepared by each of these protocols were given increasing intrathecal doses of either the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821002 (0.3 to 300 microg) or the serotonin/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A-receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.01 to 30 microg). Both drugs caused significant, dose-dependent increases in reflex responses, to four to six times pre-drug control in both groups of animals. There were no differences in the effects on reflexes of either drug between

  11. Masseter reflex potentials in olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy.

    PubMed

    Imai, T; Matsumoto, H; Ohmoto, H; Chiba, S; Kobayashi, N

    1998-01-01

    We recorded masseter reflex potentials to examine the correlation between the masseter reflex and the muscle stretch reflexes of limbs in 19 patients with olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA). The patients were subdivided into hyper- (n = 5), normo- (n = 7) and hypo- (n = 7) reflexia groups according to the degrees of the conventional deep tendon jerks in the upper limbs. The masseter reflex potentials, elicited by tapping the chin with a reflex hammer, were recorded from the bilateral masseters using a pair of surface electrodes. The latency of the potentials in the hyporeflexia was significantly longer than in the other groups, while the amplitude of those in the hyperreflexia group was significantly higher than in the other groups. These results indicate that in patients with OPCA the magnitude and latency of the masseter reflex correlates with the status of the muscle stretch reflexes of the limbs in contrast with Friedreich's ataxia where the masseter reflex has been reported to be normal or hyperactive despite hyporeflexia in the limbs.

  12. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (P<0.01), i.e., cough sensitivity was downregulated. With VIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (P<0.01), a similar downregulation. With exercise and VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  13. 5-HT4 receptor mediated facilitation of the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Costall, B.; Naylor, R. J.; Tuladhar, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The influence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on the emptying phase (circular muscle contraction) of the peristaltic reflex was investigated in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2. The effect of drug application to the serosal surface was measured as the changes in threshold pressure required to trigger the peristaltic reflex and the interval between the peristaltic strokes. A facilitation or inhibition of peristalsis was defined as a reduction or increase in threshold pressure respectively. 3. Peristalsis was not modified by the inclusion of methysergide (1 microM) and/or ondansetron (2 microM) in the bathing medium. 5-HT (0.1-1.0 microM) caused a facilitation of the peristaltic reflex; the response curve to 5-HT was not altered by the presence of methysergide (1 microM) and ondansetron (2 microM). 4. In the presence of methysergide (1 microM) plus ondansetron (2 microM), 5-HT (7.36 +/- 0.06), 5-methoxytryptamine (7.01 +/- 0.17), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5.43 +/- 0.06), renzapride (6.09 +/- 0.17), (S)-zacopride (5.99 +/- 0.11), (R)-zacopride (5.61 +/- 0.13) and metoclopramide (4.8 +/- 0.65) caused a concentration-related facilitation of the peristaltic reflex, the pEC50 values (mean +/- s.e.mean) being shown in parentheses. 2-Methyl-5-HT was ineffective up to 10 microM. 5. The administration of SDZ 205-557 (1 microM) alone failed to modify the peristaltic reflex, but caused a parallel dextral shift in the concentration-effect curve to 5-HT (apparent pKB 7.38 +/- 0.30). It failed to modify the effect of acetylcholine to enhance the peristaltic reflex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306103

  14. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  15. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants’ judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information

  16. Plantar cutaneous input modulates differently spinal reflexes in subjects with intact and injured spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Knikou, M

    2006-01-01

    Study design Spinal reflex excitability study in sensory–motor incomplete spinal cord-injured (SCI) and spinal intact subjects. Objectives To investigate the effects of plantar cutaneous afferent excitation on the soleus H-reflex and flexion reflex in both subject groups while seated. Setting Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago and City University of New York, USA. Methods The flexion reflex in SCI subjects was elicited by non-nociceptive stimulation of the sural nerve. In normal subjects, it was also elicited via innocuous medial arch foot stimulation. In both cases, reflex responses were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle. Soleus H-reflexes were elicited and recorded via conventional methods. Both reflexes were conditioned by plantar cutaneous afferent stimulation at conditioning test intervals ranging from 3 to 90 ms. Results Excitation of plantar cutaneous afferents resulted in facilitation of the soleus H-reflex and late flexion reflex in SCI subjects. In normal subjects, the soleus H-reflex was depressed while the late flexion reflex was absent. The early flexion reflex was irregularly observed in SCI patients, while in normal subjects a bimodal reflex modulation pattern was observed. Conclusion The effects of plantar cutaneous afferents change following a lesion to the spinal cord leading to exaggerated activity in both flexors and extensors. This suggests impaired modulation of the spinal inhibitory mechanisms involved in the reflex modulation. Our findings should be considered in programs aimed to restore sensorimotor function and promote recovery in these patients. PMID:16534501

  17. The menace reflex.

    PubMed

    van Ballegoij, Wouter J C; Koehler, Peter J; Meulen, Bastiaan C Ter

    2015-06-01

    The menace reflex (blink reflex to visual threat) tests visual processing at the bedside in patients who cannot participate in normal visual field testing. We reviewed a collection of recently discovered historical movies showing the experiments of the Dutch physiologist Gysbertus Rademaker (1887-1957), exploring the anatomy of this reflex by making cerebral lesions in dogs. The experiments show not only that the menace reflex is cortically mediated, but also that lesions outside the visual cortex can abolish the reflex. Therefore, although often erroneously used in this way, an absent menace does not always indicate a visual field deficit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. What is a reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Truog, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in diagnosing disorders of consciousness, and specifically in determining whether consciousness has been lost or retained, poses challenging scientific and ethical questions. Recent neuroimaging-based tests for consciousness have cast doubt on the reliability of behavioral criteria in assessing states of consciousness and generate new questions about the assumptions used in formulating coherent diagnostic criteria. The reflex, a foundational diagnostic tool, offers unique insight into these disorders; behaviors produced by unconscious patients are thought to be purely reflexive, whereas those produced by conscious patients can be volitional. Further investigation, however, reveals that reflexes cannot be reliably distinguished from conscious behaviors on the basis of any generalizable empirical characteristics. Ambiguity between reflexive and conscious behaviors undermines the capacity of the reflex to distinguish between disorders of consciousness and has implications for how these disorders should be conceptualized in future diagnostic criteria. PMID:26085602

  19. Quantification of Rossolimo reflexes: a sensitive marker for spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, C-W; Chang, K-Y; Lin, S-M

    2011-02-01

    Prospective study. To assess and quantify Rossolimo reflexes using an electrophysiological test, and correlate the findings with the severity of spinal cord dysfunction in cervical and thoracic spondylotic myelopathy (CTSM). A university neurorehabilitation center. We enlisted 42 patients with CTSM between the fifth cervical and the ninth thoracic cord levels. Using electrophysiological assessments, Rossolimo reflexes were evaluated in all patients. Conduction latencies and amplitude of muscle action potentials (MAPs) of the reflexes were measured, analyzed and compared with the grading of spinal cord dysfunction and the cord compression ratios. We found a high diagnostic sensitivity of quantified Rossolimo reflex in patients with CTSM. A positive correlation exists between the MAP amplitude of Rossolimo reflexes and the different grades of spinal cord dysfunction. A negative linear relationship was found between the MAP amplitude of Rossolimo reflexes and the cord compression ratios in CTSM patients. Rossolimo reflexes can be measured by electrophysiological assessments, and we demonstrate a quantification method for an established neurological sign. Not only is the Rossolimo reflex found to be a highly sensitive test in clinical neurological examination but the electrophysiological assessment for this reflex can also serve as an objective marker for evaluation of the severity of spinal cord dysfunction in CTSM.

  20. OPERANT CONDITIONING OF RAT SOLEUS H-REFLEX OPPOSITELY AFFECTS ANOTHER H-REFLEX AND CHANGES LOCOMOTOR KINEMATICS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Yu; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.; Chen, Xiang Yang

    2011-01-01

    H-reflex conditioning is a model for studying the plasticity associated with a new motor skill. We are exploring its effects on other reflexes and on locomotion. Rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in both solei (SOLR and SOLL) and right quadriceps (QDR), and stimulating cuffs on both posterior tibial (PT) nerves and right posterior femoral nerve. When SOLR EMG remained in a defined range, PTR stimulation just above M-response threshold elicited the SOLR H-reflex. Analogous procedures elicited the QDR and SOLL H-reflexes. After a control period, each rat was exposed for 50 days to a protocol that rewarded SOLR H-reflexes that were above (HRup rats) or below (HRdown rats) a criterion. HRup conditioning increased the SOLR H-reflex to 214(±37SEM)% of control (P=0.02) and decreased the QDR H-reflex to 71(±26)% (P=0.06). HRdown conditioning decreased the SOLR H-reflex to 69(±2)% (P<0.001) and increased the QDR H-reflex to 121(±7)% (P=0.02). These changes remained during locomotion. The SOLL H-reflex did not change. During the stance phase of locomotion, ankle plantarflexion increased in HRup rats and decreased in HRdown rats, hip extension did the opposite, and hip height did not change. The plasticity that changes the QDR H-reflex and locomotor kinematics may be inevitable (i.e., reactive) due to the ubiquity of activity-dependent CNS plasticity, and/or necessary (i.e., compensatory) to preserve other behaviors (e.g., locomotion) that would otherwise be disturbed by the change in the SOLR H-reflex pathway. The changes in joint angles, coupled with the preservation of hip height, suggest that compensatory plasticity did occur. PMID:21813696

  1. Interactions with compliant loads alter stretch reflex gains but not intermuscular coordination.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Eric J; Chen, Kuifu; Trumbower, Randy D; Lewis, Gwyn

    2008-05-01

    The human motor system regulates arm mechanics to produce stable postures during interactions with different physical environments. This occurs partly via involuntary mechanisms, including stretch reflexes. Previous single-joint studies demonstrated enhanced reflex sensitivity during interactions with compliant environments, suggesting reflex gain increases to enhance limb stability when that stability is not provided by the environment. This study examined whether similar changes in reflex gain are present throughout the limb following perturbations that simultaneously influence multiple joints. Furthermore, we investigated whether any observed modulation was accompanied by task-specific changes in reflex coordination across muscles, a question that cannot be addressed using single-joint perturbations. Reflexes were elicited during the maintenance of posture by perturbing the arm with a three degrees of freedom robot, configured to have isotropic stiffness of either 10 N/m (compliant) or 10 kN/m (stiff). Perturbation characteristics were matched in both environments. Reflex magnitude was quantified by the average rectified electromyogram, recorded from eight muscles crossing the elbow and shoulder. Reflex coordination was assessed using independent components analysis to compare reflex activation patterns during interactions with stiff and compliant environments. Stretch reflex sensitivity increased significantly in all muscles during interactions with the compliant environment and these changes were not due to changes in background muscle activity. However, there was no significant difference in the reflex coordination patterns observed during interactions with the stiff and compliant environments. These results suggest that reflex modulation occurred through altered use of fixed muscle coordination patterns rather than through a change in reflex coordination.

  2. Comparison of muscle and joint pressure-pain thresholds in patients with complex regional pain syndrome and upper limb pain of other origin.

    PubMed

    Mainka, Tina; Bischoff, Florian S; Baron, Ralf; Krumova, Elena K; Nicolas, Volkmar; Pennekamp, Werner; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vollert, Jan; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Pain localized in the deep tissues occurs frequently in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In addition, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure over muscles is common in CRPS, but it often appears in limb pain of other origin as well. Considering that 3-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) reveals periarticular enhanced bone metabolism in CRPS, joint-associated hyperalgesia to blunt pressure might be a more specific finding than hyperalgesia over muscles. In 34 patients with upper limb pain (18 CRPS, 16 non-CRPS; diagnosed in accordance to the Budapest criteria) and in 18 healthy controls, pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the thenar (PPTThenar), the metacarpophalangeal (PPTMCP), and the proximal interphalangeal (PPTPIP) joints using a pressure algometer (Somedic, Sweden). Beforehand, all patients had received TPBS for diagnostic purposes independently of the study. Region-of-interest (ROI) ratios (mineralization phase) for the MCP and PIP, excluding fracture sites, were correlated with the PPT. In CRPS, all ROI ratios were significantly increased and all PPT of the affected hand were decreased compared to non-CRPS (PPTThenar: 243±150kPa vs 358±197kPa, PPTMCP: 80±67kPa vs 159±93kPa, PPTPIP: 80±56kPa vs 184±110kPa; P<.01) and controls (PPTThenar: 478±106kPa, PPTMCP: 254±50kPa, PPTPIP: 275±76kPa; P<.01). A PPTThenar below 293kPa revealed 77% sensitivity but only 63% specificity, whereas a PPTPIP below 102kPa had 82% sensitivity and 94% specificity to identify CRPS. Only in CRPS were PPTMCP and PPTPIP correlated significantly inversely with the ROI ratio (MCP: r=-0.439, PIP: r=-0.447). PPTPIP shows higher specificity for CRPS type I than PPTThenar without loss of sensitivity. Therefore, measurement of joint PPT could be a noninvasive diagnostic tool reflecting increased bone metabolism assessed by TPBS as a sign of bone pathophysiology. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Performance on the Motor Scale of The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities as Related to Home Environment and Neonatal Reflexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Veck, Beverly; Hammond, Mary A.

    1982-01-01

    Total motor and cognitive-motor performance at age 4 was related to home environment but not to neonatal reflexes. Large muscle skill was unrelated to environment but did relate to neonatal reflexes among girls. (Author)

  4. Performance on the Motor Scale of The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities as Related to Home Environment and Neonatal Reflexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Veck, Beverly; Hammond, Mary A.

    1982-01-01

    Total motor and cognitive-motor performance at age 4 was related to home environment but not to neonatal reflexes. Large muscle skill was unrelated to environment but did relate to neonatal reflexes among girls. (Author)

  5. The effect of whole body vibration on the H-reflex, the stretch reflex, and the short-latency response during hopping.

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, R; Kramer, A; Gollhofer, A; Taube, W

    2013-06-01

    The effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on reflex responses is controversially discussed in the literature. In this study, three different modalities of reflex activation with increased motor complexity have been selected to clarify the effects of acute WBV on reflex activation: (1) the electrically evoked H-reflex, (2) the mechanically elicited stretch reflex, and (3) the short-latency response (SLR) during hopping. WBV-induced changes of the H-reflex, the stretch reflex, and the SLR during hopping were recorded in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles and were analyzed before, during (only the H-reflex), immediately after, 5 min and 10 min after WBV. The main findings were that (1) the H-reflexes were significantly reduced during and at least up to 5 min after WBV, (2) the stretch reflex amplitudes were also significantly reduced immediately after WBV but recovered to their initial amplitudes within 5 min, and (3) the SLR during hopping showed no vibration-induced modulation. With regard to the modalities with low motor complexities, the decreased H- and stretch reflex responses are assumed to point toward a reduced Ia afferent transmission during and after WBV. However, it is assumed that during hopping, the suppression of reflex sensitivity is compensated by facilitatory mechanisms in this complex motor task.

  6. Trigemino-cervical-spinal reflexes after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Orioli, Andrea; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-05-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) reorganization of spinal cord circuits occur both above and below the spinal lesion. These functional changes can be determined by assessing electrophysiological recording. We aimed at investigating the trigemino-cervical reflex (TCR) and trigemino-spinal reflex (TSR) responses after traumatic SCI. TCR and TSR were registered after stimulation of the infraorbital nerve from the sternocleidomastoid, splenius, deltoid, biceps and first dorsal interosseous muscles in 10 healthy subjects and 10 subjects with incomplete cervical SCI. In the control subjects reflex responses were registered from the sternocleidomastoid, and splenium muscles, while no responses were obtained from upper limb muscles. In contrast, smaller but clear short latency EMG potentials were recorded from deltoid and biceps muscles in about half of the SCI patients. Moreover, the amplitudes of the EMG responses in the neck muscles were significantly higher in patients than in control subjects. The reflex responses are likely to propagate up the brainstem and down the spinal cord along the reticulospinal tracts and the propriospinal system. Despite the loss of corticospinal axons, synaptic plasticity in pre-existing pathways and/or formation of new circuits through sprouting processes above the injury site may contribute to the findings of this preliminary study and may be involved in the functional recovery. Trigemino-cervical-spinal reflexes can be used to demonstrate and quantify plastic changes at brainstem and cervical level following SCI. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On Reflexive Data Models

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    2000-08-20

    An information system is reflexive if it stores a description of its current structure in the body of stored information and is acting on the base of this information. A data model is reflexive, if its language is meta-closed and can be used to build such a system. The need for reflexive data models in new areas of information technology applications is argued. An attempt to express basic notions related to information systems is made in the case when the system supports and uses meta-closed representation of the data.

  8. Contribution of tonic vibration reflex to the evaluation and diagnosis of cerebellar disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, G; Abbruzzese, M; Ratto, S; Favale, E

    1982-01-01

    Biceps brachii tonic vibration reflexes were elicited in patients with either focal or diffuse cerebellar damage and spino-cerebellar degenerations. As compared to normal controls, tonic vibration reflex amplitude was reduced in cerebellar patients, particularly in cases with unilateral hemispheric lesion, who exhibited a clear cut tonic vibration reflex asymmetry even when clinical symptoms were mild. These reflexes were absent or very weak in patients with spino-cerebellar degenerations. Muscle vibration induced in most of the patients an enhancement of mild or latent clinical symptoms such as intention tremor, difficulty in muscle relaxation or motor incoordination. PMID:7119815

  9. Auditory startle reflex and startle reflex to somatosensory inputs in generalized dystonia.

    PubMed

    Kiziltan, Meral E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Apaydın, Hulya; Ertan, Sibel; Kiziltan, Gunes

    2015-09-01

    Startle reflex is a generalized defense reaction after unexpected auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli. Auditory startle reflex (ASR) and startle reflex to somatosensory inputs (SSS) have never been studied in generalized dystonia. Here, we aimed to study the characteristics and changes of ASR and SSS in this group. We have examined ASR and SSS in patients with generalized dystonia (n=11) and healthy subjects (n=25) under the same conditions. ASRs and SSSs were recorded over the orbicularis oculi (O.oc), sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii (BB), and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles after bilateral auditory stimulation and unilateral median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist, respectively. Both ASR and SSS showed the same sequence of muscle activation in both groups. However, the presence rates over the APB and BB muscles after both modalities of stimuli were significantly higher in the generalized dystonia group. ASR did not habituate in the dystonia group. Both ASR and SSS are disinhibited, and both show a similar sequence of muscle recruitment in generalized dystonia. Higher probabilities over caudal muscles probably depend on the higher excitability of motor neurons secondary to central modulation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pedaling alters the excitability and modulation of vastus medialis H-reflexes after stroke.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Dana P; Sanghvi, Namita; Wieser, Jon; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila

    2011-10-01

    Individuals post-stroke display abnormal Group Ia reflex excitability. Pedaling has been shown to reduce Group Ia reflexes and to normalize the relationship between EMG and reflex amplitude in the paretic soleus (SO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether these changes extend to the paretic quadriceps. H-reflexes were used to examine Group Ia reflex excitability of the vastus medialis (VM). H-reflexes were elicited in paretic (n=13) and neurologically intact (n=13) individuals at 11 positions in the pedaling cycle and during static knee extension at comparable limb positions and levels of VM EMG. VM H-reflexes were abnormally elevated in the paretic limb of stroke survivors. During static muscle activation, H-reflex amplitude did not change with the level of background VM activity. Pedaling reduced the amplitude of paretic VM H-reflexes and restored the normal relationship between VM EMG and H-reflex amplitude. Pedaling-induced changes in Group Ia reflex excitability that have been reported for the paretic SO are evident in the paretic VM. Pedaling may have a generalized effect on lower extremity Group Ia reflexes post-stroke. Pedaling may be therapeutic for reducing Group Ia reflexes after stroke. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  12. Training-induced adaptive plasticity in human somatosensory reflex pathways.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul

    2006-12-01

    This paper reviews evidence supporting adaptive plasticity in muscle and cutaneous afferent reflex pathways induced by training and rehabilitative interventions. The perspective is advanced that the behavioral and functional relevance of any intervention and the reflex pathway under study should be considered when evaluating both adaptation and transfer. A cornerstone of this concept can be found in acute task-dependent reflex modulation. Because the nervous system allows the expression of a given reflex according to the motor task, an attempt to evaluate the training adaptation should also be evoked under the same conditions as training bearing in mind the functional role of the pathway under study. Within this framework, considerable evidence supports extensive adaptive plasticity in human muscle afferent pathways in the form of operant conditioning, strength training, skill training, and locomotor training or retraining. Directly comparable evidence for chronic adaptation in cutaneous reflex pathways is lacking. However, activity-dependent plasticity in cutaneous pathways is documented particularly in approaches to neurological rehabilitation. Overall, the adaptive range for human muscle afferent reflexes appears bidirectional (that is, increased or reduced amplitudes) and on the order of 25-50%. The adaptive range for cutaneous pathways is currently uncertain.

  13. [Clinical techniques for use in neurological physical examinations. II. Motor and reflex functions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, P L; Rodríguez-Pupo, L; Rodríguez-García, D

    The aim of this study is to highlight the chief practical aspects of the techniques used in the neurological physical examination of the motor and reflex functions. We recommend clinicians to carry out a brief but consistent and effective exploration in a systematic, flexible and orderly manner to check for abnormalities in the motor and reflex functions of the nervous system. Should any anomalies be detected, then a more detailed and thorough neurological exploration must be performed selectively. We present a detailed review of the practical aspects of the main techniques used in the physical examination of these neurological categories. The motor function is explored using techniques that examine muscle tone, muscle strength, muscle fatigability, hypokinesia, tremor, coordination and gait. Lastly, in this category several manoeuvres that are useful in hysterical or mimicking paralyses are also dealt with. Reflexes to examination are usually divided into: 1. Myotatic reflexes; 2. Cutaneomucous reflexes; 3. Spinal cord or defence automatism reflexes; 4. Posture and attitude reflexes. We also add the study of primitive pathological reflexes, remote reflexes, synkinesias and signs of meningeal irritation. We present a detailed description of the main clinical techniques used in the neurological physical examination of motility and reflexes, as well as an approach that allows them to be performed on adult patients. In addition, we underline the importance of physically examining the nervous system in contemporary medicine and the need to continually perfect the way these techniques are performed in order to achieve an efficient clinical practice.

  14. Reflex operculoinsular seizures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Handsun; Tran, Thi Phuoc Yen; Pétrin, Myriam; Boucher, Olivier; Mohamed, Ismail; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2016-03-01

    Activation of specific cortical territories by certain stimuli is known to trigger focal seizures. We report three cases of well documented operculo-insular reflex seizures, triggered by somatosensory stimuli in two and loud noises in the third. Limited operculoinsular resection resulted in an excellent outcome for all. We discuss these observations in regard to the literature on reflex epilepsy and known functions of the insula. [Published with video sequences online].

  15. Improved intensity coding at faster click-rates within the acoustic reflex pathway.

    PubMed

    Rawool, V W

    1997-01-01

    This investigation was designed to study the effect of click repetition rates on the slopes of the ipsilateral acoustic reflex growth functions. Sixteen normal female subjects within the age range 20 to 26 years participated in the study. Following the determination of ipsilateral acoustic reflex thresholds at the click repetition rates of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 clicks/sec, reflex amplitudes were measured at 5 and 10 dB above the threshold values. The amplitudes of the acoustic reflex grew more rapidly at higher click rates, resulting in steeper slopes of the acoustic reflex growth functions. These results suggest better coding of intensity at higher click repetition rates within the ipsilateral acoustic reflex pathway.

  16. Visceral and postural reflexes evoked by genital stimulation in urethane-anesthetized female rats.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gomez, M; Chirino, R; Beyer, C; Komisaruk, B R; Pacheco, P

    1992-03-20

    The present study describes several muscular reflexes produced by genital stimulation, the nerves that subserve them, and the visceral and postural effects induced by these reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the iliococcygeus (ic) and pubococcygeus (pc) (striated) muscles produced movement of the vaginal orifice and wall, membranous urethra, tail and pelvis. Electrical stimulation of the psoas major (pm) or iliacus (i) (striated) muscles produced movements of the lumbar vertebrae and extension of the ipsilateral hindlimb. Sensory mechanostimulation elicited responses of these muscles as follows: stimulation of the perineal skin, clitoral sheath or distal vagina produced reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Stimulation of the cervix produced reflex contraction of the pm and i muscles and also blocked the above reflex contraction of the ic and pc muscles. Both the cervical stimulation-induced blockage of the ic and pc reflex response, and the cervical stimulation-induced activation of pm and i muscles was prevented by bilateral transection of the viscerocutaneous branch of the pelvic nerve. Based on the above observations, it is proposed that stimulation of the vaginal surface of the cervix resulting from penile intromission and/or seminal plug deposition during mating behavior in the rat may reflexively active pm and i, thereby contributing to the hindleg postural rigidity and lordotic dorsiflexion that are characteristic of the normal mating posture in female rats.

  17. Tendon reflex is suppressed during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Yilmaz, Gizem; Sebik, Oguz; Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2016-10-01

    In this study we have investigated the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on the tendon reflex (T-reflex) amplitude. Fifteen young adult healthy volunteer males were included in this study. Records of surface EMG of the right soleus muscle and accelerometer taped onto the right Achilles tendon were obtained while participant stood upright with the knees in extension, on the vibration platform. Tendon reflex was elicited before and during WBV. Subjects completed a set of WBV. Each WBV set consisted of six vibration sessions using different frequencies (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50Hz) applied randomly. In each WBV session the Achilles tendon was tapped five times with a custom-made reflex hammer. The mean peak-to-peak (PP) amplitude of T-reflex was 1139.11±498.99µV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). The maximum PP amplitude of T-reflex was 1333±515μV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). No significant differences were obtained in the mean acceleration values of Achilles tendon with tapping between before and during vibration sessions. This study showed that T-reflex is suppressed during WBV. T-reflex suppression indicates that the spindle primary afferents must have been pre-synaptically inhibited during WBV similar to the findings in high frequency tendon vibration studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, "any") cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Contributions of Altered Stretch Reflex Coordination to Arm Impairments Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J.; Krutky, Matthew A.; Perreault, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of stereotyped muscle coactivation, clinically referred to as synergies, emerge following stroke and impair arm function. Although researchers have focused on cortical contributions, there is growing evidence that altered stretch reflex pathways may also contribute to impairment. However, most previous reflex studies have focused on passive, single-joint movements without regard to their coordination during volitional actions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stroke on coordinated activity of stretch reflexes elicited in multiple arm muscles following multijoint perturbations. We hypothesized that cortical injury results in increased stretch reflexes of muscles characteristic of the abnormal flexor synergy during active arm conditions. To test this hypothesis, we used a robot to apply position perturbations to impaired arms of 10 stroke survivors and dominant arms of 8 healthy age-matched controls. Corresponding reflexes were assessed during volitional contractions simulating different levels of gravitational support, as well as during voluntary flexion and extension of the elbow and shoulder. Reflexes were quantified by average rectified surface electromyogram, recorded from eight muscles spanning the elbow and shoulder. Reflex coordination was quantified using an independent components analysis. We found stretch reflexes elicited in the stroke group were significantly less sensitive to changes in background muscle activation compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). We also observed significantly increased reflex coupling between elbow flexor and shoulder abductor–extensor muscles in stroke subjects relative to that in control subjects. This increased coupling was present only during volitional tasks that required elbow flexion (P < 0.001), shoulder extension (P < 0.01), and gravity opposition (P < 0.01), but not during the “no load” condition. During volitional contractions, reflex amplitudes scaled with the level

  20. The Grasp Reflex and Moro Reflex in Infants: Hierarchy of Primitive Reflex Responses

    PubMed Central

    Futagi, Yasuyuki; Toribe, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The plantar grasp reflex is of great clinical significance, especially in terms of the detection of spasticity. The palmar grasp reflex also has diagnostic significance. This grasp reflex of the hands and feet is mediated by a spinal reflex mechanism, which appears to be under the regulatory control of nonprimary motor areas through the spinal interneurons. This reflex in human infants can be regarded as a rudiment of phylogenetic function. The absence of the Moro reflex during the neonatal period and early infancy is highly diagnostic, indicating a variety of compromised conditions. The center of the reflex is probably in the lower region of the pons to the medulla. The phylogenetic meaning of the reflex remains unclear. However, the hierarchical interrelation among these primitive reflexes seems to be essential for the arboreal life of monkey newborns, and the possible role of the Moro reflex in these newborns was discussed in relation to the interrelationship. PMID:22778756

  1. Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Long-Latency Stretch Reflex Following Paired Stimulation from a Wearable Electronic Device

    PubMed Central

    Foysal, K. M. Riashad; de Carvalho, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) in human elbow muscles probably depends on multiple pathways; one possible contributor is the reticulospinal tract. Here we attempted to induce plastic changes in the LLSR by pairing noninvasive stimuli that are known to activate reticulospinal pathways, at timings predicted to cause spike timing-dependent plasticity in the brainstem. In healthy human subjects, reflex responses in flexor muscles were recorded following extension perturbations at the elbow. Subjects were then fitted with a portable device that delivered auditory click stimuli through an earpiece, and electrical stimuli around motor threshold to the biceps muscle via surface electrodes. We tested the following four paradigms: biceps stimulus 10 ms before click (Bi-10ms-C); click 25 ms before biceps (C-25ms-Bi); click alone (C only); and biceps alone (Bi only). The average stimulus rate was 0.67 Hz. Subjects left the laboratory wearing the device and performed normal daily activities. Approximately 7 h later, they returned, and stretch reflexes were remeasured. The LLSR was significantly enhanced in the biceps muscle (on average by 49%) after the Bi-10ms-C paradigm, but was suppressed for C-25ms-Bi (by 31%); it was unchanged for Bi only and C only. No paradigm induced LLSR changes in the unstimulated brachioradialis muscle. Although we cannot exclude contributions from spinal or cortical pathways, our results are consistent with spike timing-dependent plasticity in reticulospinal circuits, specific to the stimulated muscle. This is the first demonstration that the LLSR can be modified via paired-pulse methods, and may open up new possibilities in motor systems neuroscience and rehabilitation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report is the first demonstration that the long-latency stretch reflex can be modified by repeated, precisely timed pairing of stimuli known to activate brainstem pathways. Furthermore, pairing was achieved with a portable electronic device

  2. The use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the ventilatory threshold and the relation between skeletal muscle oxygenation and RPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessmer, Kathryn Anne

    This study: (1) compared three (i.e., V-slope, Bhambhani et al., 1997, and Belardinelli et al., 1995) techniques of measuring the ventilatory threshold (VT), (2) examined the relation between OMNI RPE and muscle deoxygenation (MD), and (3) evaluated the impact of gender on MD and RPE. Subjects included 20 males and 13 females, aged 25-29 years. A commercial NIRS sensor (NIRS Micro-Run Man model # MRM-96) was placed over the right vastus lateralis and secured with an elastic wrap. Next, each subject underwent a progressive multistage cycle ergometer test to establish the VT using the V-slope method and NIRS methods. The V-slope (58.62 +/- 10.47% VO2peak), Bhambhani et al. 1997 (49.75 +/- 20.13% VO2peak), and Belardinelli et al. 1995 (60.87 +/- 10.15% VO2peak) methods did not result in different (F(2,49) = 2.77, p > 0.05) VT values. The following significant linear regression equation was generated (p = 0.016): OMNI RPE = 5.97 - (15.20)MD (R = -0.20, R 2 = 0.04, and SE = 2.76). The two-way ANOVA (gender x power output) conducted on OMNI RPE revealed a significant main effect for gender ( F(1,193) = 19.53, p < 0.05). Males had lower RPEs (6.32 +/- .17) than females (7.16 +/- .28). A significant main effect for power output was also found (F(9, 193) = 56.21, p < 0.05). In addition, a significant gender x power output interaction was found ( F(7, 193) = 2.11, p < 0.05). With respect to MD, the two-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for gender (F(1, 133) = 10.61, p < 0.05). Females had less MD (0.012 +/- .007) than males (0.002 +/- .005). The results of this study indicate that the three methods of determining the VT were not different. MD values decreased with increasing ratings of perceived exertion. RPE differed between genders, with males having lower RPE's than females (p < 0.05). Also, a significant gender x power output interaction was found (p < 0.05). Finally, women experienced less skeletal MD than men during a progressively incremented cycle

  3. Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle Activity, and REM Atonia Index in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder with and without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Stuart J.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Timm, Paul C.; Sandness, David J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Silber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. Design: We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, “any,” and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. Setting: N/A. Participants: Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, “any”) cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. Citation: McCarter SJ, St. Louis EK, Duwell EJ, Timm PC

  4. The inhibitory effect of a chewing task on a human jaw reflex.

    PubMed

    Maillou, Pauline; Cadden, Samuel W; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2010-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether an inhibitory jaw reflex could be modulated by experimentally controlled conditions that mimicked symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Reflecting on previous work, we anticipated that these conditions might suppress the reflex. Electromyographic recordings were made from a masseter muscle in 18 subjects, while electrical stimuli were applied to the upper lip. An inhibitory reflex wave (mean latency 47 ms) was identified and quantified. Immediately following an accelerated chewing task, which in most cases produced muscle fatigue and/or pain, the size of the reflex wave decreased significantly by about 30%. The suppression of inhibitory jaw reflexes by fatigue and pain may result in positive feedback, which may contribute to the symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Future studies of temporomandibular disorder sufferers will help to determine whether such reflex changes reflect the underlying etiology and/or are a result of the temporomandibular disorder itself.

  5. Modulation of the stretch reflex during volitional sinusoidal tracking in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M T; Kipnis, A N; Lee, M C; Loewenson, R B; Ebner, T J

    1991-02-01

    Sinusoidal visually-guided wrist tracking, in normal and parkinsonian subjects, was perturbed by torque transients every 90 degrees throughout the movement. Long-latency stretch reflex and volitional EMG amplitude modulations were assessed as functions of the tracking phase. Reflex modulation during tracking, both in wrist flexor and extensor muscles, was found to differ significantly between parkinsonian and normal subjects. In the parkinsonian group, the abnormality consisted of an increased reflex activity during tracking phases in which the muscle was lengthening. At these phases the reflex generated torque is opposite in direction to the volitionally generated torque and the tracking movement. No differences in the unperturbed volitional EMG modulation were observed between groups for this error constrained tracking paradigm. Significant correlations were found between ratings of bradykinesia and the amount of abnormal reflex modulation in the wrist flexor. These data suggest that a component of bradykinesia results from a defective coordination of supraspinal reflex and volitional control systems.

  6. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, Tine; Aagaard, Per; Magnusson, S Peter

    2002-01-01

    Based on previous studies, at least two different types of soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation were likely to be found during normal human walking. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to identify different patterns of modulation of the soleus H reflex and to examine whether or not subjects with different H reflex modulation would exhibit different walking mechanics and different EMG activity. Fifteen subjects walked across two force platforms at 4.5 km/h (+/-10%) while the movements were recorded on video. The soleus H reflex and EMG activity were recorded separately during treadmill walking at 4.5 km/h. Using a two-dimensional analysis joint angles, angular velocities, accelerations, linear velocities and accelerations were calculated, and net joint moments about the ankle, knee and hip joint were computed by inverse dynamics from the video and force plate data. Six subjects (group S) showed a suppressed H reflex during the swing phase, and 9 subjects (group LS) showed increasing reflex excitability during the swing phase. The plantar flexor dominated moment about the ankle joint was greater for group LS. In contrast, the extensor dominated moment about the knee joint was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating of afferent input to the spinal cord, by EMG activity and by walking mechanics. Increasing H reflex excitability during the swing phase appears to protect the subject against unexpected perturbations around heel strike by a facilitated stretch reflex in the triceps surae muscle. Alternatively, in subjects with a suppressed H reflex in the swing phase the knee joint extensors seem to form the primary protection around heel strike.

  7. Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B A; Dawson, N J; Slack, J R

    1995-03-01

    Joint manipulation is widely utilized clinically to decrease pain and increase the range of motion of joints displaying limited mobility. Evidence of efficacy is based on subjective reports of symptom improvement as well as on the results of clinical trials. Experiments were designed to determine whether or not sacroiliac joint manipulation affects the amplitude of the Hoffman (H) reflex. Surface EMG recordings of the reflex response to electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa were made from the soleus muscle. The averaged amplitudes of H-reflexes were compared on both legs before and after either sacroiliac joint manipulation or a sham procedure. H-reflex amplitude was significantly decreased (12.9%) in the ipsilateral leg (p < 0.001) following a sacroiliac joint manipulation while there was no significant alteration following the sham intervention. There was no significant alteration in reflex excitability in the contralateral leg to the sacroiliac joint manipulation. To further investigate the mechanism of these reflex alterations, the local anaesthetic cream EMLA (Astra Pharmaceuticals) was applied to the skin overlying the sacroiliac joint and the experiments were repeated on a different group of subjects. This was intended to determine if excitation of cutaneous afferents was responsible for the reflex excitability changes. There was still a significant decrease in reflex excitability (10.6%) following sacroiliac joint manipulation (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that joint manipulation exerts physiological effects on the central nervous system, probably at the segmental level. The fact that the changes persisted in the presence of cutaneous anaesthesia suggests that the reflex changes are likely to be mediated by joint and/or muscle afferents.

  8. Separating medial olivocochlear from acoustic reflex effects on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in unanesthetized mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingyue; Cheatham, Mary Ann; Siegel, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Descending neural pathways in the mammalian auditory system are believed to modulate the function of the peripheral auditory system [3, 8, 10]. These pathways include the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation to the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) and the acoustic reflex pathways mediating middle ear muscle (MEM) contractions. The MOC effects can be monitored noninvasively using otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) [5, 6], which are acoustic byproducts of cochlear function [7]. In this study, we applied a sensitive method to determine when and to what degree contralateral MEM suppression contaminated MOC efferent effects on TEOAEs in unanesthetized mice. The lowest contralateral broadband noise evoking MEM contractions varied across animals. Examples of potential MOC-mediated TEOAE suppression with contralateral noise below MEM contraction thresholds were seen, but this behavior did not occur in the majority of cases.

  9. Temporal development of anticipatory reflex modulation to dynamical interactions during arm movement.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshitaka; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    It is known that somatosensory reflex during voluntary arm movement is modulated anticipatorily according to given tasks or environments. However, when and how reflex amplitude is set remains controversial. Is the reflex modulation completed preparatorily before movement execution or does it vary with the movement? Is the reflex amplitude coded in a temporal manner or in a spatial (or state-dependent) manner? Here we studied these issues while subjects performed planar reaching movements with upcoming opposite (rightward/leftward) directions of force fields. Somatosensory reflex responses of shoulder muscles induced by a small force perturbation were evaluated at several points before the arm encountered predictable force fields after movement start. We found that the shoulder flexor reflex responses were generally higher for the rightward than for the leftward upcoming force fields, whereas the extensor reflex responses were higher for the leftward force field. This reflex amplitude depending on the upcoming force field direction became prominent as the reflex was evoked closer to the force fields, indicating continuous changes in reflex modulation during movement. An additional experiment further showed that the reflex modulation developed as a function of the temporal distance to the force fields rather than the spatial distance. Taken together, the results suggest that, in the force field interaction task, somatosensory reflex amplitude during the course of movement is set anticipatorily on the basis of an estimate of the time-to-contact rather than the state-to-contact, to upcoming dynamical interaction during voluntary movement.

  10. Phase-dependent reversal of the crossed conditioning effect on the soleus Hoffmann reflex from cutaneous afferents during walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Yukari; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that non-noxious electrical stimulation of the cutaneous nerve innervating the contralateral foot modified the excitability of the Hoffmann (H-) reflex in the soleus muscle (SOL) in a task-dependent manner during standing and walking in humans. To date, however, it remains unclear how the crossed conditioning effect on the SOL H-reflex from the contralateral foot is modified during the various phases of walking. We sought to answer this question in the present study. The SOL H-reflex was evoked in healthy volunteers by an electrical test stimulation (TS) of the right (ipsilateral) posterior tibial nerve at five different phases during treadmill walking (4 km/h). A non-noxious electrical stimulation was delivered to the superficial peroneal nerve of the left (contralateral) ankle ~100 ms before the TS as a conditioning stimulation (CS). This CS significantly suppressed the H-reflex amplitude during the early stance phase, whereas the same CS significantly facilitated the H-reflex amplitude during the late stance phase. The CS alone did not produce detectable changes in the full-wave rectified electromyogram of the SOL. This result indicates that presynaptic mechanisms driven by the activation of low-threshold cutaneous afferents in the contralateral foot play a role in regulating the transmission between the Ia terminal and motoneurons in a phase-dependent manner. The modulation pattern of the crossed conditioning effect on the SOL H-reflex may be functionally relevant for the left-right coordination of leg movements during bipedal walking.

  11. Modulation of spinal inhibitory reflex responses to cutaneous nociceptive stimuli during upper limb movement.

    PubMed

    Don, Romildo; Pierelli, Francesco; Ranavolo, Alberto; Serrao, Mariano; Mangone, Massimiliano; Paoloni, Marco; Cacchio, Angelo; Sandrini, Giorgio; Santilli, Valter

    2008-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the probability, latency and duration of the inhibitory component of the withdrawal reflex elicited by painful electrical stimulation of the index finger in humans. The stimulus consisted of a train of high-intensity pulses. The investigation was carried out in several upper limb muscles during isometric contractions of different strengths and during a motor sequence consisting of reaching, picking up and transporting an object. We used a new algorithm to detect and characterize the inhibitory reflex. The reflex was found in all muscles except the brachioradialis at all the isometric contraction strengths, and showed a distal-to-proximal gradient of latency and duration. Conversely, during movement the reflex probability was high (> 80%) in the anterior deltoid and triceps muscles during reaching, in the extensor carpi radialis muscle during transporting of the object, and in the first interosseous muscle during both picking up and transporting of the object. This modulation of inhibitory reflex transmission in the upper limb muscles suggests that the motor response is organized in such a way as to inhibit the overall ongoing motor task by interrupting motion during reaching and by releasing the object during transporting. This pattern of modulation appears to differ markedly from that previously reported for the excitatory component of the withdrawal reflex. Study of the nociceptive inhibitory reflexes during movement offers new and more profound insights into the functional anatomical organization of the spinal interneuronal network mediating sensory-motor integration.

  12. Perspective on the human cough reflex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review dissects the complex human cough reflex and suggests hypotheses about the evolutionary basis for the reflex. A mechanosensory-induced cough reflex conveys through branches of myelinated Aδ nerve fibers is not chemically reactive (i.e., capsaicin, bradykinin); possibly, its evolution is to prevent the harmful effects of aspiration of gastric or particulate contents into the lungs. This became necessary as the larynx moves closer to the opening of the esophagus as human ancestors adapt phonation over olfaction beginning less than 10 million years ago. The second type of cough reflex, a chemosensory type, is carried by unmyelinated C fibers. Supposedly, its origin dates back when prehistoric humans began living in close proximity to each other and were at risk for infectious respiratory diseases or irritant-induced lung injury. The mechanism for the latter type of cough is analogous to induced pain after tissue injury; and, it is controlled by the identical transient receptor potential vanilloid cation channel (TRPV1). The airways do not normally manifest nociceptive pain from a stimulus but the only consistent response that capsaicin and lung inflammation provoke in healthy human airways is cough. TRPA1, another excitatory ion channel, has been referred to as the "irritant receptor" and its activation also induces cough. For both types of cough, the motor responses are identical and via coordinated, precisely-timed and sequential respiratory events orchestrated by complex neuromuscular networking of the diaphragm, chest and abdominal respiratory muscles, the glottis and parts of the brain. PMID:22074326

  13. [Descending long-loop reflexes in the human spinal cord I. Facilitation of the triceps surae H reflex following stimulation of forelimb afferences (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meinck, H M

    1976-09-01

    The H reflex in the triceps surae muscle was elicited by just supraliminal stimulation of the tibial nerve. It was conditioned by paired impulses to the brachial plexus or the forelimb nerves and in some cases to other sites of the body. With a conditioning test interval of 32-47 msec a facilitation occurred which reached its maximum at about 80 msec and lasted for about 400 msec. The facilitation evoked by ipsilateral conditioning had a shorter latency than that from contralateral (ipsilateral: 32-42 msec, contralateral; 37-47 msec). The facilitation at the optimum interval (about 80 msec) ranged between 1;5 and 11.3 times of the control values. Ipsilateral conditioning was slightly more effective than the contralateral one (Fig. 1, 2). Stimulation of different forelimb nerves at an interval of 80 msec showed only insignificant differences in the amount of facilitation but was more effective than skin stimulation in the most cases (Fig. 3). Varying the intensity of the conditioning stimulus showed that facilitation occurred with just perceptable stimuli but it became more pronounced as soon as pain threshold (2-3 time of perception threshold) was exceeded (Fig. 3). This suggests that facilitation was mainly due to activation of nociceptor afferents. From the onset of facilitation and the conduction velocities of the respective forelimb and hindlimb afferents (cf. 6) a central reflex lantency of about 43 msec was calculated. To get further insight into the central connections of the reflex loop the H reflex was conditioned by paravertebral stimulation at C5 and L1 level. Both stimuli caused a distinct facilitation. However, the latency of the onset was 10-15 msec shorter with lumbar stimulation than with cervical stimulation. This and the similar time course of facilitation seen in animal experiments (12) suggest that an early part of facilitation is mediated via a descending propriospinal pathway. The major part, however, is supposed to be mediated via supraspinal

  14. Characterization of the pharyngo-UES contractile reflex in humans.

    PubMed

    Shaker, R; Ren, J; Xie, P; Lang, I M; Bardan, E; Sui, Z

    1997-10-01

    Preliminary human studies suggest the presence of an upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contractile reflex triggered by pharyngeal water stimulation. The purposes of this study were to further characterize this reflex and determine the threshold volume for its activation. We studied 10 healthy young volunteers by manometric technique before and after topical pharyngeal anesthesia. UES pressure responses to various volumes and temperatures of water injected into the pharynx were elucidated. At a threshold volume, rapid-pulse and slow continuous pharyngeal water injection resulted in significant augmentation of UES pressure in all volunteers. Threshold volume for inducing UES contraction averaged 0.1 +/- 0.01 ml for rapid-pulse injection and was significantly smaller than that for slow continuous injection (1.0 +/- 0.2 ml). UES pressure increase duration averaged 16 +/- 4 s. Augmentation of UES resting tone by injection of water with three different temperatures was similar. This augmentation was abolished after topical anesthesia. Conclusions were that stimulation of the human pharynx by injection of minute amounts of water results in a significant increase in resting UES pressure: the pharyngo-UES contractile reflex. The magnitude of pressure increase due to activation of this reflex is not volume or temperature dependent. Loss of pharyngeal sensation abolishes this reflex.

  15. Jaw-opening reflex after CO2 laser stimulation of the perioral region in man.

    PubMed

    Cruccu, G; Romaniello, A

    1998-02-01

    CO2 laser pulses selectively excite A-delta and C mechano-thermal nociceptors in the superficial layers of the skin. To study the jaw-opening reflex elicited by a purely nociceptive input, we delivered laser pulses to the perioral region in 15 subjects. Sensory threshold was very low (9 mJ/mm2). High-intensity noxious laser pulses (more than 4 x sensory threshold) evoked a single phase of electromyogram suppression (laser silent period, LSP) at an onset latency of 70 ms in the contracted masseter and temporal muscles, bilaterally. Even maximum-intensity laser pulses failed to activate the suprahyoid muscles. The recovery curves to paired laser stimuli showed that at short interstimulus intervals the test LSP was strongly suppressed. At about 380 ms it recovered to 50%, i.e. its recovery curve resembled that of the masseter late silent period after electrical mental nerve stimulation (SP2). In experiments studying the interaction with heterotopic stimuli and non-nociceptive responses, chin-taps or electrical shocks delivered to the supraorbital, infraorbital or mental nerves before laser stimulation strongly suppressed the LSP. A preceding perioral laser pulse strongly suppressed the masseter SP evoked by supraorbital stimulation and the SP2 evoked by mental stimulation, but left SPI unaffected. We conclude that the perioral A-delta fibre input elicits a jaw-opening reflex simply by inhibiting the jaw-closers. The LSP response is mediated by a multisynaptic chain of brainstem interneurons and shares with the masseter SP2 part of the central circuit in the ponto-medullary region. We also propose that a common centre processes the various inputs for jaw opening.

  16. Interlimb Reflexes Induced by Electrical Stimulation of Cutaneous Nerves after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jane E.; Godfrey, Sharlene; Thomas, Christine K.

    2016-01-01

    Whether interlimb reflexes emerge only after a severe insult to the human spinal cord is controversial. Here the aim was to examine interlimb reflexes at rest in participants with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI, n = 17) and able-bodied control participants (n = 5). Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by delivering up to 30 trains of stimuli to either the superficial peroneal nerve on the dorsum of the foot or the radial nerve at the wrist (5 pulses, 300 Hz, approximately every 30 s). Participants were instructed to relax the test muscles prior to the delivery of the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally in proximal and distal arm and leg muscles. Superficial peroneal nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in ipsilateral and contralateral arm and contralateral leg muscles of SCI and control participants. Radial nerve stimulation evoked interlimb reflexes in the ipsilateral leg and contralateral arm muscles of control and SCI participants but only contralateral leg muscles of control participants. Interlimb reflexes evoked by superficial peroneal nerve stimulation were longer in latency and duration, and larger in magnitude in SCI participants. Interlimb reflex properties were similar for both SCI and control groups for radial nerve stimulation. Ascending interlimb reflexes tended to occur with a higher incidence in participants with SCI, while descending interlimb reflexes occurred with a higher incidence in able-bodied participants. However, the overall incidence of interlimb reflexes in SCI and neurologically intact participants was similar which suggests that the neural circuitry underlying these reflexes does not necessarily develop after central nervous system injury. PMID:27049521

  17. Interlimb Reflexes Induced by Electrical Stimulation of Cutaneous Nerves after Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jane E; Godfrey, Sharlene; Thomas, Christine K

    2016-01-01

    Whether interlimb reflexes emerge only after a severe insult to the human spinal cord is controversial. Here the aim was to examine interlimb reflexes at rest in participants with chronic (>1 year) spinal cord injury (SCI, n = 17) and able-bodied control participants (n = 5). Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by delivering up to 30 trains of stimuli to either the superficial peroneal nerve on the dorsum of the foot or the radial nerve at the wrist (5 pulses, 300 Hz, approximately every 30 s). Participants were instructed to relax the test muscles prior to the delivery of the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally in proximal and distal arm and leg muscles. Superficial peroneal nerve stimulation evoked interlimb