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Sample records for musculoskeletal system-a prospective

  1. Burdensome problems of chronic musculoskeletal pain and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    According to a recent survey, about 15 % of the Japanese population suffers from moderate-severe chronic musculoskeletal pain persisting for at least 6 months. Social factors and related psychological factors (including depression) thus appear to greatly affect chronic musculoskeletal pain. This suggests the need for measures that take these factors into account. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain at present is generally based on a biomedical model that has been used for many years in this field, and modern medical imaging technologies have been a high priority to support this model and treatment strategy. Under the concept of the biomedical model, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, channel blockers and opioid analgesics are generally used as pharmacotherapy to alleviate chronic pain. However, these drugs are commonly associated with problems such as adverse effects, drug dependency and drug abuse, and they must be used with care. Surgery may also be effective in treating certain diseases, but studies have shown that many patients suffer residual chronic pain even after such treatment. Besides, exercise therapy has been found to be effective in treating many different types of chronic pain. Lately, various countries have been launching interdisciplinary pain centers that use a multidisciplinary approach to treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Treatment in these centers is provided by a team of specialists in anesthesiology, psychiatry and orthopedics as well as the relevant paramedical professionals. The therapeutic strategy is based on a cognitive-behavioral approach, and patients are taught about methods for restoring physical function and coping with pain, mostly with drugs and exercise therapy, so that any pain present does not impair function and the patient can reintegrate into society. PMID:26260256

  2. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  3. Sickness absence due to musculoskeletal diagnoses and risk of diagnosis-specific disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Catarina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders constitute major public health problems. Few studies have, however, examined risk of disability pension among persons sickness absent due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Thus, we constructed a prospective nationwide population-based cohort study based on Swedish registers, consisting of all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden December 31, 2004/2005, aged 20-64 years, who were not on disability or old-age pension. Those individuals who were sickness absent in 2005 due to musculoskeletal diagnoses were compared to those sickness absent due to non-musculoskeletal diagnoses and those with no sickness absence. Musculoskeletal diagnoses were categorized as follows: 1) artropathies/systemic connective tissue disorders, 2) dorsopathies, and 3) soft tissue disorders/osteopathies/chondropathies/other musculoskeletal disorders. All-cause and diagnosis-specific incident disability pension were followed from 2006 to 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. In models adjusted for socio-demographic factors and morbidity, sickness absence due to all categories of musculoskeletal diagnoses was associated with 12- to 18-fold increased risks of all-cause disability pension (adjusted model, category 2 diagnoses, IRR = 18.57, 95% CI = 18.18-18.97). Similar associations were observed among both women and men sickness absent due to all 3 musculoskeletal diagnostic categories. Moreover, increased risks of disability pension because of cancer, mental, circulatory and musculoskeletal diagnoses were observed among individuals sickness absent because of any musculoskeletal diagnostic category (disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, adjusted model, category 2 diagnoses, IRR = 50.66, 95% CI = 49.06-52.32). In conclusion, this nationwide cohort study reveals strongly increased risks of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension among those sickness absent due to

  4. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Gasik, Robert; Hildt-Ciupińska, Katarzyna; Malińska, Marzena; Bedyńska, Sylwia

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders is complex, with physical and psychosocial working conditions playing an important role. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychosocial work conditions, such as psychological job demands, decision latitude, social support and job insecurity and musculoskeletal complains (MSCs) and (repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in a 1-year prospective study. The job content questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and provocation tests were used to study 725 employees aged 20-70 years. Pain in the lower back (58 % of subjects), neck (57 %), wrists/hands (47 %) and upper back (44 %) was most frequent. The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (33.6 %), rotator cuff tendinitis (15.4 %), Guyon's canal syndrome (13.4 %), lateral epicondylitis (7.6 %), medial epicondylitis (5.3 %), tendinitis of forearm-wrist extensors (7.8 %) and tendinitis of forearm-wrist flexors (7.3 %) were the most frequent RSIs. Logistic analysis showed that increased psychological job demands statistically significantly increased the probability of lateral and medial epicondylitis, and increased control (decision latitude) statistically significantly decreased the risk of CTS. There was no relationship between job insecurity, social support and the studied RSIs. Psychosocial factors at work predict prevalence of MSCs and RSIs, irrespectively of demographic factors, e.g., age or gender, and organizational and physical factors.

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries in physical education versus non-physical education teachers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lennert; Vercruysse, Sien; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen; Witvrouw, Erik; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers.

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries in physical education versus non-physical education teachers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lennert; Vercruysse, Sien; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen; Witvrouw, Erik; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers. PMID:26419187

  7. A prospective series of musculoskeletal system rehabilitation of arthropathic joints in young male hemophilic patients.

    PubMed

    Gurcay, Eda; Eksioglu, Emel; Ezer, Ustun; Cakir, Banu; Cakci, Aytul

    2008-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate prospective results of physical therapy interventions and rehabilitation of arthropathic joints in young male hemophilic patients. Given that the effectiveness of the therapy would be higher if therapy is provided at early ages, a series of males aged 18 years or younger were included in the study. The study is a descriptive case series of 31 hemophilic children who consecutively referred to the physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic from the pediatric hematology clinic of the same hospital over a period of 12 months. After getting their oral informed consent, all the patients underwent an intensive, 4-week clinical rehabilitation program, concomitant with factor replacement treatment. A total of 65 arthropathic joints were evaluated in the study and physical therapy interventions were applied 5 days a week for 1 h daily. The range of motion (ROM), pain, clinical evaluation and disability scores were compared and contrasted before and after the 4-week physiotherapy program. The ROM of all involved joints improved (at knee, ankle and elbow) and the scores of pain, clinical evaluation and disability revealed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001). A multidisciplinary approach is important in the management of hemophilic arthropathy and appropriate physiotherapy combined with adequate replacement factor therapy promotes maintenance of the musculoskeletal function in male hemophilic patients.

  8. A prospective twin cohort study of disability pensions due to musculoskeletal diagnoses in relation to stability and change in pain.

    PubMed

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Kalso, Eija; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Pain is known to play an important role in the pathway to becoming work disabled, in particular for award of disability pensions (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD). This prospective cohort study investigated MSD-related pain stability and/or changes as predictors for DP during a 23-year follow-up. Additionally confounding factors were examined to elucidate whether familial effects (including genetics and family background) or socioeconomic status, other pain, or use of medication would affect the associations between pain and DP. Data were available on 11,224 twins (4399 complete pairs) born before 1958 surveyed through questionnaires about background factors and musculoskeletal (low back, neck, and shoulder) pain impairing work ability in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data were collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the 23-year follow-up, 508 DPs due to MSD, 166 DPs due to osteoarthritis (OA), and 162 DPs due to low back diagnoses (LBD) were granted. Musculoskeletal pain impairing work ability both measured at 1 time point and 6 years apart, and either 1 pain location or multiple locations, predicted increased risk for DP due to MSD, OA, and LBD. The associations were independent of familial confounding factors and of several influential background factors, including headache; migraine; use of analgesics, hypnotics, or tranquillizers; life satisfaction; and education and marital status. This study concluded that musculoskeletal pain impairing work ability is an early and direct predictor for DP due to MSD, OA, and LBD.

  9. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents.

  10. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  11. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995–97 and in 2006–08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  12. Prediction of chronic disability in work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Judith A; Franklin, Gary; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Egan, Kathleen; Wickizer, Thomas M; Lymp, James F; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D

    2004-01-01

    Background Disability associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders is an increasingly serious societal problem. Although most injured workers return quickly to work, a substantial number do not. The costs of chronic disability to the injured worker, his or her family, employers, and society are enormous. A means of accurate early identification of injured workers at risk for chronic disability could enable these individuals to be targeted for early intervention to promote return to work and normal functioning. The purpose of this study is to develop statistical models that accurately predict chronic work disability from data obtained from administrative databases and worker interviews soon after a work injury. Based on these models, we will develop a brief instrument that could be administered in medical or workers' compensation settings to screen injured workers for chronic disability risk. Methods This is a population-based, prospective study. The study population consists of workers who file claims for work-related back injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Washington State. The Washington State Department of Labor and Industries claims database is reviewed weekly to identify workers with new claims for work-related back injuries and CTS, and these workers are telephoned and invited to participate. Workers who enroll complete a computer-assisted telephone interview at baseline and one year later. The baseline interview assesses sociodemographic, employment-related, biomedical/health care, legal, and psychosocial risk factors. The follow-up interview assesses pain, disability, and work status. The primary outcome is duration of work disability over the year after claim submission, as assessed by administrative data. Secondary outcomes include work disability status at one year, as assessed by both self-report and work disability compensation status (administrative records). A sample size of 1,800 workers with back injuries and 1,200 with CTS will

  13. A prospective twin cohort study of disability pensions due to musculoskeletal diagnoses in relation to stability and change in pain.

    PubMed

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Kalso, Eija; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-10-01

    Pain is known to play an important role in the pathway to becoming work disabled, in particular for award of disability pensions (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD). This prospective cohort study investigated MSD-related pain stability and/or changes as predictors for DP during a 23-year follow-up. Additionally confounding factors were examined to elucidate whether familial effects (including genetics and family background) or socioeconomic status, other pain, or use of medication would affect the associations between pain and DP. Data were available on 11,224 twins (4399 complete pairs) born before 1958 surveyed through questionnaires about background factors and musculoskeletal (low back, neck, and shoulder) pain impairing work ability in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data were collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the 23-year follow-up, 508 DPs due to MSD, 166 DPs due to osteoarthritis (OA), and 162 DPs due to low back diagnoses (LBD) were granted. Musculoskeletal pain impairing work ability both measured at 1 time point and 6 years apart, and either 1 pain location or multiple locations, predicted increased risk for DP due to MSD, OA, and LBD. The associations were independent of familial confounding factors and of several influential background factors, including headache; migraine; use of analgesics, hypnotics, or tranquillizers; life satisfaction; and education and marital status. This study concluded that musculoskeletal pain impairing work ability is an early and direct predictor for DP due to MSD, OA, and LBD. PMID:23711476

  14. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders within management systems: A scoping review of practices, approaches, and techniques.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Amin; Neumann, W Patrick; Imbeau, Daniel; Bigelow, Philip; Pagell, Mark; Wells, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and summarize the current research evidence on approaches to preventing musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) within Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS). Databases in business, engineering, and health and safety were searched and 718 potentially relevant publications were identified and examined for their relevance. Twenty-one papers met the selection criteria and were subjected to thematic analysis. There was very little literature describing the integration of MSD risk assessment and prevention into management systems. This lack of information may isolate MSD prevention, leading to difficulties in preventing these disorders at an organizational level. The findings of this review argue for further research to integrate MSD prevention into management systems and to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Comparison of indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging with sequential technetium-gallium scanning in the diagnosis of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    We prospectively compared sequential technetium-gallium imaging with indium-labeled-leukocyte imaging in fifty patients with suspected low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis. Adequate images and follow-up examinations were obtained for forty-two patients. The presence or absence of low-grade sepsis was confirmed by histological and bacteriological examinations of tissue specimens taken at surgery in thirty of the forty-two patients. In these thirty patients, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 48 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 57 per cent, whereas the sensitivity of the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was 83 per cent, the specificity was 86 per cent, and the accuracy was 83 per cent. When the additional twelve patients for whom surgery was deemed unnecessary were considered, the sensitivity of sequential Tc-Ga imaging was 50 per cent, the specificity was 78 per cent, and the accuracy was 62 per cent, as compared with a sensitivity of 83 per cent, a specificity of 94 per cent, and an accuracy of 88 per cent with the indium-labeled-leukocyte method. In patients with a prosthesis the indium-labeled-leukocyte image was 94 per cent accurate, compared with 75 per cent accuracy for sequential Tc-Ga imaging. Statistical analysis of these data demonstrated that the indium-labeled-leukocyte technique was superior to sequential Tc-Ga imaging in detecting areas of low-grade musculoskeletal sepsis.

  16. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  17. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6–12 followed prospectively over 2.5 years: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia; Rexen, Christina T; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity injuries in children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 10 public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. Participants A total of 1259 school children aged 6–12 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Methods School children were surveyed each week during 2.5 school-years. Musculoskeletal injuries were reported by parents answering automated mobile phone text questions (SMS-Track) on a weekly basis and diagnosed by clinicians. Data were analysed for prevalence and incidence rates over time with adjustments for gender and age. Results Injuries in the lower extremities were reported most frequently (n=1049). There was a significant seasonal variation in incidence and prevalence for lower extremity injuries and for lower and upper extremity injuries combined (n=1229). For the upper extremities (n=180), seasonal variation had a significant effect on the risk of prevalence. Analysis showed a 46% increase in injury incidence and a 32% increase in injury prevalence during summer relative to winter for lower and upper extremity injuries combined. Conclusions There are clear seasonal differences in the occurrence of musculoskeletal extremity injuries among children with almost twice as high injury incidence and prevalence estimates during autumn, summer and spring compared with winter. This suggests further research into the underlying causes for seasonal variation and calls for preventive strategies to be implemented in order to actively prepare and supervise children before and during high-risk periods. PMID:24401728

  18. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental health: Significance of rationalization and opportunities to create sustainable production systems - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Westgaard, R H; Winkel, J

    2011-01-01

    This literature review aims to identify occupational musculoskeletal and mental health effects of production system rationalization as well as organizational-level measures that may improve health outcome ("modifiers" in this review). A short review of the effect of ergonomic interventions is included as background and rationalization is discussed as a theoretical concept. Indicator variables for occupational musculoskeletal and mental health and related risk factors are presented. Variables with a generalized format were allowed in the literature searches (e.g., job satisfaction and absenteeism were accepted as risk factor and health indicator, respectively), suitable for the research fields of work sociology, organization science, human resource management (HRM) and economics research. One hundred and sixty-two studies of rationalization effects on health and risk factors and 72 organization-level modifier results were accepted into the final database. Entries were sorted by rationalization strategy and work life sector, and trends in outcome (positive, mixed, no effect, or negative effect on health and risk factors) were determined. Rationalizations have a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors (57% negative, 19% positive); the most negative effects were found for downsizing and restructuring rationalizations in general (71 studies negative, 13 positive) and for the health care sector in particular (36 studies negative, 2 positive). The rationalization strategy High Performance Work System (HPWS) was associated with the highest fraction positive outcome studies (6 of 10 studies). Other rationalization strategies (lean practices, parallel vs. serial production and mechanization level) reported intermediate results, in part dependent on work life sector, but also on the year when studies were carried out. Worker participation, resonant management style, information, support, group autonomy and procedural justice were modifiers with favourable

  19. Musculoskeletal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Douglas G.

    1986-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems account for a significant portion of primary care medicine. Increase in the public awareness of physical fitness has led to an increase in both the incidence and appreciation of musculoskeletal disorders. This discussion considers the investigation of disorders involving the shoulder, wrist, foot, knee and pelvis. Emphasis is placed on new imaging techniques and their place in the investigation of these problems, as well as on their relationship to the more traditional modalities. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21267198

  20. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  1. Musculoskeletal MRI.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jaime E; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    MRI has the unique ability to detect abnormal fluid content, and is therefore unparalleled in its role of detection, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and follow-up evaluation of musculoskeletal disease. MRI in companion animals should be considered in the following circumstances: a definitive diagnosis cannot be made on radiographs; a patient is nonresponsive to medical or surgical therapy; prognostic information is desired; assessing surgical margins and traumatic and/or infectious joint and bone disease; ruling out subtle developmental or early aggressive bone lesions. The MRI features of common disorders affecting the shoulder, elbow, stifle, carpal, and tarsal joints are included in this chapter.

  2. Artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Scalcione, Luke R; Gimber, Lana H; Lorenz, Eileen J; Witte, Russell S

    2014-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) has been increasingly utilized in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal trauma and diseases with results comparable with MR imaging. US has an advantage over other cross-sectional modalities in many circumstances due to its superior spatial resolution and ability to allow dynamic assessment. When performing musculoskeletal US, the examiner has to be knowledgeable in the complex anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and US imaging technique. Additionally, he or she must be familiar with several common imaging artifacts in musculoskeletal US that may be mistaken for pathology, as well as several artifacts that frequently accompany pathologic conditions. These artifacts may occur with both B-mode gray-scale and Doppler imaging. In this article, we discuss common artifacts seen in musculoskeletal US and techniques to avoid or minimize these artifacts during clinical US examinations.

  3. Occupational medical prophylaxis for the musculoskeletal system: A function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system in occupational medicine (fokus(C)).

    PubMed

    Spallek, Michael; Kuhn, Walter; Schwarze, Sieglinde; Hartmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Occupational physicians are very often confronted with questions as to the fitness of the postural and locomotor systems, especially the spinal column. Occupational medical assessment and advice can be required by patients with acute symptoms, at routine check-ups, by persons who have problems doing certain jobs, and for expert medical reports as to the fitness of persons with chronic disorders or after operations. Therefore, for occupational medical purposes a physical examination must aim primarily to investigate functions and not structures or radiologic evidence. The physical examination should be structured systematically and according to regions of the body and, together with a specific (pain) anamnesis should provide a basis for the medical assessment.This paper presents a function-oriented system for physical examination of the locomotor system, named fokus(C) (Funktionsorientierte Koerperliche Untersuchungssystematik, also available on DVD). fokus(C) has been developed with a view to its relevance for occupational medical practice and does not aim primarily to provide a precise diagnosis. Decisive for an occupational medical assessment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system is rather information about functional disorders and any impairment of performance or mobility which they can cause. The division of the physical examination into a rapid screening phase and a subsequent more intensive functional diagnostic phase has proved its practicability in many years of day-to-day use. Here, in contrast to the very extensive measures recommended for orthopaedic and manual diagnosis, for reasons of efficiency and usability of the system in routine occupational medical examinations the examination is structured according to the findings. So it is reduced to that which is most necessary and feasible. PMID:17967167

  4. Musculoskeletal discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the musculoskeletal discipline must identify possible consequences of weightlessness on this system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers. The musculoskeletal system is highly plastic in that is possesses the inherent capability to adapt its structural and functional properties in accordance with the type and degree of stimuli imposed on it. Prolonged space travel is essentially a period of significant unloading of the musculoskeletal system. This results in adaptive responses in the structure and function of this system, placing it on the low end of a continuum from one of complete disuse to one of maximal use. There is a high probability that the musculoskeletal system is functionally impaired with increasing duration of weightlessness. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences division research and development activities in the area of musculoskeletal function. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines research opportunities, which encompass critical questions in the subdiscipline areas (e.g., muscle, bone, and other musculoskeletal connective tissues). These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  5. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ≥2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits

  6. Musculoskeletal disorders and work.

    PubMed

    Grimstone, D

    1991-11-01

    Musculoskeletal problems are an only too regular daily feature of patients attending family practices, OH departments or indeed confronting the first aider. Derek Grimstone, senior employment nursing adviser of the HSE warns that only too frequently the job of the patient is not considered in association with the complaint and gives practical steps to avoid unnecessary suffering by employees in the workplace. PMID:1775280

  7. Musculoskeletal chest wall pain

    PubMed Central

    Fam, Adel G.; Smythe, Hugh A.

    1985-01-01

    The musculoskeletal structures of the thoracic wall and the neck are a relatively common source of chest pain. Pain arising from these structures is often mistaken for angina pectoris, pleurisy or other serious disorders. In this article the clinical features, pathogenesis and management of the various musculoskeletal chest wall disorders are discussed. The more common causes are costochondritis, traumatic muscle pain, trauma to the chest wall, “fibrositis” syndrome, referred pain, psychogenic regional pain syndrome, and arthritis involving articulations of the sternum, ribs and thoracic spine. Careful analysis of the history, physical findings and results of investigation is essential for precise diagnosis and effective treatment. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:4027804

  8. Musculoskeletal Disorders among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Tanagra, Dimitra; Linos, Athena; Merekoulias, Georgios; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the relationships between physical, psychosocial, and individual characteristics and different endpoints of low back, neck, shoulder, hand/wrist and knee musculoskeletal complaints among cosmetologists in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 95 female and seven male beauty therapists (response rate 90%) with a mean age and duration of employment of 38 and 16 years, respectively. Neck pain was the most prevalent musculoskeletal complaint, reported by 58% of the subjects, while hand/wrist and low back complaints resulted more frequently in self-reported consequences (chronicity, care seeking and absenteeism). Significant relationships were found between self-reported physical risk factors like prolonged sitting, use of vibrating tools, reaching far and awkward body postures and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at various body sites. Among psychosocial variables co-worker support and skill discretion seem to be the most important reflecting organizational problems and cognitive-behavioral aspects. The study results also suggest that effective intervention strategies most likely have to take into account both ergonomic improvements and organizational aspects. PMID:20049238

  9. Musculoskeletal disorders among cosmetologists.

    PubMed

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Tanagra, Dimitra; Linos, Athena; Merekoulias, Georgios; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2009-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the relationships between physical, psychosocial, and individual characteristics and different endpoints of low back, neck, shoulder, hand/wrist and knee musculoskeletal complaints among cosmetologists in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 95 female and seven male beauty therapists (response rate 90%) with a mean age and duration of employment of 38 and 16 years, respectively. Neck pain was the most prevalent musculoskeletal complaint, reported by 58% of the subjects, while hand/wrist and low back complaints resulted more frequently in self-reported consequences (chronicity, care seeking and absenteeism). Significant relationships were found between self-reported physical risk factors like prolonged sitting, use of vibrating tools, reaching far and awkward body postures and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at various body sites. Among psychosocial variables co-worker support and skill discretion seem to be the most important reflecting organizational problems and cognitive-behavioral aspects. The study results also suggest that effective intervention strategies most likely have to take into account both ergonomic improvements and organizational aspects.

  10. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  11. New advances in musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Susan E.; Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Inglis, Julia J.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    Non-malignant musculoskeletal pain is the most common clinical symptom that causes patients to seek medical attention and is a major cause of disability in the world. Musculoskeletal pain can arise from a variety of common conditions including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, surgery, low back pain and bone fracture. A major problem in designing new therapies to treat musculoskeletal pain is that the underlying mechanisms driving musculoskeletal pain are not well understood. This lack of knowledge is largely due to the scarcity of animal models that closely mirror the human condition which would allow the development of a mechanistic understanding and novel therapies to treat this pain. To begin to develop a mechanism-based understanding of the factors involved in generating musculoskeletal pain, in this review we present recent advances in preclinical models of osteoarthritis, post-surgical pain and bone fracture pain. The models discussed appear to offer an attractive platform for understanding the factors that drive this pain and the preclinical screening of novel therapies to treat musculoskeletal pain. Developing both an understanding of the mechanisms that drive persistent musculoskeletal pain and novel mechanism-based therapies to treat these unique pain states would address a major unmet clinical need and have significant clinical, economic and societal benefits. PMID:19166876

  12. Computed tomography of the musculoskeletal system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.W. Magid, D. Fishman, E.K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contain 10 chapters. The chapter titles are: Soft Tissue Masses; Primary Bone Tumors; The Role of CT in the Therapeutic Management of Soft Tissue Sarcomas; Assessment of Musculoskeletal Inflammation; Assessment of Musculoskeletal Trauma; The Foot and Ankle; The Shoulder; Measurement of Bone Mineral for Early Detection of Osteoporosis; MRI of the Musculoskeletal System; and Advances in CT Imaging of Musculoskeletal Pathology.

  13. Predicting pain outcomes after traumatic musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Katz, Joel; Chin, Kelly Y W; Haslam, Lynn; Canzian, Sonya; Kreder, Hans J; McCartney, Colin J L

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic musculoskeletal injury results in a high incidence of chronic pain; however, there is little evidence about the nature, quality, and severity of the pain. This study uses a prospective, observational, longitudinal design to (1) examine neuropathic pain symptoms, pain severity, pain interference, and pain management at hospital admission and 4 months after traumatic musculoskeletal injury (n = 205), and (2) to identify predictors of group membership for patients with differing moderate-to-severe putative neuropathic pain trajectories. Data were collected on mechanism of injury, injury severity, pain (intensity, interference, neuropathic quality), anxiety (anxiety sensitivity, general anxiety, pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety), depression, and posttraumatic stress while patients were in-hospital and 4 months after injury. A third of patients had chronic moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain 4 months after injury. Specifically, 11% of patients developed moderate-to-severe pain by 4 months and 21% had symptoms immediately after injury that persisted over time. Significant predictors of the development and maintenance of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain included high levels of general anxiety while in-hospital immediately after injury (P < 0.001) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress 4 months after injury (P < 0.001). Few patients had adequate pharmacological, physical, or psychological pain management in-hospital and at 4 months. Future research is needed among trauma patients to better understand the development of chronic pain and to determine the best treatment approaches. PMID:27058677

  14. Rheumatology and musculoskeletal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Graham

    2004-01-01

    MUSCULOSKELETAL disease accounts for a large proportion of a general practitioner's (GP's) workload. Proper management can not only improve quality of care, but also increase job satisfaction and reap rewards under the new contract. Osteoporosis creates a huge socioeconomic burden of disease and disability. Identifying high-risk groups in primary care and using preventative treatment can result in a substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality. GPs can help by presenting a unified lifestyle message, advising on fall prevention, and providing effective treatment; in particular, calcium and vitamin D for female nursing home residents. Osteoarthritis is eminently treatable in primary care with a number of management options for GPs, in addition to drug therapy. Glucosamine and chondroitin have few side effects and are worth recommending to patients with mild knee osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause significant disability, which can be limited by early diagnosis, referral, and treatment. Severe refractory rheumatoid arthritis may warrant referral for consideration of biologic therapy. Assessment of the cardiovascular risk and possible use of statins in rheumatoid patients may reduce their cardiovascular mortality. GPs should aim to help patients to achieve optimum quality of life by using a holistic approach and by allowing maximum choice and control over their disease. PMID:15186570

  15. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Natali, Gian L; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population.

  16. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Angelman syndrome: A review highlighting musculoskeletal and anatomical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Rohit; Donkers, Sarah J; Kim, Soo Y

    2016-07-01

    Angelman's syndrome (AS) is a genetic neurodevelopment disorder. The cause is a known abnormality involving the maternal inherited ubiquitin-protein ligase (UBE3A) gene. Clinical characteristics universal to the disorder are well documented in the literature and include developmental delay, seizures, ataxia, altered tone, severely impaired speech and intellect, as well as an overall happy demeanor, frequent bouts of laughter, and hypermotoric behavior. Associated with this disorder are several musculoskeletal aberrations. To date, a review of case studies reporting on these musculoskeletal changes has not been carried out. Thus, the purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the musculoskeletal changes present in individuals with AS. In our review of 21 case reports from 1965-2013, the most consistently reported anatomical changes were of the craniofacial region. These include microcephaly, brachycephaly, a palpable occipital groove, prognathism, and wide spaced teeth. Other musculoskeletal abnormalities less frequently reported in the literature include scoliosis, excessive lumbar lordosis, and pes planus. Given that the majority of the case reports reviewed was of young children, the possibility of underreporting musculoskeletal changes which may manifest in the later years of life may be present. Early diagnosis and interventions to minimize secondary complications are crucial to maintain quality of life. An overall multidisciplinary approach is emphasized to maximize developmental potential for these individuals. Future prospective studies that follow patients into adulthood are needed to better understand the prevalence and development of secondary musculoskeletal changes, which in turn can inform intervention techniques and preventative measures. Clin. Anat. 29:561-567, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480021

  18. Musculoskeletal mnemonics: differentiating features.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jonathan W; Davis, Kirkland W; Lafita, Vaishali S; Blankenbaker, Donna G; De Smet, Arthur A; Rosas, Humberto; Lee, Kenneth S

    2011-01-01

    Mnemonics are often used in musculoskeletal radiology to help radiologists remember long differential diagnoses. However, unless the specific appearance of each entity on a differential is also recalled, mnemonics become useless. This article presents 8 mnemonics with their corresponding differential diagnoses and distinguishing features. Bubbly lucent lesions of bone are recalled with the FEGNOMASHIC mnemonic, but when only lucent lesions of the diaphysis are included, a more appropriate mnemonic is FEMALE. The lucent lesions of bone differentials often can be narrowed based on specific characteristics of the lesion but radiographic findings elsewhere and clinical information often help. Osseous metastases may present as lucent or sclerotic lesions; when sclerotic, the differential is best remembered with the mnemonic 5 "BEES" Like Pollen. The mnemonic for Wormian bones is PORKCHOPS. The Wormian bones in most of these entities are indistinguishable, so one must rely on radiographic findings outside the skull for diagnosis. By contrast, differentiating causes of acro-osteolysis is often possible with findings seen only on the hand radiographs; the mnemonic for acro-osteolysis is RADSHIP. In skeletally immature patients with frayed metaphyses, the mnemonic is CHARMS. Although the appearance of the fraying is seldom diagnostic, findings in the adjacent portions of the long bones may be characteristic. FETISH is the mnemonic used to remember the entities for the differential diagnosis of vertebra plana. Age of the patient, clinical history, and findings in the adjacent spine often help to provide the specific diagnosis. Nearly all the entities on the differential diagnosis for distal clavicle erosion (mnemonic: SHIRT Pocket) are included in other differentials in this article. PMID:21266270

  19. Management of chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Richard L; Roberts, Timothy T; Papaliodis, Dean N; Mulligan, Michael T; Dubin, Andrew H

    2014-02-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain results from a complex interplay of mechanical, biochemical, psychological, and social factors. Effective management is markedly different from that of acute musculoskeletal pain. Understanding the physiology of pain transmission, modulation, and perception is crucial for effective management. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies such as psychotherapy and biofeedback exercises can be used to manage chronic pain. Evidence-based treatment recommendations have been made for chronic pain conditions frequently encountered by orthopaedic surgeons, including low back, osteoarthritic, posttraumatic, and neuropathic pain. Extended-release tramadol; select tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and anticonvulsants; and topical medications such as lidocaine, diclofenac, and capsaicin are among the most effective treatments. However, drug efficacy varies significantly by indication. Orthopaedic surgeons should be familiar with the widely available safe and effective nonnarcotic options for chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  20. Musculoskeletal involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Randone, Silvia Bellando; Guiducci, Serena; Cerinic, Marco Matucci

    2008-04-01

    Musculoskeletal involvement is more frequent than expected in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is a major cause of disability, even if the prognosis of the disease largely depends on visceral involvement. The most common clinical feature of musculoskeletal involvement is arthralgia; less frequent features are arthritis, flexion contractures, stiffness (affecting predominantly fingers, wrists and ankles), proximal muscle weakness (mainly of the shoulder and hip) and tendon sheath involvement. Tendon friction rubs are predictive of poor prognosis. If musculoskeletal involvement is suspected, serum creatinine phosphokinase, aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies should be checked routinely. Treatment for muscle involvement has not yet been considered adequately and, in the future, it is to be hoped that clinical trials will identify new drugs to control this aspect of SSc, which seriously compromises patients' quality of life. PMID:18455689

  1. Musculoskeletal ageing and primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, Anders; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A; Christiansen, Claus

    2013-10-01

    Loss of musculoskeletal mass and function is a natural ageing trait, reinforced by an unhealthy life style. Loss of bone (osteoporosis) and muscle (sarcopaenia) are conditions whose prevalence are increasing because of the change in population distribution in the western world towards an older mean age. Improvements in lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking and exercise, are the most powerful tools to combat this decline efficiently; however, public health interventions aimed at tackling these problems have shown abysmal success at the population level, mostly due to failure in compliance. With these issues in mind, we believe that the primary prevention modality in coming decades will be pharmacological. We review the basic biology of musculoskeletal ageing and what measures can be taken to prevent ageing-associated loss of musculoskeletal mass and function, with particular emphasis on pharmacological means.

  2. Musculoskeletal manifestations of endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Stephanie B; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Forrester, Deborah M; Masih, Sulabha; Matcuk, George R

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can lead to disturbances in numerous systems within the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Radiological evaluation of these conditions can demonstrate typical appearances of the bones and soft tissues. Knowledge of these patterns can allow the radiologist to suggest a diagnosis that may not be clinically apparent. This review will highlight the typical musculoskeletal findings of acromegaly, hypercortisolism, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pseudo- and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. The radiological manifestations of each of these endocrine disorders, along with a brief discussion of the pathophysiology and clinical implications, will be discussed. PMID:24642251

  3. Musculoskeletal Fitness and Risk of Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Craig, Cora L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantified the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and all-cause mortality in Canada, using measures of musculoskeletal fitness (situps, pushups, grip strength, and sit- and-reach trunk flexibility) from adult male and female participants in the Canadian Fitness Survey. Results indicated that some components of musculoskeletal fitness,…

  4. Musculoskeletal problems in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems in stoke survivors are common reasons for disability and pain. Shoulder pain is present in 24% of stroke survivors among all complications, second only to depression in 26%. Diagnosis and treatment of the various shoulder pain etiologies can significantly improve quality of life in these patients. This article reviews the common etiologies and treatments of shoulder and hip pain in stroke survivors.

  5. Psychological and physical correlates of musculoskeletal symptoms in male professional divers and offshore workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physical disorder, to ascertain the relationship between symptoms and measures of mood, memory and executive function and to assess any need for future screening. Methods A 10% random sample of responders to a prior postal health questionnaire was examined (151 divers, 120 non-diving offshore workers). Participants underwent physical examination and a neuropsychological test battery for memory and executive function. Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd), and questionnaires for physical health-related quality of life (SF36 PCS), mental health-related quality of life (SF36 MCS), memory (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ)), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome questionnaire (DEX)), musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and general unrelated symptom reporting. Results Of participants with moderate/severe musculoskeletal symptoms, 52% had physical signs, and of participants with no symptoms, 73% had no physical signs. There was no difference in the prevalence of signs or symptoms between groups. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with lower SF36 PCS for both groups. In divers, musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with higher general unrelated symptom reporting and poorer scoring for HADSa, PRMQ, CFQ and DEX with scores remaining within the normative range. A positive physical examination was associated with general unrelated symptom reporting in divers. There were no differences in neuropsychological test scores attributable to either group or musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with physical signs, but this was not a strong effect. Reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms by

  6. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  7. Palliative Care in Musculoskeletal Oncology.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Ashish; Byregowda, Suman; Panda, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients in advanced stages of illness trajectories with local and widespread musculoskeletal incurable malignancies, either treatment naive or having recurrence are referred to the palliative care clinic to relieve various disease-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Palliative care is a specialized medicine that offers treatment to the disease-specific symptoms, places emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of life and help the patients and their family to cope with advance stage cancer in a stronger and reasonable way. The overall outcome of musculoskeletal malignancies has improved with the advent of multidisciplinary management. Even then these tumors do relapse and leads to organ failures and disease-specific deaths in children and young adults in productive age group thus requiring an integrated approach to improve the supportive/palliative care needs in end-stage disease. In this article, we would like to discuss the spectrum of presentation of advanced musculoskeletal malignancies, skeletal metastasis, and their management. PMID:27559251

  8. Theories of musculoskeletal injury causation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    2001-01-15

    Based on the scientific evidence in published literature about precipitation of musculoskeletal injuries in the workplace, four theories have been proposed to explain these afflictions. Central to all theories is the presupposition that all occupational musculoskeletal injuries are biomechanical in nature. Disruption of mechanical order of a biological system is dependent on the individual components and their mechanical properties. These common denominators will be causally affected by the individual's genetic endowment, morphological characteristics and psychosocial makeup, and by the occupational biomechanical hazards. This phenomenon is explained by the Multivariate Interaction Theory. Differential Fatigue Theory accounts for unbalanced and asymmetric occupational activities creating differential fatigue and thereby a kinetic and kinematic imbalance resulting in injury precipitation. Cumulative Load Theory suggests a threshold range of load and repetition product beyond which injury precipitates, as all material substances have a finite life. Finally, Overexertion Theory claims that exertion exceeding the tolerance limit precipitates occupational musculoskeletal injury. It is also suggested that while these theories may explain the immediate mechanism of precipitation of injuries, they all operate simultaneously and interact to modulate injuries to varying degrees in different cases.

  9. Palliative Care in Musculoskeletal Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gulia, Ashish; Byregowda, Suman; Panda, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients in advanced stages of illness trajectories with local and widespread musculoskeletal incurable malignancies, either treatment naive or having recurrence are referred to the palliative care clinic to relieve various disease-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Palliative care is a specialized medicine that offers treatment to the disease-specific symptoms, places emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of life and help the patients and their family to cope with advance stage cancer in a stronger and reasonable way. The overall outcome of musculoskeletal malignancies has improved with the advent of multidisciplinary management. Even then these tumors do relapse and leads to organ failures and disease-specific deaths in children and young adults in productive age group thus requiring an integrated approach to improve the supportive/palliative care needs in end-stage disease. In this article, we would like to discuss the spectrum of presentation of advanced musculoskeletal malignancies, skeletal metastasis, and their management. PMID:27559251

  10. Musculoskeletal pain and effort-reward imbalance- a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question. Methods A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180–193, 2001). Results After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one case–control study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively. Conclusions On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on

  11. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  12. Comfort, satisfaction, and anxiolysis in surgical patients using a patient-adjustable comfort warming system: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Denise; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Anderson, Jane E; Smith, Beverly A; Morris, Michelle

    2010-04-01

    Comfort warming systems aim to produce a comfortable local environment over which the individual patient has control. We studied a patient-adjustable comfort warming system using the Bair PAWS (Patient Adjustable Warming System) (Arizant Healthcare, Inc, Eden Prairie, MN), specifically to study comfort warming rather than therapeutic warming. One-hundred thirty patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized clinical trial, with 58 patients randomized to the patient warming gown, and 72 randomized to the warm blanket group. Groups were similar for gender, age, height, weight, surgical time, body surface area, and body mass index. The patient-adjustable warming system group had perceived greater control and satisfaction at 30 minutes after treatment was initiated compared with the warmed blanket control group. However, there were no differences in satisfaction levels with thermal comfort among those patients contacted one day postoperatively. Additional research is needed to improve external validity of study findings. Further refinement of a nursing definition of thermal comfort should be explored. PMID:20359643

  13. Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and upside-down stomach using the Da Vinci robotic system. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Jacobi, Christoph A; Menenakos, Charalambos; Ismail, Mahmoud; Braumann, Chris

    2008-03-01

    So far, the impact of telematic surgical approach in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is still obscure. In this prospective study, we analyzed the Da Vinci Intuitive Surgical robotic system for antireflux surgery. In April 2003, we set up a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic telerobotic surgery using the three-arm Da Vinci system. Optimal trocar positions, operating and setup times, conversion rate, intraoperative complications, and perioperative morbidity, as well as mortality rate, were analyzed. The median age was 53 years (range 25-74) in 118 patients (52 female/66 male). In 17 patients, an upside-down stomach- and in 101 GERD was surgical indication. The median operating time has been reduced from 105 min to 91 min after 40 procedures and setup time from 24.5 min to 10.4 min after 10 procedures. The system is safe and it seems to be superior to traditional laparoscopy during dissection in the esophageal hiatus region. This compensates long setup- and operating times. Disadvantages are the high costs, the time to master the setup/system and the necessity of exact trocar positioning. PMID:18027060

  14. Relationship between Comorbid Health Problems and Musculoskeletal Disorders Resulting in Musculoskeletal Complaints and Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence among Employees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Sun; Yi, Kwan Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid health problems, including depression/anxiety disorder, insomnia/sleep disorder, fatigue, and injury by accident, and to determine whether certain physical and psychological factors reduce comorbid health problems. Methods In total, 29,711 employees were selected from respondents of the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey and categorized into two groups: Musculoskeletal Complaints or Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence. Four self-reported health indicators (overall fatigue, depression/anxiety, insomnia/sleep disorder, and injury by accident) were selected as outcomes, based on their high prevalence in Korea. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between comorbid health problems, musculoskeletal complaints, and sickness absence. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence due to muscular pain was 32.26% and 0.59%, respectively. Compared to the reference group, depression/anxiety disorder and overall fatigue were 5.2–6.1 times more prevalent in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group and insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were 7.6–11.0 times more prevalent in the Sickness Absence Group. When adjusted for individual and work-related physical factors, prevalence of all four comorbid health problems were slightly decreased in both groups. Conclusion Increases in overall fatigue and depression/anxiety disorder were observed in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group, while increases in insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were observed in the Sickness Absence Group. For management of musculoskeletal complaints and sickness absence in the workplace, differences in health problems between employees with musculoskeletal complaints and those with sickness absence as well as the physical and psychological risk factors should be considered. PMID:26106512

  15. Artifacts in musculoskeletal MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh R; Chin, Michael S M; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2014-02-01

    MR imaging has become an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of a vast number of pathologies and is of foremost importance in the evaluation of spine, joints, and soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system. MR imaging is susceptible to various artifacts that may affect the image quality or even simulate pathologies. Some of these artifacts have gained special importance with the use of higher field strength magnets and with the increasing need for MR imaging in postoperative patients, especially those with previous joint replacements or metallic implants. Artifacts may arise from patient motion or could be due to periodic motion, such as vascular and cardiac pulsation. Artifacts could also arise from various protocol errors including saturation, wraparound, truncation, shading, partial volume averaging, and radiofrequency interference artifacts. Susceptibility artifact occurs at interfaces with different magnetic susceptibilities and is of special importance with increasing use of metallic joint replacement prostheses. Magic angle phenomenon is a special type of artifact that occurs in musculoskeletal MR imaging. It is essential to recognize these artifacts and to correct them because they may produce pitfalls in image interpretation.

  16. Musculoskeletal manifestations of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Steere, A C

    1995-04-24

    Musculoskeletal involvement, particularly arthritis, is a common feature of Lyme disease. Early in the illness, patients may experience migratory musculoskeletal pain in joints, bursae, tendons, muscle, or bone in one or a few locations at a time, frequently lasting only hours or days in a given location. Weeks to months later, after the development of a marked cellular and humoral immune response to the spirochete, untreated patients often have intermittent or chronic monoarticular or oligoarticular arthritis-primarily in large joints, especially the knee-during a period of several years. The diagnosis of Lyme arthritis is usually based on the presence of this characteristic clinical picture, exposure in an endemic area, and an elevated immunoglobulin G antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi. In addition, spirochetal DNA can often be detected in joint fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Lyme arthritis can usually be treated successfully with 1-month courses of oral doxycycline or amoxicillin or with 2- to 4-week courses of intravenous ceftriaxone. However, patients with certain genetic and immune markers may have persistent arthritis, despite treatment with oral or intravenous antibiotics. B. burgdorferi may occasionally trigger fibromyalgia, a chronic pain syndrome with diffuse joint and muscle symptoms. This syndrome does not appear to respond to antibiotic therapy.

  17. Early assessment of a new integrated preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at a medical school.

    PubMed

    Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S; Yeh, Albert C; Tabrizi, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    Increased incidence of musculoskeletal conditions and medical students' deficiencies in musculoskeletal knowledge have been a cause for concern for educators in this field. Findings from a 2005 study conducted at our institution revealed that medical students, despite acknowledging the importance of musculoskeletal education, have inadequate knowledge and skill in this system. In response to these findings, additions to the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum were designed and instituted. Medical students were assessed at the end of the new curriculum, using the same evaluation tools that had been administered before the curricular changes, and responses from the second-year students who completed the entire new preclinical curriculum were compared with those of students who had completed the old curriculum. Results showed that students reported significantly higher levels of clinical confidence in performing physical examinations of several anatomical regions of the musculoskeletal system. A notable proportion of students cited weaknesses in other fields, such as anatomy, as a prominent contributor to their lack of confidence in the musculoskeletal system.

  18. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D D; Greenfield, R; Martin, E

    1992-11-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat.

  19. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  20. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Kathryn J; Mutiso, Kavulani; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Monu, Johnny

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. PMID:27115883

  1. Graphic-based musculoskeletal model for biomechanical analyses and animation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-04-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the 'Virtual Human' reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. This paper details the design, capabilities, and features of the VIMS development at Johns Hopkins University, an effort possible only through academic and commercial collaborations. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of this unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system will impact on medical education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases, trauma, and rehabilitation.

  2. Perspectives in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Aditya Ravindra; Karnik, Alpana Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is a safe, easily available, and cost-effective modality, which has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided interventions of the musculoskeletal system. Musculoskeletal interventions are gaining popularity in sports and rehabilitation for rapid healing of muscle and tendon injuries in professional athletes, healing of chronic tendinopathies, aspiration of joint effusions, periarticular bursae and ganglia, and perineural injections in acute and chronic pain syndromes. This article aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of musculoskeletal interventions that can be done under USG guidance both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26288519

  3. Implicit methods for efficient musculoskeletal simulation and optimal control

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogert, Antonie J.; Blana, Dimitra; Heinrich, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The ordinary differential equations for musculoskeletal dynamics are often numerically stiff and highly nonlinear. Consequently, simulations require small time steps, and optimal control problems are slow to solve and have poor convergence. In this paper, we present an implicit formulation of musculoskeletal dynamics, which leads to new numerical methods for simulation and optimal control, with the expectation that we can mitigate some of these problems. A first order Rosenbrock method was developed for solving forward dynamic problems using the implicit formulation. It was used to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a complex shoulder arm system with extreme dynamic stiffness. Simulations had an RMS error of only 0.11 degrees in joint angles when running at real-time speed. For optimal control of musculoskeletal systems, a direct collocation method was developed for implicitly formulated models. The method was applied to predict gait with a prosthetic foot and ankle. Solutions were obtained in well under one hour of computation time and demonstrated how patients may adapt their gait to compensate for limitations of a specific prosthetic limb design. The optimal control method was also applied to a state estimation problem in sports biomechanics, where forces during skiing were estimated from noisy and incomplete kinematic data. Using a full musculoskeletal dynamics model for state estimation had the additional advantage that forward dynamic simulations, could be done with the same implicitly formulated model to simulate injuries and perturbation responses. While these methods are powerful and allow solution of previously intractable problems, there are still considerable numerical challenges, especially related to the convergence of gradient-based solvers. PMID:22102983

  4. Implicit methods for efficient musculoskeletal simulation and optimal control.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Antonie J; Blana, Dimitra; Heinrich, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The ordinary differential equations for musculoskeletal dynamics are often numerically stiff and highly nonlinear. Consequently, simulations require small time steps, and optimal control problems are slow to solve and have poor convergence. In this paper, we present an implicit formulation of musculoskeletal dynamics, which leads to new numerical methods for simulation and optimal control, with the expectation that we can mitigate some of these problems. A first order Rosenbrock method was developed for solving forward dynamic problems using the implicit formulation. It was used to perform real-time dynamic simulation of a complex shoulder arm system with extreme dynamic stiffness. Simulations had an RMS error of only 0.11 degrees in joint angles when running at real-time speed. For optimal control of musculoskeletal systems, a direct collocation method was developed for implicitly formulated models. The method was applied to predict gait with a prosthetic foot and ankle. Solutions were obtained in well under one hour of computation time and demonstrated how patients may adapt their gait to compensate for limitations of a specific prosthetic limb design. The optimal control method was also applied to a state estimation problem in sports biomechanics, where forces during skiing were estimated from noisy and incomplete kinematic data. Using a full musculoskeletal dynamics model for state estimation had the additional advantage that forward dynamic simulations, could be done with the same implicitly formulated model to simulate injuries and perturbation responses. While these methods are powerful and allow solution of previously intractable problems, there are still considerable numerical challenges, especially related to the convergence of gradient-based solvers.

  5. Tissue engineering - nanomaterials in the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Egli, Rainer J; Luginbuehl, Reto

    2012-01-01

    The musculoskeletal tissues bone, cartilage and ligament/tendon are highly structured nanocomposites consisting of nanofibres embedded in a matrix of different composition. Thus, it was a logical step that during the hype of nano in the last decade, nanotechnology and nanomaterials became a hot topic in the field of musculoskeletal repair. Especially the fact that using nanomaterials would encompass a biomimetic approach, thus copying nature, was promising. However, it became evident that using nanomaterials in the repair of musculoskeletal tissues had a longer history than initially thought and its way was paved with failures, which are important to remember when applying current ideas. This current opinion paper summarises some fundamental aspects of nanomaterials to be used for musculoskeletal application and discusses where this field might move to in the near future.

  6. Complications in Musculoskeletal Intervention: Important Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David T.; Dubois, Melissa; Tutton, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) intervention has proliferated in recent years among various subspecialties in medicine. Despite advancements in image guidance and percutaneous technique, the risk of complication has not been fully eliminated. Overall, complications in MSK interventions are rare, with bleeding and infection the most common encountered. Other complications are even rarer. This article reviews various complications unique to musculoskeletal interventions, assists the reader in understanding where pitfalls lie, and highlights ways to avoid them. PMID:26038623

  7. The musculoskeletal effects of perioperative smoking.

    PubMed

    Argintar, Evan; Triantafillou, Kostas; Delahay, John; Wiesel, Brent

    2012-06-01

    Although the carcinogenic consequences of smoking are well known, further research is needed on the effects of smoking on musculoskeletal health and surgical outcomes. Orthopaedic perioperative complications of smoking include impaired healing, increased infection, delayed and/or impaired fracture union and arthrodesis, and inferior arthroplasty outcomes. The incorporation of smoking cessation protocols such as transdermal patches, chewing gum, lozenges, inhalers, sprays, bupropion, and varenicline in the perioperative period may result in substantial benefits for patients' musculoskeletal and general health.

  8. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in musculoskeletal oncology.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Martine, Laure Christine; Reppenhagen, Stephan; Rudert, Maximilian; Schuetz, Michael; Denham, Jim; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2016-09-01

    Currently used surgical techniques to reconstruct tissue defects after resection of musculoskeletal tumours are associated with high complication rates. This drives a strong demand for innovative therapeutic concepts that are able to improve the clinical outcomes of patients suffering from bone and soft tissue tumours. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) provides a technology platform based on biochemical, molecular, cellular and biomaterials modules to selectively direct tissue healing processes for improved defect regeneration. At the same time, precautionary measures have to be taken when these instruments are used in cancer patients to prevent any promotion of tumour growth or metastatic spread. On the other hand, several innovative TE&RM tools are being developed such as multi-functionalized biomaterials, drug-delivering nanomaterials or genetically engineered stem cells that per se have the potential to mediate anti-cancer effects, act synergistically with currently used chemotherapeutics and/or radiotherapy regimens and reduce their side effects. Recently, scientists became conscious that TE&RM strategies may not only be utilized to advance contemporary tissue reconstruction techniques but also to develop personalized diagnostic tools and clinically relevant disease models for cancer patients. Eventually, prospective randomized clinical trials combined with comparative outcome analyses are a conditio sine qua non to shape the benefits of personalized regenerative therapies for the standardized management of patients with musculoskeletal tumours. PMID:27566370

  9. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in musculoskeletal oncology.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Martine, Laure Christine; Reppenhagen, Stephan; Rudert, Maximilian; Schuetz, Michael; Denham, Jim; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2016-09-01

    Currently used surgical techniques to reconstruct tissue defects after resection of musculoskeletal tumours are associated with high complication rates. This drives a strong demand for innovative therapeutic concepts that are able to improve the clinical outcomes of patients suffering from bone and soft tissue tumours. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) provides a technology platform based on biochemical, molecular, cellular and biomaterials modules to selectively direct tissue healing processes for improved defect regeneration. At the same time, precautionary measures have to be taken when these instruments are used in cancer patients to prevent any promotion of tumour growth or metastatic spread. On the other hand, several innovative TE&RM tools are being developed such as multi-functionalized biomaterials, drug-delivering nanomaterials or genetically engineered stem cells that per se have the potential to mediate anti-cancer effects, act synergistically with currently used chemotherapeutics and/or radiotherapy regimens and reduce their side effects. Recently, scientists became conscious that TE&RM strategies may not only be utilized to advance contemporary tissue reconstruction techniques but also to develop personalized diagnostic tools and clinically relevant disease models for cancer patients. Eventually, prospective randomized clinical trials combined with comparative outcome analyses are a conditio sine qua non to shape the benefits of personalized regenerative therapies for the standardized management of patients with musculoskeletal tumours.

  10. Mini Treadmill for Musculoskeletal Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Because NASA's approach to space exploration calls for long-term extended missions, there is a pressing need to equip astronauts with effective exercise regimens that will maintain musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. ZIN Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative miniature treadmill for use in both zero-gravity and terrestrial environments. The treadmill offers excellent periodic impact exercise to stimulate cardiovascular activity and bone remodeling as well as resistive capability to encourage full-body muscle maintenance. A novel speed-control algorithm allows users to modulate treadmill speed by adjusting stride, and a new subject load device provides a more Earth-like gravity replacement load. This new and compact treadmill offers a unique approach to managing astronaut health while addressing the inherent and stringent challenges of space flight. The innovation also has the potential to offer numerous terrestrial applications, as a real-time daily load stimulus (DLS) measurement feature provides an effective mechanism to combat or manage osteoporosis, a major public health threat for 55 percent of Americans over the age of 50.

  11. Musculoskeletal Measures of Orofacial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fricton, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders of the stomatognathic system comprise the majority of diagnoses responsible for chronic orofacial pain. The most common signs for these disorders include tenderness, limitation in range of motion, deviation in range of motion, and joint noise. Although these signs are used routinely for diagnosis, the reliability, validity, and accuracy of their use as diagnostic criteria or outcome measures has not been established. A series of clinical studies on a Craniomandibular Index (CMI) was completed to examine these issues. Interrater and intrarater reliability of the grouped items in the CMI ranged from 0.58-0.98, with an overall correlation coefficient of 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. Pressure algometry improved reliability of muscle and joint palpation for tenderness. Tenderness, but not dysfunction, was correlated with symptom severity. Both tenderness and dysfunction improved with treatment but did not become normal. The percent agreement of these signs as diagnostic criteria for the presence and stage of a temperomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement was about 80% compared with arthrotomography. These studies suggest that these clinical characteristics can be used with adequate reliability and validity to diagnose and measure severity if standardized methods are used. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:2085192

  12. Recognising neuroplasticity in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a basis for greater collaboration between musculoskeletal and neurological physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Heneghan, Nicola R; Tsao, Henry; Stanwell, Peter T; Rivett, Darren A; Van Vliet, Paulette M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is emerging for central nervous system (CNS) changes in the presence of musculoskeletal dysfunction and pain. Motor control exercises, and potentially manual therapy, can induce changes in the CNS, yet the focus in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice is conventionally on movement impairments with less consideration of intervention-induced neuroplastic changes. Studies in healthy individuals and those with neurological dysfunction provide examples of strategies that may also be used to enhance neuroplasticity during the rehabilitation of individuals with musculoskeletal dysfunction, improving the effectiveness of interventions. In this paper, the evidence for neuroplastic changes in patients with musculoskeletal conditions is discussed. The authors compare and contrast neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinical paradigms in the context of the motor learning principles of experience-dependent plasticity: part and whole practice, repetition, task-specificity and feedback that induces an external focus of attention in the learner. It is proposed that increased collaboration between neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapists and researchers will facilitate new discoveries on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning sensorimotor changes in patients with musculoskeletal dysfunction. This may lead to greater integration of strategies to enhance neuroplasticity in patients treated in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice.

  13. The genetic pleiotropy of musculoskeletal aging.

    PubMed

    Karasik, David; Cohen-Zinder, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal aging is detrimental to multiple bodily functions and starts early, probably in the fourth decade of an individual's life. Sarcopenia is a health problem that is expected to only increase as a greater portion of the population lives longer; prevalence of the related musculoskeletal diseases is similarly expected to increase. Unraveling the biological and biomechanical associations and molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases represents a formidable challenge. There are two major problems making disentangling the biological complexity of musculoskeletal aging difficult: (a) it is a systemic, rather than "compartmental," problem, which should be approached accordingly, and (b) the aging per se is neither well defined nor reliably measurable. A unique challenge of studying any age-related condition is a need of distinguishing between the "norm" and "pathology," which are interwoven throughout the aging organism. We argue that detecting genes with pleiotropic functions in musculoskeletal aging is needed to provide insights into the potential biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences insusceptibility to the musculoskeletal diseases. However, exploring pleiotropic relationships among the system's components is challenging both methodologically and conceptually. We aimed to focus on genetic aspects of the cross-talk between muscle and its "neighboring" tissues and organs (tendon, bone, and cartilage), and to explore the role of genetics to find the new molecular links between skeletal muscle and other parts of the "musculoskeleton." Identification of significant genetic variants underlying the musculoskeletal system's aging is now possible more than ever due to the currently available advanced genomic technologies. In summary, a "holistic" genetic approach is needed to study the systems's normal functioning and the disease predisposition in order to improve musculoskeletal health.

  14. Use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

    PubMed Central

    Neyt, J. G.; Buckwalter, J. A.; Carroll, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and common clinical disorders of bones, joints and soft tissues has been enhanced by the use of experimental animal models. Articles reporting on the results of these biomedical experiments frequently include conclusions that are based on the assumption that the biology of the animal model is similar to that of a human being for the disease process under investigation. The purpose of this investigation was to study the criteria and the considerations for selection of an animal model in musculoskeletal research. Selected journals from the musculoskeletal literature published between January 1991 and November 1995 were scrutinized for the use of animal models, and several criteria used in the selection of the various animal models were investigated. The selection criteria analyzed in this study included the biologic characteristics of the model, budget issues, the reproducibility of a musculoskeletal disease, and animal handling factors. A computer-assisted search of the musculoskeletal literature published from 1965 to 1995 was also performed to screen for reports comparing mammals used as animal models in terms of these selection criteria. Our findings imply that the selection of animal models in research of the musculoskeletal system is based partly on non-standardized criteria that are not necessarily based on the biology of the disease process being studied. In addition, there are limited comparative data on the selection and use of different animals for musculoskeletal research. We believe the selection of models should be more standardized based on both biological and non-biological criteria. Researchers would then be able to put in a more meaningful perspective the results of research using animal models and their clinical implications. PMID:9807717

  15. The genetic pleiotropy of musculoskeletal aging

    PubMed Central

    Karasik, David; Cohen-Zinder, Miri

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal aging is detrimental to multiple bodily functions and starts early, probably in the fourth decade of an individual's life. Sarcopenia is a health problem that is expected to only increase as a greater portion of the population lives longer; prevalence of the related musculoskeletal diseases is similarly expected to increase. Unraveling the biological and biomechanical associations and molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases represents a formidable challenge. There are two major problems making disentangling the biological complexity of musculoskeletal aging difficult: (a) it is a systemic, rather than “compartmental,” problem, which should be approached accordingly, and (b) the aging per se is neither well defined nor reliably measurable. A unique challenge of studying any age-related condition is a need of distinguishing between the “norm” and “pathology,” which are interwoven throughout the aging organism. We argue that detecting genes with pleiotropic functions in musculoskeletal aging is needed to provide insights into the potential biological mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences insusceptibility to the musculoskeletal diseases. However, exploring pleiotropic relationships among the system's components is challenging both methodologically and conceptually. We aimed to focus on genetic aspects of the cross-talk between muscle and its “neighboring” tissues and organs (tendon, bone, and cartilage), and to explore the role of genetics to find the new molecular links between skeletal muscle and other parts of the “musculoskeleton.” Identification of significant genetic variants underlying the musculoskeletal system's aging is now possible more than ever due to the currently available advanced genomic technologies. In summary, a “holistic” genetic approach is needed to study the systems's normal functioning and the disease predisposition in order to improve musculoskeletal health. PMID:22934054

  16. Deep-vein thrombosis after resection of musculoskeletal tumours of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Matsumine, A; Niimi, R; Nakamura, T; Matsubara, T; Asanuma, K; Hasegawa, M; Sudo, A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and risk factors for the development of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) after the resection of a musculoskeletal tumour. A total of 94 patients who underwent resection of a musculoskeletal tumour between January 2003 and December 2005 were prospectively studied. There were 42 men and 52 women with a mean age of 54.4 years (18 to 86). All patients wore intermittent pneumatic compression devices and graduated compression stockings. Ultrasound examination of the lower limbs was conducted to screen for DVT between the fifth and ninth post-operative days. DVT was detected in 21 patients (22%). Of these, two were symptomatic (2%). One patient (1%) had a fatal pulmonary embolism. Patients aged ≥ 70 years had an increased risk of DVT (p = 0.004). The overall incidence of DVT (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) after resection of a musculoskeletal tumour with mechanical prophylaxis was high. It seems that both mechanical and anticoagulant prophylaxis is needed to prevent VTE in patients who have undergone the resection of a musculoskeletal tumour.

  17. Silk scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Danyu

    2015-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26445979

  18. Musculoskeletal infections associated with Citrobacter koseri.

    PubMed

    Kwaees, T A; Hakim, Z; Weerasinghe, C; Dunkow, P

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Citrobacter koseri is a well known cause of central nervous system infections in the paediatric setting. Musculoskeletal infections caused by C koseri are rare, with only 14 previously reported cases. We present the first recorded case of C koseri induced septic arthritis of the knee along with a review of the literature. Methods A search of the PubMed, Embase(®) and Google Scholar™ databases was undertaken. Only complete or near complete cases were reviewed. Findings Fourteen musculoskeletal infections were identified. Of these, five were associated with an operative procedure and five involved a septic joint. Surgical treatment was required in the majority of cases and cure was achieved in all cases following prolonged antibiotic use. Conclusions C koseri associated musculoskeletal infections may complicate primary orthopaedic procedures. The organism can present aggressively and can be difficult to identify microbiologically. It is sensitive to newer generation beta-lactams, cephalosporin-based antibiotics and timely surgery. PMID:27412805

  19. Advances in Musculoskeletal MRI – Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren; Harish, Monica; Hargreaves, Brian; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry

    2012-01-01

    The technology of musculoskeletal MRI imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. MR imaging is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and post processing techniques than ever before. These numerable technical advances are advantageous as they lead to an increased signal to noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. However, at the same time they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal MR imaging along with their clinical applications. PMID:22987756

  20. Postoperative ultrasonography of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Kil-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the postoperative musculoskeletal system plays an important role in the Epub ahead of print accurate diagnosis of abnormal lesions in the bone and soft tissues. Ultrasonography is a fast and reliable method with no harmful irradiation for the evaluation of postoperative musculoskeletal complications. In particular, it is not affected by the excessive metal artifacts that appear on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Another benefit of ultrasonography is its capability to dynamically assess the pathologic movement in joints, muscles, or tendons. This article discusses the frequent applications of musculoskeletal ultrasonography in various postoperative situations including those involving the soft tissues around the metal hardware, arthroplasty, postoperative tendons, recurrent soft tissue tumors, bone unions, and amputation surgery. PMID:25971901

  1. Musicians' Medicine: Musculoskeletal Problems in String Players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Sung; Park, Ho Youn; Yoon, Jun O; Kim, Jin Sam; Chun, Jae Myeung; Aminata, Iman W.; Cho, Won-Joon

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing attention to medical problems of musicians. Many studies find a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians, ranging from 73.4% to 87.7%, and string players have the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. This paper examines the various positions and movements of the upper extremities in string players: 1) basic postures for holding instruments, 2) movements of left upper extremity: fingering, forearm posture, high position and vibrato, 3) movements of right upper extremity: bowing, bow angles, pizzicato and other bowing techniques. These isotonic and isometric movements can lead to musculoskeletal problems in musicians. We reviewed orthopedic disorders that are specific to string players: overuse syndrome, muscle-tendon syndrome, focal dystonia, hypermobility syndrome, and compressive neuropathy. Symptoms, interrelationships with musical performances, diagnosis and treatment of these problems were then discussed. PMID:24009899

  2. Musicians' medicine: musculoskeletal problems in string players.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Sung; Park, Ho Youn; Yoon, Jun O; Kim, Jin Sam; Chun, Jae Myeung; Aminata, Iman W; Cho, Won-Joon; Jeon, In-Ho

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing attention to medical problems of musicians. Many studies find a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians, ranging from 73.4% to 87.7%, and string players have the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. This paper examines the various positions and movements of the upper extremities in string players: 1) basic postures for holding instruments, 2) movements of left upper extremity: fingering, forearm posture, high position and vibrato, 3) movements of right upper extremity: bowing, bow angles, pizzicato and other bowing techniques. These isotonic and isometric movements can lead to musculoskeletal problems in musicians. We reviewed orthopedic disorders that are specific to string players: overuse syndrome, muscle-tendon syndrome, focal dystonia, hypermobility syndrome, and compressive neuropathy. Symptoms, interrelationships with musical performances, diagnosis and treatment of these problems were then discussed. PMID:24009899

  3. Silk scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yao, Danyu; Liu, Haifeng; Fan, Yubo

    2016-02-01

    The musculoskeletal system, which includes bone, cartilage, tendon/ligament, and skeletal muscle, is becoming the targets for tissue engineering because of the high need for their repair and regeneration. Numerous factors would affect the use of musculoskeletal tissue engineering for tissue regeneration ranging from cells used for scaffold seeding to the manufacture and structures of materials. The essential function of the scaffolds is to convey growth factors as well as cells to the target site to aid the regeneration of the injury. Among the variety of biomaterials used in scaffold engineering, silk fibroin is recognized as an ideal material for its impressive cytocompatibility, slow biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties. The current review describes the advances made in the fabrication of silk fibroin scaffolds with different forms such as films, particles, electrospun fibers, hydrogels, three-dimensional porous scaffolds, and their applications in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues.

  4. Musicians' medicine: musculoskeletal problems in string players.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Sung; Park, Ho Youn; Yoon, Jun O; Kim, Jin Sam; Chun, Jae Myeung; Aminata, Iman W; Cho, Won-Joon; Jeon, In-Ho

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing attention to medical problems of musicians. Many studies find a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians, ranging from 73.4% to 87.7%, and string players have the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. This paper examines the various positions and movements of the upper extremities in string players: 1) basic postures for holding instruments, 2) movements of left upper extremity: fingering, forearm posture, high position and vibrato, 3) movements of right upper extremity: bowing, bow angles, pizzicato and other bowing techniques. These isotonic and isometric movements can lead to musculoskeletal problems in musicians. We reviewed orthopedic disorders that are specific to string players: overuse syndrome, muscle-tendon syndrome, focal dystonia, hypermobility syndrome, and compressive neuropathy. Symptoms, interrelationships with musical performances, diagnosis and treatment of these problems were then discussed.

  5. Musculoskeletal infections associated with Citrobacter koseri.

    PubMed

    Kwaees, T A; Hakim, Z; Weerasinghe, C; Dunkow, P

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Citrobacter koseri is a well known cause of central nervous system infections in the paediatric setting. Musculoskeletal infections caused by C koseri are rare, with only 14 previously reported cases. We present the first recorded case of C koseri induced septic arthritis of the knee along with a review of the literature. Methods A search of the PubMed, Embase(®) and Google Scholar™ databases was undertaken. Only complete or near complete cases were reviewed. Findings Fourteen musculoskeletal infections were identified. Of these, five were associated with an operative procedure and five involved a septic joint. Surgical treatment was required in the majority of cases and cure was achieved in all cases following prolonged antibiotic use. Conclusions C koseri associated musculoskeletal infections may complicate primary orthopaedic procedures. The organism can present aggressively and can be difficult to identify microbiologically. It is sensitive to newer generation beta-lactams, cephalosporin-based antibiotics and timely surgery.

  6. Small molecule delivery through nanofibrous scaffolds for musculoskeletal regenerative engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Erica J.; Jiang, Tao; Nelson, Clarke; Henry, Nicole; Lo, Kevin W.-H.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal regenerative engineering approach using small bioactive molecules in conjunction with advanced materials has emerged as a highly promising strategy for musculoskeletal repair and regeneration. Advanced biomaterials technologies have revealed nanofiber-based scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering as vehicles for the controlled delivery of small molecule drugs. This review article highlights recent advances in nanofiber-based delivery of small molecules for musculoskeletal regenerative engineering. The article concludes with perspectives on the challenges and future directions. PMID:24907464

  7. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Endreddy Manikanta; Yasobant, Sandul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Waste management is a necessary activity around the world, but involves a variety of health hazards. In a developing country like India, municipal solid waste is collected manually requiring heavy physical activity. Among all occupational health issues, musculoskeletal problems are common among waste collectors in the form of nonfatal injuries because of the presence of such risk factors (lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing). We have thus conducted this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among municipal solid waste (MSW) workers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using probability proportionate to size sampling, recruited 220 MSW workers from the Chennai Municipal Corporation, India for this study. A pretested validated questionnaire has been used to collect data on demographic and occupational history and information on musculoskeletal pain. Data analysis was performed using R software (3.0.1 version). Results: 70% of the participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal pain in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months, whereas 91.8% had pain during the last 7 days. Higher prevalence of symptoms in knees, shoulders, and lower back was found to be 84.5%, 74.5%, and 50.9% respectively. Female illiterate workers with lower socioeconomic status were found to have higher odds for MSDs. Similarly, higher body mass index having no physical activity increases the chance of odds having MSDs. Conclusion: The higher percentage of musculoskeletal symptoms among MSW workers could be attributed to the long duration of employment, the low job control, and the nature of their job, which is physically demanding. A workplace of health promotion model integration can minimize the reported high prevalence, and a prospective cohort study could be recommended further. PMID:26985409

  8. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  9. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  10. Thoracoabdominal musculoskeletal injuries in racquet sports.

    PubMed

    Lehman, R C

    1988-04-01

    Thoracoabdominal musculoskeletal injuries are separated into rectus abdominus injuries and lower thoracic muscular injuries. Localized rectus injuries may be treated by steroid injection. Diffuse rectus injuries and thoracic injuries are treated by aggressive rehabilitation. The mechanisms of injury are different in each case, and prevention of these forces is necessary to allow soft-tissue healing.

  11. Pain and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Aura Ligia; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Leone, Claudio; Doria-Filho, Ulysses; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2006-06-01

    The presence of musculoskeletal pain was evaluated in adolescents. Pain was reported by 40% of respondents, benign joint hypermobility syndrome by 10%, myofascial syndrome by 5%, tendonitis by 2%, and fibromialgia by 1%. Logistical regression analysis indicated that sex and age were predictive of pain.

  12. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among agricultural workers.

    PubMed

    Basher, A; Nath, P; Siddique, Z S; Rahman, M H; Rubel, M A; Sayed, M S; Ahmad, S A; Mondol, G D; Bhuiyan, M R

    2015-01-01

    Farming is a large and main industry in Bangladesh. Large numbers of people are directly involved in farming and have very unique exposure compare to other sectors. Musculoskeletal problems among farmer population are not infrequent. This study was carried out among 200 farmers in one selected district. The study revealed that musculoskeletal problems were common among the farmers working in a traditional way. All the respondents were male. The age of all respondents lie between 20-60 years. Among them 22.5% farmers were illiterate, about 45.5% below Class V. About half (42%) of the respondents had reported pain in different parts of the body at least one or more times during working in land. And about two third (65.5%) of the farmers had history of joint pain and stiffness in last 12 month. Most of the farmers who suffered from musculoskeletal symptoms were 41-60 years. Specially who worked more then 20 years (82.6%) and average 6 hours per day (66.7%). The occurrence of musculoskeletal problems in various part of the body included Knee pain - 48.1%, Back pain (back ache) - 22.9%, Waist pain (low back ache) - 13.3%, Neck pain - 18.3% and shoulder pain - 10.7%. Length of work in year and daily average working hours were found significant association with musculoskeletal pain. It was found that musculoskeletal pain were more common among the farmers when they worked in squatting position (52%) and specially during weeding of plants (31%). Among them only 22% also engaged in other business. Most of the farmers complained dull aching pain (40.6%), only 2.3% noticed severe acute pain, but about 86% farmers' temporary stop their work for pain and 80% get relief after discontinue of work. About 75% respondents visited doctors for their pain which was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was found that the rates of musculoskeletal complaints are more among those individuals who worked relatively bad ergonomic condition, such as body position probably play an important

  13. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire for patients with musculoskeletal disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Jung, Jin-Hwa; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to establish the reliability and validity of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire, which was translated into Korean, for patients with musculoskeletal disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five subjects (26 males and 29 females) with musculoskeletal diseases participated in the study. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire focuses on a limited range of physical functions and includes a dysfunction index and a bother index. Reliability was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and validity was examined by correlating short musculoskeletal function assessment scores with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) score. [Results] The reliability was 0.97 for the dysfunction index and 0.94 for the bother index. Validity was established by comparison with Korean version of the SF-36. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:27799696

  14. Musculoskeletal applications of nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Genant, H.K.; Helms, C.A.; Chafetz, N.I.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-04-01

    Thirty healthy subjects and 15 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders were examined by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR proved capable of demonstrating important anatomic structures in the region of the lumbosacral spine. Lumbar disk protrusion was demonstrated in three patients with CT evidence of the disease. NMR appeared to differentiate annulus fibrosus from nucleus pulposus in intervertebral disk material. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was demonstrated in two patients. The cruciate ligaments of the knee were well defined by NMR. Musceles, tendons and ligaments, and blood vessels could be reliably differentiated, and the excellent soft-tissue contrast of NMR proved useful in the evaluation of bony and soft-tissue tumors. NMR holds promise in the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders.

  15. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

  16. Musculoskeletal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, M H A; Khamashta, M A; Merashli, M; Sabbouh, T; Hughes, G R V; Uthman, I

    2016-04-01

    The scope of clinical and laboratory manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has increased dramatically since its discovery in 1983, where any organ system can be involved. Musculoskeletal complications are consistently reported in APS patients, not only causing morbidity and mortality, but also affecting their quality of life. We reviewed all English papers on APS involvement in the musculoskeletal system using Google Scholar and Pubmed; all reports are summarized in a table in this review. The spectrum of manifestations includes arthralgia/arthritis, avascular necrosis of bone, bone marrow necrosis, complex regional pain syndrome type-1, muscle infarction, non-traumatic fractures, and osteoporosis. Some of these manifestations were reported in good quality studies, some of which showed an association between aPL-positivity and the occurrence of these manifestations, while others were merely described in case reports. PMID:26923284

  17. Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit: Summit Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Walton, Marlei; Davis-Street, Janis; Smaka, Todd J.; Griffin, DeVon

    2006-01-01

    The Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems group in the Office of Space Medicine at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been tasked by NASA with improving overall medical care on the International Space Station (ISS) and providing insights for medical care for future exploration missions. To accomplish this task, a three day Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit was held on August 23-25th, 2005 at Space Center Houston. The purpose of the summit was to review NASA#s a) current strategy for preflight health maintenance and injury screening, b) current treatment methods in-flight, and c) risk mitigation strategy for musculoskeletal injuries or syndromes that could occur or impact the mission. Additionally, summit participants provided a list of research topics NASA should consider to mitigate risks to astronaut health. Prior to the summit, participants participated in a web-based pre-summit forum to review the NASA Space Medical Conditions List (SMCL) of musculoskeletal conditions that may occur on ISS as well as the resources currently available to treat them. Data from the participants were compiled and integrated with the summit proceedings. Summit participants included experts from the extramural physician and researcher communities, and representatives from NASA Headquarters, the astronaut corps, JSC Medical Operations and Human Adaptations and Countermeasures Offices, Glenn Research Center Human Research Office, and the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Reconditioning (ASCR) group. The recommendations in this document are based on a summary of summit discussions and the best possible evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal care for astronauts while on the ISS, and include recommendati ons for exploration class missions.

  18. Cirrhosis-related musculoskeletal disease: radiological review.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, S; Bansal, Kalpana; Sureka, Binit; Patidar, Yashwant; Thapar, Shalini; Mukund, Amar

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal problems in patients with liver disease are common; however, they are not so well described in the literature. Therefore, there is a need to collate information on these disorders, as their incidence is on a constant rise and some of these pathologies can severely debilitate the patient's quality of life. These disorders are parietal wall varices with or without bleeding, spontaneous intramuscular haematoma (e.g. rectus sheath), abdominal wall hernia, anasarca, hepatic osteodystrophy, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, necrotizing fasciitis, osseous metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma etc. While portal hypertension plays a key role in disorders, in others, dysregulation of the coagulation system or a compromised immune system are responsible. Imaging plays an essential role in the assessment of these complications and awareness of these musculoskeletal manifestations is vital for establishing a timely diagnosis and planning of appropriate therapy, as these disorders can significantly impact the morbidity and mortality and also influence candidacy for liver transplantation. We herein comprehensively appraise various musculoskeletal complications associated with chronic liver disease/liver cirrhosis especially from an imaging perspective which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been collectively described in English literature. PMID:27356209

  19. Functional imaging of the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James F

    2015-06-01

    Functional imaging, which provides information of how tissues function rather than structural information, is well established in neuro- and cardiac imaging. Many musculoskeletal structures, such as ligaments, fascia and mineralized bone, have by definition a mainly structural role and clearly don't have the same functional capacity as the brain, heart, liver or kidney. The main functionally responsive musculoskeletal tissues are the bone marrow, muscle and nerve and, as such, magnetic resonance (MR) functional imaging has primarily addressed these areas. Proton or phosphorus spectroscopy, other fat quantification techniques, perfusion imaging, BOLD imaging, diffusion and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the main functional techniques applied. The application of these techniques in the musculoskeletal system has mainly been research orientated where they have already greatly enhanced our understanding of marrow physiology, muscle physiology and neural function. Going forwards, they will have a greater clinical impact helping to bridge the disconnect often seen between structural appearances and clinical symptoms, allowing a greater understanding of disease processes and earlier recognition of disease, improving prognostic prediction and optimizing the monitoring of treatment effect. PMID:26029633

  20. Impact of joint laxity and hypermobility on the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Cameron, Kenneth L; Owens, Brett D

    2011-08-01

    Excessive joint laxity, or hypermobility, is a common finding of clinical importance in the management of musculoskeletal conditions. Hypermobility is common in young patients and in general is associated with an increased incidence of musculoskeletal injury. Hypermobility has been implicated in ankle sprains, anterior cruciate ligament injury, shoulder instability, and osteoarthritis of the hand. Patients with hypermobility and musculoskeletal injuries often seek care for diffuse musculoskeletal pain and injuries with no specific inciting event. Orthopaedic surgeons and other healthcare providers should be aware of the underlying relationship between hypermobility and musculoskeletal injury to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and inappropriate management. Prolonged therapy and general conditioning are typically required, with special emphasis on improving strength and proprioception to address symptoms and prevent future injury. Orthopaedic surgeons must recognize the implications of joint mobility syndromes in the management and rehabilitation of several musculoskeletal injuries and orthopaedic disorders. PMID:21807914

  1. The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Darnel F; Casey, Petrina P; Cameron, Ian D; Harris, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science) for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury.

  2. The Effect of Financial Compensation on Health Outcomes following Musculoskeletal Injury: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Darnel F.; Casey, Petrina P.; Cameron, Ian D.; Harris, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of financial compensation on health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury requires further exploration because results to date are varied and controversial. This systematic review identifies compensation related factors associated with poorer health outcomes following musculoskeletal injury. Searches were conducted using electronic medical journal databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Informit, Web of Science) for prospective studies published up to October 2012. Selection criteria included: prognostic factors associated with validated health outcomes; six or more months follow up; and multivariate statistical analysis. Studies solely measuring return to work outcomes were excluded. Twenty nine articles were synthesised and then assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology to determine evidence levels. The results were mixed. There was strong evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer psychological function; and legal representation and poorer physical function. There was moderate evidence of an association between compensation status and poorer physical function; and legal representation and poorer psychological function. There was limited evidence of an association between compensation status and increased pain. In seven studies the association depended on the outcome measured. No studies reported an association between compensation related factors and improved health outcomes. Further research is needed to find plausible reasons why compensation related factors are associated with poorer health following musculoskeletal injury. PMID:25680118

  3. [Musculoskeletal tissue banks in Mexico. Part I. Regulation and organization].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-San Martín, R

    2012-01-01

    Although Tissue Banks and their activities are not new in Mexico, the specific regulations for the activities of tissue banks and musculoskeletal tissues considered as health supplies are still under development. This review paper intends to provide information on the national situation of musculoskeletal tissue banks, major aspects concerning their regulation and organization, and the recognition of the national instances pertaining to the Coordination for Organ and Tissue Donation for Transplant Purposes for the obtention of (musculoskeletal) tissues from deceased donors.

  4. Effect of Neurocognition and Concussion on Musculoskeletal Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Daniel C.; Zaremski, Jason L.; Vincent, Heather K.; Vincent, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding musculoskeletal injury risk has focused primarily on anatomical, neuromuscular, hormonal, and environmental risk factors; however, subsequent injury risk screening and intervention programs have been largely limited to neuromuscular factors and have faced challenges in both implementation and efficacy. Recent studies indicate that poor neurocognitive performance, either at baseline or in the aftermath of a concussion, is associated with elevated risk of musculoskeletal injury. Despite the relatively limited current understanding regarding the nature of the relationship between different aspects of neurocognitive performance and musculoskeletal injury risk, this is a promising area of research that may yield significant advances in musculoskeletal injury risk stratification, rehabilitation, and prevention. PMID:25968852

  5. Use of botulinum toxin in musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common cause of chronic pain, which is associated with a total cost of $635 billion per year in the U.S. Emerging evidence suggests an anti-nociceptive action of botulinum toxin, independent of its muscle paralyzing action. This review provides a summary of data from both non-randomized and randomized clinical studies of botulinum toxin in back pain and various osteoarticular conditions, including osteoarthritis, tennis elbow, low back pain and hand pain. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of small sizes provide evidence of short-term efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of 100 units of botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) for the relief of pain and the improvement of both function and quality of life in patients with chronic joint pain due to arthritis. Three RCTs studied intramuscular BoNT/A for tennis elbow with one showing a significant improvement in pain relief compared with placebo, another one showing no difference from placebo, and the third finding that pain and function improvement with BoNT/A injection were similar to those obtained with surgical release. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/A for low back pain found improvement in pain and function compared to placebo. Single RCTs using local injections of BoNT in patients with either temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain or plantar fasciitis found superior efficacy compared to placebo. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/B in patients with hand pain and carpal tunnel syndrome found improvement in pain in both BoNT/B and placebo groups, but no significant difference between groups. Most evidence is based on small studies, but the use of BoNT is supported by a single, and sometimes up to three, RCTs for several chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. This indicates that botulinum toxin may be a promising potential new treatment for chronic refractory musculoskeletal pain. Well-designed large clinical trials are needed. PMID:24715952

  6. Use of botulinum toxin in musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a common cause of chronic pain, which is associated with a total cost of $635 billion per year in the U.S. Emerging evidence suggests an anti-nociceptive action of botulinum toxin, independent of its muscle paralyzing action. This review provides a summary of data from both non-randomized and randomized clinical studies of botulinum toxin in back pain and various osteoarticular conditions, including osteoarthritis, tennis elbow, low back pain and hand pain. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of small sizes provide evidence of short-term efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of 100 units of botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) for the relief of pain and the improvement of both function and quality of life in patients with chronic joint pain due to arthritis. Three RCTs studied intramuscular BoNT/A for tennis elbow with one showing a significant improvement in pain relief compared with placebo, another one showing no difference from placebo, and the third finding that pain and function improvement with BoNT/A injection were similar to those obtained with surgical release. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/A for low back pain found improvement in pain and function compared to placebo. Single RCTs using local injections of BoNT in patients with either temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain or plantar fasciitis found superior efficacy compared to placebo. One RCT of intramuscular BoNT/B in patients with hand pain and carpal tunnel syndrome found improvement in pain in both BoNT/B and placebo groups, but no significant difference between groups. Most evidence is based on small studies, but the use of BoNT is supported by a single, and sometimes up to three, RCTs for several chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions. This indicates that botulinum toxin may be a promising potential new treatment for chronic refractory musculoskeletal pain. Well-designed large clinical trials are needed. PMID:24715952

  7. Management of musculoskeletal dysfunction in infants

    PubMed Central

    YAO, DAN; DENG, XINGQIANG; WANG, MINGGUANG

    2016-01-01

    Excessive crying (or infant colic) is a common pain syndrome of infancy without any specific known aetiology or effective management. Many cases result in long-term poor sleep, behavioral problems and parental stress. The biomechanical aspects of this condition lack adequate investigation despite its strong link with assisted and/or difficult births. The present review focused on the current trends in the management of this mal-musculoskeletal health of infants associated with the condition of excessive crying. In addition, the risk factors associated with therapeutic procedures used to manage the above conditions were also discussed. PMID:27284288

  8. [Musculoskeletal examination: from neonates to adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mary, Pierre

    2006-01-31

    A large number of medical consultations are related to musculoskeletal abnormalities. Less than 10 percent of patients are referred for surgery. In most cases, history taking and a mere clinical examination are sufficient to establish a diagnosis. Useful additional tests are usually limited to standard anteroposterior and lateral x-rays and laboratory analysis when an infection- or inflammation-induced abnormality is suspected. Any physician likely to deal with children should be able to conduct this clinical examination and include some of its elements given its essential role in screening (spinal deformities for instance).

  9. Pain and discomfort in the musculoskeletal system among dentists.

    PubMed

    Rundcrantz, B L

    1991-01-01

    The dentists in the Public Dental Service were found to have a high prevalence of pain and discomfort in the locomotor system. Only 60 (17%) dentists reported no pain or discomfort in the study in 1987. Of 359 dentists 72 per cent reported headache and pain and discomfort in the neck and shoulders. Female dentists had a higher prevalence of pain and discomfort. Younger dentists had pain and discomfort in the neck, shoulders and headaches to a greater extent than older dentists. Male dentists, who positioned their patient carefully to gain a direct view suffered less from headache. Furthermore, dentists who used the mirror reported less headache and pain and discomfort in the shoulders. Differences in working position in a simulated case were analysed during a visit to the workplace of 143 dentists. The ergonomic examination showed that dentists without symptoms applied a wedge cushion under the upper part of the patient's back to obtain an optimum view when they examined tooth 2 6 d. They also made use of the pauses intrinsic in the work. The dentists with symptoms experienced the workload as more unsatisfactory, were more burdened by anxiety, had poorer psychosomatic health and less confidence in the future than the dentists without symptoms. Specialists, both with and without cervico-brachial symptoms, were more satisfied with their personal control over their work and the stimulation from their work than were general practitioners. The specialists also had more self-confidence, and experienced less anxiety than general practitioners and head dentists. Physiotherapy with a psychosomatic approach and individual ergonomic instruction gave better relief from pain and discomfort and an increased feeling of mental well-being than did ergonomic instruction only. In the prospective study it was found that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort had increased since 1987, except with respect to low back pain and headache. However, the only significant

  10. Texting on mobile phones and musculoskeletal disorders in young adults: A five-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ewa; Thomée, Sara; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to examine whether texting on a mobile phone is a risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and upper extremities in a population of young adults. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study with Swedish young adults (aged 20-24 years) data were collected via a web-based questionnaire at baseline (n = 7092) and after one and five years. Cross-sectional associations were found between text messaging and reported ongoing symptoms in neck and upper extremities (odds ratios, ORs 1.3-2.0). Among symptom-free at baseline prospective associations were only found between text messaging and new cases of reported symptoms in the hand/fingers (OR 2.0) at one year follow up. Among those with symptoms at baseline prospective associations were found between text messaging and maintained pain in neck/upper back (OR 1.6). The results imply mostly short-term effects, and to a lesser extent, long-term effects on musculoskeletal disorders in neck and upper extremities. PMID:27633215

  11. Stress and musculoskeletal discomfort among hydrocarbon industry workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Avila-Chaurand, R; Prado-León, L R; González-Muñoz, E L

    2012-01-01

    This study of 114 workers in the hydrocarbon industry was conducted to identify the relationship between stress and musculoskeletal discomfort, and to view the roles played by such factors as age, schooling, obesity, workplace and job seniority. All factors except seniority were found to affect the presence of musculoskeletal discomfort in some area of the body.

  12. Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Sedentary and Physically Active Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…

  13. Musculoskeletal reported symptoms among aircraft assembly workers: a multifactorial approach.

    PubMed

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with reported work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among aircraft assembly workers. Population consisted of 552 (491 men/61 women) workers who performed tasks related to the work of aircraft assembly. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire, including socio-demographic information, habits/lifestyles, working conditions, and work organization. Workers also answered the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to obtain data on musculoskeletal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with musculoskeletal reported symptoms. Results showed that body regions with the highest prevalence of reported musculoskeletal symptoms were similar when referred the past twelve months and the past seven days. Significant factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms included variables related to conflicts at work, sleep problems, mental fatigue, and lack of time for personal care and recovery. Working time in the industry was associated only with reports for the last seven days and regular physical activity off-work seems to be a positive factor in preventing musculoskeletal symptoms for the past twelve months. The results highlight the multi-factorial nature of the problem. Actions to prevent musculoskeletal diseases at the aircraft assembly work should consider multiple interventions that would promote better recovery between work shifts. PMID:22317290

  14. Coping with Musculoskeletal Pain: Implications for Office Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztug, Ozhan; Cowie, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to understand how office workers cope with back, neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders at work (and their implications for work). A small (N = 120) questionnaire survey collected information about potential participants' background and history of musculoskeletal disorders. These data were used to inform…

  15. Dynamic Ultrasound Imaging Applications to Quantify Musculoskeletal Function

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Wei, Qi; Cortes, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Advances in imaging methods have led to new capability to study muscle and tendon motion in vivo. Direct measurements of muscle and tendon kinematics using imaging may lead to improved understanding of musculoskeletal function. This review presents quantitative ultrasound methods for muscle dynamics that can be used to assess in vivo musculoskeletal function when integrated with other conventional biomechanical measurements. PMID:24949846

  16. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen

    2012-01-01

    The sources of shockwave generation include electrohydraulic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric principles. Electrohydraulic shockwaves are high-energy acoustic waves generated under water explosion with high voltage electrode. Shockwave in urology (lithotripsy) is primarily used to disintegrate urolithiasis, whereas shockwave in orthopedics (orthotripsy) is not used to disintegrate tissues, rather to induce tissue repair and regeneration. The application of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been around for more than a decade and is primarily used in the treatment of sports related over-use tendinopathies such as proximal plantar fasciitis of the heel, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, calcific or non-calcific tendonitis of the shoulder and patellar tendinopathy etc. The success rate ranged from 65% to 91%, and the complications were low and negligible. ESWT is also utilized in the treatment of non-union of long bone fracture, avascular necrosis of femoral head, chronic diabetic and non-diabetic ulcers and ischemic heart disease. The vast majority of the published papers showed positive and beneficial effects. FDA (USA) first approved ESWT for the treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis in 2000 and lateral epicondylitis in 2002. ESWT is a novel non-invasive therapeutic modality without surgery or surgical risks, and the clinical application of ESWT steadily increases over the years. This article reviews the current status of ESWT in musculoskeletal disorders.

  17. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W; Schmidt, H; Schicke, B; Gromnica-Ihle, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. Methods: Ultrasonography was performed on 204 shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, and feet of 102 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.4 years; range 20–60; 54 women) with a linear probe (10–5 MHz; Esaote Technos MP). Diameters of tendons, bursae, cartilage, erosions, hypoechoic rims around tendons and at joints were measured with regard to established standard scans. Mean, minimum, and maximum values, as well as two standard deviations (2 SD) were determined. Mean values ±2 SD were defined as standard reference values. Results: Hypoechoic rims were normally present in joints and tendon sheaths owing to physiological synovial fluid and/or cartilage. Similarly, fluid was found in the subdeltoid bursa in 173/204 (85%), at the long biceps tendon in 56 (27%), in the suprapatellar recess in 158 (77%), in the popliteal bursae in 32 (16%), and in the retrocalcaneal bursa in 49 (24%). Erosions of >1 mm were seen at the humeral head in 47 (23%). Values for important intervals were determined. The correlation between two investigators was 0.96 (0.78–0.99). The reliability of follow up investigations was 0.83 (0.52–0.99). Conclusions: Fluid in bursae as well as hypoechoic rims within joints and around tendons are common findings in healthy people. This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality. PMID:15249327

  18. Musculoskeletal interventional radiology: ultrasound and CT.

    PubMed

    Martel Villagrán, J; Bueno Horcajadas, Á; Agrela Rojas, E

    2016-05-01

    We aim to describe imaging-guided (ultrasound and CT) interventional techniques in the musculoskeletal system that can be performed by general radiologists, whether in hospitals, primary care clinics, private offices, or other settings. The first requirement for doing these procedures is adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system. The second requirement is to inform the patient thoroughly about the technique, the risks involved, and the alternatives available in order to obtain written informed consent. The third requirement is to ensure that the procedure is performed in accordance with the principles of asepsis in relation to the puncture zone and to all the material employed throughout the procedure. The main procedures that can be done under ultrasound guidance are the following: fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), core needle biopsy (CNB), diagnostic and/or therapeutic arthrocentesis, drainage of juxta-articular fluid collections, drainage of abscesses, drainage of hematomas, treatment of Baker's cyst, treatment of ganglia, treatment of bursitis, infiltrations and treatment of plantar fasciitis, plantar fibrosis, epicondylitis, Achilles tendinopathy, and Morton's neuroma, puncture and lavage of calcifications in calcifying tendinopathy. We also review the following CT-guided procedures: diagnosis of spondylodiscitis, FNAC of metastases, arthrography, drainages. Finally, we also mention more complex procedures that can only be done in appropriate settings: bone biopsies, treatment of facet joint pain, radiofrequency treatment. PMID:27134018

  19. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. PMID:27390160

  20. Common musculoskeletal problems in the performing artist.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Pamela A; Reed, Kristi

    2006-11-01

    In this chapter we touched on a wide variety of unique musculoskeletal conditions in the musician and dancer. We outlined generalized methods of evaluation that stress the importance of the interdisciplinary approach in this highly specialized patient population and stressed the importance of specific involvement of the music or dance instructor in evaluation and management. We sought to emphasize the need to refer to specialized care early when in doubt of diagnosis or when usual first-line treatments fail. We gave examples of specific injury patterns common in these subgroups and suggestions for early management. Finally, we described some general principals for prevention of musculoskeletal injury in this group. A physician treating the performing artist must always keep in mind that in this unique patient population, their occupation is not only a means of earning a living, it is their passion. Artists make great sacrifice both physically and mentally to bring the world such immeasurable beauty. It is our responsibility to care for them in the most comprehensive and compassionate manner possible while informing them as honestly as possible about their treatment options.

  1. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    PubMed

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:20052957

  2. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:18953975

  3. Interface tissue engineering: next phase in musculoskeletal tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sambit; Teh, Thomas Kh; He, Pengfei; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Ch

    2011-05-01

    Increasing incidence of musculoskeletal injuries coupled with limitations in the current treatment options have necessitated tissue engineering and regenerative medicine- based approaches. Moving forward from engineering isolated musculoskeletal tissues, research strategies are now being increasingly focused on repairing and regenerating the interfaces between dissimilar musculoskeletal tissues with the aim to achieve seamless integration of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in the tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a focus on Singapore's contribution in this emerging field. Various biomimetic scaffold and cellbased strategies, the use of growth factors, gene therapy and mechanical loading, as well as animal models for functional validation of the tissue engineering strategies are discussed.

  4. Musculoskeletal symptoms, postural disorders and occupational risk factors: correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Comper, Maria Luiza C; Macedo, Felipe; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) include a list of inflammatory and degenerative diseases characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms, compensatory posture changes and functional disabilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetic/functional characteristics of textile plant workers, their level of exposure to risk factors and the contribution these make to musculoskeletal symptoms. The sample of 42 workers answered the Nordic Questionnaire and the Job Factors Questionnaire. The kinetic/functional characteristics of each worker were verified by a blinded evaluator. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were more prevalent in the spinal region and upper limbs. The exposure levels to risk factors were identified as a serious problem. Postural disorders, musculoskeletal symptoms and risk factors were correlated (P ≤ 0.05).

  5. An overview of recent patents on musculoskeletal interface tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rohit T; Browe, Daniel P; Lowe, Christopher J; Freeman, Joseph W

    2016-01-01

    Interface tissue engineering involves the development of engineered grafts that promote integration between multiple tissue types. Musculoskeletal tissue interfaces are critical to the safe and efficient transmission of mechanical forces between multiple musculoskeletal tissues, e.g., between ligament and bone tissue. However, these interfaces often do not physiologically regenerate upon injury, resulting in impaired tissue function. Therefore, interface tissue engineering approaches are considered to be particularly relevant for the structural restoration of musculoskeletal tissues interfaces. In this article, we provide an overview of the various strategies used for engineering musculoskeletal tissue interfaces with a specific focus on the recent important patents that have been issued for inventions that were specifically designed for engineering musculoskeletal interfaces as well as those that show promise to be adapted for this purpose.

  6. Pediatric craniofacial osteosynthesis and distraction using an ultrasonic-assisted pinned resorbable system: a prospective report with a minimum 30 months' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Eric; Renier, Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Resorbable osteosynthesis is an important tool in pediatric craniofacial surgery. A prospective clinical study was carried out to evaluate the Sonic Welding resorbable osteosynthesis system. Twenty pediatric patients with craniosynostosis were operated on for craniofacial reconstruction. The techniques used were the same than usual (fronto-orbital remodeling or advancement). During the process of osteosynthesis, similar resorbable miniplates were used, but for fixation, only 2 steps were necessary (drilling and welding), tapping being unnecessary. Clinically, the hold of the pins in the bone seemed stronger, and less-than-usual osteosynthesis materials were necessary. Clearly, the pins were able to hold in a very thin bone in which no screws could hold. Subjectively, the satisfaction of the surgeon was greater owing to the avoidance of the tapping step. On follow-up, resorption took place with an initial swelling effect, like with another pure polylactic acid material. The good resistance of pins suggests that, in such a system, the resorbable plate becomes the weak point. PMID:19881368

  7. Pediatric craniofacial osteosynthesis and distraction using an ultrasonic-assisted pinned resorbable system: a prospective report with a minimum 30 months' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Eric; Renier, Dominique

    2009-11-01

    Resorbable osteosynthesis is an important tool in pediatric craniofacial surgery. A prospective clinical study was carried out to evaluate the Sonic Welding resorbable osteosynthesis system. Twenty pediatric patients with craniosynostosis were operated on for craniofacial reconstruction. The techniques used were the same than usual (fronto-orbital remodeling or advancement). During the process of osteosynthesis, similar resorbable miniplates were used, but for fixation, only 2 steps were necessary (drilling and welding), tapping being unnecessary. Clinically, the hold of the pins in the bone seemed stronger, and less-than-usual osteosynthesis materials were necessary. Clearly, the pins were able to hold in a very thin bone in which no screws could hold. Subjectively, the satisfaction of the surgeon was greater owing to the avoidance of the tapping step. On follow-up, resorption took place with an initial swelling effect, like with another pure polylactic acid material. The good resistance of pins suggests that, in such a system, the resorbable plate becomes the weak point.

  8. The impact of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal form.

    PubMed

    Wearing, S C; Hennig, E M; Byrne, N M; Steele, J R; Hills, A P

    2006-05-01

    Despite the greater prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in obese adults, the consequences of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system have received comparatively little attention within the literature. Of the limited number of studies performed to date, the majority have focused on the impact of childhood obesity on skeletal structure and alignment, and to a lesser extent its influence on clinical tests of motor performance including muscular strength, balance and locomotion. Although collectively these studies imply that the functional and structural limitations imposed by obesity may result in aberrant lower limb mechanics and the potential for musculoskeletal injury, empirical verification is currently lacking. The delineation of the effects of childhood obesity on musculoskeletal structure in terms of mass, adiposity, anthropometry, metabolic effects and physical inactivity, or their combination, has not been established. More specifically, there is a lack of research regarding the effect of childhood obesity on the properties of connective tissue structures, such as tendons and ligaments. Given the global increase in childhood obesity, there is a need to ascertain the consequences of persistent obesity on musculoskeletal structure and function. A better understanding of the implications of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system would assist in the provision of more meaningful support in the prevention, treatment and management of the musculoskeletal consequences of the condition.

  9. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment. PMID:26957728

  10. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections.

  11. Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications.

    PubMed

    Draghi, F; Robotti, G; Jacob, D; Bianchi, S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the protection of both the patient and the physician.Among these precautions it is first of all essential to obtain the patient's accurate clinical history including current medication, particularly if it involves drugs influencing the blood clotting, and information related to possible allergies. The patient should furthermore receive detailed information concerning the procedure (sterile precautions as well as possible side-effects of the drugs which will be injected). In addition to this, there must be a close contact between the radiologist and the patient's general physician (GP) in order to obtain the best possible result of the procedure.

  12. Musculoskeletal disorders in farmers and farm workers.

    PubMed

    Walker-Bone, K; Palmer, K T

    2002-12-01

    Farming is a physically arduous occupation and this places farm workers at potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders such as osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee, low back pain (LBP), neck and upper limb complaints, and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). This review considers the epidemiological evidence concerning such risks. The strongest evidence relates to OA of the hip, for which the public health impact is likely to be considerable. There is also weaker, but suggestive evidence that farmers more often have knee OA and LBP than workers in occupations with fewer physical demands. Tractor drivers, in particular, seem to have more LBP. Relatively little information exists on the risks of soft tissue rheumatism in the limbs and neck. For some outcomes, the link with occupational risk factors (such as heavy loading of joints and whole-body vibration) is sufficient to suggest the course that future prevention should take, but for several outcomes more research is first needed. PMID:12488514

  13. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  14. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, by its very nature, will be associated with negative emotions and psychological distress. There are individual differences in personality, coping skills, behavioral adaptation, and social support that dramatically alter the psychological outcomes of patients with chronic pain. Patients that have an aspect of central pain amplification associated with mechanical or inflammatory pain and patients with fibromyalgia (FM) are likely to exhibit higher levels of psychological distress and illness behaviors. This manuscript will discuss several different constructs for the association between chronic pain, central pain amplification, and psychological distress. The first key question addresses mechanisms shared in common between chronic pain and mood disorders, including the individual factors that influence psychological comorbidity. Second, how pain affects mood and vice versa. Finally, the utility of cognitive behavioral approaches to the management of chronic pain symptoms will be discussed. PMID:26267008

  15. In-111 WBC imaging in musculoskeletal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.; Ouzounian, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and utility of the In-111 labeled WBC imaging in a series of patients who were suspected of having musculoskeletal sepsis. The labeling of the WBCs was patterned after a method previously described, in which the WBCs are labeled with In-111 oxine in plasma. The WBCs from 100 ml of blood are separated and incubated with In-111 oxine complex, and then 500 ..mu..Ci. of the labeled cells were reinjected into the patient. Images of the areas in question were obtained at 24 hrs. In some instances, 48 hour images were also obtained. Images were interpreted using consistent criteria. Forty imaging procedures were done on 39 patients. These included 39 total joint protheses, and 17 other images to evaluate possible osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or deep abscesses. Of these studies, 15 were positive, and 42 negative. The findings were then correlated with operative culture and pathology in 21, aspiration cultures and gram stains in 14, and with clinical findings in the remaining 21. This correlation showed 41 true negatives, 12 true positives, 1 false negative, and 2 false positives. The sensitivity was 92.9% and the specificity was 95.2%l. The false negative occurred in a patient on chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy for an infected total hip replacement. The false positive images occurred in a patient with active rheumatoid arthritis and in a patient imaged one month post operative placement of the prosthesis. These images were very useful in several septic patients who had many possible sites of infection. The authors conclude that In-III imaging is an accurate and useful non-invasive method of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis.

  16. Musculoskeletal manifestations in patients with malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Gheita, Tamer A; Ezzat, Yasser; Sayed, Safaa; El-Mardenly, Ghada; Hammam, Waleed

    2010-02-01

    To detect and describe the incidence of musculoskeletal manifestations in different malignant diseases as well as their relation to the treatment received whether by chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Sixty patients with different malignant diseases were included in this study, 45 with solid tumors and 15 patients with hematological malignancy. The mean age was 46.55 +/- 11.04 years and the mean disease duration was 2 +/- 0.75 years. The patients were fully examined for any rheumatologic involvement, laboratory investigations were performed as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study for bone densitometry. Treatment strategies were assessed including the chemotherapeutics, radiation therapy, and/or surgery. Myalgias and arthralgias were the most frequent followed by flexor tenosynovitis, frozen shoulder, and fibromyalgia syndrome. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy was seen in five patients, cutaneous vasculitis in two patients as well as arthritis. Osteonecrosis was present in one of the lunate carpal bones of a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.67%) and receiving high dose steroids. Rheumatoid factor was positive in four patients, three of which had hepatitis C virus positivity and cryoglobulins. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was negative in all the studied patients. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced in the patients with malignancy compared to the control. Mild to moderate osteoporosis was present, being more evident in the spine and forearm. The bone loss was higher in those with solid tumors and even more obvious in those receiving aromatase inhibitors. Musculoskeletal manifestations occurring during malignancies and following the treatment represent a significant percentage of symptoms and signs which may raise a clue to differential diagnosis.

  17. Musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kamper, Steve J.; Henschke, Nicholas; Hestbaek, Lise; Dunn, Kate M.; Williams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain in children and adolescents is responsible for substantial personal impacts and societal costs, but it has not been intensively or systematically researched. This means our understanding of these conditions is limited, and healthcare professionals have little empirical evidence to underpin their clinical practice. In this article we summarise the state of the evidence concerning MSK pain in children and adolescents, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Rates of self-reported MSK pain in adolescents are similar to those in adult populations and they are typically higher in teenage girls than boys. Epidemiological research has identified conditions such as back and neck pain as major causes of disability in adolescents, and in up to a quarter of cases there are impacts on school or physical activities. A range of physical, psychological and social factors have been shown to be associated with MSK pain report, but the strength and direction of these relationships are unclear. There are few validated instruments available to quantify the nature and severity of MSK pain in children, but some show promise. Several national surveys have shown that adolescents with MSK pain commonly seek care and use medications for their condition. Some studies have revealed a link between MSK pain in adolescents and chronic pain in adults. Conclusion Musculoskeletal pain conditions are often recurrent in nature, occurring throughout the life-course. Attempts to understand these conditions at a time close to their initial onset may offer a better chance of developing effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:27437719

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Saskatchewan Farmers.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Michelle; Trask, Catherine; Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The extent of the musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) problem is not well understood among Canadian farmers, and little too is known about their epidemiology. The purpose of this study was therefore to (1) determine the prevalence of MSDs among farmers in one Canadian province; and (2) describe the types and severities of these disorders and patterns in their occurrence. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted using baseline survey data from the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study. Reports of MSDs, demographic and health-related variables, reports of farm-related injuries, and economic conditions of individual farms were available for 2595 adult participants from 1212 farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Relationships between MSDs and time spent doing farm work were investigated using tests of association. The participation rate was 48.8%. Most (85.6%) of participants reported having musculoskeletal pain in at least one body part over the past year. The lower back was most frequently affected (57.7%), followed by shoulders (44.0%), and neck (39.6%). More serious pain prevented 27.9% of respondents from performing regular work activities. MSD prevalence did not vary by sex, commodity type, or by total hours of farm work completed; prevalence was significantly (P < .05) related to time spent performing biomechanically demanding tasks such as heavy lifting and working with arms overhead. The most common MSD site in farmers was the low back, followed by the upper and then lower extremities. Although this study aimed to identify high-risk groups, lack of differences between demographic groups suggests that the majority of farmers are at risk for MSDs. PMID:26237719

  19. Virtual interactive musculoskeletal system (VIMS) in orthopaedic research, education and clinical patient care

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Edmund YS; Armiger, Robert S; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Lim, Jonathan; Haraguchi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the "Virtual Human" reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of these unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system, model library and database will impact on orthopaedic education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal joint system reconstruction, trauma management, and rehabilitation. PMID:17343764

  20. Planning, Building, and Maintaining a Successful Musculoskeletal Service Line.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Zain; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Chambers, Monique C; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Within the past 3 decades, a recent trend in the growth of musculoskeletal service lines has been seen nationally. Orthopedics offers an appealing concourse for implementation of service-line care. Within this review, the authors address the components involved in planning and building a musculoskeletal service line. The authors also address methods by which orthopedic surgeons can maintain the efficacy of their service lines by examining how orthopedic surgeons can navigate their service line through recent advents in health care reform. Finally, the authors review successful examples of musculoskeletal service lines currently in practice within the orthopedic community. PMID:27637654

  1. Safety climate, hardiness, and musculoskeletal complaints: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Golubovich, Juliya; Chang, Chu-Hsiang; Eatough, Erin M

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the mechanisms linking the psychosocial characteristics of the workplace with employees' work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Poor safety climate perceptions represent a stressor that may elicit frustration, and subsequently, increase employees' reports of musculoskeletal discomforts. Results from an employee sample supported that when employees' perceived safety was considered a priority, they experienced less frustration and reported fewer work-related upper body musculoskeletal symptoms. Psychological hardiness, a personality trait that is indicative of individuals' resilience and success in managing stressful circumstances, moderated these relationships. Interestingly, employees with high hardiness were more affected by poor safety climate.

  2. Musculoskeletal impairments and physical disablement among the aged.

    PubMed

    Jette, A M; Branch, L G; Berlin, J

    1990-11-01

    This article summarizes the results of a longitudinal investigation of the progression of sight, hearing, and musculoskeletal impairments and their association with change in physical disability, in 10 ADLs among members of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. The findings confirm widely held clinical beliefs that specific types of musculoskeletal decrement are an important cause of physical disability among older persons. Decrement in hand function is a significant musculoskeletal impairment influencing limitations in Basic ADL, and progression of Instrumental ADL dysfunction is influenced by progression of lower extremity impairments. Progression of sight and hearing impairments was not associated with change in physical disability. Musculoskeletal impairments, one of the most prevalent and symptomatic chronic complaints of middle and old age, deserve increased attention from epidemiologists, disability researchers, and clinicians seeking ways to prevent disablement among the aged. PMID:2229943

  3. Basic aspects of musculoskeletal pain: from acute to chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The transition from acute to chronic musculoskeletal pain is not well understood. To understand this transition, it is important to know how peripheral and central sensitization are manifested and how they can be assessed. A variety of human pain biomarkers have been developed to quantify localized and widespread musculoskeletal pain. In addition, human surrogate models may be used to induce sensitization in otherwise healthy volunteers. Pain can arise from different musculoskeletal structures (e.g. muscles, joints, ligaments, or tendons), and differentiating the origin of pain from those different structures is a challenge. Tissue specific pain biomarkers can be used to tease these different aspects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients in general show signs of local/central sensitization and spread of pain to degrees which correlate to pain intensity and duration. From a management perspective, it is therefore highly important to reduce pain intensity and try to minimize the duration of pain. PMID:23115471

  4. The Use of Scaffolds in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Frances; Getgood, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The use of bioengineering scaffolds remains an integral part of the tissue engineering concept. A significant amount of basic science and clinical research has been focused on the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues including bone, articular cartilage, meniscus, ligament and tendon. This review aims to provide the reader with a summary of the principals of using material scaffolds in musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications and how these materials may eventually come to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:21886690

  5. Effect of physical activity on musculoskeletal discomforts among handicraft workers

    PubMed Central

    Shakerian, Mahnaz; Rismanchian, Masoud; Khalili, Pejman; Torki, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Handicrafts seems to be one of the high-risk jobs regarding work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) which necessitate the implementation of different corrective intervention like regular physical activities. This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical activity on WMSDs among craftsmen. Methods: This cross-sectional study was an analytical – descriptive study carried out on 100 craftsmen working in Isfahan, Iran, in 2013. The sampling method was census, and all workshops involved with this job were included. Information on demographic parameters and physical activity was collected by demographic forms. The data related to worker's musculoskeletal discomforts were conducted using Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using statistical tests including independent t-test, Chi-square, and ANOVA. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. Results: The highest percentages of complaints related to severe musculoskeletal discomfort were reported in right shoulder (%36), right wrist (%26), neck (%25), and upper right arm (%24), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between physical activity and musculoskeletal discomforts of left wrist (P = 0.012), lower back (P = 0.016), and neck (P = 0.006). Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the study results, it can be inferred that regular but not too heavy physical activity can have a positive impact on decreasing the musculoskeletal discomforts. PMID:27512700

  6. [Musculoskeletal disorders and housework in Italy].

    PubMed

    Rosano, A; Moccaldi, R; Cioppa, M; Lanzieri, G; Persechino, B; Spagnolo, A

    2004-01-01

    The housework exposes to the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, which may appear as disabling diseases, both temporary and permanent ones. To evaluate the epidemiology of the phenomenon a retrospective survey was conducted by administering a mail questionnaire to a sample of 1,000 families residing in the whole national territory. The participation rate was 31.7%. Among respondents 20.5% reported spinal pain, 65.6% of them with continuous pains (41.4% assumed pain-killer drugs). 37.0% of the interviewed persons reported to disorders in upper limbs. It was analysed the association between the presence of disorders and the frequency in making some housework duties. Washing clothes (OR=1.8; C.I. 95%: 0.6-4.5), making beds (OR=1.5; C.I. 95%: 0.2-13.1), and taking care of pets (OR=1.4; C.I. 95%: 0.6-3.4) were associated, even if not in a statistically significant way, with the presence of spinal pain. Upper limbs disorders were associated with duties naturally related to such a disorder, like washing dishes (OR=4.6; C.I. 95%: 1.3-16.5), cleaning clothes (OR=3.1; C.I. 95%: 1.3-7.0), cleaning up carpets (OR=2.3; C.I. 95%: 1.3-3.9). To assist the relatives in state of need was identified as risk factor for both the body areas (OR=2.9; C.I. 95%: 1.2-6.7 for the spine, OR=2.6; C.I. 95%: 1.3-5.2 for upper limbs), putting in evidence the physical stress attributable to the duty. The exact identification of the typology of housework which can induce musculoskeletal disorders, and the level of related risks, are essential information to devise campaigns and protocols of health education aimed at the prevention of chronic pathologies caused by the housework. PMID:15368941

  7. The clinical profile of musculoskeletal injuries in children attending a major hospital in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Sural, Sumit; Verma, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background Children are vulnerable to musculoskeletal injuries both at home and on the street for various reasons. Morbidity and disabilities resulting from these, mostly preventable, injuries, make them a burden to their families and society. The role of various factors associated with injuries is often not documented. Methods This prospective study, done on 100 children aged up to 12 years with musculoskeletal trauma, analysed in details, the various modes of injuries. Results One in every five patient was a child below 12 years of age. Boys were injured more than girls. Injuries, especially fractures, were most common in the extremities, the upper limb more commonly injured than the lower limb. Most of the injuries occurred at home. The most common mode of injuries was falls that happened while playing both within and outside the home, followed by road traffic accidents. Most injuries occurred during daytime. Conclusions Injuries in children were found to be preventable. Small interventions while constructing homes can contribute tremendously to injury prevention and control in children. Parental awareness about the various modes of injury, role of supervised playing and their responsibility towards injury prevention can play a key role in reducing the morbidity associated with childhood fractures. PMID:26549946

  8. [Epidemiology of illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders in grocery stores and catering].

    PubMed

    Bonzini, Matteo; Battevi, Natale; Stucchi, Giulia; Vitelli, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Large scale retail industry and catering industry are characterized by the widespread presence of several risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD): repetitive movements, incongruous postures and manual handling tasks. We reviewed current epidemiological evidence related to musculoskeletal disorders within these two sectors, distinguishing between symptoms and clinically documented disorders. In retail industry cashier is the most investigated figure, regarding upper limbs disorders as a consequence of repetitive tasks. In the catering sector there are few studies, mostly focused only on the job as a cook. The majority of studies showed a high prevalence of WMSD and, to a lesser extent, a high frequency ofmusculoskeletal alterations; suggesting the presence of a not negligible risk. These findings, however, are affected by a number of methodological limitations: they derive from cross-sectional studies, are based on voluntary self-selected workers, are focused on not unequivocally defined health outcomes, and are usually lacking a proper comparison. with the prevalence in less exposed/reference working groups. In order to achieve an effective control of the workers' risk, it is therefore necessary to design and conduct prospective studies that compare the risk of developing disorders and/or diseases in workers exposed to different levels of biomechanical load. It appears essential to involve occupational physicians in active health surveillance programs in order to identify critical areas and to develop effective preventive measures. PMID:25558714

  9. NASA Musculoskeletal Space Medicine and Reconditioning Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Scheuring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) group is comprised of certified strength and conditioning coaches and licensed and certified athletic trainers. The ASCR group works within NASA s Space Medicine Division providing direction and supervision to the astronaut corp with regards to physical readiness throughout all phases of space flight. The ASCR group is overseen by flight surgeons with specialized training in sports medicine or physical medicine and rehabilitation. The goals of the ASCR group include 1) designing and administering strength and conditioning programs that maximize the potential for physical performance while minimizing the rate of injury, 2) providing appropriate injury management and rehabilitation services, 3) collaborating with medical, research, engineering, and mission operations groups to develop and implement safe and effective in-flight exercise countermeasures, and 4) providing a structured, individualized post-flight reconditioning program for long duration crew members. This Panel will present the current approach to the management of musculoskeletal injuries commonly seen within the astronaut corp and will present an overview of the pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and post-flight reconditioning program for ISS astronauts.

  10. [Aging at work and musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D

    2000-01-01

    By means of a critical review of the international literature and of their own published experiences, the Authors discuss the influence of the "age" factor on work related musculoskeletal disorders of the spine and upper limbs. Regarding the spine, the lumbosacral spine in particular, there is evidence (both in relation to pathways and from epidemiological data) of the influence of age in determining a progressive increase in the occurrence of spondyloarthropathy with clear radiological signs. For upper limb disorders the influence of the "age" factor is still under debate and in any case does not seem of great importance. As far prevention is concerned for elderly workers subject to fixed postures and repetitive movements of the upper limbs it seems sufficient, to adopt the general measures used for the whole working population. However, specific measures should be adopted for elderly workers exposed to manual material handling (MMH). These consist in using reference values for the recommended weight that are lower than those adopted for younger workers (aged 18-45 years) and in implementing specific programs of active health surveillance.

  11. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles.

  12. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  13. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles. PMID:26716007

  14. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  15. The Development and Validation of Hundred Paisa Pain Scale for Measuring Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Anwar, Dilshad; Nezamuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The reduction in the pain intensity is one of the most important outcome measures in musculoskeletal disorders. The assessment of pain required reliable and valid scale. The aims of this prospective observational study were to develop and evaluate concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of hundred paisa pain scale (HPPS) for measuring musculoskeletal pain. A consecutive 74 patients with musculoskeletal pain with a wide variety of diagnoses were enrolled. Patients reported their intensity of pain on the following scale: HPPS, “visual analog scale (VAS),” and “numerical rating scale (NRS).” Patients were asked to complete another HPPS, VAS, and NRS after 2 days to determine the reproducibility of the scales. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between the HPPS and the NRS, and VAS were used to determine the validity of the scales. The correlation between the change score of HPPS, VAS, and NRS was used to determine the responsiveness of HPPS. Results of test–retest indicate that the reproducibility of HPPS was good to excellent with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76–0.91). The standard error of measurement (SEM) was 5.24. The minimum detectable change based on the SEM for test–retest was 14.52. The reproducibility of VAS is moderate to good with the ICC value of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72–0.88). The reproducibility of NRS is good to excellent with the ICC value of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81–0.92). There was a strong correlation between the HPPS and the VAS, and NRS (P < 0.01), which confirm the validity. The HPPS was responsive as the correlation of the change score of HPPS with the change score of VAS, and NRS were good (0.80 and 0.86, respectively). The HPPS is a valid and reliable scale to assess musculoskeletal pain, with psychometric properties in agreement with other comparable scale. PMID:26200616

  16. Improved education in musculoskeletal conditions is necessary for all doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Akesson, Kristina; Dreinhöfer, Karsten E.; Woolf, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    It is likely that everyone will, at some time, suffer from a problem related to the musculoskeletal system, ranging from a very common problem such as osteoarthritis or back pain to severely disabling limb trauma or rheumatoid arthritis. Many musculoskeletal problems are chronic conditions. The most common symptoms are pain and disability, with an impact not only on individuals' quality of life but also, importantly, on people's ability to earn a living and be independent. It has been estimated that one in four consultations in primary care is caused by problems of the musculoskeletal system and that these conditions may account for up to 60% of all disability pensions. In contrast, teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels--and the resulting competence and confidence of many doctors--do not reflect the impact of these conditions on individuals and society. Many medical students do not have any clinical training in assessing patients with bone and joint problems. Under the umbrella of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, experts from all parts of the world with an interest in teaching have developed recommendations for an undergraduate curriculum to improve the teaching of musculoskeletal conditions in medical schools. The goal for each medical school should be a course in musculoskeletal medicine concentrating on clinical assessment, common outpatient musculoskeletal problems and recognition of emergencies. Improving competency in the management of musculoskeletal problems within primary care settings through improved education is the next aim, but there are needs for improvement for all professionals and at all levels within the health care system. PMID:14710510

  17. [Musculoskeletal pain in Venezuelan oil tanker crews].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, Janice; Jameson, Robby; Brito, Angel

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in oil tanker crew members in Venezuela. A descriptive cross-sectional study was implemented, using a modified version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaires. The prevalence of MSP in 127 men was 82%. The mean age was statistically different (p < 0.05) between the MSP group (39.29 +/- 10.16 years, range 24-60) and the no-MSP group (34.9 +/- 9.76 years, range 24-58 years). There was no significant difference between the body mass indexes (BMI) of the MSP group (29.94 +/- 4.31 kg/m2) and the no-MSP group (30.02 +/- 4.96 km/m2). The majority of the crew members with MSP (83%) had < or = 10 years seniority, mean value of 4.31 +/- 2.44 years. MSP occurrence was the same (50%) for crew members located in engine rooms and decks. The MSP frequency for anatomical region was 57% in lower back, 32% knees, 24% in neck and upper back and 19% shoulders. There was a significant association between lower back pain and seniority (p < 0.05), also between age and BMI (p < 0.01); and an inverse significant correlation (p < 0.01) between lower back pain and knee pain, age and neck pain and seniority in the job. The crew members in the deck area showed a higher occurrence of neck pain (33%) than the engine crew (16%) (p< 0.01). Our findings suggest the need to implement health programs to reduce the occurrence of MSP in the workplace.

  18. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  19. Role of Health Literacy in Self-Reported Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Catherine L.; Appleton, Sarah L.; Black, Julie; Hoon, Elizabeth; Rudd, Rima E.; Adams, Robert J.; Gill, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Self-report of musculoskeletal conditions is often used to estimate population prevalence and to determine disease burden and influence policy. However, self-report of certain musculoskeletal conditions is frequently inaccurate, suggesting inadequate communication to the patient of their diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine the association between functional health literacy (FHL) and self-reported musculoskeletal conditions in a representative population survey. FHL was measured using Newest Vital Sign in 2824 randomly selected adults. Participants also self-reported medically diagnosed arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis. Multiple logistic regression was adjusted for age and sex. The prevalence of self-reported arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis was 25.2%, 4.9%, and 5.6%, respectively. The prevalence of those at risk for inadequate FHL was 24.0% and high likelihood of inadequate FHL was 21.0%. However, over 50% of respondents with arthritis or gout had at risk/inadequate FHL, increasing to 70% of those self-reporting osteoporosis. After adjustment for age and sex, respondents in the arthritis subgroup of “don't know” and self-reported osteoporosis were significantly more likely to have inadequate FHL than the general population. This study indicates a substantial burden of low health literacy amongst people with musculoskeletal disease. This has implications for provider-patient communication, individual healthcare, population estimates of musculoskeletal disease, and impact of public health messages. PMID:26357571

  20. Predicting response to physiotherapy treatment for musculoskeletal shoulder pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People suffering from musculoskeletal shoulder pain are frequently referred to physiotherapy. Physiotherapy generally involves a multimodal approach to management that may include; exercise, manual therapy and techniques to reduce pain. At present it is not possible to predict which patients will respond positively to physiotherapy treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify which prognostic factors are associated with the outcome of physiotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal shoulder pain. Methods A comprehensive search was undertaken of Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL and AMED (from inception to January 2013). Prospective studies of participants with shoulder pain receiving physiotherapy which investigated the association between baseline prognostic factors and change in pain and function over time were included. Study selection, data extraction and appraisal of study quality were undertaken by two independent assessors. Quality criteria were selected from previously published guidelines to form a checklist of 24 items. The study protocol was prospectively registered onto the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. Results A total of 5023 titles were retrieved and screened for eligibility, 154 articles were assessed as full text and 16 met the inclusion criteria: 11 cohort studies, 3 randomised controlled trials and 2 controlled trials. Results were presented for the 9 studies meeting 13 or more of the 24 quality criteria. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity resulted in qualitative synthesis rather than meta-analysis. Three studies demonstrated that high functional disability at baseline was associated with poor functional outcome (p ≤ 0.05). Four studies demonstrated a significant association (p ≤ 0.05) between longer duration of shoulder pain and poorer outcome. Three studies, demonstrated a significant association (p ≤ 0.05) between increasing age and poorer function; three studies

  1. Novel Musculoskeletal Loading System for Small Exercise Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Newby, Nate; Trinh, Tinh; Hanson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight places astronauts at increased risk for muscle strain and bone fracture upon return to a 1-g or partial gravity environment. Functionally limiting decrements in musculoskeletal health are likely during Mars proving-ground and Earth-independent missions given extended transit times and the vehicle limitations for exercise devices (low-mass, small volume, little to no power). This is particularly alarming for exploration missions because astronauts will be required to perform novel and physically demanding tasks (i.e. vehicle egress, exploration, and habitat building activities) on unfamiliar terrain. Accordingly, NASA's exploration roadmap identifies the need for development of small exercise equipment that can prevent musculoskeletal atrophy and has the ability to assess musculoskeletal health at multiple time points during long-duration missions.

  2. [Working women with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a case series].

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Hernández, Cecilia Andrea; Contreras-Estrada, Mónica Isabel; Soltero-Avelar, Ruben

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the experience of working women suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain, using a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The technique drew on in-depth interviews with five working women that presented to the orthopedics and neurosurgery departments of a hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico, with a complaint of musculoskeletal pain for more than six months. The study showed that the women felt rejection, segregation, discrimination, lack of support at the workplace, and feelings of frustration and powerlessness related to their health condition. The women also perceived as a barrier the lack of efficiency in disability proceedings and job reintegration or relocation. Financial and family responsibilities were their main reason for continuing to work despite their chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:26735388

  3. 77 FR 9671 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Career Development, Research Training & Pathways to... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and...

  4. 75 FR 63492 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Career Development, Research Training & Pathways to... Review Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and...

  5. Recommendations from NASA's Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.; Scheuring, R. A.; Walton, M. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Smaka, T.; McCulley, P. A.; Jones, J. A.; Stokes, C. R.; Parker, K. K.; Wear, M.; Johnson-Throop, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Continuously evolving medical standards of care, limited crew training time, and the inherent constraints of space flight necessitate regular revisions of the mission medical support infrastructure and methodology. A three-day Operational and Research Musculoskeletal Summit was held to review NASA s current strategy for preflight health maintenance and injury screening, risk mitigation for musculoskeletal injuries or syndromes, treatment methods during flight, and research topics to mitigate risks to astronaut health. The Summit also undertook consideration of the best evidence-based terrestrial musculoskeletal practices to recommend their adaptation for use in space. Methods: The types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by short- and long-duration astronauts were obtained from the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health. The Summit panel was comprised of experts from the clinical and research communities, as well as representatives from NASA Headquarters, the Astronaut corps, and the offices of JSC Medical Operations, JSC Human Adaptation and Countermeasures, Glenn Research Center Human Research, and Astronaut Strength Conditioning and Rehabilitation. Before the summit, panelists participated in a Web-based review of NASA s Space Medical Conditions List (SMCL). Results: The Summit generated seventy-five operational and research recommendations to the NASA Office of Space Medicine, including changes to the SMCL and to the musculoskeletal section of the ISS debrief questionnaire. From these recommendations, seven were assigned highest value and priority, and could be immediately adopted for the exploration architecture. Discussion: Optimized exercise and conditioning to improve performance and forestall musculoskeletal damage on orbit were the primary area of focus. Special attention was paid to exercise timing and muscle group specificity. The panel s recommendations are currently in various stages of consideration or integration

  6. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Conditions in Tennis-Teaching Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, Ricardo E.; Aune, Kyle T.; Propst, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tennis-teaching professionals represent a significant proportion of all avid tennis players worldwide, with 15,000 belonging to the largest professional organization, the United States Professional Tennis Association (USPTA). However, there is no epidemiologic study to date reporting the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in these tennis-teaching professionals. Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in tennis-teaching professionals following the International Tennis Federation’s (ITF) guidelines for epidemiologic studies. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Electronic surveys were distributed to 13,500 American members of the USPTA. The prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions was calculated. Results: A total of 1176 USPTA members completed the survey. Most participants reported teaching more than 5 days per week and more than 2 hours per day. The prevalence of musculoskeletal injury secondary to teaching tennis was 42%. The most affected area was the lower extremities (43% of all injuries) followed by the upper extremities (37%). The most commonly injured structures were muscles or tendons (36% of all injuries) and joints or ligaments (28%). The majority of injuries did not cause participants to miss more than 24 hours of teaching (57%). Conclusion: This is the first epidemiologic study on the occupational risk of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions in tennis-teaching professionals. Tennis-teaching professionals have a significant risk of musculoskeletal injuries or conditions related to their occupation. The prevalence of injury is consistent with previously published studies of injury prevalence among other tennis-playing populations. The proportions of upper and lower extremity injuries were fairly equitable. PMID:27790624

  7. A musculoskeletal model of the elbow joint complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Roger V.; Barr, Ronald E.; Abraham, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a musculoskeletal model that represents human elbow flexion-extension and forearm pronation-supination. Musculotendon parameters and the skeletal geometry were determined for the musculoskeletal model in the analysis of ballistic elbow joint complex movements. The key objective was to develop a computational model, guided by optimal control, to investigate the relationship among patterns of muscle excitation, individual muscle forces, and movement kinematics. The model was verified using experimental kinematic, torque, and electromyographic data from volunteer subjects performing both isometric and ballistic elbow joint complex movements. In general, the model predicted kinematic and muscle excitation patterns similar to what was experimentally measured.

  8. The role of MRI in musculoskeletal practice: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dean Deyle, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This clinical perspective presents an overview of current and potential uses for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in musculoskeletal practice. Clinical practice guidelines and current evidence for improved outcomes will help providers determine the situations when an MRI is indicated. The advanced competency standard of examination used by physical therapists will be helpful to prevent overuse of musculoskeletal imaging, reduce diagnostic errors, and provide the appropriate clinical context to pathology revealed on MRI. Physical therapists are diagnostically accurate and appropriately conservative in their use of MRI consistent with evidence-based principles of diagnosis and screening. PMID:22851878

  9. Medical and legal considerations in managing patients with musculoskeletal tumors.

    PubMed

    Morris, Carol D; Bal, B Sonny; D'Elia, Elizabeth M; Benevenia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    At some point in their careers, many orthopaedic surgeons will have to navigate the legal system as it pertains to medical malpractice. An orthopaedic surgeon will find it helpful to review information on the basic legal elements of medical malpractice law along with suggestions on how he or she can assist the legal defense team if a lawsuit is filed. Surgeons who face litigation within the context of managing patients with musculoskeletal tumors should be aware of the common pitfalls in managing these patients. Knowledge of complementary strategies can provide good patient care and reduce legal risks when caring for patients with musculoskeletal neoplasms.

  10. 78 FR 40486 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Clinical... Officer, Scientific Review Branch, National Institute of Arthritis,, Musculoskeletal and Skin...

  11. 77 FR 63844 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAMS Small Grants in Musculoskeletal Diseases (R03... Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701...

  12. Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Andreas; Larsson, Helena; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Äng, Björn O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study. Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI. Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training ≤1 day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height ≤1.80 m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and ≥1.86 m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and ≥1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities. Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1 day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction

  13. Keele Aches and Pains Study protocol: validity, acceptability, and feasibility of the Keele STarT MSK tool for subgrouping musculoskeletal patients in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Paul; Hill, Jonathan C; Protheroe, Joanne; Afolabi, Ebenezer K; Lewis, Martyn; Beardmore, Ruth; Hay, Elaine M; Mallen, Christian D; Bartlam, Bernadette; Saunders, Benjamin; van der Windt, Danielle A; Jowett, Sue; Foster, Nadine E; Dunn, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions represent a considerable burden worldwide, and are predominantly managed in primary care. Evidence suggests that many musculoskeletal conditions share similar prognostic factors. Systematically assessing patient’s prognosis and matching treatments based on prognostic subgroups (stratified care) has been shown to be both clinically effective and cost-effective. This study (Keele Aches and Pains Study) aims to refine and examine the validity of a brief questionnaire (Keele STarT MSK tool) designed to enable risk stratification of primary care patients with the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations. We also describe the subgroups of patients, and explore the acceptability and feasibility of using the tool and how the tool is best implemented in clinical practice. The study design is mixed methods: a prospective, quantitative observational cohort study with a linked qualitative focus group and interview study. Patients who have consulted their GP or health care practitioner about a relevant musculoskeletal condition will be recruited from general practice. Participating patients will complete a baseline questionnaire (shortly after consultation), plus questionnaires 2 and 6 months later. A subsample of patients, along with participating GPs and health care practitioners, will be invited to take part in qualitative focus groups and interviews. The Keele STarT MSK tool will be refined based on face, discriminant, construct, and predictive validity at baseline and 2 months, and validated using data from 6-month follow-up. Patient and clinician perspectives about using the tool will be explored. This study will provide a validated prognostic tool (Keele STarT MSK) with established cutoff points to stratify patients with the five most common musculoskeletal presentations into low-, medium-, and high-risk subgroups. The qualitative analysis of patient and health care perspectives will inform practitioners on how to embed the tool

  14. The Influence of a Sudden Increase in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Complaints in High-Level Amateur Musicians in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Haitjema, Saskia; Groenewegen, Karlijn A.; Rietveld, A. Boni M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies in the domain of professional musicians describe the relation between playing time and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional musicians. To date, no longitudinal cohort study into this relationship has been performed and no amateur musicians were studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the causal relationship between a sudden increase in playing time among amateur musicians on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in a prospective cohort study. Methods All members of two national Dutch Students Orchestras were asked to participate in the study. These project-based orchestras, consisting of high-level amateurs, followed a nine-hour rehearsing schedule for ten consecutive days. On the first day (t0) and after one week (t1) the subjects were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, music-related questions, questions regarding playing-related musculoskeletal complaints and the music module of the disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire. Results The NSO consisted of 85 and the NESKO of 41 members during the study period. 59 subjects completed the questionnaire at both timepoints (response rate 47%). 9 subjects were excluded for being a music academy student, leaving 50 subjects (mean age 22.1, 72% female) suitable for analysis. During the rehearsal week, the prevalence of at least one playing-related musculoskeletal complaint increased from 28% to 80%. The most frequently affected areas were the neck, upper and lower back, hand/and or wrists and shoulders. The DASH music module score increased from 14 at t0 to 23 at t1. Conclusion A point prevalence of 28% at the start of the study that increased remarkably to 80% within a one-week period. Future research should evaluate other risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in amateur musicians. These risk factors should be the base for the development of preventive measures. PMID:27657537

  15. Working conditions and musculoskeletal pain among Brazilian pottery workers.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Adriana Cristina de Souza; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2010-03-01

    In the municipality of Pedreira in São Paulo State, Brazil, a large number of workers from the ceramic industry have left their jobs because of work related musculoskeletal disorders. The objectives of this study were to describe the work conditions pertaining to the ceramic industry, to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and to identify the associations between symptoms and organizational, biomechanical, psychosocial and individual variables. Nine ceramic manufacturers participated. The activities of 18 individuals were analyzed through direct observation. All workers answered a questionnaire about work and health (n = 235). The results found that the general working conditions in the pottery manufacturers were poor. A 38.5% prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was found. Repetition, tool use, lack of control over decisions, worries regarding work demands, relationship issues, work dissatisfaction and the wish to move on to another function were all associated with pain. We concluded that musculoskeletal pain is one of the outcomes of elevated human requirements resulting from working conditions and organization in the ceramic industry.

  16. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  17. Body mass index and musculoskeletal pain: is there a connection?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Back pain is one of the most common complaints that patients report to physicians and two-thirds of the population has an elevated body mass index (BMI), indicating they are either overweight or obese. It was once assumed that extra body weight would stress the low back and lead to pain, however, researchers have reported inconsistencies association between body weight and back pain. In contrast, more recent studies do indicate that an elevated BMI is associated with back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes due to the presence of a chronic systemic inflammatory state, suggesting that the relationship between BMI and musculoskeletal pains be considered in more detail. Objective To describe how an elevated BMI can be associated with chronic systemic inflammation and pain expression. To outline measurable risk factors for chronic inflammation that can be used in clinical practice and discuss basic treatment considerations. Discussion Adiposopathy, or “sick fat” syndrome, is a term that refers to an elevated BMI that is associated with a chronic systemic inflammatory state most commonly referred to as the metabolic syndrome. The best available evidence suggests that the presence of adiposopathy determines if an elevated BMI will contribute to musculoskeletal pain expression. It is not uncommon for physicians to fail to identify the presence of adiposopathy/metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Patients with an elevated BMI should be further examined to identify inflammatory factors associated with adiposopathy, such as the metabolic syndrome, which may be promoting back pain and other musculoskeletal pain syndromes. PMID:23687943

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders among Thai women in construction-related work.

    PubMed

    Hanklang, Suda; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S

    2014-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder symptoms and its risk factors among women rebar workers. A simple random sampling method was used and data were collected by face-to-face interview and ergonomic assessment from February to March 2011. A total of 272 women rebar workers with at least 6 months' job experience participated in this study. The findings revealed that 57.7% of workers reported musculoskeletal disorder symptoms with low back and shoulders as the most common body parts affected (46.0%). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 2 variables that are significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders: prolonged working hours (adjusted odds ratio = 7.63; 95% confidence interval = 2.06-28.31) and awkward posture (adjusted odds ratio = 43.79; 95% confidence interval = 17.09-112.20). The high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among women rebar workers suggests that an appropriate ergonomic workstation design and ergonomic training for women rebar workers are necessary. PMID:23165489

  19. Clinical application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, F; Rompe, J D; Furia, J P; Cacchio, A

    2014-04-01

    Currently the application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been primarily used in the treatment of tendinopathies (proximal plantar fasciopathy, lateral elbow tendinopathy, calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder, and patellar tendinopathy, etc.) and bone defects (delayed- and non-union of bone fractures, avascular necrosis of femoral head, etc.). Although the mechanism of their therapeutic effects are still unknown, the majority of published papers have shown positive and beneficial effects of using SWT as a treatment for musculoskeletal disorders, with a success rate ranging from 65% to 91%, while the complications are low or negligible. The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader about the published data on the clinical application of SWT in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper, with the help of a literature review, indications and success rates for SWT in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders are outlined, while adequate SWT parameters (e.g., rate of impulses, energy flux density, etc.) are defined according to the present state of knowledge.

  20. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  1. Translational Models for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop “Translational Models for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine” was held to describe the utility of various translational models for engineered tissues and regenerative medicine therapies targeting intervertebral disc, cartilage, meniscus, ligament, tendon, muscle, and bone. Participants included leaders in the various topics, as well as National Institutes of Health and Food and Drug Administration. The Food and Drug Administration representatives provided perspectives and needs for studies supported by animal models. Researchers described animal models for specific tissues and addressed the following questions: (1) What are the unmet musculoskeletal clinical needs that may be addressed by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine? (2) Are there appropriate models available? (3) Are there needs to develop standardized animal models? (4) What are the translational pathways that lead to clinical trials and therapeutic development? The workshop provided an effective and succinct summary of the status of various animal models in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. Although many models are available and serve well to answer a variety of questions, the general consensus was that there is a substantial need for improved and standardized animal models for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine of the musculoskeletal system, and that animal models, especially large animal models, are critical to the preclinical step of translating research from bench to bedside. PMID:19905871

  2. The phenotypic and genetic signatures of common musculoskeletal pain conditions

    PubMed Central

    Diatchenko, Luda; Fillingim, Roger B.; Smith, Shad B.; Maixner, William

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia and low back pain, tend to coexist in affected individuals and are characterized by a report of pain greater than expected based on the results of a standard physical evaluation. The pathophysiology of these conditions is largely unknown, we lack biological markers for accurate diagnosis, and conventional therapeutics have limited effectiveness. Growing evidence suggests that chronic pain conditions are associated with both physical and psychological triggers, which initiate pain amplification and psychological distress; thus, susceptibility is dictated by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Herein, we review phenotypic and genetic markers of common musculoskeletal pain conditions, selected based on their association with musculoskeletal pain in previous research. The phenotypic markers of greatest interest include measures of pain amplification and ‘psychological’ measures (such as emotional distress, somatic awareness, psychosocial stress and catastrophizing). Genetic polymorphisms reproducibly linked with musculoskeletal pain are found in genes contributing to serotonergic and adrenergic pathways. Elucidation of the biological mechanisms by which these markers contribute to the perception of pain in these patients will enable the development of novel effective drugs and methodologies that permit better diagnoses and approaches to personalized medicine. PMID:23545734

  3. NSAIDs and Musculoskeletal Treatment: What is the Clinical Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovitz, Steven D.; Johnson, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed for musculoskeletal injuries because the conditions are considered inflammatory in nature. However, because inflammation is a necessary component in healing, decreasing inflammation may be counterproductive. Also, many tendon injuries are, in fact, degenerative and not…

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders among Thai women in construction-related work.

    PubMed

    Hanklang, Suda; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S

    2014-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder symptoms and its risk factors among women rebar workers. A simple random sampling method was used and data were collected by face-to-face interview and ergonomic assessment from February to March 2011. A total of 272 women rebar workers with at least 6 months' job experience participated in this study. The findings revealed that 57.7% of workers reported musculoskeletal disorder symptoms with low back and shoulders as the most common body parts affected (46.0%). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated 2 variables that are significantly associated with musculoskeletal disorders: prolonged working hours (adjusted odds ratio = 7.63; 95% confidence interval = 2.06-28.31) and awkward posture (adjusted odds ratio = 43.79; 95% confidence interval = 17.09-112.20). The high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among women rebar workers suggests that an appropriate ergonomic workstation design and ergonomic training for women rebar workers are necessary.

  5. Postural load and the development of musculo-skeletal illness.

    PubMed

    Aarås, A

    1987-01-01

    Early in the 1970s, high rates of sick-leave due to musculo-skeletal complaints were frequently recorded among workers at Standard Telefon and Kabelfabrik's (STK's) factory in Norway. Workstations were redesigned according to ergonomics principles that allowed workers a wider choice of working postures and following their introduction in 1975, there was a marked reduction in sickness absence. Postural load was studied in groups of female workers in well defined assembly tasks. Trapezius load was recorded by electromyography (EMG). Simultaneously, postural angles of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and flexion/extension of head/neck and back were measured by using pendulum potentiometers. A quantitative relationship was found for the group between its median value of static trapezius load and the development of musculo-skeletal sick-leave, as a function of length of employment. Further support for a relationship between musculo-skeletal injury and trapezius load was found for the same subjects who suffered less musculo-skeletal sick-leave, consistent with the reduced trapezius load when working at the redesigned work stands. The relationship between postural load and musculo-skeletal injury was studied in comparable groups of the female workers with respect to age, working hours per day and time of employment. Psychosocial problems, spare time activities and living habits of workers did not show any significant difference across the groups. Postural load, both in terms of the magnitude of the flexion angle of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and the distribution of the work load between flexors and extensors, appeared to influence the incidence of load-related musculo-skeletal illness in the upper part of the body. The incidence of musculo-skeletal sick-leave in a group of workers with a median static trapezius load of about 1 to 2% MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction) for most of the work day, was approximately the same as for a group of comparable female

  6. Individual Expectation: An Overlooked, but Pertinent, Factor in the Treatment of Individuals Experiencing Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark D.; Cleland, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    Physical therapists consider many factors in the treatment of patients with musculoskeletal pain. The current literature suggests expectation is an influential component of clinical outcomes related to musculoskeletal pain for which physical therapists frequently do not account. The purpose of this clinical perspective is to highlight the potential role of expectation in the clinical outcomes associated with the rehabilitation of individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain. The discussion focuses on the definition and measurement of expectation, the relationship between expectation and outcomes related to musculoskeletal pain conditions, the mechanisms through which expectation may alter musculoskeletal pain conditions, and suggested ways in which clinicians may integrate the current literature regarding expectation into clinical practice. PMID:20592270

  7. Musculoskeletal education: a curriculum evaluation at one university

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing burden of illness related to musculoskeletal diseases makes it essential that attention be paid to musculoskeletal education in medical schools. This case study examines the undergraduate musculoskeletal curriculum at one medical school. Methods A case study research methodology used quantitative and qualitative approaches to systematically examine the undergraduate musculoskeletal course at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) Faculty of Medicine. The aim of the study was to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum guided by four questions: (1) Was the course structured according to standard principles for curriculum design as described in the Kern framework? (2) How did students and faculty perceive the course? (3) Was the assessment of the students valid and reliable? (4) Were the course evaluations completed by student and faculty valid and reliable? Results The analysis showed that the structure of the musculoskeletal course mapped to many components of Kern's framework in course design. The course had a high level of commitment by teachers, included a valid and reliable final examination, and valid evaluation questionnaires that provided relevant information to assess curriculum function. The curricular review identified several weaknesses in the course: the apparent absence of a formalized needs assessment, course objectives that were not specific or measurable, poor development of clinical presentations, small group sessions that exceeded normal 'small group' sizes, and poor alignment between the course objectives, examination blueprint and the examination. Both students and faculty members perceived the same strengths and weaknesses in the curriculum. Course evaluation data provided information that was consistent with the findings from the interviews with the key stakeholders. Conclusions The case study approach using the Kern framework and selected questions provided a robust way to assess a curriculum

  8. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL−1) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  9. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ≥5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  10. Musculoskeletal injuries in Homer's Iliad: the War of Troy revisited.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Tok, Fatih; Simşek, Ayşe; Ozçakar, Levent

    2014-04-01

    Homer's Iliad--the most famous and influential epic poem--has been previously reviewed with respect to head, craniomaxillofacial, neck, thoracic, and hand injuries in the literature. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no data regarding musculoskeletal injuries. This article describes the musculoskeletal injuries that had ensued during the war of Troy. The Turkish translation of the original epic poem Iliad was reviewed for musculoskeletal injuries, that is, their descriptions, outcome, the weapons used, and the engaged warriors. Extremity injuries were evaluated as regards the affected bones. The pertinent treatment methods were also recorded. In total, 103 musculoskeletal injuries were detected during 81 combats. The most commonly involved areas were the shoulder (15.5%), the head (14.5%), the cervical vertebrae (14.5%), and the thoracic vertebrae (8.7%). The weapons used were spear (n = 52); sword (n = 9); arrow (n = 9); stone (n = 8); and cane, animal, the hand, Chariot race, and broken yoke (n = 1 for each). Fifty-four combats (66.6%) resulted in death. Therapeutic herbs, compound of milk, and essence of fig were used as treatment alternatives. While providing a historic snapshot on the war of Troy, in this article, the authors have reviewed the musculoskeletal injuries and their management in those ancient times. Despite the long period in between, unfortunately, physicians/surgeons are still faced with war injuries in current medical practice. The authors strongly hope that, at least in the near future, physicians will be left with only natural health problems and without those artificially generated by human beings.

  11. Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Suneetha; Tanikonda, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal pain is one of the occupational hazards in dentists. Aims: To find the prevalence and severity of musculoskeletal pain in dentists, to compare musculoskeletal pain among dentists practicing yoga, those practicing physical activities, and those without any physical activity, and also to know the effects of sex, age, and workload on musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A self-reporting work-related questionnaire and the Nordic questionnaire for analysis of musculoskeletal disorders were given to graduated dentists attending Indian dental conference in Mumbai, to know the musculoskeletal pain experienced in the last 12 months and feedback was obtained from 220 dentists. Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentists was 34.5%. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 10.5%, 21.7%, and 45.6% in dentists with regular yoga practice, other physical activity, and no physical activity, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists who were practicing yoga when compared with those in no regular activity group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, there was significant role of physical activity on the quality and quantity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders experienced by dentists. Yoga was found to be more effective than other modes of physical activities. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems in dentists, with an emphasis on larger sample sizes and correlating other factors like age and sex of the dentists, duration of practice, years of practicing yoga, and working hours per week. PMID:26236679

  12. Effect on health-related quality of life of a multimodal physiotherapy program in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are major causes of morbidity in the world, and these conditions have a strong negative influence in terms of health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 8-week multimodal physical therapy program on general health state and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Methods There were 244 participants in this prospective cohort analysis with 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome was general health state (physical and mental components), determined with the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The secondary outcome was health related quality of life, determined with the EuroQoL-5D and VAS. The intervention was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-outcome measurements. T-tests were performed for paired data. Results Differences were statistically significant for physical health state: +1.68 (p < 0.05) (baseline: 42.38); mental health state: +3.15 (p < 0.001) (baseline: 46.57); and health related quality of life: +0.18 (EuroQoL 5D) (baseline: 46.57) and +7.22 (EuroQoL_VAS) (p < 0.001) (baseline: 60.81). Intervention resulted in clinically relevant changes in terms of percentage improvement from baseline scores. Conclusions Eight weeks of a Multimodal Physical Therapy Program seemed to moderately enhance the general health state and HRQoL of patients with chronic musculoskeletal diseases. This kind of therapeutic exercise can be recommended to patients with chronic low back pain, chronic neck pain and osteoarthritis, at least in the short term. PMID:23414183

  13. Usefulness of strain elastography of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is a widely used technique for assessing the mechanical characteristics of tissues. Although there are several ultrasound elastography techniques, strain elastography (SE) is currently the most widely used technique for visualizing an elastographic map in real time. Among its various indications, SE is especially useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal system. In this article, we review the SE techniques for clinical practice and describe the images produced by these techniques in the context of the musculoskeletal system. SE provides information about tissue stiffness and allows real-time visualization of the image; however, SE cannot completely replace gray-scale, color, or power Doppler ultrasonography. SE can increase diagnostic accuracy and may be useful for the follow-up of benign lesions. PMID:26810195

  14. Role of diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of musculoskeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    The wide availability and recent improvement in technology coupled with portability, low cost and safety makes ultrasound the first choice imaging investigation for the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases. Diagnostic use of ultrasound findings is greatly enhanced by knowledge of the clinical presentation. Conversely, ultrasound skills with its prerequisite anatomical knowledge make the clinical diagnosis more precise and reduce uncertainty in the choice of therapy. Therefore, it is essential for rheumatologists to acquire ultrasonography skills in order to improve patient care. Ultrasound examination provides an excellent opportunity for patient education and to explain the rationale for therapy. This review summarizes the indications for musculoskeletal ultrasound and describes its role in diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis. PMID:23024711

  15. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Korean Police Personnel.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hak Young; Cho, Jae Hwan; Seok, Jong Min; Cho, Taek Sang; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. For police officers in special working environments, the importance of basic data is emphasized for human resources (HR) management and the prevention of industrial hazards from an industrial health care perspective. This study was conducted on police officers who visited the national police hospital and who underwent x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. The results revealed that examinations for the lower extremities and spine were most frequently conducted using x-ray, CT, and MRI. In particular, knee and lumbar examinations were most frequently conducted among all lower extremity and spine examinations, respectively.

  16. Self-reported musculoskeletal pain in Latino vineyard workers.

    PubMed

    Brumitt, Jason; Reisch, Rebecca; Krasnoselsky, Karla; Welch, Amy; Rutt, Richard; Garside, Leda I; McKay, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural economy in the United States is dependent on millions of Latino migratory workers. Despite the health risks associated with this line of work, many agricultural workers lack health insurance or access to health care services. The purpose of this study was to collect demographic data and investigate the musculoskeletal health of Latino migratory vineyard workers. A physical therapy team collected demographic data at health clinics held at vineyards in Oregon. Nearly half (48.4%) of all vineyard workers reported experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) in at least one region of the body. The primary region of reported MSS was the back (32% of all men and 43.7% of all women). In most cases, those who reported MSS were significantly older than those who did not report MSS. Future research is necessary to identify personal and work related injury risk factors in order to develop prevention programs.

  17. [Deleterious effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system].

    PubMed

    Duthon, V B; Ozturk, M; El-Achachi, S; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Tobacco smoking has important negative effects on the musculoskeletal system: decrease of bone mineral density, increase of the risk of injury, illness, and perioperative complications such as fracture-healing complications and wound complications. Orthopaedic surgeons should inform all patients of the increased risks associated with active smoking in the perioperative period and should encourage them to quit smoking four to eight weeks in advance of the proposed procedure. PMID:25141568

  18. Musculoskeletal Modeling Component of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, B. E.; Pennline, J. A.; Stalker, A. R.; Mulugeta, L.; Myers, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Digital Astronaut Project s (DAP) objective is to provide computational tools that support research of the physiological response to low gravity environments and analyses of how changes cause health and safety risks to the astronauts and to the success of the mission. The spaceflight risk associated with muscle atrophy is impaired performance due to reduced muscle mass, strength and endurance. Risks of early onset of osteoporosis and bone fracture are among the spaceflight risks associated with loss of bone mineral density. METHODS: Tools under development include a neuromuscular model, a biomechanical model and a bone remodeling model. The neuromuscular model will include models of neuromuscular drive, muscle atrophy, fiber morphology and metabolic processes as a function of time in space. Human movement will be modeled with the biomechanical model, using muscle and bone model parameters at various states. The bone remodeling model will allow analysis of bone turnover, loss and adaptation. A comprehensive trade study was completed to identify the current state of the art in musculoskeletal modeling. The DAP musculoskeletal models will be developed using a combination of existing commercial software and academic research codes identified in the study, which will be modified for use in human spaceflight research. These individual models are highly dependent upon each other and will be integrated together once they reach sufficient levels of maturity. ANALYSES: The analyses performed with these models will include comparison of different countermeasure exercises for optimizing effectiveness and comparison of task requirements and the state of strength and endurance of a crew member at a particular time in a mission. DISCUSSION: The DAP musculoskeletal model has the potential to complement research conducted on spaceflight induced changes to the musculoskeletal system. It can help with hypothesis formation, identification of causative mechanisms and

  19. The impact of future trends in electronic data collection on musculoskeletal research and evidence-based orthopaedic care.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ian

    2003-11-01

    Electronic medical documentation systems offer the greatest potential source of data to enable the evolution to evidence-based musculoskeletal care. To this end, it is important that providers of musculoskeletal care embrace structured medical records systems that record medical information in fields thereby making data easily accessible for the purpose of later analysis. Gathering data in a structured format can be labor intensive but significant time and cost savings are realized by reduced dictation and transcription and the automated output of requisitions and correspondence. Physicians will only use structured electronic records if the system reduces overhead while at the same time minimizing their work load. Since getting information into the system is the greatest impediment to successful implementation of a structured record, the use of Web forms for previsit patient data entry and touch screen handheld computers with wireless connectivity for provider data entry will play an important role in facilitating their adoption. Ultimately, industry-standard, field-naming nomenclature for specific historical features, examination findings, and therapeutic interventions will make data in all documentation systems comparable regardless of vendor. When that day comes, every new patient assessed will be a candidate for a prospective study.

  20. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Wintermeyer, Elke; Ihle, Christoph; Ehnert, Sabrina; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ochs, Gunnar; de Zwart, Peter; Flesch, Ingo; Bahrs, Christian; Nussler, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D’s central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported. PMID:27258303

  1. Musculoskeletal problems among workers of an Iranian communication company

    PubMed Central

    Choobineh, Alireza; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamidreza; Tozihian, Marzieh; Ghadami, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a main risk factor for developing WMSDs. Assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. This study was conducted among workers of an Iranian communication company with the objectives of a) determination of WMSDs prevalence and b) assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 85 randomly selected workers from assembly line and closed circuit TV (CCTV) participated. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) was used to study prevalence of WMSDs and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) technique was applied to assess physical exposure to the risks. Results: The results of NMQ revealed that WMSDs occurred at an high rate. The highest rates of WMSDs prevalence were reported in shoulders (73%), knees (67.1%) and back (66.7%). RULA showed that the Grand Score of 88.1% of cases were high and very high (action levels 3 and 4). Significant association was found between risk level and musculoskeletal symptoms in lower back (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Given the association between RULA score and the prevalence of the problems, reducing RULA score by designing ergonomic workstation may reduce the prevalence of WMSDs among the workers. PMID:21957370

  2. Musculoskeletal Hydatid Cysts Resembling Tumors: A Report of Five Cases.

    PubMed

    Toğral, Güray; Arıkan, Şefik M; Ekiz, Timur; Kekeç, Ahmet F; Ekşioğlu, Mehmet F

    2016-05-01

    Although challenges in treatment of musculoskeletal hydatid cysts (HC) lesions have been documented, data regarding the musculoskeletal HC lesions resembling tumor is scarce. This paper presented 5 patients (3 males, 2 females) with a mean age of 41.6 years with tumor-like lesions of HC. Three of them had left ilium and acetabulum involvement, one involved left femur, and one involved left thigh muscle compartments. Pain was the main symptom and was seen in all patients. Clinical examination, radiologic evaluation, and histologic analysis were performed for diagnosis. Patients were treated through different surgical options, including simple debridement, bone cement filling with or without internal fixation, hip arthrodesis, reconstruction using hemipelvic replantation with femoral prosthesis and distal femur endoprosthetic replacement. After surgery, the operation region was washed by 20% hypertonic saline, and debridement was performed carefully without contamination. All patients received albendazole treatment. Cases were followed up 1 to 9 years for the recurrence. Walking difficulty and pain were the main symptoms during the follow-up. One patient was symptom-free. A reoccurrence in the perioperative soft tissue was detected in only one patient and control visits with antihelmintic treatment were recommended. We would like to emphasize that HC should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of the cystic or tumoral lesions of the musculoskeletal system, particularly in the endemic regions. Prompt diagnosis is of paramount importance for preventing destruction and complications. PMID:27384735

  3. Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

  4. A pictorial review of signature patterns living in musculoskeletal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Cheon, Ji Hyun; Seo, Won Jun; Yang, Geun Young; Choi, Yun Mi

    2016-01-01

    The musculoskeletal system is mainly composed of the bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, in addition to nerves and blood vessels. The greatest difficulty in an ultrasonographic freeze-frame created by the examiner is recognition of the targeted structures without indicators, since an elephant's trunk may not be easily distinguished from its leg. It is not difficult to find descriptive ultrasonographic terms used for educational purposes, which help in distinguishing features of these structures either in a normal or abnormal anatomic condition. However, the terms sometimes create confusion when describing common objects, for example, in Western countries, pears have a triangular shape, but in Asia they are round. Skilled experts in musculoskeletal ultrasound have tried to express certain distinguishing features of anatomic landmarks using terms taken from everyday objects which may be reminiscent of that particular feature. This pictorial review introduces known signature patterns of distinguishing features in musculoskeletal ultrasound in a normal or abnormal condition, and may stir the beginners' interest to play a treasure-hunt game among unfamiliar images within a boundless ocean. PMID:27738500

  5. Common musculoskeletal problem experienced by fishing industry workers

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, Tejashree Ajit; Nakhawa, Priyanka; Yardi, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common health problem throughout the world and a major cause of disability in the workplace. Awkward working posture is a main risk factor for developing WMSDs. Assessment of exposure level to WMSDs risks can be an appropriate base for planning and implementing interventional ergonomics program in the workplace. Fihing in India is a major industry in the coastal states employing over 14 million people. The job demand of fishermen make them vulnerable for various musculoskeletal problems This study was conducted among workers of fishing industry in Mumbai, India with the objective to determine WMSDs prevalence in fishing industry. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 randomly selected workers from fishing industry, India, Mumbai, Anonymous questionnaire was used to study prevalence of WMSDs.visual analogue scale used to assess intensity of pain. Results: The results of NMQ revealed that WMSDs occurrence was high. The highest rates of WMSDs prevalence were reported in Low back(92.4%), Shoulder (64.8%) and Knee(31%) and Hand (25%). Conclusion: This study showed that maximum of the fishermen have musculoskeletal problem with the most common joint involved is low back and then followed by shoulder, knee, and hand. Ergonomic risk factor involved were found to be repeated pulling and throwing of the net as well as repeated bending forward action to lift heavy load and transfer that heavy load. PMID:25568597

  6. Clinical presentation and manual therapy for lower quadrant musculoskeletal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Carol A; Clark, Jeffrey D; Duncombe, Alison M; O’Hearn, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lower quadrant injuries constitute a significant percentage of the musculoskeletal cases seen by clinicians. While impairments may vary, pain is often the factor that compels the patient to seek medical attention. Traumatic injury from sport is one cause of progressive chronic joint pain, particularly in the lower quarter. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in different lower quadrant pain syndromes, such as lumbar spine related leg pain, osteoarthritis of the knee, and following acute injuries such as lateral ankle sprain and anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Proper management of lower quarter conditions should include assessment of balance and gait as increasing pain and chronicity may lead to altered gait patterns and falls. In addition, quantitative sensory testing may provide insight into pain mechanisms which affect management and prognosis of musculoskeletal conditions. Studies have demonstrated analgesic effects and modulation of spinal excitability with use of manual therapy techniques, with clinical outcomes of improved gait and functional ability. This paper will discuss the evidence which supports the use of manual therapy for lower quarter musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23115474

  7. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System.

    PubMed

    Wintermeyer, Elke; Ihle, Christoph; Ehnert, Sabrina; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ochs, Gunnar; de Zwart, Peter; Flesch, Ingo; Bahrs, Christian; Nussler, Andreas K

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D's central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported.

  8. Crucial Role of Vitamin D in the Musculoskeletal System.

    PubMed

    Wintermeyer, Elke; Ihle, Christoph; Ehnert, Sabrina; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ochs, Gunnar; de Zwart, Peter; Flesch, Ingo; Bahrs, Christian; Nussler, Andreas K

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known to exert multiple functions in bone biology, autoimmune diseases, cell growth, inflammation or neuromuscular and other immune functions. It is a fat-soluble vitamin present in many foods. It can be endogenously produced by ultraviolet rays from sunlight when the skin is exposed to initiate vitamin D synthesis. However, since vitamin D is biologically inert when obtained from sun exposure or diet, it must first be activated in human beings before functioning. The kidney and the liver play here a crucial role by hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the liver and to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidney. In the past decades, it has been proven that vitamin D deficiency is involved in many diseases. Due to vitamin D's central role in the musculoskeletal system and consequently the strong negative impact on bone health in cases of vitamin D deficiency, our aim was to underline its importance in bone physiology by summarizing recent findings on the correlation of vitamin D status and rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, primary and secondary osteoporosis as well as sarcopenia and musculoskeletal pain. While these diseases all positively correlate with a vitamin D deficiency, there is a great controversy regarding the appropriate vitamin D supplementation as both positive and negative effects on bone mineral density, musculoskeletal pain and incidence of falls are reported. PMID:27258303

  9. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  10. The management of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ira; Grime, Paul Robert

    2015-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are a major cause of suffering and disability among working-age adults. Although working in ergonomically unsound jobs may lead to the development of certain musculoskeletal disorders, it is increasingly recognised that well-designed work is generally good for health and individuals with musculoskeletal disorders generally benefit from working. This chapter explores how health-care professionals should assess patients' fitness for work, what factors should be considered and how the results should be communicated and to whom. Of necessity, this chapter describes current United Kingdom (UK) schemes and systems. Nevertheless, the principles described can be extended to most countries but the reader is advised to familiarise themselves with the detail of the equivalent national services in their own practice. The new UK Fit for Work service is explained together with advice on how best to use a fit note to optimise patients' short- and long-term health. We detail what benefits are available to those who are unable to work because of poor health and how health professionals can achieve an optimum balance between supporting those who are genuinely unfit to work through benefits from a welfare state and encouraging and facilitating those who can earn an independent living to do so. PMID:26612234

  11. Biodiversity Prospecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittenfeld, Ana; Lovejoy, Annie

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of biodiversity prospecting as a method for tropical countries to value biodiversity and contribute to conservation upkeep costs. Discusses the first agreement between a public interest organization and pharmaceutical company for the extraction of plant and animal materials in Costa Rica. (LZ)

  12. A New Pre-employment Functional Capacity Evaluation Predicts Longer-Term Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury in Healthy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Peeters, Geeske

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine if a job-specific pre-employment functional assessment (PEFA) predicts musculoskeletal injury risk in healthy mineworkers. Summary of Background Data. Traditional methods of pre-employment screening, including radiography and medical screenings, are not valid predictors of occupational musculoskeletal injury risk. Short-form job-specific functional capacity evaluations are increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of their ability to predict injury risk in healthy workers. Methods. Participants were recruited from an Australian coal mine between 2002 and 2009 as part of the hiring process. At baseline, participants were screened with the JobFit System PEFA, and classified as PEFA 1 if they met job demands and PEFA>1, if not. Males who completed the PEFA and were employed were included. Injury data from company records were coded for body part, mechanism, and severity. The relationship between PEFA classification and time to first injury was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustments for department and post hoc stratification for time (0–1.3 yr, 1.3–6 yr). Results. Of the 600 participants (median age, 37 yr, range, 17.0–62.6 yr), 427 scored PEFA 1. One hundred ninety-six sprain/strain injuries were reported by 121 workers, including 35 back injuries from manual handling. Significant differences between PEFA groups were found in time to first injury for all injury types during the long term (any injury: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.9; manual handling injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–7.2; any back injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–6.6; back injuries from manual handling HR = 5.8, CI = 2.0–16.7), but not during the short term. An area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.73 (CI = 0.61–0.86) demonstrated acceptable predictive ability for back injuries from manual handling during the long term. Conclusion. JobFit System

  13. Musculoskeletal imaging in pediatric emergencies: the basics through three clinical scenarios.

    PubMed

    Garcés Iñigo, E F; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J

    2016-05-01

    A high percentage of the pediatric imaging studies requested during calls are related to musculoskeletal disease. Since bones and joints in children are immature, constantly growing and remodeling, they have physiological and anatomical peculiarities that make it necessary to use an approach specific for pediatric patients. In this article, we use three clinical scenarios (limping, fractures, and musculoskeletal infections) to summarize and transmit the concepts that are essential in emergency musculoskeletal imaging in children.

  14. From the archives of the AFIP. Imaging of musculoskeletal neurogenic tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Murphey, M D; Smith, W S; Smith, S E; Kransdorf, M J; Temple, H T

    1999-01-01

    Numerous neurogenic tumors can affect the musculoskeletal system, including traumatic neuroma, Morton neuroma, neural fibrolipoma, nerve sheath ganglion, neurilemoma, neurofibroma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs). The diagnosis of neurogenic tumors can be suggested from their imaging appearances, including lesion shape and intrinsic imaging characteristics. It is also important to establish lesion location along a typical nerve distribution (eg, plantar digital nerve in Morton neuroma, median nerve in neural fibrolipoma, large nerve trunk in benign and malignant PNSTs). Traumatic and Morton neuromas are commonly related to an amputation stump or are located in the intermetatarsal space, respectively. Neural fibrolipomas show fat interspersed between nerve fascicles and are often associated with macrodactyly. Nerve sheath ganglion has a cystic appearance and commonly occurs about the knee. Radiologic characteristics of neurilemoma, neurofibroma, and malignant PNST at computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging include fusiform shape, identification of entering and exiting nerve, low attenuation at CT, target sign, fascicular sign, split-fat sign, and associated muscle atrophy. Although differentiation of neurilemoma from neurofibroma and of benign from malignant PNST is problematic, recognition of the radiologic appearances of neurogenic tumors often allows prospective diagnosis and improves clinical management of patients.

  15. The musculoskeletal diagnosis cohort: examining pain and pain care among veterans.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Joseph L; Kerns, Robert D; Bair, Matthew; Becker, William C; Brennan, Penny; Burgess, Diana J; Carroll, Constance M; Dobscha, Steven; Driscoll, Mary A; Fenton, Brenda T; Fraenkel, Liana; Haskell, Sally G; Heapy, Alicia A; Higgins, Diana M; Hoff, Rani A; Hwang, Ula; Justice, Amy C; Piette, John D; Sinnott, Patsi; Wandner, Laura; Womack, Julie A; Brandt, Cynthia A

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are highly prevalent, painful, and costly disorders. The MSD Cohort was created to characterize variation in pain, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes among patients with MSD receiving Veterans Health Administration care across demographic groups, geographic regions, and facilities. We searched electronic health records to identify patients treated in Veterans Health Administration who had ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses including, but not limited to, joint, back, and neck disorders, and osteoarthritis. Cohort inclusion criteria were 2 or more outpatient visits occurring within 18 months of one another or one inpatient visit with an MSD diagnosis between 2000 and 2011. The first diagnosis is the index date. Pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) scores, comorbid medical and mental health diagnoses, pain-related treatments, and other characteristics were collected retrospectively and prospectively. The cohort included 5,237,763 patients; their mean age was 59, 6% were women, 15% identified as black, and 18% reported severe pain (NRS ≥ 7) on the index date. Nontraumatic joint disorder (27%), back disorder (25%), and osteoarthritis (21%) were the most common MSD diagnoses. Patients entering the cohort in recent years had more concurrent MSD diagnoses and higher NRS scores. The MSD Cohort is a rich resource for collaborative pain-relevant health service research. PMID:27023420

  16. The musculoskeletal diagnosis cohort: examining pain and pain care among veterans.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Joseph L; Kerns, Robert D; Bair, Matthew; Becker, William C; Brennan, Penny; Burgess, Diana J; Carroll, Constance M; Dobscha, Steven; Driscoll, Mary A; Fenton, Brenda T; Fraenkel, Liana; Haskell, Sally G; Heapy, Alicia A; Higgins, Diana M; Hoff, Rani A; Hwang, Ula; Justice, Amy C; Piette, John D; Sinnott, Patsi; Wandner, Laura; Womack, Julie A; Brandt, Cynthia A

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are highly prevalent, painful, and costly disorders. The MSD Cohort was created to characterize variation in pain, comorbidities, treatment, and outcomes among patients with MSD receiving Veterans Health Administration care across demographic groups, geographic regions, and facilities. We searched electronic health records to identify patients treated in Veterans Health Administration who had ICD-9-CM codes for diagnoses including, but not limited to, joint, back, and neck disorders, and osteoarthritis. Cohort inclusion criteria were 2 or more outpatient visits occurring within 18 months of one another or one inpatient visit with an MSD diagnosis between 2000 and 2011. The first diagnosis is the index date. Pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) scores, comorbid medical and mental health diagnoses, pain-related treatments, and other characteristics were collected retrospectively and prospectively. The cohort included 5,237,763 patients; their mean age was 59, 6% were women, 15% identified as black, and 18% reported severe pain (NRS ≥ 7) on the index date. Nontraumatic joint disorder (27%), back disorder (25%), and osteoarthritis (21%) were the most common MSD diagnoses. Patients entering the cohort in recent years had more concurrent MSD diagnoses and higher NRS scores. The MSD Cohort is a rich resource for collaborative pain-relevant health service research.

  17. Musculoskeletal Pain, Self-reported Physical Function, and Quality of Life in the Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Michalsky, Marc P.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Baughcum, Amy; Zeller, Meg H.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Inge, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Obesity is associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain and is a risk factor for disability and osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, sites, and intensity of musculoskeletal pain in adolescents with severe obesity; to evaluate associations between musculoskeletal pain and self-reported physical function as well as weight-related quality of life; and to evaluate the association between musculoskeletal pain and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Teen–Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) is a prospective, observational study that collects standardized data on adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery at 5 US centers. We examined baseline data from this cohort between February 28, 2007, and December 30, 2011. We excluded adolescents with Blount disease and slipped capital femoral epiphyses. A total of 233 participants were included in these analyses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain intensity of the lower back, hips, knees, and ankles/feet using the visual analog scale, categorizing musculoskeletal pain into lower back pain, lower extremity (hips, knees, and feet/ankles combined) pain, and no pain. We assessed self-reported physical function status with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index and assessed weight-related quality of life with the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life–Kids measure. We adjusted for sex, race, age at surgery, body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), and clinical depressive symptoms in regression analyses. RESULTS Among the 233 participants, the mean (SD) age at surgery was 17.1 (1.56) years and the median BMI was 50.4. Participants were predominantly female (77%), white (73%), and non-Hispanic (93%). Among the participants, 49% had poor functional status and 76% had musculoskeletal pain. Lower back pain was prevalent (63%), followed by ankle

  18. Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Drivers of All-Terrain Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    REHN, B.; BERGDAHL, I. A.; AHLGREN, C.; FROM, C.; JÄRVHOLM, B.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; NILSSON, T.; SUNDELIN, G.

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize the risk of experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms in the region of the neck, shoulders and upper and lower back for professional drivers of various categories of all-terrain vehicles and to assess the association between symptoms and duration of exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock from driving all-terrain vehicles. The study group consisted of 215 drivers of forest machines, 137 drivers of snowmobiles and 79 drivers of snowgroomers and a control group of 167 men randomly selected from the general population. The subjects were all from one of the four most northern counties in Sweden and they were all men. Musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed by use of a standardized questionnaire. In addition, the questionnaire held items about the driving time with all-terrain vehicles and a subjective estimation of exposure to unpleasant movements (shock, jolt, irregular sway). The job strain was measured according to Karasek's demands/control model. The prevalence ratios were adjusted for age, smoking and job strain. Among drivers, significantly increased prevalence ratios within the range of 1∂5-2·9 were revealed for symptoms from the neck-shoulder and thoracic regions during the previous year. None of the driver categories had a statistically significantly increased risk of low back pain. Forest vehicles were those most reported to cause unpleasant movements. In conclusion, drivers of all-terrain vehicles exhibit an increased risk of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders in the neck-shoulder and thoracic regions. The increased risk is suggested to be related to physical factors such as exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and shock, static overload or extreme body postures. However, since symptoms of low back pain were not significantly increased, it appears that factors other than WBV would explain the occurrence of symptoms in the group of all-terrain drivers.

  19. MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN IN ELITE PROFESSIONAL MUSICIANS FROM BRITISH SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Richard; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional musicians may have high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but few studies have analysed risks by work activities or the psychosocial work environment. Aims To assess the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal pain, and its relation to playing conditions, mental health and performance anxiety, in musicians from leading British symphony orchestras. Methods Musicians from six professional orchestras completed a questionnaire concerning their orchestral duties and physical activities at work; mental health (somatising tendency, mood, demand, support and control at work, performance anxiety); and regional pain in the past four weeks and past 12 months. Prevalence rates were estimated by anatomical site, and associations with risk factors assessed by logistic regression. Results Responses were received from 243 musicians (51% of those approached), among whom 210 (86%) reported regional pain in the past 12 months, mainly affecting the neck, low-back, and shoulders. Risks tended to be higher in women, in those with low mood, and especially in those with high somatising scores. Only weak associations were found with psychosocial work stressors and performance anxiety. However, risks differed markedly by instrument category. Relative to string players, the odds of wrist/hand pain were raised 2.9-fold in wind players, but 60% lower in brass players, while the odds of elbow pain were 50% lower among wind and brass players. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain is common in elite professional musicians. A major personal risk factor is somatising tendency, but performance anxiety has less impact. Risks differ substantially by instrument played, offering pointers towards prevention. PMID:22003061

  20. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine. 1. Head and spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Sherman, A L; Young, J L

    1999-05-01

    This self-directed learning module focuses on head, neck, and spine injuries that are frequent occurrences in sporting activity. It is part of the chapter on musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The physiatrist must be able to recognize not only the cause of the acute injury but also the functional consequences of the impairment. This article will discuss some of the more common head, neck, and spine injuries in patients engaged in sports activity and will suggest typical management options for these patients.

  1. Digital subtraction angiography in musculoskeletal tumors and other conditions.

    PubMed

    Kolár, J; Zídková, H; Sprindrich, J; Matĕjovský, Z

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and forty consecutive DSA examinations of various musculoskeletal diseases were analyzed with respect to the contributions and/or limits of this modern diagnostic imaging modality. Angiography remains the imaging tool of choice for many benign and malignant orthopedic conditions of bones and soft tissues, mainly when MRI is still not generally available. It remains indispensable for embolization and/or local chemotherapy. DSA has the advantage of being less invasive and it also surpasses analog arteriography in better visualization of vascular patterns hidden in hyperostosis, sclerosis, and metallic shadows. Angiographic investigations, when necessary, should therefore start with DSA. PMID:2317132

  2. The Normal and Abnormal Equine Neonatal Musculoskeletal System.

    PubMed

    Levine, David G

    2015-12-01

    The first weeks of life are critical in many aspects, and the musculoskeletal system is no exception. Being able to stand and nurse within hours of life is necessary for survival. Laxity, flexural deformities, and skeletal immaturity can all make it difficult for neonates to ambulate. The increased vascularity to bones and cartilage mixed with the newly forming immune system also make neonates susceptible to infections that we rarely see in adult animals. This article concentrates on orthopedic conditions seen in the first 2 weeks of life.

  3. Platelet plasma rich products in musculoskeletal medicine: any evidence?

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo

    2012-06-01

    Platelet reach plasma (PRP) is considered to accelerate muscle and tendon healing and allow early return to elite competition, and it is often recommend as best practice for management of musculoskeletal injuries. Even though several growth factors abundant in PRPs have been extensively studied in tissue regeneration, the key factors are yet unknown. Given our rudimentary knowledge of the mechanism of action of the PRPs, it is challenging to use this technology to promote early healing, and produce improved and accelerated functional recovery. We prompt researchers to undertake appropriately powered level I studies with adequate and relevant outcome measures and clinically appropriate follow up.

  4. Musculoskeletal Changes, Injuries and Rehabilitation Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The in-flight musculoskeletal database provides the foundation for directing operationally-relevant research in space medicine. This effort will enable medical operations to develop medical kits, training programs, and preventive medicine strategies for future CxP missions: a) Quantify medications and medical supplies for next-generation spacecraft. b) Objective data for engineers to determine weight requirements. Flight surgeons can make specific recommendations to astronauts based on injury data, such as emphasizing hand protection while in-flight. EVA and spacecraft engineers can examine evidence-based data on injuries and design countermeasures to help prevent them.

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders. When are they caused by hormone imbalance?

    PubMed

    Brick, J E; Brick, J F; Elnicki, D M

    1991-11-01

    Often, the source of a musculoskeletal problem can be traced to an endocrine disorder. For example, carpal tunnel syndrome is not uncommon in patients who are pregnant or have diabetes, hypothyroidism, or acromegaly. Joint problems and arthritis are other common findings in diabetes, pregnancy, and hyperparathyroidism. Muscle weakness or stiffness is seen in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and muscle wasting is a characteristic of adrenocorticoid insufficiency. Bone disorders are common with glucocorticoid excess, acromegaly, and hyperparathyroidism. Some presentations are a classic picture of a specific endocrine condition and are readily recognized if the index of suspicion is appropriately high.

  6. Economic impact of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) on work in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, 'presenteeism' and loss of productivity across all the European Union (EU) member states. It is estimated that the total cost of lost productivity attributable to MSDs among people of working age in the EU could be as high as 2% of gross domestic product (GDP). This paper examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on work across Europe and highlights areas of policy, clinical and employment practice which might improve work outcomes for individuals and families and reduce the economic and social costs of MSDs. PMID:26612235

  7. Musculoskeletal Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management.

    PubMed

    van Weeren, Paul René; Back, Willem

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment. Laminitis in the geriatric horse is related often to pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, which may be treated with additional pergolide. PMID:27449390

  8. [Eponyms in musculoskeletal radiology: stories of bones, persons, and civilizations].

    PubMed

    Viteri Jusué, A; Eguidazu Elosua, J M; Castillo de Juan, J; Grande Icaran, D

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms reflect the history of medicine, of disease, and of physicians, but eponyms also reflect the history of the societies in which these physicians lived. Both loved and hated, eponyms are at the center of an interminable debate about whether they should continue to be used or whether they should disappear, and this debate has become more intense since some scientific societies have purged their terminologies of eponyms related to Nazism. Eponyms abound in conventional musculoskeletal radiology. In this article, rather than attempt an exhaustive review of all these eponyms, we take a few representative examples to illustrate the contributions of eponyms to medicine and the history of medicine.

  9. Developing ergonomic solutions for prevention of musculoskeletal disorder disability.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, T J; Franzblau, A; Haig, A; Keyserling, W M; Levine, S; Streilein, K; Ulin, S; Werner, R

    2001-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to help understand the relationship between personal and work factors that affect participation in work. The authors use a generic version of these models as a framework for identifying gaps between job demands and worker capacities. They describe metrics for assessing factors associated with causing or aggravating musculoskeletal disorders. Two case examples are presented to illustrate the hierarchical assessment of jobs and the evaluation of gaps between job demands and worker capacities. Finally, the authors describe the development of a job database to facilitate future evaluations. PMID:12530835

  10. Musculoskeletal adaptation to mechanical forces on Earth and in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of the US and Russian space programs is the health and safety of astronauts and cosmonauts. One of the areas receiving the most attention has been the effects of long duration space flight on the musculoskeletel system. After three decades of space flight and research, questions continue. Can exercise in space maintain musculoskeletal tissue mass and function in an adult? The objective of this paper is to address this question in a way that hopefully provides a rational basis for quantifying and evaluating the influnence of daily activities on muscle and bone on Earth and in space.

  11. Shape and size of the body vs. musculoskeletal stress markers.

    PubMed

    Myszka, Anna; Piontek, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between the degree of development of muscle attachment sites (musculoskeletal stress markers - MSM1) and the length and circumference measurements of long bones and the body build expressed with the reconstructed values of body height (BH) and body mass (BM). The bone material (102 male and 99 female skeletons) used in the study was collected in the medieval burial ground in Cedynia, Poland. The authors analyzed 10 musculoskeletal stress markers located on the scapula (2), humerus (2), radius (2), femur (2) and tibia (2). The frequency and the degree of expression of muscle attachment size was carried out using the scale prepared by Myszka (2007). The scale encompassed three degrees of expression of muscle attachment size. Only changes of robusticity type (nonpathological changes) were taken into account. The assessment of body build of individuals was carried out according to the method proposed by Vancata & Charvátová (2001). Body height was reconstructed from the length of the humerus and femur using eight equations. Body mass was reconstructed from the measurements of the breadth of the proximal and distal sections of the femur and tibia (mechanical method) using twenty one equations. The equations were developed for different reference populations. The same equations were used for men and women. The correlation between the MSM and the length and circumference measurements of the bones was analyzed using the principal components analysis and the Gamma correlation coefficient. The strength of the correlation between the reconstructed body build traits (BH, BM) and the moderate degree of musculoskeletal stress markers expression was studied based on the principal components method and the Pearson correlation coefficient. A linear correlation was found between musculoskeletal stress markers and the circumference measurements and the reconstructed body mass, but no relationship with body height and the

  12. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module IX. Musculoskeletal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the musculoskeletal system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) the major bones, joints, and muscles of the body; (2) patient assessment of a musculoskeletal injury; (3) pathophysiology and management…

  13. 77 FR 27470 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 55399 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 76 FR 40385 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

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  10. 75 FR 67989 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel. Centers of Research Translation Grant Review. Date... Assistance Program Nos. 93.846, Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Research, National Institutes...

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  12. 76 FR 24892 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Special Emphasis Panel, Clinical Trial Pilot Grant Review. Date: May 12, 2011..., Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800,...

  13. 77 FR 60447 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  14. 78 FR 32261 - National Institute of Arthritis And Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  15. 78 FR 70312 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Small Business Innovation Research on Rare Musculoskeletal, Rheumatic and Skin Diseases. Date: December 16, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  16. 75 FR 1792 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Small Research Grants Review. Date: February 4, 2010.... Bloom, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and...

  17. 75 FR 6676 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-05-27

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  1. 75 FR 27352 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  5. 75 FR 70679 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  6. 78 FR 7790 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 78 FR 58320 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  8. 76 FR 31968 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-02

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  9. The Musculoskeletal System. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit with instructor's guide provides materials on aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the musculoskeletal system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human musculoskeletal system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

  10. Workplace Accommodations for Persons with Musculoskeletal Disorders. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morosky, Frank N.

    This brief paper summarizes requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 related to workplace accommodations for persons with musculo-skeletal disorders. The following topics are addressed: (1) the relevance of the ADA to people with musculo-skeletal disorders; (2) employment provisions of the ADA to protect individuals with…

  11. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Musculoskeletal Discomforts and Occupational Stressors Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Azma, Kamran; Hosseini, Alireza; Safarian, Mohammad Hasan; Abedi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress in nurses may increase the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts and job stress among nurses and to investigate the association between musculoskeletal discomforts and occupational stressors. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 144 nurses in one of the main referral hospitals of Tehran-Iran were randomly selected and studied. Data were collected by HSE job stress questionnaire and The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire through interviews with nurses in their workplace. Results: Most reported musculoskeletal discomforts localized in the neck, back, knee and shoulder and the minimal discomforts were in wrist and elbow. On the other hand, stressors such as demand, changes in workplace, control and responsibilities had significant effect on increasing musculoskeletal discomforts of organs such as neck, shoulders and back (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a significant association between stressors such as demand, control, responsibilities and changes in workplace and reported musculoskeletal disorders, especially in neck, shoulders and back. It is suggested to use defined programs for management and control of stressors to control occupational stress in nurses. Moreover, prevention of musculoskeletal discomforts due to their high prevalence in the study population is important. PMID:26258080

  12. Prospective Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard; Lynch, Gary; Gepshtein, Sergei; Greenspan, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Human performance approaches that of an ideal observer and optimal actor in some perceptual and motor tasks. These optimal abilities depend on the capacity of the cerebral cortex to store an immense amount of information and to flexibly make rapid decisions. However, behavior only approaches these limits after a long period of learning while the cerebral cortex interacts with the basal ganglia, an ancient part of the vertebrate brain that is responsible for learning sequences of actions directed toward achieving goals. Progress has been made in understanding the algorithms used by the brain during reinforcement learning, which is an online approximation of dynamic programming. Humans also make plans that depend on past experience by simulating different scenarios, which is called prospective optimization. The same brain structures in the cortex and basal ganglia that are active online during optimal behavior are also active offline during prospective optimization. The emergence of general principles and algorithms for goal-directed behavior has consequences for the development of autonomous devices in engineering applications. PMID:25328167

  13. Musculoskeletal and neuromuscular interventions: a physical approach to cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Massery, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Children with CF are living longer than ever before, and thus issues pertaining to quality of life rather than just longevity of life need to be addressed by the entire healthcare team. This article addressed the issues pertaining to the external support of the dysfunctional internal organs: the secondary musculoskeletal (postural) and neuromuscular control deficits that occur to the maturing child with CF. The research pointed towards starting PT interventions for these deficits during the pre-pubescent phase when postural deficits were just emerging, but a suggestion was also made to explore whether these deficits can be even more effectively monitored and treated at an earlier age. The dual relationship between the muscles used to meet the increased respiratory demands of CF and the normal postural demands of physical activities was described through a model based on a soda-pop can and pressure support. A pre-pubescent child with a typical progression of CF was presented as a case report to illustrate how a PT programme that was focused on postural deficits could be implemented and what type of outcomes might be possible. The child made significant changes within a relatively short time frame of 4 months, proposing that the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems may play a significant role in the medical and physical long-term outcomes of CF. For that reason, the physical as well as medical needs of the patient should be incorporated into a comprehensive multi-system approach to the disease across the lifespan. PMID:16025768

  14. Review of musculoskeletal injuries and prevention in the endoscopy practitioner.

    PubMed

    Harvin, Glenn

    2014-08-01

    Practitioners of endoscopy often experience musculoskeletal pain and injury (most often in the back, neck, shoulders, hands, wrists, and thumbs) that are associated with the minute and repetitive strain that is placed on these areas during endoscopic procedures. This review of the current documentation of endoscopy-related pain and injuries among practitioners finds that such problems are widespread and specific in kind as well as strongly correlated with high procedure volume and procedure duration. Research on the nature and impact of cumulative trauma and overuse syndromes in other professions such as dentistry, pianists, production labor, and athletics is brought to bear on the work of the endoscopist. A more thorough understanding of the nature and prevalence of work-related pain and injury sustained by endoscopists should inform further development of ergonomic practices and equipment design. This article reviews current recommendations for ergonomic design in the endoscopy procedure space and finds that reported compliance with those recommendations is quite low. Strategies for the management of the risk of musculoskeletal injuries related to the practice of endoscopy include compliance with currently recommended ergonomic practices, education of trainees in ergonomic technique when practicing endoscopy, and research toward the modification and development of more ergonomic endoscopes and procedure spaces. PMID:24798940

  15. The role of sensitization in musculoskeletal shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Borstad, John; Woeste, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral and central sensitization are neurophysiological processes that can prolong painful conditions. Painful shoulder conditions are often persistent, perhaps due to the presence of sensitization. Method: This manuscript summarizes six studies that have evaluated those with musculoskeletal shoulder pain for the presence of sensitization. Results: All six manuscripts report evidence of peripheral sensitization, while central sensitization was described in five of the studies. The chronicity of symptoms in subjects who were included in the studies is probably influencing this finding. The primary somatosensory test used to assess sensitization in these studies was Pressure Pain Threshold, a test for lowered nociceptive thresholds. Discussion: It appears that peripheral sensitization manifests consistently in those with musculoskeletal shoulder pathology, probably due to the inflammatory processes related to tissue injury. Central sensitization, while not universally present, was reported in a majority of the manuscripts. Because central sensitization is thought to be a key step on the pathway to chronic pain, evidence for its presence in those with shoulder pain is significant. Clinicians should expect the presence of sensitization with shoulder pathology and make appropriate choices about interventions so as not to exacerbate pain. PMID:26443971

  16. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  17. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  18. Effect of helium-neon laser on musculoskeletal trigger points

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder-Mackler, L.; Bork, C.; Bourbon, B.; Trumbore, D.

    1986-07-01

    Cold lasers have been proposed recently as a therapeutic tool for treating a wide variety of pathological conditions, including wounds, arthritis, orthopedic problems, and pain. These proposed therapeutic effects largely have been unsubstantiated by research. A randomized, double blind study was undertaken to ascertain the effect of a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on the resistance of areas of skin overlying musculoskeletal trigger points. These areas usually demonstrate decreased skin resistance when compared with the surrounding tissue. Thirty patients with musculoskeletal trigger points were assigned randomly to either an experimental or a placebo group. In addition to standard physical therapy, each patient received three 15-second applications of a He-Ne laser or placebo stimulation from an identical unit that did not emit a laser. The results of a two-way analysis of covariance with one repeated measure showed a statistically significant increase (p less than .007) in skin resistance. This increase in an abnormal skin resistance pattern may accompany the resolution of pathological conditions.

  19. Musculoskeletal Health, Kidney and Liver Function in Retired Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, S; Donohoe, A; McGoldrick, A; McCaffrey, N; Davenport, C; Byrne, B; Donaghy, C; Tormey, W; Smith, D; Warrington, G

    2015-11-01

    The long-term implications of making-weight daily on musculoskeletal health and functioning of the kidney and liver remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate musculoskeletal health and kidney and liver function in a group of retired jockeys. 28 retired male jockeys (age 50-70 years) provided fasting blood samples for markers of bone metabolism and kidney and liver function. A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). Established reference ranges were used for interpretation of results. Comparisons were made between retired jockeys based on the professional racing licence held: Flat, National Hunt or Dual. Mean whole-body osteopenia was reported, with no differences between groups. Bone markers, micronutrients, electrolytes and associated hormones, and markers for kidney and liver function were within clinical normative ranges. No differences existed between groups. Results indicate the retired jockeys in this study do not demonstrate compromised bone health or kidney and liver function. However, the retired jockeys may not have undergone chronic weight cycling in the extreme manner evident in present-day jockeys, indicating the next generation of jockeys may face more of a problem. Jockeys should be tracked longitudinally throughout their racing career and beyond. PMID:26212243

  20. Delay in treatment of primary malignant and aggressive musculoskeletal tumours.

    PubMed

    Pan, K L; Zolqarnain, A; Chia, Y Y

    2006-02-01

    Patients with aggressive musculoskeletal tumours often arrive at specialised treatment centres late. Such a delay could mean disfavour for potentially curable or long-term disease-free outcome of limb preserving surgery. This study was undertaken to identify the underlying problem-related delay with a view to propose solution for solving it. We reviewed 30 patients to determine the periods of delay between onset of the first symptom and the definitive treatment. The delays were categorized as 'patient' delay, 'referral' delay and 'treatment' delay. There was 'patient' delay in 57% of patients (n=17), ranging from 1 to 18 months; 'referral' delay in 67% of patients (n=20) ranging from 1 to 19 months and 23% of patients (n=7) had treatment delay (average 23 days) at the treatment centre. The causes of late arrival are not solely patient-related but are multifactorial. Measures to minimize such delays include enhancing awareness only with high index of suspicion among primary care practitioners, creating a special lane specialized imaging studies and establishing a dedicated musculoskeletal tumour unit. PMID:17042231

  1. Analysis of musculoskeletal loading in an index finger during tapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; An, Kai-Nan; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine; Welcome, Daniel; Dong, Ren G

    2008-01-01

    Since musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities are believed to be associated with repetitive excessive muscle force production in the hands, understanding the time-dependent muscle forces during key tapping is essential for exploring the mechanisms of disease initiation and development. In the current study, we have simulated the time-dependent dynamic loading in the muscle/tendons in an index finger during tapping. The index finger model is developed using a commercial software package AnyBody, and it contains seven muscle/tendons that connect the three phalangeal finger sections. Our simulations indicate that the ratios of the maximal forces in flexor digitorum superficialis (FS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FP) tendons to the maximal force at the fingertip are 0.95 and 2.9, respectively, which agree well with recently published experimental data. The time sequence of the finger muscle activation predicted in the current study is consistent with the EMG data in the literature. The proposed model will be useful for bioengineers and ergonomic designers to improve keyboard design minimizing musculoskeletal loadings in the fingers.

  2. Shoulder complex linkage mechanism for humanlike musculoskeletal robot arms.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Shuhei; Kimoto, Yuya; Hosoda, Koh

    2015-12-01

    The shoulder complex in the human body consists of the scapula, clavicle, humerus, and thorax and bears the load imposed by arm movements while at the same time realizing a wide range of motions. To mimic and exploit its role, several musculoskeletal robot arms with shoulder complex mechanisms have been developed. However, although many research groups have tried to design the structures using links and joints that faithfully correspond to the bones and joints in the human shoulder complex, its function has not been successfully reproduced because biologically plausible designs seriously compromise engineering plausibility. In this paper, we propose a linkage mechanism that can reproduce complex three-dimensional scapulo movements and considers the trade-off between biological and engineering plausibilities. Subsequently, the design was validated by driving the mechanism using pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) placed similarly to muscles in humans. Further, we present experiments in which the robot was controlled by surface electromyographic signals from a human. We show that the proposed design, due to its kinematic similarity with human musculoskeletal systems, eases the conversion between the surface electromyogram signals and the PAMs control inputs. PMID:26539726

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders in professional violinists and violists. Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Geraldo Fabiano de Souza; Antunes, Adriana Papini

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high physical and psychological demands of their work, musicians have a high risk of developing a range of health problems. The main causes of musculoskeletal disorders seen in instrumentalists are overuse, nerve compression and focal dystonia. The aim of this paper is to identify the musculoskeletal disorders that most frequently affect professional violinists and violists. 50 articles were read, of which 24 were used. The PEDro scale was used to determine the quality of the articles. The definition of risk factors can help in the development of prevention programs. Playing a musical instrument involves a combination of actions, including rapid, repetitive and complicated movements of the hands and fingers. The chairs used offer no other option than to adapt to the demands of body posture. To achieve the necessary skills to become a musician of a high standard, many hours of training and perfection are required. The neck, shoulder and temporomandibular joints are the most commonly affected areas, due to prolonged flexion of the head and shoulder required to hold the violin. The elbow and fingers are also common sites of disorders. It is necessary to warn musicians of the initial symptoms, and how they can prevent the disorder from worsening. Level I Evidence (Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK). PMID:24453580

  5. Musculoskeletal Pain Management Among Dentists: An Alternative Approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; M, Devaki; Dommaraju, Neelima; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Patil, Atul A; Momin, Rizwan K; Jain, Ankita; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most important occupational health issues in health care workers. Musculoskeletal pain is an occupational health problem for dental professionals, particularly dentists. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can be helpful in managing and preventing these MSDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSDs among dentists residing in east India and the use of CAM therapies for the management of MSDs among dentists. Dentists (N = 1082) residing in east India, registered under the Dental Council of India, were surveyed. A questionnaire comprising demographic profile, questions related to MSD among dentists, use of CAM therapies for MSD management, source of CAM information. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 17), and data were presented in tabular and graphic forms. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done, with P < .05 considered as significant. A response rate of 81% (n = 877) was obtained, revealing that 71% (n = 623) of dentists suffered from MSD. The use of CAM was reported among 83% (n = 517) and conventional therapy among 15% (n = 94) of dentists, and 2% (n = 12) of dentists with MSD do not use any type of treatment modality. Complementary and alternative medicine represents a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not considered to be part of conventional medicine. CAM therapies have improved quality of life and have given a new meaning to it, especially to dentists who suffer from MSD. PMID:26067590

  6. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decharat, Somsiri; Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics. PMID:27597901

  7. Effects of Deployment on Musculoskeletal and Physiological Characteristics and Balance.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Keenan, Karen A; McGrail, Mark A; Smalley, Brian W; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-09-01

    Despite many nonbattle injuries reported during deployment, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of deployment on musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics and balance. A total of 35 active duty U.S. Army Soldiers participated in laboratory testing before and after deployment to Afghanistan. The following measures were obtained for each Soldier: shoulder, trunk, hip, knee, and ankle strength and range of motion (ROM), balance, body composition, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic power/capacity. Additionally, Soldiers were asked about their physical activity and load carriage. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon tests with an α = 0.05 set a priori were used for statistical analyses. Shoulder external rotation ROM, torso rotation ROM, ankle dorsiflexion ROM, torso rotation strength, and anaerobic power significantly increased following deployment (p < 0.05). Shoulder extension ROM, shoulder external rotation strength, and eyes-closed balance (p < 0.05) were significantly worse following deployment. The majority of Soldiers (85%) engaged in physical activity. In addition, 58% of Soldiers reported regularly carrying a load (22 kg average). The deployment-related changes in musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics and balance as well as physical activity and load carriage during deployment may assist with proper preparation with the intent to optimize tactical readiness and mitigate injury risk. PMID:27612352

  8. Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders among Indian tabla players.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Wricha; De, Amitabha; Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Chandra, Ananga M

    2013-06-01

    Playing a percussion instrument demands great force and effort, which may make percussionists prone to playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Of all of the percussion instruments in India, tabla is the most popular. The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of discomforts among professional tabla players. Eighty-five professional tabla players voluntarily participated in the study. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and visual analog scale were administered to all the participants. Demographic details, music-related activities, and symptoms of discomfort were also recorded. It was found that prone anatomical areas were the low back, right shoulder, neck, left shoulder, upper back, and knees. The frequency of discomfort was found to be mostly weekly for the shoulders and monthly for neck, low back, and knees. There was an association between visual analog scale and prevalence of self-reported discomforts in some body parts. It can be said that the prolonged, unsupported, folded-knee sitting posture may be the cause of discomforts. PMID:23752286

  9. Musculoskeletal-induced Nucleation in Altitude Decompression Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity has the potential to both improve and compromise decompression safety. Exercise enhances inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but it may also promote bubble nuclei formation (nucleation), which can lead to gas phase separation and bubble growth and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity and the level of tissue supersaturation may be critical to the net effect. There are limited data available to evaluate cost-benefit relationships. Understanding the relationship is important to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of nucleation in exercise prebreathe protocols and to quantify risk in gravity and microgravity environments. Data gathered during NASA's Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) studies combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise followed by low pressure (4.3 psi; altitude equivalent of 30,300 ft [9,235 m]) microgravity simulation to produce two protocols used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity. Both the Phase II/CEVIS (cycle ergometer vibration isolation system) and ISLE (in-suit light exercise) trials eliminated ambulation to more closely simulate the microgravity environment. The CEVIS results (35 male, 10 female) serve as control data for this NASA/Duke study to investigate the influence of ambulation exercise on bubble formation and the subsequent risk of DCS.

  10. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among occupational therapists in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, JuHyung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to identify general characteristics of occupational therapists in Korea and to investigate the present conditions of their work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) in order to present preliminary data for its prevention and directions for improvement. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted by performing a survey about WRMD among 95 occupational therapists working in Korea. Frequency analysis was conducted for the work-related general characteristics of subjects and for parts of the body with musculoskeletal disorder, and a χ(2) test was used to analyze the association between the presence of WRMD characteristics and each general characteristic. [Results] The parts of the body involved the most were the shoulders, hands, and neck (in decreasing order), and the work-related general characteristics shown to be associated with WRMD were the gender and the mean length of employment period. [Conclusion] The results of this study revealed that occupational therapists in Korea were extremely vulnerable to WRMD, and that realistic measures should be prepared swiftly for its prevention and treatment.

  11. Musculoskeletal Deterioration and Hemicorporectomy After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The long-term management following an hemicorporectomy (HCP) is not well documented in the scientific literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the 25-year history of a man with a spinal cord injury who experienced severe musculoskeletal deterioration and hemicorporectomy. Case Description The client sustained T10 complete paraplegia at age 18 years, developed severe decubitus ulcers, and required an HCP as a lifesaving measure 13 years later. The authors describe the chronology of several rehabilitation and prosthetic strategies and speculate on factors that may have contributed to their successes and failures. Outcomes The client survived 12 years after the HCP and returned to independent mobility, self-care, and schooling despite complications with continued skin breakdown. Over the 12 years following discharge from the hospital after the spinal cord injury, he spent 749 days in the hospital. During the 12 years he lived after discharge from the hospital following the HCP, he was hospitalized 190 days. Discussion The authors discuss factors contributing to the client’s musculoskeletal deterioration including chronic wounds, postural deviations, and incomplete adherence to pressure-relief recommendations and raise considerations for physical therapists who treat patients after HCP. PMID:12620090

  12. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phethuayluk, Piriyalux; Maneelok, Supandee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4%) did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics. PMID:27597901

  13. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  14. Musculoskeletal ultrasound education: orthopaedic resident ability following a multimedia tutorial.

    PubMed

    Piposar, Jonathan R; Easley, Mark; Nunley, James A; DeOrio, James K; Talusan, Paul G; Gubler, Kyle E; Reach, John S

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK-US) is a quick and effective imaging tool that can be utilized by orthopaedic surgeons to identify common musculoskeletal pathology such as ankle tendinopathy. This study evaluated the ability of 15 orthopaedic surgery residents to identify and measure ankle tendons after attending a multimedia tutorial on MSK-US. Afterwards, proficiency of usage was assessed by identification and quantification of three ankle tendons (Achilles, tibialis posterior, and flexor hallucis longus) in a cadaver limb. Resident comfort level and plan for future use were also assessed. After completing the tutorial, accuracy measuring the Achilles, tibialis posterior, and flexor hallucis longus tendons was 94.8%, 90.2%, and 90.1%, respectively. Resident comfort level improved from a level of 2.3 before the tutorial to 6.8 afterwards. Seventy-one percent of residents plan to use ultrasound in clinical practice. These results show that orthopaedic surgery residents can identify and assess tendon size via MSK-US with sufficient accuracy after a multimedia tutorial. PMID:25830266

  15. A physiotherapy perspective of musculoskeletal imaging in sport.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, M J

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a physiotherapy perspective on the role that imaging is now playing in the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal and sporting injuries. Although the Royal College of Radiologists and the UK Chartered Society of Physiotherapy were founded in the latter part of the nineteenth century, it is 100 years later that developments in the UK NHS have led to increased roles for non-medical healthcare professionals and allied health professionals, such as physiotherapists, in an extended clinical role. Physiotherapists, perhaps because of their knowledge of clinical and applied anatomy, have keenly taken up the opportunities offered to request and interpret imaging in its various forms; the most commonly available are plain radiography, musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI. This has meant taking formal courses under the auspices of universities with mentorship and tutoring within the clinical setting, which are part of a continuing professional development. The ability to request several forms of imaging has enhanced physiotherapy practice and has increased the appreciation of the responsibilities which accompany this new role.

  16. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  17. Musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain: what a gynecologist should know.

    PubMed

    Gyang, Anthony; Hartman, Melissa; Lamvu, Georgine

    2013-03-01

    Ten percent of all gynecologic consultations are for chronic pelvic pain, and 20% of patients require a laparoscopy. Chronic pelvic pain affects 15% of all women annually in the United States, with medical costs and loss of productivity estimated at $2.8 billion and $15 billion per year, respectively. Chronic pelvic pain in women may have multifactorial etiology, but 22% have pain associated with musculoskeletal causes. Unfortunately, pelvic musculoskeletal dysfunction is not routinely evaluated as a cause of pelvic pain by gynecologists. A pelvic musculoskeletal examination is simple to perform, is not time-consuming, and is one of the most important components to investigate in all chronic pelvic pain patients. This article describes common musculoskeletal causes of chronic pelvic pain and explains how to perform a simple musculoskeletal examination that can be easily incorporated into the gynecologist physical examination.

  18. Teaching Musculoskeletal Physical Diagnosis Using A Web-based Tutorial and Pathophysiology-Focused Cases

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee F; Thundiyil, Josef G; Chou, Calvin; Diab, Mohammad; Von Scheven, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an experimental curriculum on teaching first-year medical students the musculoskeletal exam as compared to a traditional curriculum. Background: Musculoskeletal complaints are common in the primary care setting. Practitioners are often deficient in examination skills and knowledge regarding musculoskeletal diseases. There is a lack of uniformity regarding how to teach the musculoskeletal examination among sub-specialists. We propose a novel web-based approach to teaching the musculoskeletal exam that is enhanced by peer practice with pathophysiology-focused cases. We sought to assess the effectiveness of an innovative musculoskeletal curriculum on the knowledge and skills of first-year medical students related to musculoskeletal physical diagnosis as compared to a traditional curriculum. The secondary purpose of this study was to assess satisfaction of students and preceptors exposed to this teaching method. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at a single LCME-accredited medical school and included a convenience sample from 2 consecutive classes of medical students during the musculoskeletal portion of their physical diagnosis class. We conducted a needs assessment of the traditional curriculum used to teach musculoskeletal examination. The needs assessment informed the development of an experimental curriculum. One class (control group) received the traditional curriculum while the second class (experimental group) received the experimental curriculum, consisting of a web-based musculoskeletal tutorial, pathophysiology-focused cases, and facilitator preparation. We used multiple-choice questions and musculoskeletal OSCE scores to assess differences between knowledge and skills in the 2 groups. Results: The sample consisted of 140 students in each medical school class. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. One hundred seven students from the control group and 120 students

  19. Musculoskeletal clinic in general practice: study of one year's referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Davies, P; Pietroni, P

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. A musculoskeletal clinic, staffed by a general practitioner trained in osteopathy, medical acupuncture and intralesional injections, was set up in an inner London general practice in 1987. AIM. A retrospective study was undertaken of one year's referrals to the clinic in 1989-90 to determine how general practitioners were using the clinic in terms of problems referred; consultation patterns of patients attending the clinic and 12 months after initially being seen; and how access to the clinic influenced referrals to relevant hospital departments. METHOD. Day sheets were studied which recorded information on demographic characteristics of patients referred to the clinic and their problems, diagnoses made, duration of symptoms, number and range of treatments given, and recurrence of problems. Use of secondary referral sources was also examined. RESULTS. During the study year 154 of 3264 practice patients were referred to the musculoskeletal clinic, and attended a mean of 3.5 times each. Of all the attenders 64% were women and 52% were 30-54 years old. Eighty one patients (53%) presented with neck, back or sciatic pain. A specific traumatic, inflammatory or other pathological process could be ascribed to only 19% of patients. Regarding treatment, 88% of patients received osteopathic manual treatment or acupuncture, or a combination of these treatments and 4% received intralesional injections. Nine patients from the clinic (6%) were referred to an orthopaedic specialist during the year, two with acute back pain. Referrals to orthopaedic specialists by the practice as a whole were not significantly lower than the national average, although the practice made fewer referrals to physiotherapy and rheumatology departments than national figures would have predicted. Seventeen patients (11%) returned to the clinic with a recurrence of their main complaint within a year of their initial appointment; second courses of treatment were usually brief. CONCLUSION. The

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P < .001). Only 3 studies provided prevalence data, including 62% prevalence of lumbosacral pain, 58% painful snapping hip, and 29% patellofemoral pain. Lower extremity injuries comprised 66% to 91% of all injuries, with the foot and ankle accounting for 14% to 57%. Conclusion The overall incidence of injury

  1. Fulminant musculoskeletal and neurologic sarcoidosis: case report and literature update.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Ashley; Hammer, Richard; Evenski, Andrea; Crim, Julia

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of fulminant sarcoidosis in a 28-year-old man presenting with skin nodules, multifocal small and large joint arthralgias, and blurred vision. Characteristic bone, soft tissue, articular, and CNS findings were evident on multimodality imaging. Bony abnormalities included near-complete destruction of a distal phalanx, "lace-like" lucent lesions, erosive arthritis, lytic lesions with and without sclerotic margins, and bone marrow replacement visible only on MRI. The extent of bony disease at time of presentation was unusual. We review the widely varying reported prevalence of imaging findings of bony sarcoidosis in the literature, and discuss reasons for this variability. We found that musculoskeletal findings at US and MRI were less specific than radiographic and CT findings, but were useful in quantifying extent of disease.

  2. Fulminant musculoskeletal and neurologic sarcoidosis: case report and literature update.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Ashley; Hammer, Richard; Evenski, Andrea; Crim, Julia

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of fulminant sarcoidosis in a 28-year-old man presenting with skin nodules, multifocal small and large joint arthralgias, and blurred vision. Characteristic bone, soft tissue, articular, and CNS findings were evident on multimodality imaging. Bony abnormalities included near-complete destruction of a distal phalanx, "lace-like" lucent lesions, erosive arthritis, lytic lesions with and without sclerotic margins, and bone marrow replacement visible only on MRI. The extent of bony disease at time of presentation was unusual. We review the widely varying reported prevalence of imaging findings of bony sarcoidosis in the literature, and discuss reasons for this variability. We found that musculoskeletal findings at US and MRI were less specific than radiographic and CT findings, but were useful in quantifying extent of disease. PMID:27596753

  3. Assessment and Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Shoulder Disorders over the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Leah; Lade, Hannah; McKenzie, Stephanie; Russell, Trevor G.

    2012-01-01

    Shoulder disorders are common, debilitating, and represent a considerable burden on society. As primary contact practitioners, physiotherapists play a large role in the management and rehabilitation of people with these conditions. For those living outside of urban areas, however, access to physiotherapy can be limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of using a telerehabilitation system to collect physical examination findings and correctly identify disorders of the shoulder. Twenty-two participants with 28 shoulder disorders were recruited and underwent a face-to-face physical examination and a remote telerehabilitation examination. Examination findings and diagnoses from the two modes of assessment were used to determine validity and reliability of the new method. Diagnostic agreement and agreement on individual findings between the two methods were found to be consistent with the reliability of conventional assessment methods. This study provides important preliminary findings on the validity and reliability of musculoskeletal examinations conducted via telerehabilitation. PMID:23193395

  4. Management of Musculoskeletal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Tejas; Pitchumoni, C S; Das, Kiron M

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal manifestations are the most common extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases. Some appendicular manifestations are independent of gut inflammation and are treated with standard anti-inflammatory strategies. On the other hand, axial involvement is linked to gut inflammatory activity; hence, there is a considerable amount of treatment overlap. Biological therapies have revolutionized management of inflammatory bowel diseases as well as of associated articular manifestations. Newer mechanisms driving gut associated arthropathy have surfaced in the past decade and have enhanced our interests in novel treatment targets. Introduction of biosimilar molecules is expected in the US market in the near future and will provide an opportunity for considerable cost savings on healthcare. A multidisciplinary approach involving a gastroenterologist, rheumatologist, and physical therapist is ideal for these patients.

  5. An ergonomics approach model to prevention of occupational musculoskeletal injuries.

    PubMed

    Koltan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prevent occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Our workers stacked boxes of ceramics weighing 10-27 kg, making low back pain common in our enterprise. In all the stacking stations, recommended weight limits (RWL) were separately calculated using the revised National Institute for Occupational Health lifting equation. Since the boxes weighed significantly more than the RWL, we developed a new ergonomic design that completely changed the stacking process. The load put on the workers' waist vertebrae in the new and the old stacking methods was compared to evaluate the success of the new ergonomic design, using Newton's third law of motion. Thanks to the new ergonomic design, the load on the workers' vertebrae decreased by 80%. Due to its simple technology and its very low cost compared to robots, the new ergonomic design can be commonly used in enterprises with repeated and constraining stacking. PMID:19272245

  6. The Application of Optical Coherence Tomography in Musculoskeletal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rashidifard, Christopher; Vercollone, Christopher; Martin, Scott; Liu, Bin; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal disorders (MDs) are associated with irreversible bone and cartilage damage; this is particularly true for osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, a clinical need exists for modalities which can detect OA and other MDs at early stages. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an infrared-based imaging, currently FDA approved in cardiology and ophthalmology, which has a resolution greater than 10 microns and acquisition rate of 120 frames/second. It has shown feasibility for imaging early OA, identifying changes prior to cartilage thinning both in vitro and in vivo in patients and in OA animal models. In addition, OCT has shown an ability to identify early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and guide tendon repair, but has the potential for an even greater impact. Clinical trials in OA are currently underway, as well as in several other MDs. PMID:23424683

  7. Musculoskeletal demands on flamenco dancers: a clinical and biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Bejjani, F J; Halpern, N; Pio, A; Dominguez, R; Voloshin, A; Frankel, V H

    1988-04-01

    The flamenco dancer acts on the floor like a drummer. The percussive footwork and vibration patterns created during dancing impose unusual demands on the musculoskeletal system. This study investigated the clinical and biomechanical aspects of this task. Using the electrodynogram and skin-mounted accelerometers, foot pressures as well as hip and knee vibrations were recorded in 10 female dancers after a thorough clinical evaluation. A health questionnaire was also distributed to 29 dancers. Foot pressures and acceleration data reveal the percussive nature of the dance. Some clinical findings, like calluses, are related to pressure distribution. Urogenital disorders, as well as back and neck pain, may be related to the vibrations generated by the flamenco dance form. The hip joint seems to absorb most of the impacts. "Vibration-pressure" diagrams are suggested as a useful tool for evaluating a dancer's biomechanical behavior, as well as the effect of floors and footwear on this behavior. PMID:3366430

  8. Communication accommodation and managing musculoskeletal disorders: doctors' and patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Susan C; Gallois, Cindy; Driedger, S Michelle; Santesso, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the ways in which health care providers (general practitioners and specialists) and patients communicate with each other about managing musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, a major cause of long-term pain and physical disability. In managing their illness, patients must interact closely with health care providers, who play a large role in transferring knowledge to them. In-depth interviews with patients, general practitioners, and specialist rheumatologists in Australia and Canada were analyzed using Leximancer (a text-mining tool). Results indicated that, in their communication, doctors subtly emphasized accepting and adjusting to the illness ("new normal"), whereas patients emphasized pain relief and getting "back to normal." These results suggest that doctors and patients should accommodate in their communication across subtle and often unexpressed differences in the priorities of provider and patient, or they are likely to be at cross purposes and thus less effective. PMID:21424965

  9. Epidemiology of rheumatic musculoskeletal disorders in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Arvind; Abdel-Nasser, Ahmed

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of rheumatic musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders in the developing world is much less well known than it is in the developed world. We expect ethnicity, traditions, socioeconomics and lifestyles to have an impact, but overall data are sparse. This report focuses on the WHO-ILAR COPCORD (community-oriented programme for control of rheumatic diseases). COPCORD was designed to collect community data on pain and disability in the developing economies. Several countries in Asia-Pacific and Central South America have completed COPCORD surveys. Despite some limitations in methodology, COPCORD provides a fair estimate of the spectrum and extent of rheumatic MSK disorders. We digress from a general overview to highlight the scenario for rheumatoid arthritis, and draw a few parallels with known statistics from the developed world. Overall, the emerging spectrum and severity are not very different, but in the developing countries the burden of disease, worsened by dismal rheumatology services, is likely to be staggering. PMID:18783739

  10. Musculoskeletal disorder risk during automotive assembly: current vs. seated.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sue A; Marras, William S; Allread, W Gary; Knapik, Gregory G; Splittstoesser, Riley E

    2012-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorder risk was assessed during automotive assembly processes. The risk associated with current assembly processes was compared to using a cantilever chair intervention. Spine loads and normalized shoulder muscle activity were evaluated during assembly in eight regions of the vehicle. Eight interior cabin regions of the vehicle were classified by reach distance, height from vehicle floor and front to back. The cantilever chair intervention tool was most effective in the far reach regions regardless of the height. In the front far reach regions both spine loads and normalized shoulder muscle activity levels were reduced. In the middle and close reach regions spine loads were reduced, however, shoulder muscle activity was not, thus an additional intervention would be necessary to reduce shoulder risk. In the back far reach region, spine loads were not significantly different between the current and cantilever chair conditions. Thus, the effectiveness of the cantilever chair was dependent on the region of the vehicle.

  11. A mathematical musculoskeletal shoulder model for proactive ergonomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Clark R; Chaffin, Don B; Hughes, Richard E

    2007-12-01

    Occupational shoulder musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are common. Generally available shoulder work analysis tools do not offer insight into specific muscle load magnitudes that may indicate increased risk, nor do they address many concerns germane to job analysis. To address these issues, a biomechanical model of the shoulder was developed to include several critical components: the systematic inclusion of kinematic and kinetic effects, population scalability, geometric realism, an empirical glenohumeral constraint, and integration with digital ergonomics analysis software tools. This unique combination of features in a single model was explored through examination of both experimental and simulated data with the developed analysis tool. The utility of the model is discussed together with a review of its specific strengths and weaknesses, and the potential for its future use in proactive ergonomic analyses and workplace simulations. PMID:17891574

  12. Active microbreak effects on musculoskeletal comfort ratings in meatpacking plants.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, A M; Delgado, E; Bustos, T

    1995-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether a system of active microbreaks can reduce the discomfort perceived by employees in a meatpacking plant. Moreover, the relationship between the discomfort perceived on the job and musculoskeletal capability was investigated. Twenty-eight men employed in a local meatpacking plant participated in a study conducted over a period of four weeks. Results indicated that active microbreaks significantly reduced the level of discomfort perceived by employees during the course of the working day. The subjective ratings of perceived discomfort correlated significantly with anthropometric, strength and background information (R2 = 0.66). The physical characteristics of Caucasian employees were higher than those of their Hispanic counterparts. Moreover, the physical characteristics of meatpacking employees were significantly lower than those reported in the literature for employees engaged in manual handling tasks. PMID:7895738

  13. Interventional musculoskeletal US: an update on materials and methods.

    PubMed

    Robotti, Guido; Canepa, Maria Grazia; Bortolotto, Chandra; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Pain is one of the most common causes of reduced productivity. The annual cost of health-related reductions in productivity has been estimated at approximately 225 billion dollars in the United States alone. Ultrasound-guided locoregional infiltration procedures have frequently been shown to offer economical, effective, lasting relief of pain. In-depth familiarity with the equipment (probes and needles) and techniques used to perform these procedures are fundamental for safe, effective treatment. In fact, depending on the characteristics of the patient and the clinical problem, the approach and technique may have to be modified to simplify the procedure and ensure better results. Up-to-date knowledge of the drugs used for these infiltrations (indications, how they are used) is equally important. Our aim is to provide an update on the techniques and materials used in interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography based on a review of the most recent literature as well as on our personal experience.

  14. Musculoskeletal Sensitization and Sleep: Chronic Muscle Pain Fragments Sleep of Mice without Altering Its Duration

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Musculoskeletal pain in humans is often associated with poor sleep quality. We used a model in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced by injection of acidified saline into muscle to study the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of mice. Design: A one month pre-clinical study was designed to determine the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of C57BL/6J mice. Methods: We instrumented mice with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature. We used an established model of musculoskeletal sensitization in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0). The injections were given into the gastrocnemius muscle and spaced five days apart. EEG and body temperature recordings started prior to injections (baseline) and continued for three weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization was induced by the second injection. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed using von Frey filaments at baseline (before any injections) and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the second injection. Results: Mice injected with acidified saline developed bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity at the hind paws as measured by von Frey testing and as compared to control mice and baseline data. Sleep during the light period was fragmented in experimental mice injected with acidified saline, and EEG spectra altered. Musculoskeletal sensitization did not alter the duration of time spent in wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep, or rapid eye movement sleep. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal sensitization in this model results in a distinct sleep phenotype in which sleep is fragmented during the light period, but the overall duration of sleep is not changed. This study suggests the consequences of musculoskeletal pain include sleep disruption, an observation that has been made in the clinical literature but has yet to be studied using preclinical models. Citation: Sutton BC

  15. Musculoskeletal manifestations in diabetic patients at a tertiary center

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Suzan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. Most diabetic patients will develop functional disabilities due to multiple factors, including musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of MSK in diabetic patients and to examine the possible predictors for its development. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study from June 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011, to evaluate MSK manifestations in adult diabetic patients at an outpatient clinic of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Baseline variables were examined to determine predictors for the development of MSK complications. Analyses were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social sciences. Results We included 252 diabetic patients; 45 (17.9%) had MSK manifestations. Of these 45 patients, 41 (91.1%) had type 2 diabetes. The most common manifestations were carpal tunnel syndrome (n=17, 6.7%), shoulder adhesive capsulitis (n=17, 6.7%), and diabetic amyotrophy (n=12, 4.8%). A significant association was found between the development of MSK manifestations and manual labor, overweight, and vascular complications. On logistic regression analysis, the presence of vascular complications in general (B-coefficient=1.27, odds ratio=3.57, P<0.05, 95% confidence interval=1.31–9.78), and retinopathy in particular (B-coefficient=1.17, odds ratio=3.21, P<0.05, 95% confidence interval=1.47–7.02) can predict the development of MSK manifestations in about 82% of the cases. Conclusion Musculoskeletal manifestations are under recognized in adult diabetic patients, occurring in 18% of the cases. Physicians should consider examining the periarticular region of the joints in the hands and shoulders whenever a diabetic patient presents with MSK symptoms. PMID:23115579

  16. Musculoskeletal problems of the chest wall in athletes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Peter L; Biswas, Anita C; Batt, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    Chest pain in the athlete has a wide differential diagnosis. Pain may originate from structures within the thorax, such as the heart, lungs or oesophagus. However, musculoskeletal causes of chest pain must be considered. The aim of this review is to help the clinician to diagnose chest wall pain in athletes by identifying the possible causes, as reported in the literature. Musculoskeletal problems of the chest wall can occur in the ribs, sternum, articulations or myofascial structures. The cause is usually evident in the case of direct trauma. Additionally, athletes' bodies may be subjected to sudden large indirect forces or overuse, and stress fractures of the ribs caused by sporting activity have been extensively reported. These have been associated with golf, rowing and baseball pitching in particular. Stress fractures of the sternum reported in wrestlers cause pain and tenderness of the sternum, as expected. Diagnosis is by bone scan and limitation of activity usually allows healing to occur. The slipping rib syndrome causes intermittent costal margin pain related to posture or movement, and may be diagnosed by the 'hooking manoeuvre', which reproduces pain and sometimes a click. If reassurance and postural advice fail, good results are possible with resection of the mobile rib. The painful xiphoid syndrome is a rare condition that causes pain and tenderness of the xiphoid and is self-limiting. Costochondritis is a self-limiting condition of unknown aetiology that typically presents with pain around the second to fifth costochondral joints. It can be differentiated from Tietze's syndrome in which there is swelling and pain of the articulation. Both conditions eventually settle spontaneously although a corticosteroid injection may be useful in particularly troublesome cases. The intercostal muscles may be injured causing tenderness between the ribs. Other conditions that should be considered include epidemic myalgia, precordial catch syndrome and referred pain

  17. Radiologic manifestations in the musculoskeletal system of miscellaneous endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Chew, F S

    1991-01-01

    The manifestations of endocrine derangements in the musculoskeletal system in infancy and childhood are disturbances in growth and maturation and in adulthood are disturbances in maintenance and metabolism. Hypercortisolism during skeletal immaturity suppresses growth. In the adult, hypercortisolism leads to osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and muscle wasting. Deficiency of growth hormone during skeletal development results in short stature. An excess of growth hormone in a skeletally immature individual results in gigantism, an excess in a skeletally mature individual results in acromegaly. Patients with gigantism have extreme height with normal body proportions. Musculoskeletal manifestations of acromegaly include soft-tissue thickening, vertebral body enlargement, characteristic hand and foot changes, and enthesal bony proliferation. Hyperthyroidism causes catabolism of protein and loss of connective tissue, which manifest as muscle wasting. Deficient levels of thyroid hormone cause defects in growth and development. Severe growth retardation from congenital hypothyroidism is rare because neonatal screening recognizes the disorder and leads to early treatment. The skeletal manifestation of hypergonadism in children is precocious growth and early skeletal maturation. Although the initial precocious growth spurt results in a tall child, early closure of the growth plates results in a short adult. Hypogonadism in the prepubertal child results in delayed adolescence and delayed skeletal maturation. Diabetes mellitus in childhood results in decreased growth, a phenomenon presumed to be secondary to nutritional abnormalities. Generalized osteoporosis and short stature are common. In the adult, generalized osteoporosis may accompany insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus if obesity is absent. Calcification of interdigital arteries of the foot is common in diabetics and uncommon in other conditions. Additional skeletal manifestations relate to complications of diabetes such as

  18. Static Versus Dynamic Musculoskeletal Ultrasound for Detection of Plantar Plate Pathology.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Catherine A; Weil, Lowell; Weil, Lowell Scott; Klein, Erin E; Fleischer, Adam; Argerakis, Nicholas G

    2014-07-15

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) is a common modality used to examine plantar plate pathology. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of static versus dynamic ultrasound has not been previously published. The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the value of using preoperative static and dynamic ultrasound findings to diagnose plantar plate pathology using intraoperative inspection as the standard of reference. Patients attending a single foot and ankle specialty clinic from August 2012 to June 2013 with clinically suspected plantar plate pathology that was unresponsive to conservative care served as the study population. Static and dynamic ultrasound exams were performed by a single experienced rater and compared to intraoperative findings. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for static and dynamic ultrasound exams. Thirty-six patients (45 lesser metatarsophalangeal joints) were included in this analysis. Of the 36 patients, 29 were females and 7 were males with average age of 57.9 ± 7.8 years (range, 38-73). There were 38 plantar plate tears (84.4%) noted on intraoperative examination. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the static US exam were 80.0%, 81.6%, 71.4%, 93.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. The same values for the dynamic US exam were 88.9%, 100%, 28.6%, 88.3%, and 100%, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasound techniques are each highly sensitive methods for assessing plantar plate pathology. However, the sensitivity and accuracy of the exam is best when dynamic assessment of the plantar plate is employed. Caution should be used when relying solely on static images to diagnose subtle injuries in this area of the foot.

  19. Physical functioning, pain and quality of life after amputation for musculoskeletal tumours: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Furtado, S; Grimer, R J; Cool, P; Murray, S A; Briggs, T; Fulton, J; Grant, K; Gerrand, C H

    2015-09-01

    Patients who have limb amputation for musculoskeletal tumours are a rare group of cancer survivors. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey of patients from five specialist centres for sarcoma surgery in England. Physical function, pain and quality of life (QOL) outcomes were collected after lower extremity amputation for bone or soft-tissue tumours to evaluate the survivorship experience and inform service provision. Of 250 patients, 105 (42%) responded between September 2012 and June 2013. From these, completed questionnaires were received from 100 patients with a mean age of 53.6 years (19 to 91). In total 60 (62%) were male and 37 (38%) were female (three not specified). The diagnosis was primary bone sarcoma in 63 and soft-tissue tumour in 37. A total of 20 tumours were located in the hip or pelvis, 31 above the knee, 32 between the knee and ankle and 17 in the ankle or foot. In total 22 had hemipelvectomy, nine hip disarticulation, 35 transfemoral amputation, one knee disarticulation, 30 transtibial amputation, two toe amputations and one rotationplasty. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) differed by amputation level, with poorer scores at higher levels (p < 0.001). Many reported significant pain. In addition, TESS was negatively associated with increasing age, and pain interference scores. QOL for Cancer Survivors was significantly correlated with TESS (p < 0.001). This relationship appeared driven by pain interference scores. This unprecedented national survey confirms amputation level is linked to physical function, but not QOL or pain measures. Pain and physical function significantly impact on QOL. These results are helpful in managing the expectations of patients about treatment and addressing their complex needs. PMID:26330598

  20. Physical functioning, pain and quality of life after amputation for musculoskeletal tumours: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Furtado, S; Grimer, R J; Cool, P; Murray, S A; Briggs, T; Fulton, J; Grant, K; Gerrand, C H

    2015-09-01

    Patients who have limb amputation for musculoskeletal tumours are a rare group of cancer survivors. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey of patients from five specialist centres for sarcoma surgery in England. Physical function, pain and quality of life (QOL) outcomes were collected after lower extremity amputation for bone or soft-tissue tumours to evaluate the survivorship experience and inform service provision. Of 250 patients, 105 (42%) responded between September 2012 and June 2013. From these, completed questionnaires were received from 100 patients with a mean age of 53.6 years (19 to 91). In total 60 (62%) were male and 37 (38%) were female (three not specified). The diagnosis was primary bone sarcoma in 63 and soft-tissue tumour in 37. A total of 20 tumours were located in the hip or pelvis, 31 above the knee, 32 between the knee and ankle and 17 in the ankle or foot. In total 22 had hemipelvectomy, nine hip disarticulation, 35 transfemoral amputation, one knee disarticulation, 30 transtibial amputation, two toe amputations and one rotationplasty. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) differed by amputation level, with poorer scores at higher levels (p < 0.001). Many reported significant pain. In addition, TESS was negatively associated with increasing age, and pain interference scores. QOL for Cancer Survivors was significantly correlated with TESS (p < 0.001). This relationship appeared driven by pain interference scores. This unprecedented national survey confirms amputation level is linked to physical function, but not QOL or pain measures. Pain and physical function significantly impact on QOL. These results are helpful in managing the expectations of patients about treatment and addressing their complex needs.

  1. Development and initial cohort validation of the Arthritis Research UK Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ) for use across musculoskeletal care pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jonathan C; Kang, Sujin; Benedetto, Elena; Myers, Helen; Blackburn, Steven; Smith, Stephanie; Hay, Elaine; Rees, Jonathan; Beard, David; Glyn-Jones, Sion; Barker, Karen; Ellis, Benjamin; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Price, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current musculoskeletal outcome tools are fragmented across different healthcare settings and conditions. Our objectives were to develop and validate a single musculoskeletal outcome measure for use throughout the pathway and patients with different musculoskeletal conditions: the Arthritis Research UK Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ). Setting A consensus workshop with stakeholders from across the musculoskeletal community, workshops and individual interviews with a broad mix of musculoskeletal patients identified and prioritised outcomes for MSK-HQ inclusion. Initial psychometric validation was conducted in four cohorts from community physiotherapy, and secondary care orthopaedic hip, knee and shoulder clinics. Participants Stakeholders (n=29) included primary care, physiotherapy, orthopaedic and rheumatology patients (n=8); general practitioners, physiotherapists, orthopaedists, rheumatologists and pain specialists (n=7), patient and professional national body representatives (n=10), and researchers (n=4). The four validation cohorts included 570 participants (n=210 physiotherapy, n=150 hip, n=150 knee, n=60 shoulder patients). Outcome measures Outcomes included the MSK-HQ's acceptability, feasibility, comprehension, readability and responder burden. The validation cohort outcomes were the MSK-HQ's completion rate, test–retest reliability and convergent validity with reference standards (EQ-5D-5L, Oxford Hip, Knee, Shoulder Scores, and the Keele MSK-PROM). Results Musculoskeletal domains prioritised were pain severity, physical function, work interference, social interference, sleep, fatigue, emotional health, physical activity, independence, understanding, confidence to self-manage and overall impact. Patients reported MSK-HQ items to be ‘highly relevant’ and ‘easy to understand’. Completion rates were high (94.2%), with scores normally distributed, and no floor/ceiling effects. Test–retest reliability was excellent, and

  2. Change in Musculoskeletal Pain in Patients With Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder After Tailored Rehabilitation Education: A One-Year Follow-Up Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hun; Kang, Boram; Choi, Seungyoung; Kim, Taikon; Jang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-Bog

    2015-01-01

    Objective To apply tailored rehabilitation education to video display terminal (VDT) workers with musculoskeletal pain and to assess changes in musculoskeletal pain after rehabilitation education. Methods A total of 8,828 VDT workers were screened for musculoskeletal disorders using a self-report questionnaire. Six hundred twenty-six VDT workers selected based on their questionnaires were enrolled in musculoskeletal rehabilitation education, which consisted of education on VDT syndrome and confirmed diseases, exercise therapy including self-stretching and strengthening, and posture correction. One year later, a follow-up screening survey was performed on 316 VDT workers, and the results were compared with the previous data. Results Compared with the initial survey, pain intensity was significantly decreased in the neck area; pain duration and frequency were significantly decreased in the low back area; and pain duration, intensity, and frequency were significantly decreased in the shoulder and wrist after tailored rehabilitation education. In addition, pain duration, intensity, and frequency showed a greater significant decrease after tailored rehabilitation education in the mild pain group than in the severe pain group. Conclusions This study found that work-related musculoskeletal pain was reduced after tailored rehabilitation education, especially in the shoulder, wrist, and low back. PMID:26605170

  3. Prospect redux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemoud, S.; Ustin, S. L.; Verdebout, J.; Schmuck, G.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.

    1995-01-01

    The remote estimation of leaf biochemical content from spaceborne platforms has been the subject of many studies aimed at better understanding of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. The major ecological processes involved in exchange of matter and energy, like photosynthesis, primary production, evaportranspiration, respiration, and decomposition can be related to plant properties e.g., chlorophyll, water, protein, cellulose and lignin contents. As leaves represent the most important plant surfaces interacting with solar energy, a top priority has been to relate optical properties to biochemical constituents. Two different approaches have been considered: first, statistical correlations between the leaf reflectance (or transmittance) and biochemical content, and second, physically based models of leaf scattering and absorption developed using the laws of optics. Recently reviewed by Verdebout et al., the development of models of leaf optical properties has resulted in better understanding of the interaction of light with plant leaves. Present radiative transfer models mainly use chlorophyll and/or water contents as input parameters to calculate leaf reflectance. Inversion of these models allows to retrieve these constituents from spectrophotometric measurements. Conel et al. recently proposed a two-stream Kubelka-Munk model to analyze the influence of protein, cellulose, lignin, and starch on leaf reflectance, but in fact, the estimation of leaf biochemistry from remote sensing is still an open question. In order to clarify it, a laboratory experiment associating visible/infrared spectra of plan leaves both with physical measurements and biochemical analyses was conducted at the Joint Research Center during the summer of 1993. This unique data set has been used to upgrade the PROSPECT model, by including leaf biochemistry.

  4. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in ultrasound: Can you reduce risk?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gill; Harris, Allison

    2015-11-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause of pain and sickness absence for ultrasound practitioners. This article aims to provide background information about factors increasing the chance of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders and potential ways to reduce risk. Factors influencing ultrasound professionals' likelihood of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders include poor posture, repetitive movements, transducer pressure and poor grip, stress, workload, limited support or sense of control and other psychosocial factors. The impact of these risk factors on the health and well being of ultrasound practitioners can be reduced by following recommendations published by professional bodies and the Health and Safety Executive. Ultrasound practitioners should remember that optimising the examination should not be at the detriment of their health. Some hints and tips to reduce the chance of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders are provided.

  5. Ergonomic considerations for a patient presenting with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Luke A; Wright, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    Primary contact health care practitioners can play an important role in work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) by recognizing and addressing occupational health issues. It is important to recognize ergonomics as a possible factor in patient health and recovery. A case is presented of a 36-year-old male suffering from neck and trapezius pain. Ergonomic factors at his musculoskeletal disorder. Conservative care and ergonomic changes to his workstation produced positive results leading to a full recovery. Practitioners should not ignore the possibility that the workplace may be a contributing factor in patients presenting with musculoskeletal complaints. A through patient history is the key to determining if musculoskeletal disorders are work-related. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2AFigure 2B

  6. Effects of spaceflight on the musculoskeletal system: NIH and NASA future directions.

    PubMed

    Rabin, R; Gordon, S L; Lymn, R W; Todd, P W; Frey, M A; Sulzman, F M

    1993-03-01

    Prolonged bed rest, undertaken by volunteers or resulting from injury and disease, can impair bone and muscle function and structure; extended travel in space also induces these effects. Fluid shifts and disrupted fluid balance may also contribute to observed musculoskeletal aberrations in the weightless environment. Some molecular and cellular events involved in the loading and unloading of the musculoskeletal system are under neural and endocrine influence or control, whereas other events are influenced by local growth factors. Studies are in progress to develop interventions that preserve or improve musculoskeletal integrity in 1g. The NIAMS and NASA are interested in basic and clinical studies of the influence of microgravity on the musculoskeletal system. The interagency workshop results form the basis for new collaborative and cooperative research emphases for the biomedical community under a broad agreement between the National Institutes of Health and NASA.

  7. [Musculoskeletal diseases among musicians of the "teatro dell'Opera" of Rome].

    PubMed

    Monaco, Edoardo; Vicaro, Vincenzo; Catarinozzi, Elena; Rossi, Marina; Prestigiacomo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal injuries represent a significant medical problem in professional musicians for which was coined the following acronym PRMDs (that stands for Playing Related Musculoskeletal disorders). A little osteo-articular problem in the professional musicians can impact on a real decreasing performance activity. The purpose of this study is to quantify prevalence of PRMDs syntoms among the professional musicians and to verify their relative impact on quality lives. This study has investigated the orchestral staff of the principal lyric theatre of Rome to which it was distributed DASH OUTCOME and SF-36 questionnaires to identify the presence of musculoskeletal complaints for cervical brachial syndrome and the general quality of life respectively. The employment of the above methodology furnish statistically significant results, pointing out that the musicians quality life suffering from musculo-skeletal symptomatology (DASH SF > or = 15) was lower than ones without a clinical symptomatology. Subsequently these results were compared with the Italian population benchmarking values. PMID:22888726

  8. 77 FR 67824 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, November...

  9. 77 FR 32651 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Career Development, Research Training & Pathways to Independence Review. Date: June 20, 2012. Time: 11:00 a.m. to 12:00...

  10. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Population ageing is a worldwide phenomenon that has recently challenged public healthcare systems. The knowledge of the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elders is still limited, particularly in the developing world. This systematic review aimed to investigate the prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed in five electronic databases (from inception to January 2012) and completed by additional searches in reference lists. Two review authors independently selected the eligible studies and extracted data on participants’ characteristics and rates of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. One review author extracted methodological quality data. We performed a critical synthesis of the results, which were grouped into the diagnoses “chronic musculoskeletal pain” or “specific musculoskeletal diagnoses”. Results Twenty five studies reporting on a total of 116,091 elderly Brazilians were included. Eight studies (32%) were of high methodological quality. There was a large variation in the measure of prevalence used by individual studies and in their definition of chronic pain. Prevalence estimates reached 86% for chronic musculoskeletal pain in any location. Studies investigating multiple pain sites found the lower limb and the spine to be the most prevalent complaints (50% each). Arthritis and rheumatism (including osteoarthritis) were the most prevalent specific musculoskeletal diagnoses (9% to 40%), followed by herniated disc (6% to 27%). Conclusions Despite the growth of the elderly population worldwide, high-quality research on the burden of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly is still scarce. Future healthcare research focusing on this age group should be a priority in developing countries since their public healthcare systems are not yet fully prepared to accommodate the needs of an aging population. PMID:22642899

  11. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) Causes a Uniquely Protracted Musculoskeletal Hyperalgesia in Mice by Activation of TRPV1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E.; Kovács, Katalin J.; Honda, Christopher N.; Nunez, Myra G.; Larson, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of TRPV1 receptors is one approach to analgesic drug development. However, TRPV1 receptors exert different effects on each modality of pain. Because muscle pain is clinically important, we compared the effect of TRPV1 ligands on musculoskeletal nociception to that on thermal and tactile nociception. Injected parenterally, capsaicin had no effect on von Frey fiber responses (tactile) but induced a transient hypothermia and hyperalgesia in both the tail flick (thermal) and grip force (musculoskeletal) assays, presumably by its agonistic action at TRPV1 sites. In contrast, RTX produced a chronic (>58 days) thermal antinociception, consistent with its reported ability to desensitize TRPV1 sites. In the same mice, RTX produced a transient hypothermia (7 h) and a protracted (28 day) musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in spite of a 35.5% reduction in TRPV1 receptor-immunoreactivity in muscle afferents. Once musculoskeletal hyperalgesia subsided, mice were tolerant to the hyperalgesic effects of either capsaicin or RTX while tolerance to hypothermia did not develop until after three injections. Musculoskeletal hyperalgesia was prevented but not reversed by SB-366791, a TRPV1 antagonist, indicating that TRPV1 receptors initiate but do not maintain hyperalgesia. Injected intrathecally, RTX produced only a brief musculoskeletal hyperalgesia (2 days) after which mice were tolerant to this effect. Perspective The effect of TRPV1 receptors varies depending on modality and tissue type such that RTX causes thermal antinociception, musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, and no effect on tactile nociception in healthy mice. Spinal TRPV1 receptors are a potential target for pain relief as they induce only a short musculoskeletal hyperalgesia followed by desensitization. PMID:24188863

  12. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  13. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  14. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women.

  15. Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Registered Nurses: Evidence from the Thai Nurse Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thinkhamrop, W; Laohasiriwong, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Health, safety, and well being have been known to be influenced by occupational characteristics. Nurses constantly encounter musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) from work demands worldwide. Nevertheless, there is insufficient of knowledge regarding causes of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Thailand. Objective To investigate factors associated with musculoskeletal disorder among registered nurses in Thailand. Method This study is part of the 2009 Thai Nurse Cohort Study which consisted of 18,756 nationally representative sample of registered nurses. Data collection was performed via postal self-administered questionnaires. Manifesting musculoskeletal disorders was self-reported by registered nurses, 1,070 nurses were excluded since they were unemployed during previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Result Of 17,686 registered nurses, the overall 12 months prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 47.8%. It was found that workplace violence was the strongest factor which statistically significant associated with musculoskeletal disorders (adjusted odds ratio, OR, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.42 to 2.83; P < 0.001), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.96: 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.15; P < 0.001), perceiving job required a lot of physical effort (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.52 to 1.87; P < 0.001), every 10 years increased of age (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.62; P < 0.001), overweight (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.52; P = 0.015). Conclusion Registered nurses were most vulnerable of musculoskeletal disorders especially those who experienced workplace violence, anxiety/depression, strenuous work, older age, and overweight. Consequently, recommending safety practices to nurses should be considered for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) prevention by ergonomics and workplace design. PMID:27180371

  16. International variation in absence from work attributed to musculoskeletal illness: findings from the CUPID study

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, José Miguel; Serra, Consol; Benavides, Fernando G; Palmer, Keith T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the variation in rates of absence due to musculoskeletal pain across 47 occupational groups (mostly nurses and office workers) from 18 countries, and to explore personal and group-level risk factors that might explain observed differences. Methods A standardised questionnaire was used to obtain information about musculoskeletal pain, sickness absence and possible risk factors in a cross-sectional survey of 12 416 workers (92–1017 per occupational group). Additionally, group-level data on socioeconomic variables, such as sick pay and unemployment rates, were assembled by members of the study team in each country. Associations of sickness absence with risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Results Overall, there were more than 30-fold differences between occupational groups in the 12-month prevalence of prolonged musculoskeletal sickness absence, and even among office workers carrying out similar occupational tasks, the variation was more than tenfold. Personal risk factors included older age, lower educational level, tendency to somatise, physical loading at work and prolonged absence for non-musculoskeletal illness. However, these explained little of the variation between occupational groups. After adjustment for individual characteristics, prolonged musculoskeletal sickness absence was more frequent in groups with greater time pressure at work, lower job control and more adverse beliefs about the work-relatedness of musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal sickness absence might be reduced by eliminating excessive time pressures in work, maximising employees’ responsibility and control and providing flexibility of duties for those with disabling symptoms. Care should be taken not to overstate work as a cause of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:23695413

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort among the workers engaged in jewelry manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Urmi Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing exposed to various occupational risk factors that lead to development of musculoskeletal disorders. But there is scarcity of reporting the prevalence of the musculoskeletal disorders among them. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing in India. Setting and Design: Case Control Study. Materials and Methods: This study was divided into two phases. First phase: prevalence rate were calculated using Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and compared with the control group. Second phase: strength, flexibility and tightness of the muscle groups (neck, lower back and knee) were evaluated through physical examination for the subjects who reported positive prevalence. Statistical Analysis: A comparative inferential statistics was used. Results: This study was divided into two phases. First phase: prevalence rate were calculated using Modified Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and compared with the control group. Second phase:strength, flexibility and tightness of the muscle groups (neck, lower back and knee) were evaluated through physical examination for the subjects who reported positive prevalence. Conclusions: The musculoskeletal disorders among the workers engaged in jewellery manufacturing were found to be specific to the occupation. PMID:26023271

  18. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of

  19. Psychological distress among dancers seeking outpatient treatment for musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Air, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and magnitude of clinically significant psychological symptoms among outpatient injured dancers presenting for musculoskeletal issues and to identify features of "at risk" dancer-patients who might require additional psychological support when injured. The Brief Symptom Inventory® (BSI), a highly reliable and valid screening tool for psychological distress, was administered to first- and last-visit injured dancers at an orthopedic clinic in the Netherlands from February to May 2008. In all, 153 BSI surveys were completed, including 82 among first-visit patients and 71 among end-treatment patients. Scores were examined for the influence of age, gender, dance level, style, pain, perceived level of artistic compromise, and anatomic location of injury. Dancers' scores were compared to normative values for adult non-psychiatric patient community members. Ninety-two dancers (60.1%) met requirements for clinical referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist, having scored two or more standard deviations (SD) above the norm in at least one of nine psychopathological symptoms. Across first- and last-visit groups, dancers met referral criteria for an average of four psychopathological symptoms. First-visit dancers demonstrated higher distress than the general population on 90% of BSI dimensional symptoms and last-visit dancers on 50%. On the Global Symptom Index, a summary score for overall distress and the best measure of psychological discomfort, 46.6% of dancers demonstrated "above average" distress (≥ 1 SD) compared to the general population, and 19.6% demonstrated "high" (≥ 2 SD) or "very high" (≥ 2.5 SD) distress. Compared to academy level pre-professional students, professionals showed reduction in BSI scores on somatic, cognitive, interpersonal sensitivity, anxious, hostile, phobic, and global scores following resolution of injury, particularly among those greater than 25 years of age. Students and

  20. Fluctuation of pain by weather change in musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Salek, K M; Mamun, M A; Parvin, N; Ahmed, S M; Khan, M M; Rijvi, A N; Rahman, M H; Khasru, M R; Akther, A; Rahman, M; Islam, S; Emran, A

    2011-10-01

    In order to find out the fluctuation of pain by weather change, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 138 individuals having musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) attending the out patient department (OPD) of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Hospital, Dhaka, during March 2004 to June 2004. Data were collected by face to face interview employing a pre-tested interview schedule containing structured questions. Among 138 respondents, male were predominant (52.2%). Mean age of the respondents was 39.42±10.79 years, while the most common age group was found as '31 to 40 years'. By occupation, majority were housewives (40.58%), followed by businessmen (29.71%), service holder (15.22%), laborer (7.97%), and students (6.52%). The primary sites of pain were back and low back (38.4%), knee (24.6%), leg (8.7%), ankle and heel (8.0%), hand and wrist (6.5%), neck (5.8%), shoulder (5.8%), and elbow (2.2%). Highest number (47.8%) patients reported aching pain, while one fifth (20.3%) of them experienced burning pain. About 36.2 percent respondents mentioned 'prolonged standing' as the main cause of pain aggravation, while almost half (48.6%) of the patients perceived that 'application of heat' was the key relieving factor of their pain. About two third (63%) of the respondents were sensitive to weather change; among them 56.3 percent reported that their pain increased during cold weather. Moreover, more than two third (67.4%) study-patients experienced deterioration of pain due to seasonal variation; of them 59.1 percent reported that their pain was exacerbated in winter season. Of all respondents, less than one third (30.4%) experienced aggravation of pain due to lunar change; of them majority (85.7%) experienced increased pain during dark fortnights. Our study concluded that weather change might have an important role in fluctuation of pain among individuals having musculoskeletal disorders.

  1. Does Obesity Modify the Relationship between Exposure to Occupational Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain in Men? Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Evanoff, Anastasia; Sabbath, Erika L.; Carton, Matthieu; Czernichow, Sebastien; Zins, Marie; Leclerc, Annette; Descatha, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze relationships between physical occupational exposures, post-retirement shoulder/knee pain, and obesity. Methods 9 415 male participants (aged 63–73 in 2012) from the French GAZEL cohort answered self-administered questionnaires in 2006 and 2012. Occupational exposures retrospectively assessed in 2006 included arm elevation and squatting (never, <10 years, ≥10 years). “Severe” shoulder and knee pain were defined as ≥5 on an 8-point scale. BMI was self-reported. Results Mean BMI was 26.59 kg/m2 +/−3.5 in 2012. Long-term occupational exposure to arm elevation and squatting predicted severe shoulder and knee pain after retirement. Obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) was a risk factor for severe shoulder pain (adjusted OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.03, 1.90). Overweight (adjusted OR 1.71; 1.28,2.29) and obesity (adjusted OR 3.21; 1.90,5.41) were risk factors for severe knee pain. In stratified models, associations between long-term squatting and severe knee pain varied by BMI. Conclusion Obesity plays a role in relationships between occupational exposures and musculoskeletal pain. Further prospective studies should use BMI in analyses of musculoskeletal pain and occupational factors, and continue to clarify this relationship. PMID:25330397

  2. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. Methods A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants’ socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. Results The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work

  3. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs.

  4. Gene therapy approaches to regenerating the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher H.; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the musculoskeletal system are common, debilitating and expensive. In many cases, healing is imperfect, which leads to chronic impairment. Gene transfer might improve repair and regeneration at sites of injury by enabling the local, sustained and potentially regulated expression of therapeutic gene products; such products include morphogens, growth factors and anti-inflammatory proteins. Proteins produced endogenously as a result of gene transfer are nascent molecules that have undergone post-translational modification. In addition, gene transfer offers particular advantages for the delivery of products with an intracellular site of action, such as transcription factors and noncoding RNAs, and proteins that need to be inserted into a cell compartment, such as a membrane. Transgenes can be delivered by viral or nonviral vectors via in vivo or ex vivo protocols using progenitor or differentiated cells. The first gene transfer clinical trials for osteoarthritis and cartilage repair have already been completed. Various bone-healing protocols are at an advanced stage of development, including studies with large animals, and human trials are envisaged. Other applications in the repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle, intervertebral disc, meniscus, ligament and tendon are in preclinical development. In addition to scientific, medical and safety considerations, clinical translation is constrained by social, financial and logistical issues. PMID:25776949

  5. Common Occupational Disorders: Asthma, COPD, Dermatitis, and Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bepko, Jennifer; Mansalis, Katherine

    2016-06-15

    An occupational illness is an event or exposure that occurs in the workplace that causes or contributes to a condition or worsens a preexisting condition. If an occupational disorder is suspected, a directed history should be taken with particular attention to establishing a temporal relationship of symptoms and exposure at work. Occupational asthma is the most prevalent occupational lung disorder in industrialized countries and presents with classic asthma symptoms (cough, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing). Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been linked with exposure to nonspecific vapors, gases, dusts, fumes, and cigarette smoke. Occupational contact dermatitis is the most common dermal exposure. It can be caused by exposure to a variety of agents, including primary irritants or sensitizers, physical agents, mechanical trauma, and biologic agents. Occupational musculoskeletal disorders include many common repetitive injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome and medial or lateral epicondylitis. Treatment of occupational disorders is generally the same as for nonoccupational disorders. Ideally, the exposure should be controlled to protect the worker. The impact of an occupational injury reaches beyond lost wages and can have a negative impact on quality of life.

  6. Vitamin K and musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Cheung, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    Aside from its important role in blood clotting, vitamin K is an important dietary factor in regulating bone and cartilage mineralization. The vitamin K requirements to maintain musculoskeletal health may be more than the current recommendations and subclinical vitamin K deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Observational studies suggest that diets low in vitamin K are associated with increased risk of fractures and osteoarthritis in older adults. However, so far randomized controlled trials of vitamin K supplementation in Caucasian populations have not shown clinically significant improvements in bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K may reduce the risk of fractures, but this conclusion comes from clinical trials with methodological limitations. At this time, only one randomized controlled trial has examined the effect of vitamin K supplementation on radiographic hand osteoarthritis and found no overall effect. Large well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures and osteoarthritis among older adults. In summary, currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of bone loss, fractures, or osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women. PMID:24956598

  7. Acknowledging tissue donation: Human cadaveric specimens in musculoskeletal research.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Andreas; Heinze, Anne-Kathrin; Hendrix, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Human cadaveric specimens are an important resource for research, particularly in biomechanical studies, but their use also raises ethical questions and cannot simply be taken for granted. It was asked how much information authors publishing musculoskeletal research actually give about such specimens and about how they were acquired. The aim was to formulate recommendations on how this reporting might be improved. Relevant articles published between 2009 and 2012 in four North American or European journals were scanned for information regarding the characteristics of the human specimens used, their institutional source and the ethical or legal context of their acquisition. While the majority of articles report biological characteristics of specimens (sex, age at death, preservation method), only 40% of articles refer to body donation, only 23% report the institution that provided specimens, and only 17% refer to some kind of formalized approval of their research. There were regional and journal-to-journal differences. No standard for reporting studies involving human specimens could be detected. It is suggested that such a standard be developed by researchers and editors. Information on the source of specimens and on the ethical or legal basis should be regularly reported to acknowledge this unique research resource and to preserve the good relationship between researchers and the communities, that provide the required specimens by body donation and upon which researchers depend.

  8. Identification of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Mining

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Eric; Pollard, Jonisha P.

    2016-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) prevention measures have been studied in great depth throughout various industries. While the nature and causes of these disorders have been characterized in many industries, WMSDs occurring in the U.S. mining sector have not been characterized for several years. In this report, MSHA accident/injury/illness data from 2009 to 2013 were characterized to determine the most frequently reported WMSDs in the U.S. mining sector. WMSDs were most frequently reported in workers with less than 5 years or more than 20 years of mining experience. The number of days lost from work was the highest for shoulder and knee injuries and was found to increase with worker age. Underground and surface coal, surface stone and stone processing plants experienced the greatest number of WMSDs over the period studied. WMSDs were most commonly caused by an employee suffering from an overexertion, falls or being struck by an object while performing materials handling, maintenance and repair tasks, getting on or off equipment or machines, and walking or running. The injury trends presented should be used to help determine the focus of future WMSD prevention research in mining. PMID:27294012

  9. Curricular reform in musculoskeletal medicine: needs, opportunities, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph; Alonso, Daniel R; DiCaprio, Matthew; Friedlaender, Gary E; Heckman, James D; Ludmerer, Kenneth M

    2003-10-01

    Musculoskeletal medicine is not taught adequately in American medical schools and the predictable consequences are seen. Students cannot show cognitive mastery of the subject and lack confidence in this topic. To address this, the Academic Orthopaedic Society held a symposium on medical school education at its annual meeting in 2001. There, the panelists presented an analysis of the problem and proposed solutions. Specifically, it was noted that because of the autonomy of the various schools and their varied approaches to teaching, it would be unlikely that one monolithic and mandated plan could be effective on a national basis. Rather, successful reform would comprise a coalition-based effort to define learning objectives, to provide teaching materials, and to create forums for sharing resources. Recruitment of national organizations was thought to be essential. Finally, it was felt that although inadequate education is neither new nor necessarily unique among disciplines, the coming year or two, the beginning of the Bone and Joint decade, was seen to be a particularly auspicious time for attempting curricular reform.

  10. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Agricultural Risk Factors Among Korean Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Lee, Myeong-Jun; Chung, HweeMin; Shin, Dong-Hee; Youn, Kan-Woo; Im, Sang-Hyuk; Chae, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Farming is a strenuous occupation with various health risks, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being some of the most common. The risk factors for MSDs among Korean farmers are not well understood. Data were obtained from the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (2012), which interviewed 16,113 participants regarding their demographic profiles, self-reported MSDs, and agricultural characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Subjects reported MSDs in the neck or upper extremities (5.89%), lower extremities (19.62%), and back (26.9%). Working in animal husbandry significantly increased the risk of MSDs in the neck/upper extremities, compared with irrigation farming (odds ratio: 1.837, 95% confidence interval: 1.130-2.987). The risk of MSDs increased significantly with number of years of farming, after adjusting for age and sex (neck/upper extremities, P for trend = .0002; lower extremities, <.001; back, <.001). Agriculture type, years of farming, and ergonomic factors increased the risk of MSDs among Korean farmers.

  11. Assessment of musculoskeletal system in women with jumping mechanography

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis; Galanos, Antonios; Michas, Georgios; Trovas, Georgios; Lyritis, Georgios P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and add reference data about the musculoskeletal system in women. The mechanography system of the Leonardo™ platform (Novotec, Germany) was used to measure parameters of movement (velocity, force, power) in 176 healthy Greek women aged 20–79 years, separated according to age decade in six groups: group 1 (n = 12), 20–29 years; group 2 (n = 14), 30–39 years; group 3 (n = 33), 40–49 years; group 4 (n = 59), 50–59 years including 21 postmenopausal; group 5 (n = 31), 60–69 years including 12 postmenopausal; and group 6 (n = 27), 70–79 years all postmenopausal. This system measures forces applied to the plate over time, calculates through acceleration the vertical velocity of center of gravity and using force and velocity it calculates power of vertical movements. All women performed a counter-movement jump (brief squat before the jump) with freely moving arms. Weight was recorded on the platform before the jump and height was measured with a wall-mounted ruler. Body weight and body mass index were gradually increased; on the contrary height and all movement parameters except force (velocity, power) were statistically decreased during aging and after menopause. PMID:21072281

  12. Social partners cooperation for reduction of musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Veerle; O'Neill, David; Motmans, Roeland; Lundqvist, Peter; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The European social partners in agriculture recognize the considerable frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the sector which has negative consequences for workers, employers, social security systems and hence for the whole society. They made an agreement in 2005 to tackle this problem and their main interest was finding good practices 'on the floor', with the involvement of the farmers and farming industries. A partnership with researchers from 4 different organisations across Europe, was created, taking into account both academic partners and/or partners experienced with the agricultural sector. GEOPA-COPA acted as a network partner with all the EU agriculture organisations. The project partners proposed a methodology how to collect the good practices. In total, 103 company visits were organised and 55 additional reports were collected. More than 140 good practices were defined going from easy, low-cost solutions to highly technological, more expensive solutions. All this information is disseminated via the project website (www.agri-ergonomics.eu) and summarised in 6 brochures. This paper focuses on the methodology to set up the ergonomic project with social partners.

  13. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics).

  14. Social partners cooperation for reduction of musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Veerle; O'Neill, David; Motmans, Roeland; Lundqvist, Peter; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The European social partners in agriculture recognize the considerable frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the sector which has negative consequences for workers, employers, social security systems and hence for the whole society. They made an agreement in 2005 to tackle this problem and their main interest was finding good practices 'on the floor', with the involvement of the farmers and farming industries. A partnership with researchers from 4 different organisations across Europe, was created, taking into account both academic partners and/or partners experienced with the agricultural sector. GEOPA-COPA acted as a network partner with all the EU agriculture organisations. The project partners proposed a methodology how to collect the good practices. In total, 103 company visits were organised and 55 additional reports were collected. More than 140 good practices were defined going from easy, low-cost solutions to highly technological, more expensive solutions. All this information is disseminated via the project website (www.agri-ergonomics.eu) and summarised in 6 brochures. This paper focuses on the methodology to set up the ergonomic project with social partners. PMID:22317545

  15. Anatomical networks reveal the musculoskeletal modularity of the human head.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-02-06

    Mosaic evolution is a key mechanism that promotes robustness and evolvability in living beings. For the human head, to have a modular organization would imply that each phenotypic module could grow and function semi-independently. Delimiting the boundaries of head modules, and even assessing their existence, is essential to understand human evolution. Here we provide the first study of the human head using anatomical network analysis (AnNA), offering the most complete overview of the modularity of the head to date. Our analysis integrates the many biological dependences that tie hard and soft tissues together, arising as a consequence of development, growth, stresses and loads, and motion. We created an anatomical network model of the human head, where nodes represent anatomical units and links represent their physical articulations. The analysis of the human head network uncovers the presence of 10 musculoskeletal modules, deep-rooted in these biological dependences, of developmental and evolutionary significance. In sum, this study uncovers new anatomical and functional modules of the human head using a novel quantitative method that enables a more comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary anatomy of our lineage, including the evolution of facial expression and facial asymmetry.

  16. Musculoskeletal demands of progressions for the longswing on high bar.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Kerwin, David G

    2007-09-01

    Kinetic analyses of the chalked bar longswing on high bar and its associated progressions were used to explain musculoskeletal contributions during the performance of these skills. Data on four international male gymnasts performing three series of chalked bar longswings and eight progressions were recorded. Customized body segment inertia parameters, two-dimensional kinematics (50 Hz), and bar forces (1000 Hz) were used as input to inverse dynamic modelling. The analysis focused on the relative contributions of the knees, hips, and shoulders with root mean squared differences between the chalked bar longswing and the progressions being used to rank the progressions. Seventy per cent of the total work occurred between 200 degrees and 240 degrees of angular rotation in the longswing, 67% of which was contributed by the shoulders. The shoulders were also dominant in all progressions, with the largest such contribution occurring in the looped bar longswing with "no action". The least similar progression was the looped bar pendulum swing, while the most similar was the chalked bar bent knee longswing. This study provides a useful means for ranking progressions based on their kinetic similarity to the chalked bar longswing and builds on earlier research in identifying that progressions can be classified into those similar in physical demand (kinetics) and those similar in geometry (kinematics). PMID:17933198

  17. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Agricultural Risk Factors Among Korean Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Lee, Myeong-Jun; Chung, HweeMin; Shin, Dong-Hee; Youn, Kan-Woo; Im, Sang-Hyuk; Chae, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Farming is a strenuous occupation with various health risks, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being some of the most common. The risk factors for MSDs among Korean farmers are not well understood. Data were obtained from the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (2012), which interviewed 16,113 participants regarding their demographic profiles, self-reported MSDs, and agricultural characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Subjects reported MSDs in the neck or upper extremities (5.89%), lower extremities (19.62%), and back (26.9%). Working in animal husbandry significantly increased the risk of MSDs in the neck/upper extremities, compared with irrigation farming (odds ratio: 1.837, 95% confidence interval: 1.130-2.987). The risk of MSDs increased significantly with number of years of farming, after adjusting for age and sex (neck/upper extremities, P for trend = .0002; lower extremities, <.001; back, <.001). Agriculture type, years of farming, and ergonomic factors increased the risk of MSDs among Korean farmers. PMID:27119374

  18. Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

  19. Curricular reform in musculoskeletal medicine: needs, opportunities, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph; Alonso, Daniel R; DiCaprio, Matthew; Friedlaender, Gary E; Heckman, James D; Ludmerer, Kenneth M

    2003-10-01

    Musculoskeletal medicine is not taught adequately in American medical schools and the predictable consequences are seen. Students cannot show cognitive mastery of the subject and lack confidence in this topic. To address this, the Academic Orthopaedic Society held a symposium on medical school education at its annual meeting in 2001. There, the panelists presented an analysis of the problem and proposed solutions. Specifically, it was noted that because of the autonomy of the various schools and their varied approaches to teaching, it would be unlikely that one monolithic and mandated plan could be effective on a national basis. Rather, successful reform would comprise a coalition-based effort to define learning objectives, to provide teaching materials, and to create forums for sharing resources. Recruitment of national organizations was thought to be essential. Finally, it was felt that although inadequate education is neither new nor necessarily unique among disciplines, the coming year or two, the beginning of the Bone and Joint decade, was seen to be a particularly auspicious time for attempting curricular reform. PMID:14612660

  20. Gene therapy approaches to regenerating the musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher H; Huard, Johnny

    2015-04-01

    Injuries to the musculoskeletal system are common, debilitating and expensive. In many cases, healing is imperfect, which leads to chronic impairment. Gene transfer might improve repair and regeneration at sites of injury by enabling the local, sustained and potentially regulated expression of therapeutic gene products; such products include morphogens, growth factors and anti-inflammatory agents. Proteins produced endogenously as a result of gene transfer are nascent molecules that have undergone post-translational modification. In addition, gene transfer offers particular advantages for the delivery of products with an intracellular site of action, such as transcription factors and noncoding RNAs, and proteins that need to be inserted into a cell compartment, such as a membrane. Transgenes can be delivered by viral or nonviral vectors via in vivo or ex vivo protocols using progenitor or differentiated cells. The first gene transfer clinical trials for osteoarthritis and cartilage repair have already been completed. Various bone-healing protocols are at an advanced stage of development, including studies with large animals that could lead to human trials. Other applications in the repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle, intervertebral disc, meniscus, ligament and tendon are in preclinical development. In addition to scientific, medical and safety considerations, clinical translation is constrained by social, financial and logistical issues.

  1. Dry needling in the management of musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Vulfsons, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Myofascial pain is a common syndrome seen by family practitioners worldwide. It can affect up to 10% of the adult population and can account for acute and chronic pain complaints. In this clinical narrative review we have attempted to introduce dry needling, a relatively new method for the management of musculoskeletal pain, to the general medical community. Different methods of dry needling, its effectiveness, and physiologic and adverse effects are discussed. Dry needling is a treatment modality that is minimally invasive, cheap, easy to learn with appropriate training, and carries a low risk. Its effectiveness has been confirmed in numerous studies and 2 comprehensive systematic reviews. The deep method of dry needling has been shown to be more effective than the superficial one for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger points. However, over areas with potential risk of significant adverse events, such as lungs and large blood vessels, we suggest using the superficial technique, which has also been shown to be effective, albeit to a lesser extent. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling. There also is a great need for further investigation into the development of pain at myofascial trigger points.

  2. Infrared fiber optic probes for evaluation of musculoskeletal tissue pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Mugdha; McGoverin, Cushla; Onigbanjo, Quam; Spencer, Richard; Barbash, Scott; Kropf, Eric; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-03-01

    Musculoskeletal pathology of the knee commonly occurs with aging and as a result of injury. The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries continues to increase annually, and may precede the eventual onset of osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating and prevalent disease characterized by cartilage degeneration. Early detection of OA remains elusive, with current imaging methods lacking adequate sensitivity to detect early pathologic cartilage changes. We used mid- and near- infrared (IR) spectroscopy through arthroscopic-based fiber-optic devices to assess cartilage damage and differentiate tendon from ligament. Mid-IR spectroscopy is characterized by distinct bands and low penetration depth (< 10 μm) and near-IR spectroscopy is characterized by complex overlapping bands and greater penetration depths (< 1 cm). We have found that combined mid- and near-IR analysis greatly extends the information available through either in the analysis of soft tissues, including cartilage, ligaments and tendons. We discuss here basic science studies and the potential for translation to clinical research with novel arthroscopic probes.

  3. Responsibility for managing musculoskeletal disorders – A cross-sectional postal survey of attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Maria EH; Nordholm, Lena A

    2008-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are a major burden on individuals, health systems and social care systems and rehabilitation efforts in these disorders are considerable. Self-care is often considered a cost effective treatment alternative owing to limited health care resources. But what are the expectations and attitudes in this question in the general population? The purpose of this study was to describe general attitudes to responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders and to explore associations between attitudes and background variables. Methods A cross-sectional, postal questionnaire survey was carried out with a random sample of a general adult Swedish population of 1770 persons. Sixty-one percent (n = 1082) responded to the questionnaire and was included for the description of general attitudes towards responsibility for the management of musculoskeletal disorders. For the further analyses of associations to background variables 683–693 individuals could be included. Attitudes were measured by the "Attitudes regarding Responsibility for Musculoskeletal disorders" (ARM) instrument, where responsibility is attributed on four dimensions; to myself, as being out of my hands, to employers or to (medical) professionals. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore associations between attitudes to musculoskeletal disorders and the background variables age, sex, education, physical activity, presence of musculoskeletal disorders, sick leave and whether the person had visited a care provider. Results A majority of participants had internal views, i.e. showed an attitude of taking personal responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders, and did not place responsibility for the management out of their own hands or to employers. However, attributing shared responsibility between self and medical professionals was also found. The main associations found between attitude towards responsibility for musculoskeletal disorders and investigated

  4. The Musculoskeletal System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Musculoskeletal System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the musculoskeletal system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to…

  5. Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkraus, J. M.; Wright, M. W.; Rheingans, B. E.; Steinkraus, D. E.; George, W. P.; Aljabri, A.; Hall, J. L.; Scott, D. C.

    2012-06-01

    One novel approach towards addressing the need for innovative instrumentation and investigation approaches is the integration of a suite of four spectrometer systems to form the Mars Airborne Prospecting Spectrometers (MAPS) for prospecting on Mars.

  6. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binboğa, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-10-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by school children and beginning to be used effectively for educational purposes. As the latest generation of laptops and tablet computers are mobile and lightweight compared to conventional personal computers, they support student-centred interaction-based learning. However, these technologies have been introduced into schools with minimal adaptations to furniture or attention to ergonomics. There are increasing reports of an association between increased musculoskeletal (MSK) problems in children and use of such technologies. Although children are among the users of laptops and tablet computers both in their everyday lives and at schools, the literature investigating MSK activities and possible MSK discomfort regarding children using portable technologies is limited. This study reviews the literature to identify published studies that investigated posture, MSK activities, and possible MSK discomfort among children using mobile technologies (laptops or tablet computers) for educational purposes. An electronic search of the literature published in English between January 1994 and January 2014 was performed in several databases. The literature search terms were identified and combined to search the databases. The search results that the resources investigating MSK outcomes of laptop or tablet use of children are very scarce. This review points out the research gaps in this field, and identifying areas for future studies.

  7. Work-organisational and personal factors associated with upper body musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, P-C; Rempel, D M; Harrison, R J; Chan, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the contribution of work-organisational and personal factors to the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among garment workers in Los Angeles. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among 520 sewing machine operators from 13 garment industry sewing shops. Detailed information on work-organisational factors, personal factors, and musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained in face-to-face interviews. The outcome of interest, upper body WMSD, was defined as a worker experiencing moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain. Unconditional logistic regression models were adopted to assess the association between both work-organisational factors and personal factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain. Results The prevalence of moderate or severe musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulder region was 24% and for distal upper extremity it was 16%. Elevated prevalence of upper body pain was associated with age less than 30 years, female gender, Hispanic ethnicity, being single, having a diagnosis of a MSD or a systemic illness, working more than 10 years as a sewing machine operator, using a single sewing machine, work in large shops, higher work–rest ratios, high physical exertion, high physical isometric loads, high job demand, and low job satisfaction. Conclusion Work-organisational and personal factors were associated with increased prevalence of moderate or severe upper body musculoskeletal pain among garment workers. Owners of sewing companies may be able to reduce or prevent WMSDs among employees by adopting rotations between different types of workstations thus increasing task variety; by either shortening work periods or increasing rest periods to reduce the work–rest ratio; and by improving the work-organisation to control psychosocial stressors. The findings may guide prevention efforts in the garment sector and have important public health implications for this workforce of

  8. Temporomandibular joint effusion and its relationship with perceived disability assessed using musculoskeletal ultrasound and a patient-reported disability index

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lance; Bright, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and patient-reported disability is poorly researched. This pilot study explored the link between TMJ inflammation as measured by ultrasound and patient disability assessed by the Steigerwald Maher TMD Disability Index (SMTDI). The study design used a prospective correlational approach involving a sample with TMJ dysfunction (TMD). Twenty-four patients were recruited from the European School of Osteopathy and a Kent dental practice. Participants completed the SMTDI to determine the level of TMD (symptomatic score >20). A SonoSite SLA “Hockey Stick” [13-6 MHz] musculo-skeletal transducer was placed over the TMJ in a transverse direction and effusion was calculated indirectly by measuring capsular width. An upper left quadrant protocol was used throughout. A regression analysis was run with participants’ gender, age and capsular width as predictor variables modelled against reported SMTDI. Larger capsular widths were found to be significant predictors of SMTDI scores (r = 0.803, p < 0.0001). The patient profile matched with the previous studies and the TMD sufferer population, indicating external validity. Results suggest that the SMTDI could be integrated into practice life as a quick, accessible and easy tool to monitor patients’ progress and assess levels of inflammation, without the need for repetitive imaging. The study design proved reproducible and a larger scale study is indicated. PMID:27433242

  9. To be held and to hold one's own: narratives of embodied transformation in the treatment of long lasting musculoskeletal problems.

    PubMed

    Sviland, Randi; Martinsen, Kari; Råheim, Målfrid

    2014-11-01

    This study elaborates on narrative resources emerging in the treatment of longlasting musculoskeletal and psychosomatic disorders in Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP). Patients' experiences produced in focus group interviews were analyzed from a narrative perspective, combining common themes across groups with in depth analysis of selected particular stories. NPMP theory expanded by Løgstrup's and Ricoeur's philosophy, and Mattingly's and Frank's narrative approach provided the theoretical perspective. Patients had discovered meaning imbued in muscular tension. Control shifted from inhibiting discipline and cognitive strategies, towards more contingence with gravity and sensation, and increased freedom to be what and who they were. Trust, time, open speech, and being respectfully listened to were described as therapeutic pre-conditions. The body was experienced as the source of their voice as their own. As tension patterns transformed, novel experience in sensation appeared to feed narrative imagination, reshaping past plots, embodied identity and future prospects. NPMP was disclosed as a treatment integrating detection, battle and repair as narrative subplots, but the core narrative was the journey of transformation. Novel embodied narrative resources nourished the quest for a life and identity in tune with the body as one's own. PMID:24777719

  10. A nurse-initiated pain protocol in the ED improves pain treatment in patients with acute musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Pierik, Jorien G J; Berben, Sivera A; IJzerman, Maarten J; Gaakeer, Menno I; van Eenennaam, Fred L; van Vugt, Arie B; Doggen, Carine J M

    2016-07-01

    While acute musculoskeletal pain is a frequent complaint, its management is often neglected. An implementation of a nurse-initiated pain protocol based on the algorithm of a Dutch pain management guideline in the emergency department might improve this. A pre-post intervention study was performed as part of the prospective PROTACT follow-up study. During the pre- (15 months, n = 504) and post-period (6 months, n = 156) patients' self-reported pain intensity and pain treatment were registered. Analgesic provision in patients with moderate to severe pain (NRS ≥4) improved from 46.8% to 68.0%. Over 10% of the patients refused analgesics, resulting into an actual analgesic administration increase from 36.3% to 46.1%. Median time to analgesic decreased from 10 to 7 min (P < 0.05), whereas time to opioids decreased from 37 to 15 min (P < 0.01). Mean pain relief significantly increased to 1.56 NRS-points, in patients who received analgesic treatment even up to 2.02 points. The protocol appeared to lead to an increase in analgesic administration, shorter time to analgesics and a higher clinically relevant pain relief. Despite improvements, suffering moderate to severe pain at ED discharge was still common. Protocol adherence needs to be studied in order to optimize pain management. PMID:26968352

  11. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly taken orally, but they are also available in topical preparations to be applied to or rubbed onto the skin of a painful joint, typically one affected by arthritis, with the aim of relieving pain locally. Topical NSAIDs are widely used in some parts of the world for acute and chronic painful conditions, but have not been universally accepted until recently. One of the problems has been that older clinical studies were generally short, lasting four weeks or less, and short duration studies are not regarded as adequate in ongoing painful conditions. Objectives To examine the use of topical NSAIDs in chronic musculoskeletal pain, focusing on studies of high methodological quality, and examining the measured effect of the preparations according to study duration. The principal aim was to estimate treatment efficacy in longer duration studies of at least 8 weeks. Search methods A series of electronic searches, together with bibliographic searches, and searches of in-house databases were combined with electronic searches of clinical trial registers and manufacturers of topical NSAIDs, or companies known to be actively researching topical NSAIDs. There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind studies with placebo or active comparators, where at least one treatment was a topical NSAID product, in any topical formulation (cream, gel, patch, solution), in studies lasting at least two weeks. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed study quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk (RR) and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Information was available from 7688 participants in 34 studies from 32 publications; 23 studies

  12. Ultrasound Examination of Pediatric Musculoskeletal Diseases and Neonatal Spine.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Alka Sudhir; Karnik, Alpana; Joshi, Alpana

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a simple, non-invasive imaging modality which allows high-resolution imaging of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system. Its increasing popularity in pediatrics is due to the fact that it does not involve radiation, has an ability to visualize non-ossified cartilaginous and vascular structures, allows dynamic imaging and quick contralateral comparison. US is the primary imaging modality in some pediatric MSK conditions like infant hip in developmental dysplasia (DDH), hip joint effusion, epiphyseal trauma and evaluation of the neonatal spine. US is the modality of choice in infants with DDH, both in the initial evaluation and post-treatment follow-up. US has a sensitivity equivalent to MRI in evaluation of the neonatal spine in experienced hands and is a good screening modality in neonates with suspected occult neural tube defects. In other MSK applications, it is often used for the initial diagnosis or in addition to other imaging modalities. In trauma and infections, US can often detect early and subtle soft tissue abnormalities and a quick comparison with the contralateral side aids in diagnoses. Dynamic imaging is crucial in evaluating congenital instabilities and dislocations, soft tissue and ligamentous injuries, epiphyseal injuries and fracture separations. High-resolution imaging along with color Doppler (CD) is useful in the characterization of soft tissue masses. This article reviews the applications of US in pediatric MSK with emphasis on conditions where it is a primary modality. Limitations of US include inability to penetrate bone, hence, limited diagnosis of intraosseous pathology and operator dependency. PMID:26830280

  13. Active epidemiological surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders in a shoe factory

    PubMed Central

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Fanello, S; Boissiere, J; Chiron, H; Dano, C; Bureau, D; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2002-01-01

    Aims: (1) To evaluate an active method of surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). (2) To compare different criteria for deciding whether or not a work situation could be considered at high risk of MSDs in a large, modern shoe factory. Methods: A total of 253 blue collar workers were interviewed and examined by the same physician in 1996; 191 of them were re-examined in 1997. Risk factors of MSDs were assessed for each worker by standardised job site work analysis. Prevalence and incidence rates of carpal tunnel syndrome, rotator cuff syndrome, and tension neck syndrome were calculated for each of the nine main types of work situation. Different criteria used to assess situations with high risk of MSDs were compared. Results: On the basis of prevalence data, three types of work situation were detected to be at high risk of MSDs: cutting, sewing, and assembly preparation. The three types of work situations identified on the basis of incidence data (sewing preparation, mechanised assembling, and finishing) were different from those identified by prevalence data. At least one recognised risk factor for MSDs was identified for all groups of work situations. The ergonomic risk could be considered as serious for the four types of work situation having the highest ergonomic scores (sewing, assembly preparation, pasting, and cutting). Conclusion: The results of the health surveillance method depend largely on the definition of the criteria used to define the risk of MSDs. The criteria based on incidence data are more valid than those based on prevalence data. Health and risk factor surveillance must be combined to predict the risk of MSDs in the company. However, exposure assessment plays a greater role in determining the priorities for ergonomic intervention. PMID:12107293

  14. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in athletic trainer.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Hsieh, Yi-Jung; Fu, Li-Lan

    2011-06-01

    INTRODUCTION Athletic trainers often work for elongated and irregular hours or days, and need to react in emergency situations. These professionals are at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). This study investigated the WMSDs experienced by athletic trainers (ATs), plus related personal and occupational factors. METHODS A customized questionnaire with subject's demographic and WMSDs information was constructed and administered in all accessible ATs in Taiwan. In addition to descriptive analysis of demographics and WMSDs, the relationship between personal/occupational-related factors and WMSD symptoms were also evaluated. Results A total of 146 effective questionnaires were returned. The results indicated that a 48.5% prevalence rate of athletic trainers in Taiwan, and these disorders are mainly located in low back (42%), finger (38%) and shoulder (26%) regions. Logistic regression revealed that average work hour (odds ratio (OR) = 1.834, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.066-3.156) and continue education participation (OR = 0.346, 95% CI: 0.140-0.854) were the most significant predictors for WMSDs occurrence. Performing taping was the most significant predictor for the low back (OR = 28.274, 95% CI: 2.568-311.423) and finger (OR = 19.535, 95% CI:2.273-167.912) symptoms; while performing providing first aid (OR = 12.128, 95% CI:3.881-37.899) was the most significant predictor for the shoulder's. Conclusion This study revealed that athletic trainers in Taiwan area suffered from high rate of WMSDs, and the relationship between WMSDs and specific job features were reported. Preventive and therapeutic modifications of the work environment to decrease the occurrence of WMSDs are in need for athletic trainers and other similar professions. Further research examining safe patient handling ergonomics, proper equipment in the context of athletic training and professional development strategies must be pursued.

  15. Stem Cell-based Tissue Engineering Approaches for Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick T.; Handorf, Andrew M.; Jeon, Won Bae; Li, Wan-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is an ever evolving field that holds promise in treating numerous musculoskeletal diseases and injuries. An important impetus in the development of the field was the discovery and implementation of stem cells. The utilization of mesenchymal stem cells, and later embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, opens new arenas for tissue engineering and presents the potential of developing stem cell-based therapies for disease treatment. Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells can produce various lineage tissues, and allow for derivation of a tissue that may be comprised of multiple cell types. As the field grows, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds and bioreactors provides methods to create an environment for stem cells that better represent their microenvironment for new tissue formation. As technologies for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds advance, the ability of scaffolds to modulate stem cell behavior advances as well. The composition of scaffolds could be of natural or synthetic materials and could be tailored to enhance cell self-renewal and/or direct cell fates. In addition to biomaterial scaffolds, studies of tissue development and cellular microenvironments have determined other factors, such as growth factors and oxygen tension, that are crucial to the regulation of stem cell activity. The overarching goal of stem cell-based tissue engineering research is to precisely control differentiation of stem cells in culture. In this article, we review current developments in tissue engineering, focusing on several stem cell sources, induction factors including growth factors, oxygen tension, biomaterials, and mechanical stimulation, and the internal and external regulatory mechanisms that govern proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23432679

  16. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  17. Musculoskeletal symptoms and associated risk factors among African hair braiders.

    PubMed

    Sy, Oumy; Phillips, Margaret L

    2016-01-01

    African hair braiders are potentially subject to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) because they perform repetitive hand motions for many hours a day together with prolonged standing and/or prolonged sitting. A complete enumeration of African hair braiders was attempted in Oklahoma City (OKC) and Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW). Braiders were identified through the channels they typically use to offer services to clients. Potential risk factors and symptoms of WMSDs were assessed using an oral interview. Participation rates were 95% (18/19) in OKC and 83% (83/101) in DFW. More than 75% of braiders reported discomfort in the fingers, wrist/hand, upper back, and lower back. In multivariate analysis, years worked as a braider but not age was a significant risk factor (p < 0.005) for reported pain in the wrist/hand, time spent sitting during the work day was found to be a significant predictor (p < 0.05) of upper back pain and lower back pain, and time spent sitting and time spent standing during the work day were both significant predictors (p < 0.05) of shoulder pain. Braiders in OKC, where licensing requirements were stricter, were significantly more likely than braiders in DFW to work at home (67% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and to report pain in the lower leg (p < 0.005) and ankle/foot (p < 0.05). The close-knit nature of the African hair braiding community makes it an appealing candidate for community-based participatory research aimed at further elucidating occupational health concerns and reducing risk. PMID:26771155

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Methods Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Results Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18–5.24; p<0.05) in all body parts except for leg/foot, and very hard workload was associated with low back, leg/foot, neck, shoulder, and wrist/hand/finger pain (OR, 2.88–10.83; p<0.05). Conclusion Most Korean farmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload. PMID:26949663

  19. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011). This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047). In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.04). Conclusions A

  20. A comparative study on the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among musicians and non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians. Methods A cross-sectional study in 3215 students from three music academies (n = 345) and one medical school (n = 2870) in The Netherlands was performed, using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, use of music instruments and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in six body regions. Questions were related to musculoskeletal complaints over the last twelve months and at the time of the questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparison between the two groups. The association between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors was analyzed using a logistic and Poisson regression. Results Eighty-seven music academy students and 503 medical students returned the questionnaire, of which respectively eighty-three and 494 were included in the study. Seventy-four music academy students (89.2%) reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months, compared to 384 (77.9%) medical students (p = 0.019). Moreover 52 music academy students (62.7%) and 211 medical students (42.7%) reported current musculoskeletal complaints (p = 0.001). The Odds ratio (OR) for the development of musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months in music academy students versus medical students is 2.33 (95% CI 1.61–3.05, p = 0.022). The OR at the time of the questionnaire is 2.25 (95% CI 1.77–2.73, p = 0.001). The total number of complaints have been modeled by employing a Poisson regression; the results show that non-musicians have on average less complaints than musicians (p = 0.01). The adjusted means are 2.90 (95% CI 2.18–3.63) and 1.83 (95% CI 1.63–2.04) respectively for musicians and non

  1. Safety of Acupuncture and Pharmacopuncture in 80,523 Musculoskeletal Disorder Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Me-Riong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Ahn, Yong-Jun; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Hwa Dong; Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung Geun; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the range and frequency of significant adverse events (AEs) in use of pharmacopuncture and acupuncture using large-scale, single-center safety data as evidence supporting safety of acupuncture with pharmacopuncture, used extensively in Asia, is scarce. Status reports (nurse records in ambulatory and inpatient care units, and administrative event records) as a part of an internal audit at a Korean Medicine hospital specializing in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, patient complaints filed through the hospital website, and medical records of patients visiting from December, 2010 (inception of internal audit) to October, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total 80,523 patients (5966 inpatients and 74,557 outpatients) visited during this period. Inpatients received an average 31.9 ± 20.7 acupuncture, 23.0 ± 15.6 pharmacopuncture, and 15.4 ± 11.3 bee venom pharmacopuncture sessions, and outpatients were administered 8.2 ± 12.2 acupuncture, 7.8 ± 11.5 pharmacopuncture, and 10.0 ± 12.3 bee venom sessions, respectively. AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture were forgotten needle (n = 47), hypersensitivity to bee venom (n = 37), presyncopic episode (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 4), and infection (n = 2). Most cases were mild requiring little or no additional intervention and leaving no sequelae. Although serious AEs including infection (n = 2) and anaphylaxis associated with bee venom treatment (n = 3) were also reported, incidence was rare at 0.002% in infection and 0.019% in anaphylaxis. Incidence of AEs associated with acupuncture/pharmacopuncture treatment was low, and most cases were not serious. Still, however rare, avoidable AEs can and should be prevented through education and corrective action. Further prospective studies on the effect of error reduction strategies on incidence of adverse effects are warranted. PMID:27149503

  2. The Musculoskeletal Manifestations of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Kashmiri Population

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Tariq Ahmed; Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Naikoo, Muzzaffar Ahmed; Naqqash, Mubarik Ahmed; Bhat, Ajaz; Butt, Mohammed Farooq

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM), is affecting an ever increasing number of people worldwide. Diabetes is associated with several musculoskeletal manifestations. These may involve, the upper as well as the lower limb. We conducted this study to find out the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems in type 2 diabetics in the Kashmiri population. Methodology The study was conducted on 403 patients with diabetes and 300 controls. All patients underwent screening for any musculoskeletal abnormalities. The patients with musculoskeletal abnormalities were further assessed to find the exact diagnosis according to predefined criteria. Results The hand was involved in 80 patients [19.8%] in the diabetic group and 15 (5%) patients of the control group. The elbow was affected in 56 patients [14%] in the diabetic group and 24 patients [5.9%] in the non-diabetic group. The shoulder involvement was diagnosed in 61 patients [15%] on the diabetic cohort and 15 patients in the non-diabetic cohort. All the upper limb figures showed a statistically significant difference i.e. P value <0.05. Conclusion The prevalence of musculoskeletal complications in type 2 diabetics in Kashmir is quite high. PMID:27004058

  3. Backpack Weight and Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Secondary School Students, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shamsoddini, AR; Hollisaz, MT; Hafezi, R

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increased complaints by school students about back and shoulder pain and discomfort have raised concerns among parents, education professionals, and orthopedists and these discomforts may be because of schoolbag carriage. The aim of this study was to investigate of relationship of musculoskeletal symptoms with weight of backpack in Tehran secondary school students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the city of Tehran in 2009. Two hundred thirteen students participated in study. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used, asking about complaints of back, neck, and/or shoulders. Length and weight of the children were determined. Schoolbags were weighed, and the relative weight of the schoolbag was calculated. Results: Most prevalent musculoskeletal discomfort was in shoulders as 38.1%, neck 27.6% and back 16.7%. Average difference of weight of backpack in sample that had musculoskeletal with other samples was significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Weight of the backpack appears to be strongly related to the occurrence of shoulder, neck, back, and extremities complaints in students. Although musculoskeletal discomforts are believed to be multifactorial in origin, the carriage and manipulating of heavy backpack is signally a suspected factor and may represent an overlooked daily physical stress for secondary students. PMID:23113045

  4. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) RESULTS: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) CONCLUSIONS: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  5. Musculoskeletal Injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan: Epidemiology and Outcomes Following a Decade of War.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The combined wars in Afghanistan and Iraq represent the longest ongoing conflicts in American military history, with a combined casualty estimate of >59,000 service members. The nature of combat over the last decade has led to precipitous increases in severe orthopaedic injuries, including traumatic amputations and injuries to the spine. Nearly 75% of all injuries sustained in combat now are caused by explosive mechanisms, and fractures comprise 40% of all musculoskeletal injuries. Injuries to the axial skeleton are more frequent among personnel exposed to combat, and spinal trauma is identified in nearly 40% of those killed. Musculoskeletal injuries are expensive and generate some of the highest rates of long-term disability. Noncombat musculoskeletal injuries are endemic within deployed military service members and occur at a greater than threefold rate compared with combat musculoskeletal injuries. Service members with musculoskeletal injuries or behavioral health conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and psychosis, and those occupying a low socioeconomic status, have an increased risk of inferior outcomes. PMID:27115793

  6. Development of an anatomically based whole-body musculoskeletal model of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Makishima, Haruyuki; Aoi, Shinya; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Kazuo; Nakatsukasa, Masato

    2009-07-01

    We constructed a three-dimensional whole-body musculoskeletal model of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) based on computed tomography and dissection of a cadaver. The skeleton was modeled as a chain of 20 bone segments connected by joints. Joint centers and rotational axes were estimated by joint morphology based on joint surface approximation using a quadric function. The path of each muscle was defined by a line segment connecting origin to insertion through an intermediary point if necessary. Mass and fascicle length of each were systematically recorded to calculate physiological cross-sectional area to estimate the capacity of each muscle to generate force. Using this anatomically accurate model, muscle moment arms and force vectors generated by individual limb muscles at the foot and hand were calculated to computationally predict muscle functions. Furthermore, three-dimensional whole-body musculoskeletal kinematics of the Japanese macaque was reconstructed from ordinary video sequences based on this model and a model-based matching technique. The results showed that the proposed model can successfully reconstruct and visualize anatomically reasonable, natural musculoskeletal motion of the Japanese macaque during quadrupedal/bipedal locomotion, demonstrating the validity and efficacy of the constructed musculoskeletal model. The present biologically relevant model may serve as a useful tool for comprehensive understanding of the design principles of the musculoskeletal system and the control mechanisms for locomotion in the Japanese macaque and other primates.

  7. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. Results About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusion Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities. PMID:22953201

  8. The burden and management of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries and conditions within the US military.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Owens, Brett D

    2014-10-01

    Military service members comprise a young and physically active population who are at increased risk for musculoskeletal injuries and conditions related to sports and physical training. Even during times of war, musculoskeletal injuries and conditions related to sports and physical training, not associated with combat, are the leading cause of medical evacuation from theater. As a result, these injuries significantly compromise military readiness, and they can lead to an increased risk for reinjury and long-term disability among military service members. Regardless of the mechanism of injury, the large volume and types of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions that affect soldiers are similar to those that are commonly seen and treated in sports medicine clinics and practices. Recently, the US Marine Corps, Navy, and Army have recognized the value of the sports medicine model of care to improve the access, efficiency, and effectiveness of care for solders who experience musculoskeletal injuries related to sports and training. A highly skilled sports medicine team of providers and allied health care professionals (eg, athletic trainers, physical therapists), with expertise in the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and management of musculoskeletal injuries and conditions, will continue to be an integral cog in the effective management of these types of injuries into the future, as the sports medicine model continues to expand across the military health system.

  9. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Building Construction Workers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Alsaaran, Zaid Fahad; Alshehri, Moayad Khalid; Azam Khashougji, Mohammed; Almeterk, Abdul Aziz Zayed; Almutairi, Saif Fraj; Alsaeed, Saad Fahad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among building construction workers. Methods: Total 389 apparently healthy, male volunteers were selected with mean age 34.56±8.33 years and a mean working duration in building construction as 5.76±2.68 years. Musculoskeletal complaints were recorded through a detailed clinical interview and comprehensive questionnaire. Results: Substantial number of building construction workers developed musculoskeletal symptoms including neck pain 29 (7.5%), shoulder pain 41(10.5%), upper back pain 24(6.2%), lower back pain 64 (16.5%), legs pain 93 (23.9%), feet pain 52 (13.4%), head heaviness 44 (11.3%) and whole body fatigue 78 (20.1%). These complaints were significantly associated with long-term duration-response in building construction industry. Furthermore, cigarette smokers had little higher percentage of musculoskeletal complaints compared to non-smoker companions. Conclusions: Building construction occupation is a prolific source of musculoskeletal ailments and complaints were significantly increased with long-term working duration in building construction industry. PMID:24550961

  10. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  11. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in chronic fatigue syndrome: recent developments and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; De Meirleir, Kenny

    2006-08-01

    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) experience chronic musculoskeletal pain which is even more debilitating than fatigue. Scientific research data gathered around the world enables clinicians to understand, at least in part, chronic musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Generalized joint hypermobility and benign joint hypermobility syndrome appear to be highly prevalent among CFS sufferers, but they do not seem to be of any clinical importance. On the other hand, pain catastrophizing accounts for a substantial portion of musculoskeletal pain and is a predictor of exercise performance in CFS patients. The evidence concerning pain catastrophizing is supportive of the indirect evidence of a dysfunctional pain processing system in CFS patients with musculoskeletal pain. CFS sufferers respond to incremental exercise with a lengthened and accentuated oxidative stress response, explaining muscle pain, postexertional malaise, and the decrease in pain threshold following graded exercise in CFS patients. Applying the scientific evidence to the manual physiotherapy profession, pacing self-management techniques and pain neurophysiology education are indicated for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain in CFS patients. Studies examining the effectiveness of these strategies for CFS patients are warranted.

  12. Subjective musculoskeletal symptoms in winter and summer among indoor working construction electricians.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cold exposure on the musculoskeletal system, two surveys on the subjective musculoskeletal symptoms among male electricians working in the buildings under construction were performed in winter (N=74) and summer seasons (N=83). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on age, occupational career, working habit, present illness, and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean age, occupational career and daily smoking of the supervisors were significantly higher than those of the other subjects. In general, prevalence rates of stiffness, numbness, pain and Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers, finger cold sensation, dull movement of the fingers, pain in the wrist, knee joint pain, pain and numbness in the foot and foot cold sensation in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. These results were marked especially in the workers except supervisors. In winter, there were no significant differences in the prevalence rates of subjective musculoskeletal complaints between the supervisors and the other workers. On the other hand, in summer, prevalence of stiffness and pain in the shoulder, stiffness and pain in the neck, dullness and pain in the arm, finger cold sensation, low back dullness and low back pain in the supervisors were significantly higher than those in the other workers. These results suggest that effects of cold on the musculoskeletal symptoms markedly appeared in the workers except supervisors. PMID:20160405

  13. Broth versus solid agar culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    As part of the donor assessment protocol, bioburden assessment must be performed on allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples collected at the time of tissue retrieval. Swab samples of musculoskeletal tissue allografts from cadaveric donors are received at the microbiology department of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (Australia) to determine the presence of bacteria and fungi. This study will review the isolation rate of organisms from solid agar and broth culture of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swabs were inoculated onto horse blood agar (anaerobic, 35 °C) and chocolate agar (CO2, 35 °C) and then placed into a cooked meat broth (aerobic, 35 °C). A total of 1,912 swabs from 389 donors were received during the study period. 557 (29.1 %) swabs were culture positive with the isolation of 713 organisms, 249 (34.9 %) from solid agar culture and an additional 464 (65.1 %) from broth culture only. This study has shown that the broth culture of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal swab samples recovered a greater amount of organisms than solid agar culture. Isolates such as Clostridium species and Staphylococcus aureus would not have been isolated from solid agar culture alone. Broth culture is an essential part of the bioburden assessment protocol of swab samples of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue in this laboratory.

  14. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Douloumpakas, I; Pyrpasopoulou, A; Triantafyllou, A; Sampanis, Ch; Aslanidis, S

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. The prevalence of connective tissue disorders in these patients has increased in the recent years affecting significantly their quality of life. Methods - Results: We conducted a pilot study including 208 sequentially selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus regularly followed-up at the Diabetes Center of the Hippokration University Hospital. Among the diabetic patients who were screened according to the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire for musculoskeletal symptoms and findings, 82.6% were found to exhibit musculoskeletal abnormalities, mainly of the degenerative, noninflammatory type. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common finding among patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity and accumulation of abnormally glycosylated byproducts have been proposed as potential pathogenetic mediators of these connective tissue abnormalities. Of particular interest is, however, the common association of osteoarthritis, involving even non-weight bearing joints in patients with type 2 diabetes, indicating a common pathophysiologic mechanism connecting these two clinical conditions. PMID:19582198

  15. Cost of musculoskeletal diseases: impact of work disability and functional decline.

    PubMed

    Yelin, Edward

    2003-12-01

    Persons with all forms of musculoskeletal conditions incur total medical care expenditures of about US$240 billion, or about 2.9% of GDP. Of this total, approximately US$77 billion, or about 0.9% of GDP, would not have occurred in the absence of the musculoskeletal conditions. Such persons had lower labor force participation rates, resulting in indirect costs of about US$98 billion; of this amount, almost all (over US$90 billion) remained after taking into account characteristics other than the presence of a musculoskeletal condition that might result in lower earnings. Thus, the majority of direct costs incurred by persons with musculoskeletal conditions would occur in the absence of the conditions, but the wage losses would not occur were the conditions to be eradicated. The importance of indirect costs in the economics of musculoskeletal conditions is underscored by the studies of the costs of specific diseases. In all but OA, indirect costs are at least as large as, if not larger than, direct costs. Reducing the economic impact of RA, SLE, AS, and low back pain requires treatments that reduce work disability associated with each of these conditions. Some promising results from short term studies have been reported, but it would appear to be an appropriate time to inaugurate trials focused on longterm work outcomes.

  16. Therapies for Musculoskeletal Disease: Can we Treat Two Birds with One Stone?

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Christian M.; Mokbel, Nancy; DiGirolamo, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent with staggering annual health care costs across the globe. The combined wasting of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis)— both in normal aging and pathologic states—can lead to vastly compounded risk for fracture in patients. Until now, our therapeutic approach to the prevention of such fractures has focused solely on bone, but our increasing understanding of the interconnected biology of muscle and bone has begun to shift our treatment paradigm for musculoskeletal disease. Targeting pathways that centrally regulate both bone and muscle (eg, GH/IGF-1, sex steroids, etc.) and newly emerging pathways that might facilitate communication between these 2 tissues (eg, activin/myostatin) might allow a greater therapeutic benefit and/or previously unanticipated means by which to treat these frail patients and prevent fracture. In this review, we will discuss a number of therapies currently under development that aim to treat musculoskeletal disease in precisely such a holistic fashion. PMID:24633910

  17. Effects of an adapted mattress in musculoskeletal pain and sleep quality in institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Ancuelle, Victor; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Mendiola, Andrea; Guillen, Daniel; Ortiz, Pedro J; Tello, Tania; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact in sleep quality and musculoskeletal pain of a Medium-Firm Mattress (MFM), and their relationship with objective sleep parameters in a group of institutionalized elders. The sample size included forty older adults with musculoskeletal pain. We did a clinical assessment at baseline and weekly trough the study period of four weeks. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pain Visual Analog Scale (P-VAS). Additionally a sub-group of good sleepers, selected from PSQI baseline evaluation, were studied with actigraphy and randomized to MFM or High Firm Mattress (HFM), in two consecutive nights. We found a significant reduction of cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain. PSQI results did not change. The actigraphy evaluation found a significant shorter sleep onset latency with MFM, and a slightly better, but not statistically significant, sleep efficiency. The medium firmness mattress improved musculoskeletal pain and modified the sleep latency. PMID:26779317

  18. Effects of an adapted mattress in musculoskeletal pain and sleep quality in institutionalized elders

    PubMed Central

    Ancuelle, Victor; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Mendiola, Andrea; Guillen, Daniel; Ortiz, Pedro J; Tello, Tania; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact in sleep quality and musculoskeletal pain of a Medium-Firm Mattress (MFM), and their relationship with objective sleep parameters in a group of institutionalized elders. The sample size included forty older adults with musculoskeletal pain. We did a clinical assessment at baseline and weekly trough the study period of four weeks. We employed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Pain Visual Analog Scale (P-VAS). Additionally a sub-group of good sleepers, selected from PSQI baseline evaluation, were studied with actigraphy and randomized to MFM or High Firm Mattress (HFM), in two consecutive nights. We found a significant reduction of cervical, dorsal and lumbar pain. PSQI results did not change. The actigraphy evaluation found a significant shorter sleep onset latency with MFM, and a slightly better, but not statistically significant, sleep efficiency. The medium firmness mattress improved musculoskeletal pain and modified the sleep latency. PMID:26779317

  19. The dichotomized role for acid sensing ion channels in musculoskeletal pain and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sluka, Kathleen A.; Gregory, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic muscle pain affects between 11–24% of the world’s population with the majority of people experiencing musculoskeletal pain at some time in their life. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are important sensors of modest decreases in extracellular pH that occur within the physiological range. These decreases in extracellular pH occur in response to inflammation, fatiguing exercise,, and ischemia. Further, injection of acidic saline into muscle produces enhanced nociceptive behaviors in animals and pain in human subjects. Of the different types of ASICs, ASIC3 and ASIC1 have been implicated in transmission of nociceptive information from the musculoskeletal system. The current review will provide an overview of the evidence for ASIC3 and ASIC1 in musculoskeletal pain in both inflammatory and non-inflammatory models. PMID:25582293

  20. Therapies for musculoskeletal disease: can we treat two birds with one stone?

    PubMed

    Girgis, Christian M; Mokbel, Nancy; Digirolamo, Douglas J

    2014-06-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent with staggering annual health care costs across the globe. The combined wasting of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis)-both in normal aging and pathologic states-can lead to vastly compounded risk for fracture in patients. Until now, our therapeutic approach to the prevention of such fractures has focused solely on bone, but our increasing understanding of the interconnected biology of muscle and bone has begun to shift our treatment paradigm for musculoskeletal disease. Targeting pathways that centrally regulate both bone and muscle (eg, GH/IGF-1, sex steroids, etc.) and newly emerging pathways that might facilitate communication between these 2 tissues (eg, activin/myostatin) might allow a greater therapeutic benefit and/or previously unanticipated means by which to treat these frail patients and prevent fracture. In this review, we will discuss a number of therapies currently under development that aim to treat musculoskeletal disease in precisely such a holistic fashion.

  1. Imaging of Musculoskeletal Bacterial Infections by [124I]FIAU-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Endres, Christopher J.; Uzuner, Ovsev; Seyler, Thorsten M.; Ulrich, Slif D.; Conway, Janet; Bettegowda, Chetan; Agrawal, Nishant; Cheong, Ian; Zhang, Xiaosong; Ladenson, Paul W.; Vogelstein, Barry N.; Mont, Michael A.; Zhou, Shibin; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Pomper, Martin G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Traditional imaging techniques for the localization and monitoring of bacterial infections, although reasonably sensitive, suffer from a lack of specificity. This is particularly true for musculoskeletal infections. Bacteria possess a thymidine kinase (TK) whose substrate specificity is distinct from that of the major human TK. The substrate specificity difference has been exploited to develop a new imaging technique that can detect the presence of viable bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight subjects with suspected musculoskeletal infections and one healthy control were studied by a combination of [124I]FIAU-positron emission tomography and CT ([124I]FIAU-PET/CT). All patients with proven musculoskeletal infections demonstrated positive [124I]FIAU-PET/CT signals in the sites of concern at two hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. No adverse reactions with FIAU were observed. Conclusions/Significance [124I]FIAU-PET/CT is a promising new method for imaging bacterial infections. PMID:17925855

  2. Musculoskeletal Pain, Depression and Stress among Latino Manual Laborers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Tribble, Anna Grace; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The jobs of Latino manual laborers place their mental and physical health at risk. This study evaluates the associations among musculoskeletal pain, mental health, and work organization in Latino manual laborers. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers (n=189) in North Carolina were interviewed for self-reported musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, stress, work safety climate, and precarious job status. More non-farmworkers than farmworkers had neck and shoulder pain, but they did not differ in other areas of musculoskeletal pain. Depressive symptoms had a significant association with neck and shoulder pain (p<0.05). Precariousness had a significant association with back pain (p<0.05). Farmworker participants had H-2A visas and were afforded some protection compared to non-farmworker manual workers. Research is needed to improve policy that relieves pain and improves mental health for all Latino manual workers. PMID:26422551

  3. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    PubMed

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers. PMID:27539352

  4. The musculoskeletal loading profile of the thumb during pipetting based on tendon displacement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, John Z.; Sinsel, Erik W.; Shroyer, Justin F.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Zhao, Kristin D.; An, Kai-Nan; Buczek, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that highly repetitive manual work is associated with the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the occupational activities that involves highly repetitive and forceful hand work is manual pipetting in chemical or biological laboratories. In the current study, we quantified tendon displacement as a parameter to assess the cumulative loading exposure of the musculoskeletal system in the thumb during pipetting. The maximal tendon displacement was found in the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon. Assuming that subjects’ pipetting rates were maintained constant during a period of 1 h, the average accumulated tendon displacement in the FPL reached 29 m, which is in the lower range of those observed in other occupational activities, such as typing and nail gun operations. Our results showed that tendon displacement data contain relatively small standard deviations, despite high variances in thumb kinematics, suggesting that the tendon displacements may be useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal loading profile. PMID:24018066

  5. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  6. Role of Curcumin in Common Musculoskeletal Disorders: a Review of Current Laboratory, Translational, and Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Peddada, Krishi V; Peddada, Kranti Venkata; Shukla, Surendra K; Mishra, Anusha; Verma, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    The Indian spice turmeric, in which the active and dominant biomolecule is curcumin, has been demonstrated to have significant medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. This promise is potentially very applicable to musculoskeletal disorders, which are common causes of physician visits worldwide. Research at the laboratory, translational and clinical levels that supports the use of curcumin for various musculoskeletal disorders, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, musculocartilaginous disorders, and sarcoma is here in comprehensively summarized. Though more phase I-III trials are clearly needed, thus far the existing data show that curcumin can indeed potentially be useful in treatment of the hundreds of millions worldwide who are afflicted by these musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26311096

  7. Development and Validation of the Keele Musculoskeletal Patient Reported Outcome Measure (MSK-PROM)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a patient report outcome measure (PROM) for clinical practice that can monitor health status of patients with a range of musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders. Methods Constructs for inclusion in the MSK-PROM were identified from a consensus process involving patients with musculoskeletal conditions, clinicians, purchasers of healthcare services, and primary care researchers. Psychometric properties of the brief tool, including face and construct validity, repeatability and responsiveness were assessed in a sample of patients with musculoskeletal pain consulting physiotherapy services in the United Kingdom (n=425). Results The consensus process identified 10 prioritised domains for monitoring musculoskeletal health status: pain intensity, quality of life, physical capacity, interference with social/leisure activities, emotional well-being, severity of most difficult thing, activities and roles, understanding independence, and overall impact. As the EuroQol (EQ-5D-5L) is a widely adopted PROMs tool and covers the first four domains listed, to reduce patient burden to a minimum the MSK-PROM was designed to capture the remaining six prioritised domains which are not measured by the EQ-5D-5L. The tool demonstrated excellent reliability, construct validity, responsiveness and acceptability to patients and clinicians for use in clinical practice. Conclusion We have validated a brief patient reported outcome measure (MSK-PROM) for use in clinical practice to measure musculoskeletal health status and monitor outcomes over time using domains that are meaningful to patients and sensitive to change. Further work will establish whether the MSK-PROM is useful in other musculoskeletal healthcare settings. PMID:25928807

  8. Musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents managed in Australian primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care settings play a vital role in the early detection and appropriate management of musculoskeletal conditions in paediatric populations. However, little data exist regarding these conditions in a primary care context or on the presentation of specific musculoskeletal disorders in children. The aim of this study was to estimate the caseload and describe typical management of musculoskeletal conditions in children and adolescents presenting to primary care in Australia. Methods An analysis of data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) study was performed. The BEACH study is a continuous national study of general practice (GP) activity in Australia. We identified all GP encounters with children and adolescents over the past five years and extracted data on demographic details, the problems managed, and GP management of each problem. SAS statistical software was used to calculate robust proportions and after adjustment for the cluster, the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results From the period April 2006 to March 2011, there were 65,279 encounters with children and adolescents in the BEACH database. Of the 77,830 problems managed at these encounters, 4.9% (95%CI 4.7% to 5.1%) were musculoskeletal problems. The rate of musculoskeletal problems managed increased significantly with age, however there was a significant decrease for girls aged 15–17 years. Upper and lower limb conditions were the most common, followed by spine and trunk conditions. Spine and trunk conditions were significantly more likely to be managed with medication, but less likely to receive imaging, than upper or lower limb problems. Conclusions Musculoskeletal problems in children and adolescents present a significant burden and an important challenge to the primary health care system in Australia. There is variability in rates of presentation between different age groups, gender and affected body region. PMID:24885231

  9. A Systematic Review of Selected Musculoskeletal Late Effects in Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gawade, Prasad L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Constine, Louis S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for treatment-related musculoskeletal late effects. Early detection and orthopedic intervention can help ameliorate musculoskeletal late effects and prevent subsequent complications. This systematic review summarizes the literature describing associations between cancer, its treatment, and musculoskeletal late effects. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English language articles published between January 1970 and December 2012. The search was limited to investigations with at least 15 participants and conducted at least 2 years after completion of therapy for childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer. Some late skeletal effects, including low bone mineral density, osteonecrosis, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, oncogenic rickets, and hormone-related growth disturbances have been previously reviewed and were excluded, as were outcomes following amputation and limb-salvage procedures. Of 2347 references identified, 30 met inclusion criteria and were retained. An additional 54 studies that met inclusion criteria were found in reference lists of retained studies. Of 84 studies, 60 focused on associations between radiotherapy, six between chemotherapy, and 18 between surgery and musculoskeletal late effects. We found that younger age, higher radiation dosage, and asymmetric or partial bone radiation volume influences the effects of radiation on the musculoskeletal system. Methotrexate and vincristine are associated with long-term muscular strength and flexibility deficits. Laminectomy and chest wall resection are associated with spinal malalignment, and enucleation is associated with orbital deformities among survivors. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are associated with musculoskeletal late effects independently and additively. Associations are additionally influenced by host and treatment characteristics. PMID:25403639

  10. Health resort medicine in non-musculoskeletal disorders: is there evidence of its effectiveness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier-Jarmer, Marita; Kus, Sandra; Frisch, Dieter; Sabariego, Carla; Schuh, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Health resort medicine (HRM; in German: Kurortmedizin) is a field of medicine with long-lasting tradition in several European countries. A number of systematic reviews have shown the effectiveness of HRM in musculoskeletal conditions. Reviews focusing on the effectiveness of HRM in non-musculoskeletal disorders are rare. This systematic review aims to provide an overview about all types of health resort treatments applied in non-musculoskeletal conditions, to summarize evidence for its effectiveness and to assess the quality of published studies. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase were searched for articles published between January 2002 and December 2013. We used a broad search strategy in order to find studies investigating the effects of HRM in non-musculoskeletal disorders. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (EPHPP-QAT). Forty-one studies (19 of them with control group) from eight countries examining the efficacy of various forms of spa treatment for 12 disease groups were included. The studies are markedly heterogeneous regarding study design, population and treatment. HRM treatment is associated with clinical improvement in diseases of the skin, respiratory, circulatory, digestive and nervous system among others. However, small samples, the lack of control groups and an insufficient follow-up often limit the generated evidence. The scientific literature of the last decade has shown that a number of non-musculoskeletal disorders are treated with different kinds of HRM. The challenge for the future will be to carry out thoroughly designed studies in larger patient populations to corroborate the impact of HRM treatment on non-musculoskeletal disorders.

  11. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in truck drivers and official workers.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Abolfazl; Vahedian, Mostafa; Mohebi, Siamak; Najafi, Mohsen

    2015-07-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are common among drivers and official workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are frequent causes of absenteeism in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors associated with these symptoms. A total of 346 workers and truck drivers were participated in this case-control study. All the participants were interviewed using a self- administered questionnaire containing demographic data and a Nordic questionnaire about presence site and characteristics of pain. Then the data were gathered, and the prevalence of the mentioned parameters and the relationship between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed statistically. The results of this study revealed that 78.6% out of truck drivers and 55.5% out of official workers had musculoskeletal disorders in on-year and there was a significant difference between two groups in this regard (P<0.001). On the whole, the most common symptoms were neck 47 (27.2%), followed by lumbar pain 42 (24.3%) in truck drivers and knee 63 (36.4%) and lumbar symptom 21 (12.1%) in one-year in official workers. In this study, musculoskeletal disorders showed statistically significant association with work duration, age and BMI (P<0.001). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the musculoskeletal troubles have a high frequency among the drivers and official workers. Both groups usually remain on a prolonged uncomfortable postures and high static muscle load which may imply a risk for development of the troubles. PMID:26520631

  12. Electromyography in musculoskeletal pain: A reappraisal and practical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and local tenderness in the back and extremities are frequently referred to electromyography (EMG) laboratory to assess the integrity of the spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and skeletal muscles. When focal muscle weakness and anatomical sensory deficits are clinically evident, this procedure is almost always abnormal. In some situations, when the presenting symptoms consist of local pain and tenderness without neuromuscular deficits, its diagnostic utility becomes questionable as illustrated in the present study. Methods: EMG findings of 75 patients referred for evaluation of local MSP and tenderness in the neck and lower back and in the upper and lower extremities were reviewed. These patients were selected from a group of 200 patients referred for evaluation of unilateral local pain and tenderness in various parts of the body. All EMG procedures and clinical neurologic examination were performed by the author and all underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the affected parts of the body prior to the procedure. None of the 75 patients studied had concurrent medical disorders or had previous spinal root injuries or surgeries to the spine. Results: All 75 patients in this study showed normal EMG of the affected extremities and normal peripheral nerve conduction study. Those with herniated disc in the cervical or lumbar spine presenting with local pain and tenderness in the neck and lower back but without neurologic deficits or clear radicular symptoms, had normal study also. The remaining 125 patients excluded from the study, had various EMG and peripheral nerve abnormalities that can be attributed to concurrent medical disorders and previous injuries to the spinal roots. Conclusions: Use of EMG in the diagnosis of local MSP, unless associated with clinical neurologic deficits, almost always yields negative results. The utility of this procedure is limited to pathology in the motor unit. It cannot assess

  13. Effect of temozolomide on the viability of musculoskeletal sarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    KUSABE, YUTA; KAWASHIMA, HIROYUKI; OGOSE, AKIRA; SASAKI, TARO; ARIIZUMI, TAKASHI; HOTTA, TETSUO; ENDO, NAOTO

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal sarcomas (MSS) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with relatively high mortality rates. The prognosis for patients with MSS is poor, with few drugs inducing measurable activity. Alkylating agents, namely ifosfamide and dacarbazine, which act nonspecifically on proliferating cells, are the typical therapy prescribed for advanced MSS. A novel alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), has several advantages over existing alkylating agents. TMZ induces the formation of O6-methylguanine in DNA, thereby inducing mismatches during DNA replication and the subsequent activation of apoptotic pathways. However, due to conflicting data in the literature, the mechanism of TMZ action has remained elusive. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate apoptosis in MSS cells treated with TMZ, and to evaluate the correlation between TMZ action and survival pathways, including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Cell proliferation was evaluated by performing an XTT (sodium 3′-[1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis (4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) assay. Apoptotic morphological changes, for example chromatin condensation, were evaluated by fluorescence confocal microscopy. The expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins caspase-3, poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP), Akt and ERK1/2, was determined by western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that, in certain MSS cells, the IC50 value was lower than that in TMZ-sensitive U-87 MG cells. Furthermore, TMZ treatment was associated with apoptotic morphological changes and the expression levels of pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 and PARP were also increased in TMZ-treated MSS cells. In addition, the results indicated that PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 MAPK were constitutively phosphorylated in MSS cells, and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt was suppressed in certain

  14. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  15. Proceedings from the 7th Annual International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) conference.

    PubMed

    Troum, Orrin M; Pimienta, Olga L; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Ostergaard, Mikkel; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Gaylis, Norman; Arnold, William; Ben-Artzi, Ami; Ranganath, Veena; Seraphine, Judy L; Peterfy, Charles

    2015-08-01

    The International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) was founded in 2005 with the goal of discussing matters related to imaging in rheumatology, particularly, validation, education, and use in clinical practice and research. Because the field of musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging is rapidly evolving, continuous education in the field is imperative. ISEMIR's international faculty and world-renowned experts presented the newest information as it relates to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) at the 7th annual ISEMIR meeting which took place on April 12-14, 2014 in Santa Monica, California. Presentations from the meeting can be viewed at www.isemir.org. PMID:25908178

  16. Prediction of Musculoskeletal Discomfort in a Pick and Place Task (A pilot study).

    PubMed

    Kruizinga; Delleman; Schellekens

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted regarding the effects of working posture, handling frequency, and task duration on musculoskeletal discomfort. Participants rated their discomfort perceived while performing a repetitive task at 8 different combinations of manipulations. Pauses between the work periods lasted 15 min. Discomfort was rated according to Borg's category-ratio scale CR-10 and postures were recorded by an optoelectronic movement registration system. From linear multiple regression analysis equations for predicting discomfort at various body regions were obtained. Coefficients of determination especially point to trunk inclination and handling frequency as major determinants of musculoskeletal discomfort.

  17. Musculoskeletal pain and insomnia among workers with different occupations and working hours.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Claudia R C; Lowden, Arne; Vasconcelos, Suleima; Marqueze, Elaine C

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown a bidirectional relationship between insomnia and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether working hours and type of occupation are associated with insomnia, pain and insomnia plus pain. Insomnia and musculoskeletal pain symptoms were measured in airline pilots, rural workers and factory workers using validated indexes. Rural and night work were predictors for the outcomes (insomnia and pain). However, musculoskeletal pain was found to be a predictor of insomnia but not vice versa. The current findings suggest that working hours and type of occupation play a role in the sleep-pain relationship. PMID:27088881

  18. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de Los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-06-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone.

  19. Water-based Tai Chi: theoretical benefits in musculoskeletal diseases. Current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Vázquez-Torres, Lucio; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; de los Angeles Soria-Bastida, María; Cruz-Medina, Eva; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi is a low-impact and moderate intensity exercise that has shown positive effects in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recently have been developed clinical studies on the benefits of Tai Chi techniques combined with hydrotherapy. Both types of treatment include physical training of balance, mobility, strength, coordination and sensory input that could complement each other. This report aims to present the current evidence about the benefits of the combination of water based Tai Chi in musculoskeletal diseases in order to establish whether the combined intervention is better than Tai Chi or hydrotherapy alone. PMID:26171376

  20. Proceedings from the 7th Annual International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) conference.

    PubMed

    Troum, Orrin M; Pimienta, Olga L; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Ostergaard, Mikkel; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Gaylis, Norman; Arnold, William; Ben-Artzi, Ami; Ranganath, Veena; Seraphine, Judy L; Peterfy, Charles

    2015-08-01

    The International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) was founded in 2005 with the goal of discussing matters related to imaging in rheumatology, particularly, validation, education, and use in clinical practice and research. Because the field of musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging is rapidly evolving, continuous education in the field is imperative. ISEMIR's international faculty and world-renowned experts presented the newest information as it relates to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) at the 7th annual ISEMIR meeting which took place on April 12-14, 2014 in Santa Monica, California. Presentations from the meeting can be viewed at www.isemir.org.

  1. Proceedings from The 8th Annual International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) Conference.

    PubMed

    Troum, Orrin M; Pimienta, Olga L; Olech, Ewa; Østergaard, Mikkel; Thiele, Ralf; Seraphine, Judy L; Bruyn, George A W; Peterfy, Charles

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Musculoskeletal Imaging in Rheumatology (ISEMIR) was founded in 2005 with the goal of discussing matters related to imaging in rheumatology, particularly, validation, education, and use in both clinical practice and research. The field of musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging is continuously evolving; therefore, education for healthcare providers in this field is of paramount importance. ISEMIR's international faculty and world-renowned experts presented the newest information as it relates to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) at the 8th annual ISEMIR meeting that took place on April 17-18 in Santa Monica, California. Presentations from the meeting can be viewed at www.isemir.org.

  2. Electrical stimulation: Its role in growth, repair and remodeling of the musculoskeletal system

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the increasingly popular field of electrical stimulation of lesions of the musculoskeletal system, exploring its use in both research and treatment. The book describes clinical experience with electrical stimulation in orthopedic, neuro- and plastic surgery, biological sources of electrical signals, and electromechanical characterization of tissues. Contents include: growth; remodeling and repair; electricity and magnetism; electrical properties of tissues; natural electrical signals in the musculoskeletal system; methods for stimulating tissues; cell, tissue and organ culture; animal studies; clinical applications; overview and a glossary.

  3. Muscle-tendon unit scaling methods of Hill-type musculoskeletal models: An overview.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Frederik; Lund, Morten E; Rasmussen, John; de Zee, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art in scaling methods of generic Hill-type muscle model parameters in view of different applications and implementation of experimental data. This article establishes the requirements used to alter a generic model toward subject-specific musculoskeletal models. This article aims to improve model transparency by a structured description of scaling methods and the associated limitations in musculoskeletal models and highlight the importance of selecting a scaling method supporting the purpose of the model.

  4. Contemporary issues in computed tomography: Computed tomography of the musculoskeletal system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.W.; Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to focus on the application of CT to the musculoskeletal system. Ten chapters deal with tumors, inflammation, trauma, and osteoporosis. There are specific chapters for the foot and ankle, the shoulder, and also for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and newer CT scanning capabilities. Five interesting case discussions are included. Each chapter provides an up-to-date reference list. Each chapter varies, which reflects the styles of the contributing authors, but each one is well written, concise, comprehensive, and illustrated with good quality and representative scans. This book covers a broad range of musculoskeletal topics.

  5. NASA's new technology reporting system: A review and future prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic effort is made to describe how NASA's new technology reporting system operates today, and how that system might be enhanced. The system is documented in terms of organization, operational practices, and other program benefits. Identified and assessed are incentives or disincentives to reporting, program management, program follow through, and the feasibility of various means for improving the general process. NASA has the only system in the Federal Government for capturing and disseminating new technology developed under its sponsorship of research and development. This system can be improved in many ways, some of which require additional resources and/or more senior management attention, but many of which can be instituted within the authority of the leadership of the Technology Utilization program. The suggested options and actions presented are mutually compatible. Any single action will contribute to improving the process. However, the first and most important step is undoubtedly to gain senior management's attention to the central role played by a vigorous new technology reporting system in the success and value of NASA's broader technology utilization and technology transfer activities.

  6. NASA's New Technology Reporting System: A Review and Future Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    This report represents a systematic effort to describe how NASA's new technology reporting system operates today, and how that system might be enhanced. Although the system has run for more than two decades, it is not well documented in terms of organization, operational practices, or other program benchmarks. The study seeks to identify and assess incentives or disincentives to reporting, program management, program follow through, and the feasibility of various means for improving the general process. Initially, it was hoped that the study team might uncover the kind of information that would permit the determination of some 'average' sequence of events (or a time line) from the point of identifying a solution to technical 'need' to the point where its solution was actually reported to NASA. Information regarding this objective proved to be too elusive, primarily because early probes revealed that con- tractor awareness of the new technology requirements generally was too poor to provide useful information. The report that follows is based primarily upon documents furnished by NASA Headquarters, by Field Center technology utilization officers, and interviews with persons knowledgeable about the system. Visits were made to seven Field Centers: Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center, Lewis Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. Other documents were furnished by officials of major aerospace corporations. Detailed interviews were conducted with Field Center technology utilization officials, project engineers or scientists, patent counsels, and other Field Center officials who had knowledge about the new technology reporting system. Interviews also were conducted with knowledgeable officials from a number of the primary aerospace companies. Numeric data was obtained from regular NASA reports, from original sources such as, NASA Tech Briefs, or from contractor reports. I am indebted to dozens of persons in both NASA and industry who took time to assist in the data collection by being interviewed, and through answering follow up questions on the telephone. Individuals interviewed and their affiliations are shown in Appendix A. I am most grateful to them for their kind assistance. A note of thanks is due to the other members of the DRI study team: Jody Briles, Kathy Hirst, and Joel Johnson. The responsibility for this report, its accuracy, and the nature of the observations and conclusions rest solely with the author. Text or citations in the numbered footnotes are to be found at the end of each chapter.

  7. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing

    PubMed Central

    Berke, Ian M.; Miola, Joseph P.; David, Michael A.; Smith, Melanie K.; Price, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI) matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy) and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining). Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal tissues. PMID:26930293

  8. Seeing through Musculoskeletal Tissues: Improving In Situ Imaging of Bone and the Lacunar Canalicular System through Optical Clearing.

    PubMed

    Berke, Ian M; Miola, Joseph P; David, Michael A; Smith, Melanie K; Price, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In situ, cells of the musculoskeletal system reside within complex and often interconnected 3-D environments. Key to better understanding how 3-D tissue and cellular environments regulate musculoskeletal physiology, homeostasis, and health is the use of robust methodologies for directly visualizing cell-cell and cell-matrix architecture in situ. However, the use of standard optical imaging techniques is often of limited utility in deep imaging of intact musculoskeletal tissues due to the highly scattering nature of biological tissues. Drawing inspiration from recent developments in the deep-tissue imaging field, we describe the application of immersion based optical clearing techniques, which utilize the principle of refractive index (RI) matching between the clearing/mounting media and tissue under observation, to improve the deep, in situ imaging of musculoskeletal tissues. To date, few optical clearing techniques have been applied specifically to musculoskeletal tissues, and a systematic comparison of the clearing ability of optical clearing agents in musculoskeletal tissues has yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study we tested the ability of eight different aqueous and non-aqueous clearing agents, with RIs ranging from 1.45 to 1.56, to optically clear murine knee joints and cortical bone. We demonstrated and quantified the ability of these optical clearing agents to clear musculoskeletal tissues and improve both macro- and micro-scale imaging of musculoskeletal tissue across several imaging modalities (stereomicroscopy, spectroscopy, and one-, and two-photon confocal microscopy) and investigational techniques (dynamic bone labeling and en bloc tissue staining). Based upon these findings we believe that optical clearing, in combination with advanced imaging techniques, has the potential to complement classical musculoskeletal analysis techniques; opening the door for improved in situ investigation and quantification of musculoskeletal tissues.

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Musculoskeletal Physical Fitness Testing in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Sharon Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the 10 most pressing questions relevant to musculoskeletal physical fitness testing in children and adolescents. The goal is to stimulate research to answer these questions. The most pressing needs include establishing definitive links between valid, reliable, and feasible field test measures of…

  10. Analysis of Risk Factors for Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Radiological Technologists

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehyung; Roh, Hyolyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze, through ergonomic analyses, those motions most used by radiological technologists that can cause musculoskeletal disorders. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 7 radiological technologists with work experience in hospitals for more than 5 years. For the analysis of working postures, we simulated the work posture of radiological technologists when moving patients, when pushing or pulling an apparatus, when conducting ultrasonography, and when handling a mouse for MRI were analyzed. [Results] In this study, the burdens on the radiological technologists’ waists were shown to be high when they were moving patients for a CT scan. During mouse handling for an MRI scan, large burdens were imposed on the neck. In the case of ultrasonography working postures, larger burdens on the leg and neck were found when the patient’s examination sites were located further away. The assessment of working postures when pushing a portable radiation apparatus showed that burdens on the musculoskeletal system increased as the weight of the apparatus increased. [Conclusion] The musculoskeletal disorders of radiological technologists occur in various regions of their bodies but occur most frequently in the shoulder and the lumbar region. Therefore, hospitals need to be educated regarding the concept of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:25276028

  11. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine. 3. Knee and lower extremity injuries.

    PubMed

    Ellen, M I; Young, J L; Sarni, J L

    1999-05-01

    This self-directed learning module discusses classic concepts and highlights new advances in the diagnosis and management of knee and lower extremity injuries that commonly occur during athletic competition. It is part of the chapter on musculoskeletal rehabilitation and sports medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

  12. Utility of a sports medicine model in military combat concussion and musculoskeletal restoration care.

    PubMed

    Spooner, Shawn P; Tyner, Stuart D; Sowers, Christopher; Tsao, Jack; Stuessi, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Combat-related concussions are significant sources of injury and morbidity among deployed military service members. Musculoskeletal injury also is one of the most prevalent battle and nonbattle-related deployed injury types. Both injuries threaten the service member's physical condition as well as unit and mission readiness due to reduced duty status or evacuation from military theater of operations. In August 2010, the Concussion Restoration Care Center (CRCC) was established at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, to address the need for consistent and specialized evaluation and care of concussion and musculoskeletal injury. This performance improvement effort examined evaluation and treatment of concussion and musculoskeletal injury at the CRCC. Among 4,947 military personnel evaluated at the CRCC between August 2010 and May 2013, 97.9% were returned to duty and retained in theater. Members averaged 10 to 12 days of limited duty status to achieve complete recovery. Concussion injury was secondary to blast injury in 90% of cases. Sport/recreation, occupational, and other accidental injuries each represented 30% of the musculoskeletal injuries with only 10% reported as result of combat. The utilization patterns and outcome measures demonstrate the success and utility of a multidisciplinary clinical model of care for these two types of injuries in the far-forward deployed setting.

  13. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone’s liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today’s environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  14. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  15. Utility of positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging in musculoskeletal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Ammar A; Gul, Maryam; Gould, Elaine; Teng, Mathew; Baker, Kevin; Matthews, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has established itself as one of the key clinical tools in evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. However, MRI still has several key limitations which require supplemental information from additional modalities to complete evaluation of various disorders. This has led to the development hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI which is rapidly evolving to address key clinical questions by using the morphological strengths of MRI and functional information of PET imaging. In this article, we aim to review physical principles and techniques of PET-MRI and discuss clinical utility of functional information obtained from PET imaging and structural information obtained from MRI imaging for the evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. More specifically, this review highlights the role of PET-MRI in musculoskeletal oncology including initial diagnosis and staging, treatment planning and post-treatment follow-up. Also we will review utility of PET-MRI in evaluating musculoskeletal infections (especially in the immunocompromised and diabetics) and inflammatory condition. Additionally, common pitfalls of PET-MRI will be addressed. PMID:27027320

  16. Musculoskeletal disorders in shipyard industry: prevalence, health care use, and absenteeism

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni; Burdorf, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the well-known risk factors for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) also play an important role in the determining consequences of MSD in terms of sickness absence and health care use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 853 shipyard employees. Data were collected by questionnaire on physical and psychosocial workload, need for recovery, perceived general health, occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints, and health care use during the past year. Retrospective data on absenteeism were also available from the company register. Results In total, 37%, 22%, and 15% of employees reported complaints of low back, shoulder/neck, and hand/wrist during the past 12 months, respectively. Among all employees with at least one MSD, 27% visited a physician at least once and 20% took at least one period of sick leave. Various individual and work-related factors were associated with the occurrence of MSD. Health care use and absenteeism were strongest influenced by chronicity of musculoskeletal complaints and comorbidity with other musculoskeletal complaints and, to a lesser extent, by work-related factors. Conclusion In programmes aimed at preventing the unfavourable consequences of MSD in terms of sickness absence and health care use it is important to identify the (individual) factors that determine the development of chronicity of complaints. These factors may differ from the well-know risk factors for the occurrence of MSD that are targeted in primary prevention. PMID:17125504

  17. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : A survey of physical therapists in Izmir-Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Salik, Yesim; Özcan, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was planned to collect data about causes, prevalence and responses to work-related musculoskeletal disorders reported by physiotherapists employed in Izmir, Turkey. Method A two-page survey with closed ended questions was used as the data collected method. This survey was distributed to 205 physiotherapists working in Izmir, Turkey, and 120 physiotherapists answered. Questions included occupational history of physiotherapists and musculoskeletal symptoms, special areas, tasks, job-related risk factors, injury prevention strategies, and responses to injury. Results Eighty-five percent of the physiotherapists have had a musculoskeletal injury once or more in their lifetime. Injuries have been occurred mostly in low back (26 %), hand-wrist (18 %), shoulders (14 %) and neck (12 %). The highest risk factor in causing the injury was transferring the patient at 15%. Sixty-nine percent of physiotherapists visited a physician for their injury and sixty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that they had not limited their patient contact time as a result to their injury Conclusions According to the results of this study, the rate of musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapists in Izmir-Turkey has been found to be high due to their profession. Respondents felt that a change in work habits was required in order to decrease the risk of another injury. PMID:15315712

  18. Effects of self stretching on pain and musculoskeletal symptom of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed on a scale of numeric rating scale (NRS) which is divided by 10. Ergonomic posture assessment was conducted using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). Self-stretching exercise was performed for 4 weeks by the bus drivers who suffered from neck and shoulder pain. [Results] Musculoskeletal symptoms were present in the order of shoulder, neck, lower back and lower extremities. Compared with other jobs, the final score, and the action level of bus drivers were very high, showing 57.6% of action levels 3 and 4. A statistically significant decrease of pain was shown after the self-stretching intervention. There was also a significant decrease of musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders after the self-stretching exercise. [Conclusion] Performing stretching for musculoskeletal symptoms had a positive influence on the symptoms and reduced pain.

  19. 38 CFR 4.71a - Schedule of ratings-musculoskeletal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—musculoskeletal system. Acute, Subacute, or Chronic Diseases Rating 5000Osteomyelitis, acute, subacute, or chronic... diagnosis 20 For chronic residuals: For residuals such as limitation of motion or ankylosis, favorable or... rated under diagnostic code 5002. 5025Fibromyalgia (fibrositis, primary fibromyalgia syndrome)...

  20. 38 CFR 4.71a - Schedule of ratings-musculoskeletal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...—musculoskeletal system. Acute, Subacute, or Chronic Diseases Rating 5000Osteomyelitis, acute, subacute, or chronic... diagnosis 20 For chronic residuals: For residuals such as limitation of motion or ankylosis, favorable or... rated under diagnostic code 5002. 5025Fibromyalgia (fibrositis, primary fibromyalgia syndrome)...

  1. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  2. Psychological distress and somatisation as prognostic factors in patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, C K; Fink, P; Olesen, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal illness is a common cause of absenteeism from work, workers' compensation, and disability retirement, and accounts for 9.3% to 17% of patient contacts in general practice. To understand the increase in self-reported musculoskeletal illness and to improve treatment and prevention, it is important to know which factors to target when dealing with these patients. AIM: To investigate whether the prognosis for patients with musculoskeletal illness referred to physiotherapy from general practice can be predicted by the presence of psychological distress and somatisation identified by a general practitioner (GP) and standard questionnaires. METHOD: A multi-practice survey based on questionnaires (index and three-month follow-up). Nine hundred and five consecutive patients referred to physiotherapy from 124 different general practices in Denmark were included. Outcome measures were physical health change, sick leave, patient self-rated improvement, and change in use of medication. RESULTS: Psychological distress and somatisation rated by both GPs and standard questionnaires acted with almost no exception as significant predictors of all four outcome measures. CONCLUSION: Psychological distress and somatisation are important factors when considering preventive initiatives and treatment of patients with musculoskeletal illness in general practice. PMID:10954933

  3. Comparative study of upper limb load assessment and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders at repetitive task workstations.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Bugajska, Joanna; Tokarski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between subjectively assessed complaints of pain in the arm, forearm and hand, and musculoskeletal load caused by repetitive tasks. Workers (n=942) were divided into 22 subgroups, according to the type of their workstations. They answered questions on perceived musculoskeletal pain of upper limbs. Basic and aggregate indices from a questionnaire on the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain were compared with an upper limb load indicator (repetitive task index, RTI) calculated with the recently developed Upper Limb Risk Assessment (ULRA). There was relatively strong correlation of RTI and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm, and general intensity and frequency of pain in the arm and forearm or prevalence of pain in the arm. Frequency and intensity of pain in the arm were weakly correlated. An aggregate indicator of evaluation of MSDs, which was calculated on the basis of the prevalence, intensity and frequency of pain, was to a higher degree associated with the musculoskeletal load of a task than basic evaluative parameters. Thus, such an aggregate indicator can be an alternative in comparing subjectively assessed MSDs with task-related musculoskeletal load and in establishing limit levels for that load. PMID:24975106

  4. Musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly: what radiologists should know about early manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, A; Resmini, E; Ferone, D; Martinoli, C

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarise the early musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly. Some of the early signs of acromegaly may be evaluated by the musculoskeletal radiologist. In the early stage of disease, peripheral nerve enlargement associated with carpal tunnel syndrome or cubital tunnel syndrome and thickening of retinacula, such as A1 pulley in trigger finger, represent the features that may be seen by radiologists and are worthy of an endocrinological evaluation. Due to the insidious nature of the disease, the diagnosis of acromegaly is significantly delayed. Few and nonspecific symptoms characterise the initial phases of the disease, and therefore, most patients will have generally consulted many specialists (most frequently musculoskeletal radiologists) before an adequate endocrinological assessment is performed. For this reason, initial clinical signs are much more important than symptoms for an early diagnosis of acromegaly. The first and most important therapeutic approach to acromegaly is early diagnosis, whereas the therapeutic goals are to eliminate morbidity and reduce mortality to the expected age- and sex-adjusted rates and prevent the development of systemic complications. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be aware that these features may be early manifestations of acromegaly. When both radiological and clinical abnormalities are present, an endocrinological workup is useful to diagnose the disease in an early phase. PMID:21424559

  5. Effects of exercise on pain of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisângela Valevein; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira; Tanhoffer, Aldre Izabel Pchevozniki; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are a major concern for public health and pain is the most important symptom. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of workplace exercises to control musculoskeletal pain and its frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercises used. The search was conducted systematically in Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Bireme, Web of Knowledge and Pedro databases. The keywords "workplace", "exercise" and "musculoskeletal disorders" were used combined. Randomized control trials which performed worksite exercises were selected and the studies were assessed by their methodological soundness. Ten articles were selected which investigated the resistance training, cardio respiratory exercises, Pilates, stretching, postural orientation and exercises for relaxation. Workplace resistance training performed at 70-85% RM, three times a week for 20 minutes promotes reduction of the pain in shoulders, wrists, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine. However, there is no consensus regarding the total duration of the intervention for the decrease of musculoskeletal pain in these regions. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment, Systematic Review of RCTs (Randomized and Controlled Clinical Studies). PMID:25538482

  6. Knowledge in managing musculoskeletal conditions and educational preparation of physical therapists in the uniformed services.

    PubMed

    Childs, John D; Whitman, Julie M; Pugia, Maria L; Sizer, Phil S; Flynn, Timothy W; Delitto, Anthony

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge in managing musculoskeletal conditions among physical therapists in the uniformed services based on their educational background and preparation. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 182 physical therapists in the uniformed services completed a standardized examination that assesses knowledge in managing musculoskeletal conditions. Physical therapists in the uniformed services who graduated from the U.S. Army-Baylor Doctoral Program in Physical Therapy or had attended a specific continuing medical education course that emphasizes the management of musculoskeletal conditions achieved higher scores and passing rates than their colleagues who had not. Compared with previously published data, physical therapists in the uniformed services demonstrated higher scores than medical students, physician interns and residents, active duty military physicians, and all physician specialists except for orthopedists. Physical therapists in the uniformed services have the requisite knowledge to provide direct access for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. These data may have implications for health and public policy decisions within the military health care system related to the utilization and educational preparation of physical therapists in the uniformed services.

  7. The relationship between smartphone use and subjective musculoskeletal symptoms and university students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Jin-Seop

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of smartphones by university students in selected areas, their musculoskeletal symptoms, and the associated hazard ratio. [Subjects and Methods] This involved the completion of a self-administered questionnaire by dental hygiene students in Seoul, Gyeonggido, and Gyeongsangbukdo. The 292 completed copies of the questionnaire were then analyzed. [Results] The most painful body regions after the use of smartphones were found to be the shoulders and neck. In the musculoskeletal system, back pain was found to have a positive correlation with the size of the smartphone's liquid crystal display (LCD) screen, and pain in legs and feet were found to have a negative correlation with the length of time that the smartphone was used. As a result, it was revealed that the use of a smartphone was correlated with musculoskeletal symptoms. [Conclusion] Therefore, in today's environment, where the use of smartphones is on the rise, it is necessary to improve the ways that they are used and to develop a preventive program to alleviate the symptoms of musculoskeletal damage. PMID:25931684

  8. A Study to Evaluate Genetic Predictors of Aromatase Inhibitor Musculoskeletal Symptoms (AIMSS)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Musculoskeletal Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Musculoskeletal features of acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Olafsson, S; Khan, M A

    1992-02-01

    This article describes the various forms of acne and the clinical and radiographic features of the associated musculoskeletal manifestations. Occasionally, acne may occur together with hidradenitis suppurativa and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, the so called "follicular occlusion triad." The current understanding of the etiology of these conditions and their treatment are also reviewed. PMID:1532858

  10. Brain Size, IQ, and Racial-Group Differences: Evidence from Musculoskeletal Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.

    2003-01-01

    Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…

  11. 76 FR 77544 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: January 31,...

  12. 75 FR 26762 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Ancillary Clinical Studies Review. Date: June 10, 2010... Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20817,...

  13. 78 FR 76634 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... 30, 2013, 78 FR 59945. This teleconference, originally scheduled for October 23, 2013, will be held... Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October...

  14. 77 FR 47653 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: September...

  15. 77 FR 1702 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Inflammation Branch and the Laboratory of Skin Biology. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31,...

  16. 76 FR 24896 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: June 14,...

  17. 78 FR 25753 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: June 4,...

  18. 78 FR 64223 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ..., Bethesda, MD, 20892 which was published in the Federal Register on September 30, 2013, 78 FR 59945. This... Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, October...

  19. 77 FR 26301 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: June 5,...

  20. 78 FR 47327 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: September...

  1. 75 FR 28260 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: June 15,...

  2. 76 FR 9031 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Branch and the Laboratory of Skin Biology. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31...

  3. 77 FR 64814 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAMS clinical trial and planning grant applications in rheumatoid arthritis and skin diseases. Date: November 16, 2012. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda:...

  4. 77 FR 75181 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: February 5,...

  5. 78 FR 66029 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Road, Bethesda, MD 20852, which was published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2013, 78 FR... Skin Diseases Amended; Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Clinical Trials Review Committee, October 15, 2013, 8:00...

  6. 75 FR 48979 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: September...

  7. 76 FR 1187 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: February 1,...

  8. 76 FR 13649 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal And Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Program Project Grant Review. Date: March 24, 2011. Time... Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, MSC 4872, Bethesda,...

  9. 78 FR 17679 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Skin Diseases; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIAMS Clinical Trial Outcome Development. Date: March 29... Skin Diseases, NIH, 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-4953,...

  10. 77 FR 14407 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892 which was published in the Federal Register on February 17, 2012, FR... Skin Diseases; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, March...

  11. 76 FR 51044 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Advisory Council. Date: September...

  12. 77 FR 28397 - National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... Skin Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, P30 Rheumatic Diseases Core Center Review. Date: June 13... Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 6701 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800, Bethesda, MD...

  13. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L.; Boots, Mathew T.; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions. PMID:27736890

  14. FAST ERGO_X - a tool for ergonomic auditing and work-related musculoskeletal disorders prevention.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Isabel L

    2009-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders associated with repetitive and strenuous working conditions continue to represent one of the biggest occupational problems in companies. Despite the variety of efforts to control them, including engineering design changes, organizational modifications and working methods training programs, work-related musculoskeletal disorders account for a huge amount of human suffering and economic costs to companies and to healthcare systems. This paper presents an ergonomic analysis tool, FAST ERGO_X, designed to support ergonomic auditing activities related with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. This tool can be used to analyze workplaces regarding potential ergonomic risk factors. The FAST ERGO_X is a fuzzy expert system designed to help the identification, assessment and control of the risk factors present in the work system, due to lack of adequate ergonomics. Based on objective and subjective data, the system evaluates the risk factors that can lead to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and presents the findings resulting from such evaluation. The system also presents recommendations to eliminate or at least reduce the risk factors present in the work situation under analysis.

  15. Musculoskeletal Load in and Highly Repetitive Actions of Animal Facility Washroom Employees

    PubMed Central

    Kiermayer, Claudia; Hoehne-Hückstädt, Ulrike M; Brielmeier, Markus; Brütting, Mark; Ellegast, Rolf; Schmidt, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Regular work tasks in the washroom of laboratory animal facilities include cleaning of cages and bottles and handling of chow and bedding. These operations largely are carried out by hand. We quantitatively determined the musculoskeletal load on the trunk and upper limbs of washroom employees in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 35,000 rodent cages by using a computer-assisted, quantitative, recording, and long-term analysis (CUELA) system, which volunteers wore during routine work. Parallel video recording allowed exact assignment of each movement of body and limbs to the data recorded by the sensors. For the most part, trunk movements were unassociated with risk of injury. Evaluation of upper limb movements by CUELA indicated elevated burden on shoulder, elbows, and wrists due to the high repetitiveness and range of movements and postures. However, after additional work factors like low effort and the presence of micropauses were taken into account, workers were not at risk for the development of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs. Handling bottles, chow, and bedding and maneuvering trolleys that entailed greater musculoskeletal loads did not yield evidence of overstraining, because the actions typically were executed alternately and were of short duration during daily shifts. The results represent quantitative information on the musculoskeletal load of regular washroom operations in a laboratory animal facility. These data provide the basis for ergonomic redesign of operations and implementation of automation for highly repetitive movements. PMID:22330713

  16. Musculoskeletal load in and highly repetitive actions of animal facility washroom employees.

    PubMed

    Kiermayer, Claudia; Hoehne-Hückstädt, Ulrike M; Brielmeier, Markus; Brütting, Mark; Ellegast, Rolf; Schmidt, Jörg

    2011-09-01

    Regular work tasks in the washroom of laboratory animal facilities include cleaning of cages and bottles and handling of chow and bedding. These operations largely are carried out by hand. We quantitatively determined the musculoskeletal load on the trunk and upper limbs of washroom employees in an animal facility with a holding capacity of 35,000 rodent cages by using a computer-assisted, quantitative, recording, and long-term analysis (CUELA) system, which volunteers wore during routine work. Parallel video recording allowed exact assignment of each movement of body and limbs to the data recorded by the sensors. For the most part, trunk movements were unassociated with risk of injury. Evaluation of upper limb movements by CUELA indicated elevated burden on shoulder, elbows, and wrists due to the high repetitiveness and range of movements and postures. However, after additional work factors like low effort and the presence of micropauses were taken into account, workers were not at risk for the development of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs. Handling bottles, chow, and bedding and maneuvering trolleys that entailed greater musculoskeletal loads did not yield evidence of overstraining, because the actions typically were executed alternately and were of short duration during daily shifts. The results represent quantitative information on the musculoskeletal load of regular washroom operations in a laboratory animal facility. These data provide the basis for ergonomic redesign of operations and implementation of automation for highly repetitive movements.

  17. Musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly: what radiologists should know about early manifestations.

    PubMed

    Tagliafico, A; Resmini, E; Ferone, D; Martinoli, C

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarise the early musculoskeletal complications of acromegaly. Some of the early signs of acromegaly may be evaluated by the musculoskeletal radiologist. In the early stage of disease, peripheral nerve enlargement associated with carpal tunnel syndrome or cubital tunnel syndrome and thickening of retinacula, such as A1 pulley in trigger finger, represent the features that may be seen by radiologists and are worthy of an endocrinological evaluation. Due to the insidious nature of the disease, the diagnosis of acromegaly is significantly delayed. Few and nonspecific symptoms characterise the initial phases of the disease, and therefore, most patients will have generally consulted many specialists (most frequently musculoskeletal radiologists) before an adequate endocrinological assessment is performed. For this reason, initial clinical signs are much more important than symptoms for an early diagnosis of acromegaly. The first and most important therapeutic approach to acromegaly is early diagnosis, whereas the therapeutic goals are to eliminate morbidity and reduce mortality to the expected age- and sex-adjusted rates and prevent the development of systemic complications. Musculoskeletal radiologists should be aware that these features may be early manifestations of acromegaly. When both radiological and clinical abnormalities are present, an endocrinological workup is useful to diagnose the disease in an early phase.

  18. Job demands and musculoskeletal symptoms among female geriatric nurses: the moderating role of psychosocial resources.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Sinervo, Timo; Heponiemi, Tarja; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined whether job resources (job control, social support, and distributive justice) moderate the associations of high job demands induced by physical and mental workload with musculoskeletal symptoms among geriatric nurses. The data were drawn in Finland from 975 female nurses working in 152 geriatric units who responded to a survey questionnaire. Information on the objective workload in terms of resident characteristics and structural factors was also collected at the unit level. After adjusting for the objective workload, multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that self-reported physical workload was associated with higher risk of musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.93, 95 % CI [1.38, 2.72]) among nurses with low social support. In addition, mental workload was associated with higher risk of musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.12, 2.62]) for those with low distributive justice. The results suggest that social support and fair reward systems may help to buffer against the detrimental effects of heavy job demands on nurses' musculoskeletal symptoms.

  19. Association of Parental Awareness of Using Schoolbags with Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Carrying Habits of Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    The association between parental awareness of using schoolbags and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms and carrying habits of children was investigated in a cross-sectional study in Tabriz, Iran. Data on 454 students aged 11-14 years and their parents (n = 358) were analyzed. The awareness of the recommended weight limit, appropriate method…

  20. Prediction and prevention of musculoskeletal injury: a paradigm shift in methodology

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, C E; Quatman, C C; Hewett, T E

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to study musculoskeletal injury mechanisms and joint biomechanics utilise in vivo or in vitro techniques. The advent of new technology and improved methods has also given rise to in silico (computer modelling) techniques. Under the current research paradigm, in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods independently provide information regarding the mechanisms and prevention of musculoskeletal injury. However, individually, each of these methods has multiple, inherent limitations and is likely to provide incomplete answers about multifactorial, complex injury conditions. The purpose of this treatise is to review current methods used to study, understand, and prevent musculoskeletal injury and to develop new conceptual-methodological frameworks that may help create a paradigm shift in musculoskeletal injury prevention research. We term the fusion of these three techniques in simulacra amalgama, or simply in sim, meaning a “union of models done on the likeness of phenomena.” Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury will be employed as a model example for the utility and applicability of the proposed, synthesised approach. Shifting the current experimental paradigm to incorporate a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, integration of in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods into the proposed in sim approaches may provide a platform for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationships between complex joint biomechanics and observed injury mechanisms. PMID:19884108