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Sample records for mushroom cordyceps militaris

  1. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  2. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Ko, Wing-Hung

    2008-04-17

    The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (CS) (Clavicipitaceae) improves pulmonary function and is used to treat respiratory disease. Here, we compare the efficacy and mechanisms of action of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Clavicipitaceae) in Calu-3 human airway epithelial monolayer model. The extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, as well as their isolated compounds, cordycepin and adenosine, stimulated ion transport in a dose-dependent manner in Calu-3 monolayers. In subsequent experiments, transport inhibitor bumetanide and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide were added after Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts to determine their effects on Cl- and HCO3- movement. The results suggested that Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts may affect the anion movement from the basolateral to apical compartments in the airway epithelia. Basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and apical cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel are involved in the process. The results provide the first evidence for the pharmacological mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris on respiratory tract.

  3. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  4. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps militaris , known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris . The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry.

  5. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris, known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris. The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry. PMID:28435352

  6. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris link and analysis on its main active components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lei, C; Ai, Xun R; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium on the main active components of Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies, selenium-enriched cultivation of C. militaris and the main active components of the fruit bodies were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, and organic selenium of fruit bodies were sodium selenite concentration dependent; contents of adenosine and cordycep polysaccharides were significantly enhanced by adding sodium selenite in the substrates, but not proportional to sodium selenite concentrations. In the cultivation of wheat substrate added with 18.0 ppm sodium selenite, SOD activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, cordycep polysaccharides, and total amino acids were enhanced by 121/145%, 124/74%, 325/520%, 130/284%, 121/145%, and 157/554%, respectively, compared to NS (non-selenium-cultivated) fruit bodies and wild Cordyceps sinensis; organic selenium contents of fruit bodies reached 6.49 mg/100 g. So selenium-enriched cultivation may be a potential way to produce more valuable medicinal food as a substitute for wild C. sinensis.

  7. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Jing, Tianjiao; Meng, Qingfan; Liu, Chungang; Hu, Shuang; Ma, Yihang; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Yingkun; Teng, Lirong

    2014-01-01

    Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment. PMID:24738047

  8. A novel protein from edible fungi Cordyceps militaris that induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ke-Chun; Sheu, Fuu

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a dietary therapeutic fungus that is an important model species in Cordyceps research. In this study, we purified a novel protein from the fruit bodies of C. militaris and designated it as Cordyceps militaris protein (CMP). CMP has a molecular mass of 18.0 kDa and is not glycosylated. Interestingly, CMP inhibited cell viability in murine primary cells and other cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Using trypan blue staining and a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, we showed that CMP caused cell death in the murine hepatoma cell line BNL 1MEA.7R.1. Furthermore, the frequency of BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cells at the sub-G1 stage was increased by CMP. Apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V and propidium iodide analysis, indicated that CMP could mediate BNL 1MEA.7R.1 apoptosis, but not necrosis. After coincubation with CMP, a decrease in mitochondria potential was detected using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. These results suggest that CMP is a harmful protein that induces apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent pathway. Stability experiments demonstrated that heat treatment and alkalization degraded CMP and further destroyed its cell-death-inducing ability, implying that cooking is necessary for food containing C. militaris. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is the one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, widely used in East Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered to be the principal active component in C. militaris and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of polysaccharide from C. militaris (PCM) on physical fatigue induced in animals through a forced swimming test. The mice were divided into 4 groups receiving 28 days' treatment with drinking water (exercise control) or low-, medium-, and high-dose PCM (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 28 days, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test; the exhaustive swimming time was measured and fatigue-related biochemical parameters, including serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathi- one peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen, were analyzed. The results showed that PCM could significantly prolong the exhaustive swimming time of mice; decrease concentrations of serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde; and increase liver and muscle glycogen contents and the concentrations of serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione per- oxidase, and catalase. The data suggest that PCM has an antifatigue effect, and it might become a new functional food or medicine for fatigue resistance.

  10. Molecular Markers to Detect the Formation of Heterokaryon and Homokaryon from Asexual Spores of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Cai, Tao; Wei, Jing; Feng, Aiping; Lin, Nan; Bao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is widely cultivated on artificial media in China; however, the cultures often are afflicted with the degeneration of nonfruiting strains. To understand the mechanism of degeneration of C. militaris, from the heterokaryotic strain into the homokaryotic strain, we examined the mating-type genes present in individual asexual spores. Further, we determined the distribution ratio of the different mating-type genes among a sample of asexual spores and the growth rate of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic strains of C. militaris. The distribution ratio of 3 groups of asexual spores from C. militaris heterokaryotic strains was determined as 1:1:1 by statistical analysis, whereas that of the two types of nuclei among asexual spores was 1:1. Nearly two-thirds of the asexual spore isolates were homokaryon, which showed a growth speed similar to the heterokaryon. However, the homokaryon (bearing mating-type MAT-HMG) grew significantly faster at times compared with the heterokaryon. Therefore, the purity of the spawn was difficult to establish. C. militaris heterokaryotic strains can transform into a homokaryotic strain following continued subculture.

  11. Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qunying; Long, Liangkun; Wu, Liangliang; Zhang, Fenglun; Wu, Shuling; Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), cereal grains are usually utilized as cultivation substrates. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low-cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control. CS and CCP were suitable for fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 and 20 g per bottle respectively. Fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine, up to 9.45 and 5.86 mg g -1 respectively. The content of d-mannitol in fruit bodies obtained on CS was 120 mg g -1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g -1 . Fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g -1 , which was the closest to that of the control group (34.5 mg g -1 ). CS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit bodies and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach to decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Heat and light stresses affect metabolite production in the fruit body of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Zhang; Fen, Wang; Kuanbo, Liu; Qing, Liu; Ying, Yang; Caihong, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage. The optimal growth temperature of C. militaris was 20 °C. It was found that a heat stress of 25 °C for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin and carotenoid production without affecting the biological efficiency. Light stress at 6000 lx for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin production but decreased the carotenoid content. Both heat and light stresses promoted N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine production. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that there were simultaneous increases in the expression of genes encoding a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase (CCM_04437) and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (CCM_04438) that are involved in the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, which was consistent with the accumulation of cordycepin during heat stress for 5-20 days. A positive weak correlation between the cordycepin and adenosine contents was observed with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.338 (P < 0.05). The results presented herein provide a new strategy for the production of a superior quality fruit body of C. militaris and contribute to further elucidation of the effects of abiotic stress on metabolite accumulation in fungi.

  13. Biotechnological production and applications of Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a potential harborer of biometabolites for herbal drugs. For a long time, C. militaris has gained considerable significance in several clinical and biotechnological applications. Much knowledge has been gathered with regard to the C. militaris's importance in the genetic resources, nutritional and environmental requirements, mating behavior and biochemical pharmacological properties. The complete genome of C. militaris has recently been sequenced. This fungus has been the subject of many reviews, but few have focused on its biotechnological production of bioactive constituents. This mini-review focuses on the recent advances in the biotechnological production of bioactive compositions of C. militaris and the latest advances on novel applications from this laboratory and many others.

  14. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production.

  15. Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

    2014-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application.

  16. Cordyceps militaris extract attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaixin; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinshan; Jia, Jing; Ding, Jie; Luo, Rongzhen; Liu, Zhangqin

    2012-12-01

    Memory impairment is one of main clinical symptoms of brain senescence. To address the effects of Cordyceps militaris Link extract (CE) on memory impairment, a D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging mouse model was employed. Mice injected with D-Gal showed a significant learning and memory impairment that was rescued by CE treatment. The mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the protein level and activity of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, including malondialdehyde (MDA), monoamine oxidase (MAO), total super-oxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), which played critical roles in the development of brain senescence. The results showed that CE treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the oxidative activity of MAO and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant activities of T-SOD and T-AOC in the cerebral cortices. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-px in serum were significantly upregulated after CE treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.

  17. Characterization of Newly Bred Cordyceps militaris Strains for Higher Production of Cordycepin through HPLC and URP-PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kang, Naru; Park, Inmyoung; Park, Jungwook; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Namgyu; Lee, Jae-Yun; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-07-28

    Cordyceps militaris , a member of Ascomycota, a mushroom referred to as caterpillar Dongchung-ha-cho, is commercially valuable because of its high content of bioactive substances, including cordycepin, and its potential for artificial cultivation. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is highly associated with the pharmacological effects of C. militaris . C. militaris is heterothallic in that two mating-type loci, idiomorph MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 , exist discretely in two different spores. In this study, nine C. militaris strains were mated with each other to prepare newly bred strains that produced a larger amount of cordycepin than the parent strains. Nine strains of C. militaris were identified by comparing the internal transcribed spacer sequence, and a total of 12 single spores were isolated from the nine strains of C. militaris . After the MAT idiomorph was confirmed by PCR, 36 mating combinations were performed with six single spores with MAT1-1 and the others with MAT1-2 . Eight mating combinations were successfully mated, producing stroma with perithecia. Cordycepin content analysis of all strains by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the KASP4-bred strain produced the maximum cordycepin among all strains, regardless of the medium and stroma parts. Finally, universal rice primer-PCR was performed to demonstrate that the bred strains were genetically different from the parental strains and new C. militaris strains. These results may be related to the recombination of genes during mating. The newly produced strains can be used to meet the industrial demand for cordycepin. In addition, breeding through mating suggests the possibility of producing numerous cordycepin-producing C. militaris strains.

  18. Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2012-11-01

    During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture.

  19. Targeted Gene Deletion in Cordyceps militaris Using the Split-Marker Approach.

    PubMed

    Lou, HaiWei; Ye, ZhiWei; Yun, Fan; Lin, JunFang; Guo, LiQiong; Chen, BaiXiong; Mu, ZhiXian

    2018-05-01

    The macrofungus Cordyceps militaris contains many kinds of bioactive ingredients that are regulated by functional genes, but the functions of many genes in C. militaris are still unknown. In this study, to improve the frequency of homologous integration, a genetic transformation system based on a split-marker approach was developed for the first time in C. militaris to knock out a gene encoding a terpenoid synthase (Tns). The linear and split-marker deletion cassettes were constructed and introduced into C. militaris protoplasts by PEG-mediated transformation. The transformation of split-marker fragments resulted in a higher efficiency of targeted gene disruption than the transformation of linear deletion cassettes did. The color phenotype of the Tns gene deletion mutants was different from that of wild-type C. militaris. Moreover, a PEG-mediated protoplast transformation system was established, and stable genetic transformants were obtained. This method of targeted gene deletion represents an important tool for investigating the role of C. militaris genes.

  20. Effects of Cordyceps militaris on the growth of rumen microorganisms and in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Hanigan, M D; Lee, S J; Lee, S M; Kim, D H; Hyun, J H; Yeo, J M; Lee, S S

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L) of dried Cordyceps militaris mushroom on in vitro anaerobic ruminal microbe fermentation and methane production using soluble starch as a substrate. Ruminal fluids were collected from Korean native cattle, mixed with phosphate buffer (1:2), and incubated anaerobically at 38 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. The addition of C. militaris significantly increased total volatile fatty acid and total gas production. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased and that of propionate was increased, with a corresponding decrease in the acetate:propionate ratio. As the concentration of C. militaris increased from 0.10 to 0.30 g/L, methane and hydrogen production decreased. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 14.1, 22.0, 24.9, 39.7, and 40.9% for the 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L treatments, respectively. Ammonia-N concentration and numbers of live protozoa decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of C. militaris. The pH of the medium significantly decreased at the highest level of C. militaris compared with the control. In conclusion, C. militaris stimulated mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation and inhibited methane production in vitro. Therefore, C. militaris could be developed as a novel compound for antimethanogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolomic comparison between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yuetao; Guo, Qingfeng; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Wancun

    2018-05-11

    A systematic study on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O. sinensis, indicating metabolome difference among wild O. sinensis, R-CM and T-CM. The metabolome differences between R-CM and T-CM indicated that C. militaris could accommodate to culture medium by differential metabolic regulation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was further performed to cluster the differential metabolites and samples based on their metabolic similarity. The higher content of amino acids (pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine and arginine), unsaturated fatty acid (linolenic acid and linoleic acid), peptides, mannitol, adenosine and succinoadenosine in O. sinensis make it as an excellent choice as a traditional Chinese medicine for invigoration or nutritional supplementation. Similar compositions with O. sinensis and easy cultivation make artificially cultured C. militaris a possible alternative to O. sinensis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise.

  3. Isolation of adenosine, iso-sinensetin and dimethylguanosine with antioxidant and HIV-1 protease inhibiting activities from fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wong, J H; Fu, M; Ng, T B; Liu, Z K; Wang, C R; Li, N; Qiao, W T; Wen, T Y; Liu, F

    2011-01-15

    According to previous studies, a close relationship between oxidative stress and AIDS suggests that antioxidants might play an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Cordyceps militaris was selected from nine edible mushrooms by assay of inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis. Macroporous adsorption resin and HPLC were used to purify three micromolecular compounds named L3a, L3b and L3c. L3a was identified to be adenosine with the molecular formula C(10)H(13)N(5)O(4); L3b was 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone with the molecular formula C(20)H(20)O(7), and L3c was dimethylguanosine with the molecular formula C(12)H(17)N(5)O(5). The compound 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone was first isolated from C. militaris. The assay of inhibition of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) was based on the fact that the expression of this enzyme can inhibit the growth of E. coli. This is a new screening system for HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Both L3a and L3b showed high inhibition to HIV-1 PR. These compounds could be new anti-HIV-1 PR drugs. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  5. Evaluation of carbohydrates in natural and cultured Cordyceps by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jia; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-06-11

    Free and polymeric carbohydrates in Cordyceps, a valued edible mushroom and well-known traditional Chinese medicine, were determined using stepwise pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) extraction and GC-MS. Based on the optimized PLE conditions, acid hydrolysis and derivatization, ten monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, mannitol, fructose and sorbose in 13 samples of natural and cultured Cordyceps were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared with myo-inositol hexaacetate as internal standard. The results showed that natural C. sinensis contained more than 7.99% free mannitol and a small amount of glucose, while its polysaccharides were usually composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:16.61-3.82:1.60-1.28. However, mannitol in cultured C. sinensis and cultured C. militaris were less than 5.83%, and free glucose was only detected in a few samples, while their polysaccharides were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with molar ratios of 1.00:3.01-1.09:3.30-1.05 and 1.00:2.86-1.28:1.07-0.78, respectively. Natural and cultured Cordyceps could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on its free carbohydrate contents.

  6. Characterization and discrimination of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Ju, Yao-Jun; Feng, Kun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-03-15

    Polysaccharides from seven species of natural and cultured Cordyceps were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partially acidic/enzymatic (α-amylase, β-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed with polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively, to obtain the comprehensive profiles of hydrolysates of the polysaccharides and their characters. The results showed that 1,4-α-D-glucosidic, 1,4-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosidic linkages were existed in natural and cultured Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps militaris, natural Cordyceps gracilis and Cordyceps ciecadae. The similarity of polysaccharides from cultured C. militaris to natural C. sinensis was relatively high, which might contribute to the rational use of C. militaris. Moreover, different species of natural and cultured Cordyceps can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in natural and cultured Cordyceps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid authentication of Cordyceps by lateral flow dipstick.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk-Lau; Wong, Ka-Lok; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps (Dongchongxiacao), a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, is composed of the fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Family: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on a caterpillar of ghost-moth species (Family: Hepialidae). Owing to its multiple potential functions, Cordyceps are in great demand and represent significant economic value. Adulterants or substitutes named Cordyceps or Chongcao from related fungi have been reported. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) system was developed to distinguish genuine herb O. sinensis from its common adulterant Cordyceps gunnii and Cordyceps militaris. Specific primers (EF-CS-F1-Biotin, EF-CG-F1-Biotin and EF-CM-F1- Biotin) were designed to differentiate the three Cordyceps species. Internal control (EF-F1-b-DIG and EF-R1-FITC) was included to minimize the false signal due to PCR inhibitors or DNA degradation. LFD was then successfully employed for speedy and accurate detection of the respective PCR products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  9. Genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris useful for comparative analysis of entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Raethong, Nachon; Mujchariyakul, Warasinee; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Leong, Hon Wai; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-08-30

    The first genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris (iWV1170) was constructed representing its whole metabolisms, which consisted of 894 metabolites and 1,267 metabolic reactions across five compartments, including the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, peroxisome and extracellular space. The iWV1170 could be exploited to explain its phenotypes of growth ability, cordycepin and other metabolites production on various substrates. A high number of genes encoding extracellular enzymes for degradation of complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were existed in C. militaris genome. By comparative genome-scale analysis, the adenine metabolic pathway towards putative cordycepin biosynthesis was reconstructed, indicating their evolutionary relationships across eleven species of entomopathogenic fungi. The overall metabolic routes involved in the putative cordycepin biosynthesis were also identified in C. militaris, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism (glycine, l-glutamine and l-aspartate) and nucleotide metabolism (adenosine and adenine). Interestingly, a lack of the sequence coding for ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor was observed in C. militaris that might contribute to its over-production of cordycepin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate and Lactobacillus plantarum on mucosal, serum immunology and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Chitmanat, Chanagun; Tayyamath, Khambou

    2017-11-01

    An 8-weeks feeding trial was performed to investigate the possible effects of supplementation of Nile tilapia diet with Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate (SMS) single or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on immune parameters and growth performance. For this aim, Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed with four experimental diets namely: Diet 1 (0 - control), Diet 2 (10 g kg -1 SMS), Diet 3 (10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum), and Diet 4 (10 g kg -1 SMS + 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum). At the end of feeding trial, skin mucus parameters, serum immune parameters, and growth performance were measured. The results indicated that supplementations SMS + L. plantarum or/and resulted in a significant increase in skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities compared with the control group after 8 weeks of feeding trial (P < 0.05). The highest values of these parameters were recorded for fish fed both SMS + L. plantarum supplementations. Nonetheless, no significant difference was recorded between other supplemented groups (P < 0.05). For serum immunology, the results showed that serum lysozyme activity, alternative complement, phagocytosis, serum peroxidase, and respiratory burst activities were significantly higher in supplemented groups compared to the control (P < 0.05). The highest values were recorded in fish fed both SMS and L. plantarum with respect to the individual application. No significant differences were observed between fish fed SMS and L. plantarum (P < 0.05). Results on growth performance indicated that fish fed supplemented diets showed a statistically significant increase in the specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), final weight (FW) compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The highest SGR and WG values were observed in fish fed both dietary SMS and L. plantarum. However, no significant differences in these parameters were observed in fish fed SMS or L. plantarum alone (P > 0.05). The FCR was significantly

  11. Optimization of extraction of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) link using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Thi, Dinh Huynh Mong; Pham, Dinh Chuong

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link possess various pharmaceutical activities. In this study, polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris were extracted with different solvents. Of those solvents tested, distilled water was identified as the most efficient solvent for the extraction, resulting in a significant increase in polysaccharides yield. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions and establish a reliable mathematical model for prediction. A maximum polysaccharides yield of 11.07% was reached at a ratio of water to raw material of 23.2:1 mL/g, an extraction time of 76 min, and a temperature of 93.6°C. This study indicates that the obtained optimal extraction conditions are an efficient method for extraction of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris.

  12. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Improvement of Learning and Memory Induced by Cordyceps Polypeptide Treatment and the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Our previous research revealed that Cordyceps militaris can improve the learning and memory, and although the main active ingredient should be its polypeptide complexes, the underlying mechanism of its activity remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which Cordyceps militaris improves learning and memory in a mouse model. Mice were given scopolamine hydrobromide intraperitoneally to establish a mouse model of learning and memory impairment. The effects of Cordyceps polypeptide in this model were tested using the Morris water maze test; serum superoxide dismutase activity; serum malondialdehyde levels; activities of acetyl cholinesterase, Na+-k+-ATPase, and nitric oxide synthase; and gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate contents in brain tissue. Moreover, differentially expressed genes and the related cellular signaling pathways were screened using an mRNA expression profile chip. The results showed that the genes Pik3r5, Il-1β, and Slc18a2 were involved in the effects of Cordyceps polypeptide on the nervous system of these mice. Our findings suggest that Cordyceps polypeptide may improve learning and memory in the scopolamine-induced mouse model of learning and memory impairment by scavenging oxygen free radicals, preventing oxidative damage, and protecting the nervous system. PMID:29736181

  14. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  15. A brief chronicle of the genus cordyceps fr., the oldest valid genus in cordycipitaceae (hypocreales, ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-06-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases.

  16. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  17. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  18. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  19. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.; Sung, Jae-Mo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Shrestha, Bhushan; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Cordyceps, comprising over 400 species, was historically classified in the Clavicipitaceae, based on cylindrical asci, thickened ascus apices and filiform ascospores, which often disarticulate into part-spores. Cordyceps was characterized by the production of well-developed often stipitate stromata and an ecology as a pathogen of arthropods and Elaphomyces with infrageneric classifications emphasizing arrangement of perithecia, ascospore morphology and host affiliation. To refine the classification of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae, the phylogenetic relationships of 162 taxa were estimated based on analyses consisting of five to seven loci, including the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunits (nrSSU and nrLSU), the elongation factor 1α (tef1), the largest and the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (rpb1 and rpb2), β-tubulin (tub), and mitochondrial ATP6 (atp6). Our results strongly support the existence of three clavicipitaceous clades and reject the monophyly of both Cordyceps and Clavicipitaceae. Most diagnostic characters used in current classifications of Cordyceps (e.g., arrangement of perithecia, ascospore fragmentation, etc.) were not supported as being phylogenetically informative; the characters that were most consistent with the phylogeny were texture, pigmentation and morphology of stromata. Therefore, we revise the taxonomy of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae to be consistent with the multi-gene phylogeny. The family Cordycipitaceae is validated based on the type of Cordyceps, C. militaris, and includes most Cordyceps species that possess brightly coloured, fleshy stromata. The new family Ophiocordycipitaceae is proposed based on Ophiocordyceps Petch, which we emend. The majority of species in this family produce darkly pigmented, tough to pliant stromata that often possess aperithecial apices. The new genus Elaphocordyceps is proposed for a subclade of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, which includes all species of Cordyceps that parasitize

  20. Melanogenesis effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth on the melanin formation of B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Park, Mi-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Tae; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-10-13

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth (CMB) on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells was evaluated by measurement of the melanin concentration after 3 days of incubation. The B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with various concentrations of CMB 10-100 μg/mL and arbutin of 200 μM. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of CMB were also measured. Phenolic content of CMB was 3.28 mg/g. The DPPH radical scavenging and ferric ion donating activities were 79.64% and 0.16, respectively. The melanin concentration and cell viability of melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 91% of the control, respectively. The CMB treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect of melanin production by 29%, 50%, and 56% at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentration treatment, respectively, while over 90% of cells were viable. The CMB treatment at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentrations in cultivation decreased extracellular melanin release induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment by 19%, 38%, and 48%, respectively. The CMB showed inhibitory activity against intracellular tyrosinase extracted from melanoma cells, while it had no inhibition on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The cellular glutathione contents were enhanced by CMB treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that CMB suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation and it might be candidate anti-melanogenic agent.

  1. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  2. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  3. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-10-11

    Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.

  4. Cordyceps sinensis increases hypoxia tolerance by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein via Nrf2 activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrinalini; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Koganti, Praveen; Chauhan, Amitabh; Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NF κ B (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor- α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor- β . Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NF κ B and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NF κ B levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.

  5. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia. PMID:24063008

  6. Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2).

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Shin; Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

    2007-01-01

    Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 microg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity.

  7. Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

    2007-01-01

    Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 µg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20368935

  8. Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nachshol; Cohen, Jacob; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Varshney, Vinay K; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Yang, Yi-Chi; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    This research gives the results of a proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, total carbohydrates, and total energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], ergothioneine, lovastatin, and cordycepin); fatty acid and amino acid analysis; and an analysis of macro- and microelement content of fruit bodies and mycelia of 15 higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom strains belonging to 12 species. The results obtained demonstrate that almost all investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and carbohydrates, with content varying in the ranges of 8.6-42.5% and 42.9-83.6%, respectively. Different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The total amino acid content was highest in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (MB) (23.84 mg/g) and Cordyceps militaris (FB) (23.69 mg/g). The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that, in general, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied, and the highest results were (as milligrams per kilogram) 224-7307 for calcium, 1668-38564 for potassium, 1091-11676 for phosphorus, and 5-97 for zinc. Bioactive components were lovastatin, GABA, and ergothioneine, which are commonly found in most mushrooms. C. militaris (FB), Pleurotus ostreatus (FB), and Coprinus comatus (FB) were most abundant and contained a high amount of GABA (756.30 μg/g, 1304.99 μg/g, 1092.45 μg/g, respectively) and ergothioneine (409.88 μg/g, 2443.53 μg/g, 764.35 μg/g, respectively). The highest lovastatin content was observed in Hericium erinaceus (FB) (14.38 μg/g) and Ganoderma lucidum (FB) (11.54 μg/g). In contrast to C. militaris (FB), cordycepin was not detected in O. sinensis (MB). The fruit body biomass of C. militaris cordycepin content reached 1.743 mg/g dry weight. The nutritional values of the mushroom species studied here could potentially be used in well-balanced diets and as sources

  9. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  10. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  11. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Separation, purification and primary reverse cholesterol transport study of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shou-Dong; Cui, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhong; Wang, Ren-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Xue; Ma, Teng

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed to separate, purify and determine the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris, and study its effect on reverse cholesterol transport in vivo by isotope tracing assay. Polysaccharides were separate and purify by ion exchange column Q-sepharose Fast Flow and size exclusion column Sephacryl S200HR; the molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coming with pre-column derivation, respectively. Finally, three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were obtained, their total carbohydrate contents were 87%, 89%, 95%, respectively; their protein contents were 6.5%, 1.3%, 2.8%, respectively; their molecular weights were 772.1, 20.9, 13.2 kDa, respectively; CMBW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 7.25: 0.17: 1.29: 0.23: 6.30: 11.08: 0.79; CMBW2 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 2.40: 0.16: 2.92: 0.24; CMYW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, glucuronic acid and glucose with a molar ratio of 0.59: 0.57: 0.45: 25.61. Polysaccharide at 50 mg x kg(-1) could significantly improve the transport of 3H- cholesterol to blood and excretion from feces. All of the three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were heteropolysaccharide; and they could improve reverse cholesterol transport in vivo, the underlying mechanisms are being studied.

  13. Optimal conditions for cordycepin production in surface liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris treated with porcine liver extracts for suppression of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2018-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most crucial bioactive compounds produced by Cordyceps militaris and has exhibited antitumor activity in various cancers. However, industrial production of large amounts of cordycepin is difficult. The porcine liver is abundant in proteins, vitamins, and adenosine, and these ingredients may increase cordycepin production and bioconversion during C. militaris fermentation. We observed that porcine liver extracts increased cordycepin production. In addition, air supply (2 h/d) significantly increased the cordycepin level in surface liquid-cultured C. militaris after 14 days. Moreover, blue light light-emitting diode irradiation (16 h/d) increased cordycepin production. These findings indicated that these conditions are suitable for increasing cordycepin production. We used these conditions to obtain water extract from the mycelia of surface liquid-cultured C. militaris (WECM) and evaluated the anti-oral cancer activity of this extract in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that WECM inhibited the cell viability of SCC-4 oral cancer cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial fission) were observed in SCC-4 cells treated with WECM for 12 hours. Furthermore, WECM reduced tumor formation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis through the downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, and c-fos expression. The results indicated that porcine liver extracts irradiated with blue light light-emitting diode and supplied with air can be used as a suitable medium for the growth of mycelia and production of cordycepin, which can be used in the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  15. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  16. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds.

    PubMed

    Chiriví, Juan; Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra; Restrepo, Silvia; Sanjuan, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  17. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  18. Differentiation and quality estimation of Cordyceps with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Song, Ping; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Feng, Shu; Tao, Jia-Xun

    2009-11-01

    Heretofore, a scientific and systemic method for differentiation and quality estimation of a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, 'Cordyceps', has not been established in modern market. In this paper, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to propose a method for analysis of Cordyceps. It has presented that IR spectra of real Cordyceps of different origins and counterfeits have their own macroscopic fingerprints, with discriminated shapes, positions and intensities. Their secondary derivative spectra can amplify the differences and confirm the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands 1400-1700 cm -1 to be investigated in 2D-IR. Many characteristic fingerprints are discovered in 2D-IR spectra in the range of 1400-1700 cm -1 and hetero 2D spectra of 670-780 cm -1 × 1400-1700 cm -1. The different fingerprints display different chemical constitutes. Through the three steps, different Cordyceps and their counterfeits can be discriminated effectively and their qualities distinctly display. Successful analysis of eight Cordyceps capsule products has proved the practicability of the method, which can also be applied to the quality estimation of other Chinese traditional medicines.

  19. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  20. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  1. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  2. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-15

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30cms -1 . The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-06-08

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  4. Application of microscopy in authentication of valuable Chinese medicine I--Cordyceps sinensis, its counterfeits, and related products.

    PubMed

    Au, Dawn; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Dajian; Mok, Daniel K W; Chan, Albert S C; Xu, Hongxi

    2012-01-01

    Light and polarized microscope was applied to authenticate 32 Cordyceps and 6 artificial counterfeits and 8 fermented Cordyceps as well as 7 Cordyceps capsules available in Hong Kong markets. Results showed that transverse sections of stroma and powder of larvae can be used to differentiate C. sinensis from its counterfeits. The fermented Cordyceps are in powder form. Among the eight fermented Cordyceps collected, half of them were pure; three were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; one was a mixture of unknown plant tissues and soya beans. For the seven Cordyceps capsules, the powders of five samples were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; the powders of other two were a mixture of C. sinensis stroma powder and fermented Cordyceps. The study indicated that the microscopy is an unambiguous method that requests fewer sample for the authentication of valuable Chinese medicine-C. sinensis and its related products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming

    2015-10-12

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95

  6. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium ameliorate exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (Clavicipitaceae) is a famous medicinal fungus (mushroom) in Chinese herbal medicine. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis (CSP) have been identified as active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological actions of CSP have received a great deal of attention, research in this area continues. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of CSP on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. The mice were divided into four groups: control (C), low-dose CSP treated (LC), intermediate-dose CSP treated (IC) and high-dose CSP treated (HC). The treated groups received CSP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received drinking water for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo exhaustive swimming exercise, and some biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured using detection kits according to the manufacturers' instructions. Compared with the C group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); SOD activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); GPx activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); CAT activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the HC groups (p < 0.05); MDA and 8-OHdG levels in serum, liver and muscle were significantly lower in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained herein indicate that CSP could ameliorate exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  7. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. MALDI-TOF to compare polysaccharide profiles from commercial health supplements of different mushroom species.

    PubMed

    López-García, Marta; García, María Sonia Dopico; Vilariño, José Manuel López; Rodríguez, María Victoria González

    2016-05-15

    In this work MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy was investigated to characterise the β-glucan profiles of several commercial health supplements, without any derivatisation or purification pre-treatment. The effect of two solvents (water and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two MALDI matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone) was first evaluated on dextran standards. MALDI-TOF was found as a useful and quick technique to obtain structural information of diverse food supplements based on mushroom extracts. The MALDI polysaccharide profiles of 5 supplements from different mushroom species were qualitatively similar showing [Glucan+Na](+) cations with a peak-to-peak mass difference of 16 Da consistent with the repeating unit of the β-(1→3)-glucan. The profiles strongly depended on the sample solvent used, with m/z values around 5000-8000 for water and 2000 for dimethyl sulfoxide; differences between samples were revealed in the molecular weight of the aqueous preparation, with the highest values for Maitake and Cordyceps species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of anti-fatigue property of the extruded product of cereal grains mixed with Cordyceps militaris on mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Fangmei; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a biological phenomenon that involves a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness that could potentially cause some severe chronic diseases. Recently, diet therapy has provided a new alternative to alleviate physical fatigue. In our previous study, addition of Cordyceps militaris ( C. militaris ) into an extruded product was shown to provide high nutrition and unique flavors; however, little is known whether this product has some scientific evidence regarding anti-fatigue property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of extruded products of cereal grains (EC) and EC mixed with C. militaris (ECC). The mice were divided into seven groups: one group received distilled water (Control group, n  = 20), and the other groups received different dosages of EC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) or of ECC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) solution in water. All of the mice were administered with distilled water, EC or ECC continuously for 30 days by gavage and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with assessments of fatigue-related indicators. The mode of fighting fatigue was investigated by determining changes in exercise endurance and biochemical markers, including exhaustive swimming time, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood lactic acid (BLA), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and hepatic and muscle glycogen levels. EC and ECC prolonged the swimming endurance time of mice compared to the control. The content of BLA at high dose of ECC group (20 g/kg) was significantly lower than that in the negative control group. CK, BUN and MDA levels were significantly reduced by treatment with EC and ECC compared to the negative control, while the low and middle dose of EC had no significant effect on MDA levels. Additionally, only

  10. The level of elements and antioxidant activity of commercial dietary supplement formulations based on edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Stilinović, Nebojša; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Mrmoš, Nataša; Pavlović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša

    2014-12-01

    Commercial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus mushroom marketed as healthy food supplements in Serbia were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace (GFAAS) for their element content. Antioxidant activity potential and total phenolics of the same mushrooms were determined. The element content of mushroom samples was in the range of 0.130-0.360 mg kg(-1) for lead (Pb), <0.03-0.46 mg kg(-1) for arsenic (As), 0.09-0.39 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 98.14-989.18 mg kg(-1) for iron (Fe), 0.10-101.32 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), 5.06-26.50 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.20-0.70 mg kg(-1) for cobalt (Co), 1.74-136.33 mg kg(-1) for chromium (Cr) and 2.19-21.54 mg kg(-1) for manganese (Mn). In the tests for measuring the antioxidant activity, the methanolic extract of C. sinensis showed the best properties. The same was seen for the analysis of selected phenolic compounds; C. sinensis was found to have the highest content. Commercial preparations of C. sinensis and C. comatus can be considered to be safe and suitable food supplements included in well-balanced diets.

  11. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.

  12. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-15

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  14. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  15. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  16. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Wei; Lin, Zhi Xiu; Tung, Yuk Stewart; Kwan, Tze Hoi; Mok, Chun Keung; Leung, Connie; Chan, Lai Sum

    2014-12-18

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps, Dong Chong Xia Cao), a herbal medicine also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps sinensis for the treatment of people with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 14 April 2014 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched CINAHL, AMED, Current Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE, and Chinese databases including CBM, CMCC, TCMLARS, Chinese Dissertation Database, CMAC and Index to Chinese Periodical Literature. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing Cordyceps or its products with placebo, no treatment, or conventional treatment were considered for inclusion in the review. Two authors independently assessed data quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 22 studies that involved 1746 participants. Among people with CKD who were not receiving dialysis, Cordyceps preparations were found to significantly decrease serum creatinine (14 studies, 987 participants): MD -60.76 μmol/L, 95% CI -85.82 to -35.71); increase creatinine clearance (6 studies, 362 participants): MD 9.22 mL/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 15.34) and reduce 24 hour proteinuria (4 studies, 211 participants: MD -0.15 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.05). However, suboptimal reporting and flawed methodological approaches meant that risk of bias was assessed as high in four studies and unclear in 18 studies, and hence, these results need to be interpreted with caution. We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine

  17. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  18. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  19. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  20. [Investigation of metabolic action of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan-Lei; Yan, Dan; Li, Bao-Cai; Wu, Yan-Shu; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, and microcalorimetric method was carried out to evaluate its biological activity. The study will provide the basis for the quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Experimental result will show the effect of natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, with index of P(1max) and effective rate (E) by microcalorimetry, the data of experiment were studied by cluster analysis. The results showed that Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia not only can promote growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli but also can regulate the balance of intestinal microecology efficiently. When the concentrations of samples > 6.0 mg mL(-1), natural Cordyceps sinensis can promote the growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli efficiently (P < 0.05) compared with the control group, and have better dose-effect relationship with concentration (r > 0.9), its cultured mycelia does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05) and have not dose-effect relationship with concentration (r < 0.6); when the concentration of samples < 6.0 mg mL(-1), all samples does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05). Natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia can be distinguished by cluster analysis. Microcalorimetry has a good prospect on the quality evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. Efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis as an adjunctive treatment in kidney transplant patients: A systematic-review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Bee Yean; Aziz, Zoriah

    2017-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (cordyceps) is a fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine as adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in patients with kidney transplant. This review evaluates current evidence on the efficacy and safety of natural and fermented cordyceps preparations in patients with kidney transplant. English and Chinese electronic databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched up to December 2015 for relevant randomized controlled trials. Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. The primary outcome measures were incidence of acute graft rejection in the first year post-transplantation, one-year graft survival rate (defined as the percentage of patients with functioning grafts) and patient survival rate (or all-cause mortality). Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. These studies were considered to be at moderate risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods. Four studies that compared cordyceps-based therapy with azathioprine-based therapy gave comparable acute rejection rates, and graft and patient survival. The cordyceps-treated group however showed better kidney function and lower incidences of hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and liver injury. Cordyceps used with different combinations of immunosuppressant therapy showed significant reduction in proteinuria after 6-12 months. Compared to the group receiving cyclosporine A monotherapy, treatment with a combination of cordyceps and cyclosporine A showed less treatment-induced nephrotoxicity. Adverse events were either not monitored or poorly documented in most trials. Current evidence shows that cordyceps as an adjuvant to routine immunosuppressant therapy may benefit kidney transplant patient, however, better quality evidence is still required. Copyright © 2016

  2. Mycelia extracts of fungal strains isolated from Cordyceps sinensis differently enhance the function of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Bo; Feng, Kun; Hu, De-Jun; Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-07-30

    Cordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, its usage has been limited due to the high price and short supply. Isolate of fungi strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis to achieve a large-scale production by fermentation is an alternative choice. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of mycelia extracts of different fungal stains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophage functions in vitro. Macrophages' proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokines secretion, iNOS, NF-κB p65 activation and translocation were investigated by the MTT assay, flow cytometry assay, Griess reagent method, ELISA, western blot and immunostaining assay, respectively. The results showed that the effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia of different fungal strains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages greatly variant. Among 17 Cordyceps aqueous extracts, only five extracts (UM01, QH11, BNQM, GNCC and DCXC) could significantly increase cell proliferation and NO production of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Moreover, the five extracts, especially UM01 and QH11, significantly enhanced phagocytosis and promoted cytokines release of macrophages. Polysaccharides in cultured UM01 mycelia were found to be the main immune stimulating compounds. The variation of biological effects of fermented mycelia of different fungal strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis may be derived from their chemical diversity, especially polysaccharides, which need further study in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts.

  4. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  5. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou

    2010-10-19

    Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  6. [Comparison and review on specifications of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yong-Wen

    2018-02-01

    There are five kinds of fermented Cordyceps crude drug and their preparations that have been approved as medicine on the market. Since the initial strains of the crude drug were all isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis, they have similar names, chemical components and even clinical applications. However, because of the different strain species and fermentation processes, there was significant difference in quality. As a result, they should be clearly distinguished in clinical use. Most of the products were researched and developed during the 1980s and 1990s, so there was difference in quality standards for different products, and their quality control levels of some products were not perfect. At present, some of the products are approved as Chinese medicine, others are approved as chemical drugs, with a confusion in products name, management and clinical application. In this paper, the approval numbers, quality standards and clinical applications, and current problems of these products were summarized and compared; some suggestions were put forward, such as standardizing the product name, unifying the management of approval number category, and increasing the specific quality control attributes, in order to provide reference for standard implementation, quality control and drug regulation for fermented Cordyceps crude drugs and their preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Furlough Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  8. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis, the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis, and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products. PMID:29850373

  9. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Yao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis , the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis , and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products.

  10. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  11. Effects of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. fermentation on the nutritional, physicochemical, functional properties and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of red bean (Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu; Sun, Mingmei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Chen, Yulian; Miao, Junqing; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    The effects of solid-state fermentation with Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. on the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of red bean ( Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour were determined. Fermentation increased the amount of small peptides but significantly decreased large peptides. Fermentation also increased proteins and essential amino acids (by 9.31 and 13.89%, respectively) and improved the in vitro protein digestibility (6.54%) of red beans. Moreover, fermentation increased the water holding capacity (from 2.36 to 2.59 mL/g), fat absorption capacity (from 84.65 to 114.55%), emulsion activity (from 10.96 to 52.77%), emulsion stability (from 5.43 to 53.82%), and foaming stability (from 11.95 to 20.68%). Fermented red bean flour achieved a lower least gelation concentration of 14% than that of the control (18%). In contrast to the non-fermented red bean, the fermented red bean showed ACE inhibitory activity, with IC 50 value of 0.63 mg protein/mL. Overall, fermentation improved the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as the biological activity of red bean flour. Thus, fermented red bean flour may serve as a novel nutritional and functional ingredient for applications in food design.

  12. [Studies on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Cordyceps sinensis and its counterfeits].

    PubMed

    Chan, Siutsau; Liu, Baoling; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Lam, Markin; Law, Kwokwai; Chen, Hubiao

    2011-05-01

    To provide a rapid, simple, accurate and reproducible identification method from which Cordyceps sinensis can be distinguished from other species. To observe the larva and stroma of Cordyceps family with macroscopic identification method, and with powder microscopic identification method. For macroscopic, only stroma of C. sinensis is mostly non-inflated, and un-obtuse at the tip, the caterpillar annulations of C. sinensis and the C. gracilis is distinct, about 20-30, and feet of above two are 8 pairs, 4 of 8 pairs are relatively distinct. The above appearance shows its unique characteristic. For microscopic identification, only C. sinensis exists microtrichia, the tip is pointed. The arranging order of stubby setae is irregular, the tip is blunt while the basal is gradually broader; the top of some setae bends slightly like a hook.

  13. Cordycepin-enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris inhibits ADP-induced [Ca(2+)] i mobilization and fibrinogen binding via phosphorylation of IP 3R and VASP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lim, Deok Hwi; Nam, Gi Suk; Shin, Jung-Hae; Kim, Yun-Yi; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris on ADP (20 µM)-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 18.5 μg/mL. CE-WIB801C decreased TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) in ADP-activated platelets, which suggests that the inhibition of TXA2 production by CE-WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. CE-WIB801C inhibited ATP release and [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and increased cAMP level and IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation in ADP-activated platelets. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased CE-WIB801C-inhibited [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-increased IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation. CE-WIB801C elevated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser(157)), an A-kinase substrate, but inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3. These results suggest that CE-WIB801C-elevated cAMP involved in IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation to inhibit [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and, VASP (Ser(157)) phosphorylation to inhibit αIIb/β3 activation. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C may have a preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  14. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  16. Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in natural Cordyceps by HILIC-ESI/TOF/MS and HILIC-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Bin; Yang, Hong-Jun; Huang, Luqi

    2013-08-15

    A method combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was developed for the characterization and determination of natural Cordyceps. Separation was achieved on a Waters Xbridge Amide column with gradient elution. Identification of 15 target nucleosides and nucleobases was based on retention time, UV spectra and mass measurements of the protonated molecules ([M+H]⁺) and main fragment ions (ESI-TOF/MS). Eight non-target compounds were tentatively identified by ESI-TOF/MS. The 15 target compounds were quantified by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS using time-programmed selective ion monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring in positive-ion mode under optimized mass conditions. This technique showed good linearity, repeatability and recovery. This approach was also successfully implemented in the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in 12 batches of natural Cordyceps samples that were collected from different regions in China. The developed HILIC-ESI-MS method exhibited clear advantages in identifying and determining highly polar bioactive components in Cordyceps, as well as their quality control.

  17. The oldest fossil mushroom.

    PubMed

    Heads, Sam W; Miller, Andrew N; Crane, J Leland; Thomas, M Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M; Methven, Andrew S; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana.

  18. The oldest fossil mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew N.; Crane, J. Leland; Thomas, M. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M.; Methven, Andrew S.; Raudabaugh, Daniel B.; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. PMID:28591180

  19. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines.

  20. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Results: Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Conclusion: Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24632844

  1. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  3. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  4. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  5. Functional foods from mushroom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  6. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  9. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  10. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  11. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  12. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  14. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  15. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures. PMID:23956619

  17. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  18. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  19. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  20. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  1. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  2. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  3. Mushrooms (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used as an addition to standard cancer treatments in Asia. Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have antitumor effects. Learn more about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Soo-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites. PMID:23956667

  5. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  6. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  8. Simultaneous determination of nucleosides and their bases in Cordyceps sinensis and its substitutes by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Li, Na; Wang, Min; Wang, Yue; Du, Lin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2013-07-01

    Nine nucleosides and nucleobases, including uracil, adenine, thymine, uridine, adenosine, thymidine, cytidine, guanosine, and cordycepin in natural Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps mycelia, and Cordyceps fruiting bodies were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and determined by HPLC. The experimental conditions for the MSPD extraction were optimized. Florisil was used as dispersant, petroleum ether as washing solvent, and methanol as elution solvent. The Florisil-to-sample ratio was selected to be 4:1 and no additional clean-up sorbent was needed. The calibration curves had good linear relationships (r > 0.9997). The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 12~79 and 41~265 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precision were lower than 8.3%. The recoveries were between 61.5 and 93.2%. The present method consumed less sample compared with ultrasonic extraction and heating reflux extraction (HRE). The extraction yields obtained by using the present method are much higher than those obtained by UE and comparable to those obtained by HRE. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  10. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p < 0.05). The Cordyceps daily cotreatment alleviated the testicular damage by EMP exposure, increased spermatozoa formation, and reduced apoptotic spermatogenic cells. These observations warrant further preclinical and clinical studies as an innovative approach for potential protection against electromagnetic radiation in the current age of networked society and digital citizenship.

  11. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  14. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  15. Mushrooms (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used as an addition to standard cancer treatments in Asia. Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have anticancer effects. Get detailed information about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this clinician summary.

  16. Immunomodulatory Properties of Plants and Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Martel, Jan; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2017-11-01

    Plants and mushrooms are used for medicinal purposes and the screening of molecules possessing biological activities. A single plant or mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on experimental conditions, but the reason behind this dichotomy remains obscure. We present here a large body of experimental data showing that water extracts of plants and mushrooms usually activate immune cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit immune cells. The mode of extraction of plants and mushrooms may thus determine the effects produced on immune cells, possibly due to differential solubility and potency of stimulatory and inhibitory compounds. We also examine the possibility of using such plant and mushroom extracts to treat immune system disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... high potential for abuse and serve no legitimate medical purpose. Possession or use of hallucinogenic mushrooms is punishable by fines and jail time. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Ecstasy) View more ...

  18. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  19. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (< 1 microg Se/g dry weight). The fruitbody of some species of wild-grown edible mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements. The Goat's Foot (Albatrellus pes-caprae) with approximately 200 microg Se/g dw on average (maximum up to 370 microg/g dw) is the richest one in this element among the species surveyed. Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Of the most popular edible wild-grown mushrooms, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is considered abundant in selenium as well; on average, it contains approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (maximum up to 70 microg/g dw). Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, and B. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium. Some other relatively rich sources of selenium include the European Pine Cone Lepidella (Amanita strobiliformis), which contains, on average, approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (up to 37 microg/g dw); the Macrolepiota spp., with an average range of approximately 5 to < 10 microg/g dw (an exception is M. rhacodes with < 10 microg/g dw); and the Lycoperdon spp., with an average of approximately 5

  20. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  1. Radionuclides in mushrooms and soil-to-mushroom transfer factors in certain areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Yao, Shuaimo; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Zeshu

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in 64 mushroom samples collected in China from Yunnan, Fujian and Heilongjiang Provinces, were measured. Gamma-ray emissions were determined by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry. The range of concentrations (Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in all investigated mushroom samples were from 0.12 to 12, 0.05 to 7.5, 0.14 to 14, MDC(<0.01) to 339, and 396 to 1880, respectively. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms showed some variation between species sampled at the same site. To calculate soil to mushroom transfer factors, levels of radionuclide in 15 paired soil samples and mushrooms were also investigated. The median transfer factors for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K were 8.32 × 10 -2 , 3.03 × 10 -2 , 6.69 × 10 -2 , 0.40 and 1.19, respectively. The results were compared with values of other areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

    2013-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR)-I, TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression.

  3. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  4. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  6. Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chen, Ying-Hui; Pan, Bo-Syong; Chang, Ming-Min; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed.

  8. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-α. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-α production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-α response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-α and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food. PMID:19232107

  9. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  11. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used : SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis : CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  12. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  13. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  14. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

    2013-05-24

    Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties.

  16. Wild mushroom exposures in Florida, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Kintziger, Kristina W; Mulay, Prakash; Watkins, Sharon; Schauben, Jay; Weisman, Richard; Lewis-Younger, Cynthia; Blackmore, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wild mushrooms can lead to serious illness and death. However, there is little information on the epidemiology of mushroom exposures nationwide, as there is no specific surveillance for this outcome. We described mushroom exposures in Florida using available data sources. We performed a population-based study of mushroom exposure calls to the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) and cases of mushroom poisoning reported in hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) data from 2003 through 2007. There were 1,538 unduplicated mushroom exposures reported during this period, including 1,355 exposure calls and 428 poisoning cases. Most exposures reported to FPICN occurred in children ≤6 years of age (45%) and males (64%), and most were unintentional ingestions (60%). Many exposures resulted in no effect (35%), although 21% reported mild symptoms that resolved rapidly, 23% reported prolonged/systemic (moderate) symptoms, and 1% reported life-threatening effects. Most calls occurred when in or en route to a health-care facility (43%). More than 71% of poisonings identified in hospital records were managed in an ED, and most occurred in young adults 16-25 years of age (49%), children ≤6 years of age (21%), adults >25 years of age (21%), and males (70%). No deaths were reported. Combined, these data were useful for describing mushroom exposures. Most exposures occurred in males and in young children (≤6 years of age) and young adults (16-25 years of age), with 78% resulting in contact with a health-care facility. Education should target parents of young children-especially during summer, when mushrooms are more abundant-and young adults who are likely experimenting with mushrooms for their potential hallucinogenic properties.

  17. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-07-20

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms.

  18. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingxia; Tang, Rong; Zhou, Qiaoling; Liu, Kanghan; Xiao, Zhou; Pouranan, Veeraragoo

    2013-05-01

    To examine the expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy before and after the treatment of Cordyceps sinensis, and to explore the mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis against hypoxia. The diabetes model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, then the rats whose 24 h urine protein level was above 30 mg/d were thought to have suffered diabetic nephropathy. Thirty rats were randomly divided into a diabetic nephropathy group (DN group, n=15) and a Cordyceps sinensis group (CS group, n=15), and another 15 normal rats served as a normal control group (NC group, n=15). The CS group were intragastrically administered Cordyceps sinensis extract liquid [5.0 g/(kg.d)], the other groups were intragastrically administered drinking water of equal volume. Five rats in each group were killed after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The 24 h urine protein excretion, urine β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and serum creatinine were measured; the renal pathological changes were evaluated by HE and Masson staining; the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were dectected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal control group, the renal tubular vacuolar degeneration was obvious, and the glomerular mesangial matrix increased in the DN group. The 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine also increased significantly (all P<0.05); the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the renal tissue gradually increased with time, and the expression of HIF-1α was correlated with that of VEGF in the 2 groups (r=0.850, r=0.887, both P<0.05) . Compared with the DN group, the pathological changes were relieved, the 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine level were decreased, and the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF decreased in the CS group (all P<0.05), but

  19. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  20. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  2. A novel orellanine containing mushroom Cortinarius armillatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dahai; Tang, Shusheng; Healy, Rosanne A; Imerman, Paula M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-05-01

    Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a tetrahydroxylated di-N-oxidized bipyridine compound. The toxin, present in certain species of Cortinarius mushrooms, is structurally similar to herbicides Paraquat and Diquat. Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus are the major orellanine-containing mushrooms. Cortinarius mushrooms are widely reported in Europe where they have caused human poisoning and deaths through accidental ingestion of the poisonous species mistaken for the edible ones. In North America, Cortinarius orellanosus mushroom poisoning was recently reported to cause renal failure in a Michigan patient. Cortinarius mushroom poisoning is characterized by delayed acute renal failure, with some cases progressing to end-stage kidney disease. There is debate whether other Cortinarius mushroom contain orellanine or not, especially in North America. Currently, there are no veterinary diagnostic laboratories in North America with established test methods for detection and quantitation of orellanine. We have developed two diagnostic test methods based on HPLC and LC-MSMS for identification and quantitation of orellanine in mushrooms. Using these methods, we have identified Cortinarius armillatus as a novel orellanine-containing mushroom in North America. The mean toxin concentration of 145 ug/g was <1% of that of the more toxic C. rubellus. The HPLC method can detect orellanine at 17 μg g(-1) while the LC-MSMS method is almost 2000 times more sensitive and can detect orellanine at 30 ng g(-1). Both tests are quantitative, selective and are now available for veterinary diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  4. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  5. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. SUMMARY The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines PMID:28250651

  6. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  7. Production and in vivo antioxidant activity of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia by Cordyceps sinensis SU-01.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Hao, Long; Ma, Hua; Tian, Chengye; Li, Tong; Sun, Xinyi; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

    2014-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a traditionally edible and medicinal fungus in China, cannot be artificially solid-cultured. Zinc (Zn), germanium (Ge), and selenium (Se) are the essential trace elements for human body. In this work, C. sinensis SU-01 was cultivated in liquid medium simultaneously containing Zn, Ge, and Se. The bioactive ingredients and in vivo antioxidant activities of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia (ZGSM) of C. sinensis SU-01 were investigated. Under the determined conditions, the Zn, Ge, and Se contents of ZGSM were 2543.16 ± 158.92, 1873.85 ± 81.82, and 1260.16 ± 107.12 μg/g, respectively. The optimal concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Se had a positive effect on biosynthesis of protein, polysaccharide, cordycepic acid, and amino acids. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice blood were 3.72 ± 0.15 and 28.74 ± 2.53 % higher than that of control, respectively, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was 41.01 ± 3.66 % lower than that of control.

  8. Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

  9. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another,more » fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.« less

  10. Cordyceps sinensis extracts attenuate aortic transplant arteriosclerosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mei; Gong, Shuwen; Yang, Yu; Chen, Bicheng; Cai, Yong; Zheng, Shaoling; Yang, Yirong; Xia, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a hallmark of chronic rejection and is still the major limiting factor affecting the success of long-term organ transplants. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, and adequate therapy is not yet available. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Cordyceps sinensis extracts in reducing the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Lewis rat aortic allografts were transplanted into Brown-Norway recipient rats. Recipients received 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of Cordyceps sinensis extracts (or control saline) daily via intragastric injection for 60 d. Grafts were harvested 60 d post-transplantation and intimal thickness determined microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and abdominal aorta protein profiles determined by Western blot analysis. Cellular localization was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry and the serum analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. sinensis administration resulted in a significant reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal thickness 8.27 ± 1.95 μm [0.5 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg] versus 11.42 ± 2.67 μm [control]) and in the proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, localized expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in transplant aortas was characterized by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses demonstrating that C. sinensis treatment significantly reduced TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels compared with levels observed in controls (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced in C. sinensis-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.05). C. sinensis treatment effectively reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Copyright

  11. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  12. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  13. [Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].

    PubMed

    Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

    2009-05-01

    Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for

  14. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  15. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  16. Mushroom tyrosinase: recent prospects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sung-Yum; Sharma, Vinay K; Sharma, Niti

    2003-05-07

    Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom, and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.

  17. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  18. [Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan; Qiu, Yi; Wan, De-Guang; Lu, Xian-Ming; Guo, Jin-Lin

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent.

  19. Identification of irradiated mushrooms (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Muenzner, R.

    1973-01-01

    A very simple method is described using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution as an indicator. The experiments have shown that only non- irradiated mushrooms could reduce the indicator solution to the red triphenylfornsazane. In the case of irradiated mushrooms, the solution retains its brown color. (GE)

  20. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Gustatory Learning and Processing in the Drosophila Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhart, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila mushroom bodies are critical association areas whose role in olfactory associative learning has been well characterized. Recent behavioral studies using a taste association paradigm revealed that gustatory conditioning also requires the mushroom bodies (Masek and Scott, 2010; Keene and Masek, 2012). Here, we examine the representations of tastes and the neural sites for taste associations in the mushroom bodies. Using molecular genetic approaches to target different neuronal populations, we find that the gamma lobes of the mushroom bodies and a subset of dopaminergic input neurons are required for taste associative learning. Monitoring responses to taste compounds in the mushroom body calyx with calcium imaging reveals sparse, taste-specific and organ-specific activation in the Kenyon cell dendrites of the main calyx and the dorsal accessory calyx. Our work provides insight into gustatory representations in the mushroom bodies, revealing the essential role of gustatory inputs not only as rewards and punishments but also as adaptive cues. PMID:25878268

  2. Determination of Glutathione, Selenium, and Malondialdehyde in Different Edible Mushroom Species.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hacer; Coteli, Ebru; Karatas, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and selenium was determined by using the fluorescence spectrophotometer in eight different species of edible mushrooms. Brittlegill mushroom (Russula delica), meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris), dryad's saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Pleurotus spp., ink mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius), ebekari mushroom (slimy) (Elazığ local) and çaşır mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (Tunceli local) were used for analysis. The amounts of GSH, GSSG, Se, and MDA with GSH/GSSG ratio in the eight different species of edible mushrooms were observed in between 269.10 ± 16.94-1554.83 ± 58.12 μg/g; 23.55 ± 1.89-841.90 ± 20.03 μg/g; 15.06 ± 1.56-82.10 ± 3.84 μg/g; 5.46 ± 0.50-27.45 ± 2.58 μg/g wet weight and 0.32-41.35, respectively. There is a weak correlation (R 2  = 0.389) between MDA and Se, on the other hand, the correlation (R 2  = 0.831) between GSH/GSSG ratio and selenium in mushrooms are reasonable well. In a similar manner, there is a weak correlation (R 2  = 0551) between GSH/GSSG and MDA ratios in mushrooms. It was found that these edible mushroom species are good source of glutathione (GSH, GSSG), and selenium (Se) in terms of quantities obtained; therefore, it can be said that mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants.

  3. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis in rats by Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    PubMed

    Qi, W; Yan, Y-B; Lei, W; Wu, Z-X; Zhang, Y; Liu, D; Shi, L; Cao, P-C; Liu, N

    2012-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been known as a traditional medicine in China, and C. sinensis plus strontium could prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The present study shows that daily oral administration of C. sinensis at higher doses in adult hind limb suspension rats can prevent disuse-induced bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Cordyceps sinensis induces estradiol production and prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This study was to examine whether C. sinensis can prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, and five groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). One HLS group received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) orally, and to the three other HLS groups to each group, a different amount of C. sinensis (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 8 weeks before and after HLS. The remaining HLS group was set as a control without treatment. Each group consisted of 10 males and females. The body weights, biochemical parameters in serum and urine, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical testing, and bone microarchitecture were examined. Treatments with higher C. sinensis dosage (300 and 500 mg/kg/day) or alendronate had a positive effect on body weights, mechanical strength, BMD, and BMC compared to the other HLS groups. C. sinensis decreased markers of bone turnover dose dependently and increased the osteocalcin levels in HLS rats. The result of micro-CT analysis from the L4 vertebra showed that C. sinensis (500 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabeculae number, and thickness as well as improved the trabeculae separation and structure model index in HLS rats. The present study demonstrates that administration of C. sinensis at higher doses over an 8-week period can prevent the disuse osteoporosis in rats. It implies that C. sinensis might be an alternative therapy for prevention

  4. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Agata; Kała, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2018-03-15

    Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a "superfood" and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  6. Identification of irradiated mushrooms (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Bugyaki, L.

    1973-01-01

    From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated foodstuffs; Karlsruhe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Cuttings from non-irradiated mushrooms, when kept at normal or sub-zero temperatares, produce new hyphae in solld culture media even after slx days, thus proving that they are living. On the other hand, cultures from mushrooms irradiated with 250 krad never show any sign of cellular proliferation. (auth)

  7. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  9. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  10. Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kimiko

    2013-11-01

    Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects).

  11. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Guillas, Floriane; Jordan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28239137

  12. Analysis and Evaluation of the Characteristic Taste Components in Portobello Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbin; Li, Wen; Li, Zhengpeng; Wu, Wenhui; Tang, Xueming

    2018-05-10

    To identify the characteristic taste components of the common cultivated mushroom (brown; Portobello), Agaricus bisporus, taste components in the stipe and pileus of Portobello mushroom harvested at different growth stages were extracted and identified, and principal component analysis (PCA) and taste active value (TAV) were used to reveal the characteristic taste components during the each of the growth stages of Portobello mushroom. In the stipe and pileus, 20 and 14 different principal taste components were identified, respectively, and they were considered as the principal taste components of Portobello mushroom fruit bodies, which included most amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. Some taste components that were found at high levels, such as lactic acid and citric acid, were not detected as Portobello mushroom principal taste components through PCA. However, due to their high content, Portobello mushroom could be used as a source of organic acids. The PCA and TAV results revealed that 5'-GMP, glutamic acid, malic acid, alanine, proline, leucine, and aspartic acid were the characteristic taste components of Portobello mushroom fruit bodies. Portobello mushroom was also found to be rich in protein and amino acids, so it might also be useful in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional food. The results in this article could provide a theoretical basis for understanding and regulating the characteristic flavor components synthesis process of Portobello mushroom. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-11-01

    Mushroom industries generate a virtually in-exhaustible supply of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This is the unutilised substrate and the mushroom mycelium left after harvesting of mushrooms. As the mushroom industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing. In recent years, the mushroom industry has faced challenges in storing and disposing the SMS. The obvious solution is to explore new applications of SMS. There has been considerable discussion recently about the potentials of using SMS for production of value-added products. One of them is production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xylanase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase. This paper reviews scientific research and practical applications of SMS as a readily available and cheap source of enzymes for bioremediation, animal feed and energy feedstock.

  14. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  15. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  16. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  17. Inhibitory mechanisms of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, in platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liao, Jiun-Cheng; Lin, Mei-Jiun; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    CME-1 is a polysaccharide purified from the mycelia of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, its molecular weight was determined to be 27.6 kDa by using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The initiation of arterial thromboses is relevant to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and is believed to involve platelet activation. Our recent study exhibited that CME-1 has potent antiplatelet activity via the activation of adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP ex vivo and in vivo. The aggregometry, and immunoblotting were used in this study. In this study, the mechanisms of CME-1 in platelet activation is further investigated and found that CME-1 inhibited platelet aggregation as well as the ATP-release reaction, relative intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2 and protein kinase C (PKC) stimulated by collagen. CME-1 has no effects on inhibiting either convulxin, an agonist of glycoprotein VI, or aggretin, an agonist of integrin α2β1 stimulated platelet aggregation. Moreover, this compound markedly diminished thrombin and arachidonic acid (AA) induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and Akt. Treatment with SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly diminished the CME-1-mediated increasing of cyclic AMP level and reversed prostaglandin E1- or CME-1-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by thrombin or AA. Furthermore, phosphodiesterase activity of human platelets was not altered by CME-1. The crucial finding of this study is that the antiplatelet activity of CME-1 may initially inhibit the PLCγ2-PKC-p47 cascade, and inhibit PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPK phosphorylation through adenylate cyclase/ cyclic AMP activation, then inhibit intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and, ultimately, inhibit platelet activation. The novel role of CME-1 in

  18. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  20. Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Raphael-John H.; Lu, Zhiren; Bogusz, Jaimee M.; Williams, Jennifer E.; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and tachysterol2. It was observed that the concentration of lumisterol2 remained constant in white button mushrooms for up to 24 h after being produced. However, in the same mushroom tachysterol2 concentrations rapidly declined and were undetectable after 24 h. Shiitake mushrooms not only produce vitamin D2 but also produce vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. A study of the bioavailability of vitamin D2 in mushrooms compared with the bioavailability of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement revealed that ingestion of 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 in mushrooms is as effective as ingesting 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement in raising and maintaining blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a marker for a person's vitamin D status. Therefore, mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. PMID:24494050

  1. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  2. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Treesearch

    Sally Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  3. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  4. The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana (higher Basidiomycetes): an indigenous medicinal mushroom new to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Habib, Mouthana N; Holliday, John C; Tura, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana, a species new to Iraq, is described from the sub-arid region of Aljazira (Iraq). Both classical taxonomy and DNA analyses confirm the identification of the fungus strain (RM-0861) as P. candolleana, a species that belongs to the family Psatherellaceae known to possess medicinal properties. Being a saprophyte, this fungus is cultivatable in laboratory conditions and therefore shows potential for production and use as a medicinal mushroom in human and veterinary health.

  5. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Xiao, Jianbo; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-08

    Mushrooms have long been used for medicinal and food purposes for over a thousand years, but a complete elucidation of the health-promoting properties of mushrooms through regulating gut microbiota has not yet been fully exploited. Mushrooms comprise a vast, and yet largely untapped, source of powerful new pharmaceutical substances. Mushrooms have been used in health care for treating simple and common diseases, like skin diseases and pandemic diseases like AIDS. This review is aimed at accumulating the health-promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota. Mushrooms are proven to possess anti-allergic, anti-cholesterol, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer properties. Mushrooms are rich in carbohydrates, like chitin, hemicellulose, β and α-glucans, mannans, xylans, and galactans, which make them the right choice for prebiotics. Mushrooms act as a prebiotics to stimulate the growth of gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. In the present review, we have summarized the beneficial activities of various mushrooms on gut microbiota via the inhibition of exogenous pathogens and, thus, improving the host health.

  6. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. Vitamin D and Vitamin D from Ultraviolet-Irradiated Mushrooms (Review).

    PubMed

    Kamweru, Paul Kuria; Tindibale, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line.

  8. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  9. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  10. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Hardeep S; Sandhu, Sardul S; Sharma, A K

    2014-02-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sp. has been known to have numerous pharmacological and therapeutic implications, especially, in terms of human health making it a suitable candidate for ethno-pharmacological use. Main constituent of the extract derived from this fungus comprises a novel bio-metabolite called as Cordycepin (3'deoxyadenosine) which has a very potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current review discusses about the broad spectrum potential of Cordycepin including biological and pharmacological actions in immunological, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular systems as well as an anti-cancer agent. The article also reviews the current efforts to delineate the mechanism of action of Cordycepin in various bio-molecular processes. The study will certainly draw the attention of scientific community to improve the bioactivity and production of Cordycepin for its commercial use in pharmacological and medical fields.

  12. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Methods Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Results Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min−1, P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. Conclusions These data suggest that diet–drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. PMID:24168107

  13. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR ) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min(-1) , P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. These data suggest that diet-drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

    2003-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found.

  16. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  17. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  18. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  19. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  20. An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gabriella Hannah; Thoen, Hanne Halkinrud; Marshall, Justin; Sayre, Marcel E

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution. PMID:28949916

  1. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  2. Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2011-03-01

    The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. The chemical structure of polysaccharides and its connection to antitumor activity, including possible ways of chemical modification, experimental testing and clinical use of antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides, and possible mechanisms of their biological action, are discussed. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms are described that appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Stimulation of host immune defense systems by bioactive polymers from medicinal mushrooms has significant effects on the maturation, differentiation, and proliferation of many kinds of immune cells in the host. Many of these mushroom polymers were reported previously to have immunotherapeutic properties by facilitating growth inhibition and destruction of tumor cells. While the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central. Particularly and most importantly for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal

  3. The structure of mushroom polysaccharides and their beneficial role in health.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping

    2015-10-01

    Mushroom is a kind of fungus that has been popular for its special flavour and renowned biological values. The polysaccharide contained in mushroom is regarded as one of the primary bioactive constituents and is beneficial for health. The structural features and bioactivities of mushroom polysaccharides have been studied extensively. It is believed that the diverse biological bioactivities of polysaccharides are closely related to their structure or conformation properties. In this review, the structural characteristics, conformational features and bioactivities of several mushroom polysaccharides are summarized, and their beneficial mechanisms and the relationships between their structure and bioactivities are also discussed.

  4. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  5. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January..., available in Antidumping Duty Order: Mushrooms From India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom...

  6. Foreign Bodies in Dried Mushrooms Marketed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Maria Rita; Manno, Claudia; Zimmardi, Antonina; Vodret, Bruna; Tilocca, Maria Giovanna; Altissimi, Serena; Haouet, Naceur M

    2015-11-02

    The presence of foreign bodies in mushrooms affects their marketability and may result in health risks to consumers. The inspection of fresh or dried mushrooms today is very important in view of the increased consumption of this kind of food. Ten samples of dried mushrooms collected in supermarkets were examined for evidence of entomological contamination by macro and microscopic analytical methods, the so-called filth-test . A total of 49 46 determinations, comprising 15 g of the vegetable matrix, were made. The microscopic filth test consistently detected an irregular distribution of physical contaminants following repeated determinations of the same sample. Visual examination, on the other hand, was not sufficient to ensure a product free of contaminants.

  7. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  8. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Young; Seguin, Philippe; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Jong-Jin; Chun, Se-Chul; Kim, Eun-Hye; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Kim, Sun-Lim; Park, Yool-Jin; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chung, Ill-Min

    2008-08-27

    A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential.

  9. Microbial ecology of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process.

    PubMed

    McGee, Conor F

    2018-02-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions. Extensive research has been conducted investigating the biochemistry and genetics of A. bisporus throughout the cultivation process; however, little is currently known about the wider microbial ecology that co-inhabits the composted substrate and casing layers. The compost and casing microbial communities are known to play important roles in the mushroom production process. Microbial species present in the compost and casing are known for (1) being an important source of nitrogen for the A. bisporus mycelium, (2) releasing sugar residues through the degradation of the wheat straw in the composted substrate, (3) playing a critical role in inducing development of the A. bisporus fruiting bodies and (4) acting as pathogens by parasitising the mushroom mycelium/crop. Despite a long history of research into the mushroom cropping process, an extensive review of the microbial communities present in the compost and casing has not as of yet been undertaken. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature investigating the compost and casing microbial communities throughout cultivation of the A. bisporus mushroom crop.

  10. Impact of optimised cooking on the antioxidant activity in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Tan, Wan Chein

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of four cooking methods with different durations on the in vitro antioxidant activities of five edible mushrooms, namely Agaricus bisporus , Flammulina velutipes , Lentinula edodes , Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus eryngii. Among the raw samples, A. bisporus showed the highest total antioxidant activity (reducing power and radical scavenging), total flavonoid, ascorbic acid and water soluble phenolic contents. Short-duration steam cooking (3 min) increased the total flavonoid and ascorbic acid while prolonged pressure cooking (15 min) reduced the water soluble phenolic content in the mushrooms. The retention of antioxidant value in the mushrooms varied with the variety of mushroom after the cooking process. The cooking duration significantly affected the ascorbic acid in the mushrooms regardless of cooking method. To achieve the best antioxidant values, steam cooking was preferred for F. velutipes (1.5 min), P. ostreatus (4.5 min) and L. edodes (4.5 min) while microwave cooking for 1.5 min was a better choice for A. bisporus . Pressure cooked P. eryngii showed the best overall antioxidant value among the cooked samples. Optimised cooking method including pressure cooking could increase the antioxidant values in the edible mushrooms.

  11. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead... Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review). By...

  12. Mushroom extract inhibits ultraviolet B-induced cellular senescence in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao; Matsuo, Haruka; Kuroda, Mai; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2018-06-02

    Mushrooms possess various bioactivities and are used as nutritional supplements and medicinal products. Twenty-nine bioactive components have been extracted recently from mushrooms grown in Nepal. In this study, we evaluated the ability of these mushroom extracts to augment SIRT1, a mammalian SIR2 homologue localized in cytosol and nuclei. We established a system for screening food ingredients that augment the SIRT1 promoter in HaCaT cells, and identified a SIRT1-augmenting mushroom extract (number 28, Trametes versicolor). UVB irradiation induced cellular senescence in HaCaT cells, as evidenced by increased activity and expression of cellular senescence markers including senescence-associated β-galactosidase, p21, p16, phosphorylated p38, and γH2AX. Results clearly showed that the mushroom extract (No. 28) suppressed the ultraviolet B irradiation-induced cellular senescence in HaCaT cells possibly through augmenting SIRT1 expression.

  13. [Study on effect of cordyceps sinensis on early-stage silicotic pulmonary fibrosis in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Hongfu; Ying, Yanhong

    2014-07-01

    To establish a rabbit model of silicotic pulmonary fibrosis and to investigate the effect of cordyceps sinensis in this model. Thirty healthy male white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, silicosis model group, and intervention group. The rabbits in silicosis model group and intervention group received endotracheal perfusion of silicon dioxide suspension (120 mg/kg), and the control group was treated with the same volume of saline. All the rabbits were sacrificed 30 days later. The lung coefficient was calculated by comparing the lung weight and body weight; the right lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured by alkaline hydrolysis. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β₁) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7) in rabbit lung sections were determined by real-time PCR. No abnormalities were observed by HE staining in the lung tissues of control group, while fibrosis and silicotic nodules were discovered in the silicosis model group and intervention group. The lung coefficient and the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue were significantly higher in the silicosis model group than in the control group and intervention group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the silicosis model group and intervention group had significantly increased TGF-β₁ mRNA levels but significantly reduced Smad7 mRNA levels (P < 0.02). Compared with the silicosis model group, the intervention group had a significantly reduced TGF-β₁ mRNA level but a significantly increased Smad7 mRNA level (P < 0.05). Cordyceps sinensis is able to reduce the expression of TGF-β₁ mRNA and increase the expression of Smad7 mRNA in lung tissues of rabbits with silicotic pulmonary fibrosis, and thus postpone the progression of fibrosis.

  14. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    PubMed

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable.

  16. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  17. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  18. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focusmore » on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.« less

  19. Vanadium-Enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianyou; Li, ChangYu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    This article studies a contemporary treatment approach toward both diabetes and depression management by vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS). Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were used in the study. After the rats were administered with VECS, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was seen (P < .05) and the levels of serum insulin increased significantly (P < .05). At the same time, the study revealed a significant decrease in immobility with a corresponding increase in the swimming and climbing behavior in hyperglycemic rats following VECS treatment. The results described herein demonstrate that VECS is a contemporary treatment approach that advocates an aggressive stance toward both diabetes and depression management. PMID:21799679

  20. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  1. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  3. Identifying 8-hydroxynaringenin as a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Meng-Yi; Lin, Hsuan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    A biotransformed metabolite of naringenin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae, fed with naringenin, and identified as 8-hydroxynaringenin based on the mass and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data. The compound showed characteristics of both an irreversible inhibitor and a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase in preincubation and HPLC analysis. These results demonstrate that 8-hydroxynaringenin belongs to a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. The partition ratio between the compound's molecules in the formation of product and in the inactivation of the enzyme was determined to be 283 +/- 21. The present study's results, together with our previous findings, which proved that both 8-hydroxydaidzein and 8-hydroxygenistein are suicide substrates of mushroom tyrosinase, show that 7,8,4'-trihydroxyl functional groups on flavonoids' skeletons play important roles in producing suicide substrate properties toward mushroom tyrosinase.

  4. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  5. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  6. Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    A. Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K. Janardhanan, Kainoor

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use. PMID:18398492

  7. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  8. Higher order visual input to the mushroom bodies in the bee, Bombus impatiens.

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique C; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2008-11-01

    To produce appropriate behaviors based on biologically relevant associations, sensory pathways conveying different modalities are integrated by higher-order central brain structures, such as insect mushroom bodies. To address this function of sensory integration, we characterized the structure and response of optic lobe (OL) neurons projecting to the calyces of the mushroom bodies in bees. Bees are well known for their visual learning and memory capabilities and their brains possess major direct visual input from the optic lobes to the mushroom bodies. To functionally characterize these visual inputs to the mushroom bodies, we recorded intracellularly from neurons in bumblebees (Apidae: Bombus impatiens) and a single neuron in a honeybee (Apidae: Apis mellifera) while presenting color and motion stimuli. All of the mushroom body input neurons were color sensitive while a subset was motion sensitive. Additionally, most of the mushroom body input neurons would respond to the first, but not to subsequent, presentations of repeated stimuli. In general, the medulla or lobula neurons projecting to the calyx signaled specific chromatic, temporal, and motion features of the visual world to the mushroom bodies, which included sensory information required for the biologically relevant associations bees form during foraging tasks.

  9. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

  10. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilizing Mushrooms to Reduce Overall Sodium in Taco Filling Using Physical and Sensory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kristin M; Decker, Eric A; Autio, Wesley R; Toong, Ken; DiStefano, Garett; Kinchla, Amanda J

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the use of integrating mushrooms into beef taco filling as a means to reduce overall sodium for food service applications. Initial product development used physical characterization analysis (moisture, yield, color, and texture) to determine initial threshold of mushroom inclusion with minimal differences against an all-meat control. Increasing mushroom inclusion increased moisture and yield before draining but decreased yield after draining, lightness, redness, and texture. Results showed that inclusion under 50% by weight minimized physical attribute deviation from an all-meat control. Additional physical analysis investigated a variety of other factors (mushroom type, blanching, and particle size) to determine if other attributing mushroom characteristics would yield statistical similarity to the all-meat control. Results showed that a formulation containing up to 45% mushrooms can be integrated into beef fillings using un-blanched, white button mushrooms with small grind (1 to 5 mm), which maximized mushroom usage while minimizing differences from the all-meat control. Additional sodium analysis showed that varying salt level in formulations did not affect physical characteristics and mushroom inclusion could not significantly reduce overall sodium level. Optimized mushroom samples were then fielded in a hedonic sensory study to untrained consumers to evaluate product liking attributes (overall liking, aroma, color, flavor, juiciness, saltiness, and texture). Samples with overall liking scores that closely matched the control were then fielded in a paired-preference test to determine acceptance. Consumers preferred a 45% mushroom with reduced sodium taco filling compared to its full sodium counterpart in a food service fielded paired-preference sensory test. Although diet can significantly reduce the risk of heart disease, American consumers continue to eat detrimental diets high in fat and sodium. Products need to be made that

  12. Psilocybin mushroom (Psilocybe semilanceata) intoxication with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Borowiak, K S; Ciechanowski, K; Waloszczyk, P

    1998-01-01

    Intentional intoxication with natural hallucinogenic substances such as hallucinogenic mushrooms continues to be a major problem in the US and Europe, particularly in the harbor complex of northwest Poland (Pomerania). A case is described of Psilocybe intoxication in an 18-year-old man resulting in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. The indole concentrations of hallucinogenic mushrooms may predict the risk for adverse central nervous system and cardiac toxicity.

  13. The mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and strontium in prevention of osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Pu-jie; Guo, Wen-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) and strontium ranelate on ovariectomized osteopenic rats was studied in this paper. After the rats were treated orally with C. sinensis, strontium, and C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate (CSS) respectively, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine, C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level were examined. The beneficial effects of CSS on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level, and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSS also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. This study demonstrates the value of C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.

  14. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  15. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic potential of Cordyceps sinensis metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jang, Ka-Hee; Im, Seon-Young; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Farooq, Muhammad; Farhoudi, Rozbeh; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the antioxidant activities, biochemical properties and biological activities of one of the entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps sinensis. Analysis of fungal metabolites indicated that the most abundant free sugar was glucose; the highest component of organic acids was citric acid from 10-day culture medium and the glutamate was the predominant amino acid observed from 3-day culture medium. Maximum total polyphenols and flavonoids were detected in the 15-day culture medium. For cytotoxicity test, three cancer cell lines, HepG2 (liver), MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (lung) were used. The IC50 values of the highest toxicity of HepG2 cell lines were observed from 10-day cultured medium, whereas the highest toxicity of MCF-7 and A549 was observed on 5-day cultured medium. This is the first study reporting on the strong antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of C. sinensis. Culture medium of C. sinensis may thus be used as an effective antioxidant and anticancer treatment of natural origin.

  16. Relationship between uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms and its catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms (Shiitake) artifically grown on an oak tree and the uptake in vitro by catalase extracts prepared from mushroom Hay Bacillus and spinach are reported. Mushrooms were exposed to 1.4 mg/Hg/cu m for 11 days. Measurement of total mercury was as previously described (Ogata et al. 1978, 1979). Levels in mushrooms ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ..mu..g/g at 0.5 days to 4.6 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g/g at 10.5 days and steady-state thereafter. In in vitro studies Hy uptake by mushroom catalase extract was estimated by the perborate method. Uptake was found to parallel catalase activitymore » and was inhibited by potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. Similar results were obtained with Hay Bacillus and spinach catalase extracts. Results suggest that the level of mercury in the mushroom can be used as an indicator of mercury pollution in the environment. It is also suggested that catalase has an important role in uptake of mercury vapor in the plant. 2 tables (JMT)« less

  17. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J P; Rooney, J

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and upper airways symptoms have been ascribed to fungal exposures. Mushroom workers may be at risk of these as a consequence. To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in mushroom workers. A cross-sectional study assessed 4 weeks of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers divided into four categories of exposure, using a self-administered respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. The population of 191 subjects was predominantly (66%) from Eastern Europe; 61% were women and 39% were under 30. It included 73 growers, 38 composters, 26 administrators and 52 packers. Among all workers, there was a high prevalence (67%) of one or more respiratory symptoms which did not appear to vary by age, gender, pack-years of smoking or duration of employment. There was a significant improvement in respiratory symptoms in workers during absence from the workplace (P < 0.001). Spirometry readings across all groups were within normal values. Symptom profiles suggest that as many as 22 workers had symptoms of airways disease; 18 (82%) of these were mushroom growers. Growers were significantly more likely to have symptoms consistent with airways disease than all other workers, odds ratio 9.2 (95% CI 3.0-28.4). There was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers. Mushroom growers may be at high risk of airways disease, possibly from fungal antigens or related exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Bacterial population dynamics in recycled mushroom compost leachate.

    PubMed

    Safianowicz, Katarzyna; Bell, Tina L; Kertesz, Michael A

    2018-06-01

    Mushrooms are an important food crop throughout the world. The most important edible mushroom is the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), which comprises about 30% of the global mushroom market. This species is cultivated commercially on a selective compost that is produced predominantly from wheat straw/stable bedding and chicken manure, at a moisture content of around 70% (w/w) and temperatures of up to 80 °C. Large volumes of water are required to achieve this moisture content, and many producers therefore collect leachate from the composting windrows and bunkers (known in the industry as "goody water") and reuse it to wet the raw ingredients. This has the benefit of recycling and saving water and has the potential to enrich beneficial microorganisms that stimulate composting, but also the risk of enhancing pathogen populations that could reduce productivity. Here, we show by 16S rRNA gene sequencing that mushroom compost leachate contains a high diversity of unknown microbes, with most of the species found affiliated with the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. However, by far the most abundant species was the thermophile Thermus thermophilus, which made up approximately 50% of the bacterial population present. Although the leachate was routinely collected and stored in an aerated central storage tank, many of the bacterial species found in leachate were facultative anaerobes. However, there was no evidence for sulfide production, and no sulfate-reducing bacterial species were detected. Because T. thermophilus is important in the high temperature phase of composting, the use of recycled leachate as an inoculum for the raw materials is likely to be beneficial for the composting process.

  19. Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms.

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2004-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on conifer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and an unknown species of southern yellow pine...

  20. Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S.; Pine, Elizabeth M.; Langer, Ewald; Langer, Gitta; Donoghue, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Homobasidiomycete fungi display many complex fruiting body morphologies, including mushrooms and puffballs, but their anatomical simplicity has confounded efforts to understand the evolution of these forms. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of homobasidiomycetes, using sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA, with an emphasis on understanding evolutionary relationships of gilled mushrooms and puffballs. Parsimony-based optimization of character states on our phylogenetic trees suggested that strikingly similar gilled mushrooms evolved at least six times, from morphologically diverse precursors. Approximately 87% of gilled mushrooms are in a single lineage, which we call the “euagarics.” Recently discovered 90 million-year-old fossil mushrooms are probably euagarics, suggesting that (i) the origin of this clade must have occurred no later than the mid-Cretaceous and (ii) the gilled mushroom morphology has been maintained in certain lineages for tens of millions of years. Puffballs and other forms with enclosed spore-bearing structures (Gasteromycetes) evolved at least four times. Derivation of Gasteromycetes from forms with exposed spore-bearing structures (Hymenomycetes) is correlated with repeated loss of forcible spore discharge (ballistospory). Diverse fruiting body forms and spore dispersal mechanisms have evolved among Gasteromycetes. Nevertheless, it appears that Hymenomycetes have never been secondarily derived from Gasteromycetes, which suggests that the loss of ballistospory has constrained evolution in these lineages. PMID:9342352

  1. Acute Inocybe mushroom toxicosis in dogs: 5 cases (2010-2014).

    PubMed

    Seljetun, Kristin Opdal; von Krogh, Anita

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical course, treatment, and outcome of 5 dogs following ingestion of mushrooms belonging to the Inocybe genus. Five dogs with witnessed Inocybe ingestions were presented with clinical signs compatible with poisoning. Vomiting, ptyalism, diarrhea, depression, and tachycardia were common clinical findings in the dogs in this case series. The prognosis with Inocybe toxicosis appears to be excellent as all dogs fully recovered following supportive care. This is the first reported case series of Inocybe mushroom ingestions in dogs where identification of the mushrooms were confirmed by an expert mycologist. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  2. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  3. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, E; Olarte, C; Giménez, M; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Listeria monocytogenes to grow in mushrooms packaged in two different types of PVC films when stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and nonperforated PVC) and stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors were determined. The mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 4 degrees C had the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C in inoculated mushrooms packaged in perforated and nonperforated films between 1 and 2 log units during the first 48 h. After 10 d of storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes were higher in mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 10 degrees C. MAP followed by storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C extends the shelf life by maintaining an acceptable appearance, but allows the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. According to this study additional hurdles must be studied in order to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  4. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  5. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, P<0.001). Both antioxidants were more concentrated in pileus than stipe tissues in selected mushrooms species. Agaricus bisporus harvested during the third cropping flush contained higher levels of ergothioneine and glutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abundance and distribution of Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in Spanish mushroom crops.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María-Jesús; Gea, Francisco-José; Escudero-Colomar, L Adriana

    2010-04-01

    The myceliophagous mite Microdispus lambi has become a veritable plague since 1996, when it was first observed in Spanish mushroom crops, and is now causing substantial economic losses, particulary in spring and summer. This study looks at seasonal variation of the pest, its distribution on commercial farms and the population development during the crop cycle of the common white mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Over a period of 18 months, 24 consecutive mushroom crop cycles were monitored and a total of 24 spawn and 960 substrate samples were analysed. We found that it is usually the substrates in the growing rooms that are infested, most commonly the compost. In many cases, the pest can be detected when the first 'flush'-i.e., mushroom growth surge, with weekly periodicity-is harvested, although damage does not become evident until the third flush. Mites were detected at the back of the mushroom growing room and, to a lesser extent, near the access door.

  7. Metal Contents, Bioaccumulation, and Health Risk Assessment in Wild Edible Boletaceae Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Chang, Weidan; Bao, Changjun; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2017-06-01

    Eight wild edible Boletaceae mushrooms (227 samples) and their soils were collected from 40 locations, Yunnan province, China. Four essential metals (Fe, Mg, Zn, and Cu) and 2 toxic metals (Pb and Cd) were determined. The results showed that Boletaceae mushrooms have abundance of 4 essential metals. The highest Pb mean value was 0.70 mg/kg DW, lower than legal limits, but Cd contents significantly exceeded legal limits. Generally, bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that Zn and Cu were easily bioaccumulated by mushrooms. However, the BCF Cd of Boletus griseus reached to 6.40. Target hazard quotients showed Cd was the main risk metal in Boletaceae mushrooms. The metal compositional variability and the similarity of metal contents were further determined by principal component analysis. Regression model analysis indicated that Cd contents in mushrooms were positively correlated with soil Cd contents, and negatively correlated with soil pH, except for the samples of Boletus bicolor. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. [Microscopic study of powders of hallucinogenic mushrooms--Psilocybe sp].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents simple methods for microscopic examination and basic microchemical testing for the identification of suspect mushroom powders. The microscopic features of the most commonly cultivated and trafficked hallucinogenic genus Psilocybin are described and may serve for the decision whether any suspect material consists of such mushroom powder (and is therefore to be subjected to further analysis) or not.

  9. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Aguilar, Luis Enrique; Montoya, Adriana; Kong, Alejandro; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto

    2014-03-05

    We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus

  10. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in

  11. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC therefore...

  12. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  13. Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

    1996-01-01

    An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in…

  14. Improvement of Diet-induced Obesity by Ingestion of Mushroom Chitosan Prepared from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Shoichi; Hamaya, Tadao; Eguchi, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    The anti-obesity effects of mushroom chitosan prepared from Flammulina velutipes were investigated using an animal model with diet-induced obesity. In this study, 5-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were divided into six groups of 10 mice each and fed different diets based on the MF powdered diet (standard diet) for 6 weeks: standard diet control group, high-fat diet control group (induced dietary obesity) consisting of the standard diet and 20% lard, and mushroom chitosan groups consisting of the high-fat diet with mushroom chitosan added at 100, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight. On the final day of the experiment, mean body weight was 39.1 g in the high-fat control group and 36.3 g in the 2,000 mg/kg mushroom chitosan group, compared to 35.8 g in the standard diet control group. In the mushroom chitosan groups, a dose-dependent suppression of weight gain and marked improvements in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were found. The mushroom chitosan groups showed fewer and smaller fat deposits in liver cells than the high-fat diet control group, and liver weight was significantly reduced. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT), which are indices of the hepatic function, all showed dose-dependent improvement with mushroom chitosan administration. These results suggested that mushroom chitosan acts to suppress enlargement of the liver from fat deposition resulting from a high-fat diet and to restore hepatic function. The lipid content of feces showed a marked increase correlated with the mushroom chitosan dose. These findings suggest the potential use of mushroom chitosan as a functional food ingredient that contributes to the prevention or improvement of dietary obesity by inhibiting digestion and absorption of fats in the digestive tract and simultaneously promotes lipolysis in adipocytes.

  15. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  16. Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Choi, Joon-Weon; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

    2008-05-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145 kW h/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70 kW h/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%) than normal wood (49%) after cultivation by Lentinus edodes as spawn. Lignin, an enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitor in sugar production, decreased from 21.07% to 18.78% after inoculation of L. edodes. Total sugar yields obtained by enzyme and acid hydrolysis were higher in waste mushroom logs than in normal wood. After 24h fermentation, 12 g/L ethanol was produced on waste mushroom logs, while normal wood produced 8 g/L ethanol. These results indicate that waste mushroom logs are economically suitable lignocellulosic material for the production of fermentable sugars related to bioethanol production.

  17. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. In vivo bioavailability of selenium in enriched Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marliane C S; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro V; Vanetti, Maria C D; Bazzolli, Denise M S; Costa, Neuza M B; Kasuya, Maria C M

    2010-02-01

    The in vivo bioavailability of Se was investigated in enriched Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms. A bioavailability study was performed using 64 Wistar male rats separated in 8 groups and fed with different diets: without Se, with mushrooms without Se, with enriched mushrooms containing 0.15, 0.30 or 0.45 mg kg(-1) Se and a normal diet containing 0.15 mg kg(-1) of Se using sodium selenate. The experiment was performed in two periods: depletion (14 days) and repletion (21 days), according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. After five weeks, the rats were sacrificed under carbon dioxide, and blood was drawn by heart puncture. Blood plasma was separated by centrifugation. The total Se concentration in the plasma of rats fed with enriched mushrooms was higher than in rats fed with a normal diet containing sodium selenate. The plasma protein profiles were obtained using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV detectors. Aliquots of effluents (0.5 mL per minute) were collected throughout in the end of the chromatographic column. However, Se was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) only in the aliquots where proteins were detected by SEC-UV. The plasma protein profile of rats fed with different diets was similar. The highest Se concentration was observed in a peptide presenting 8 kDa. Furthermore, the higher Se concentration in this peptide was obtained for rats fed with a diet using enriched mushrooms (7 μg L(-1) Se) compared to other diets (2-5 μg L(-1) Se). These results showed that Se-enriched mushrooms can be considered as an alternative Se food source for humans, due to their high bioavailability.

  19. Structural and phase transitions of one and two polymer mushrooms in poor solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations and the corresponding lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations based on the same model system, where multiple occupancy of lattice sites is allowed [Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 4564 (2009); Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 6206 (2010)], we studied the coil-globule transition (CGT) of one-mushroom systems and the fused-separated transition (FST) of two-mushroom systems, where a polymer mushroom is formed by a group of n homopolymer chains each of N segments end-grafted at the same point onto a flat substrate and immersed in a poor solvent. With our soft potential that allows complete particle overlapping, LSCF theory neglecting the system fluctuations/correlations becomes exact in the limit of n → ∞, and FLMC results approach LSCF predictions with increasing n. Using LSCF calculations, we systematically constructed the phase diagrams of one- and two-mushroom systems. A second-order symmetric-asymmetric transition (SAT) was found in the globule state of one-mushroom systems, where the rotational symmetry around the substrate normal passing through the grafting point is broken in each individual configuration but preserved by the degeneracy of different orientations of these asymmetric configurations. Three different states were also found in two-mushroom systems: separated coils, separated globules, and fused globule. We further studied the coupling between FST in two-mushroom systems and CGT and SAT of each mushroom. Finally, direct comparisons between our simulation and theoretical results, without any parameter-fitting, unambiguously and quantitatively revealed the fluctuation/correlation effects on these phase transitions.

  20. Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qing-Jiu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Chuan-hua; Cao, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional composition of three recently domesticated culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba) was evaluated for contents of protein, fiber, fat, total sugar content, amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide components. The data indicated that fruiting bodies of these three mushroom species contained abundant nutritional substances. The protein contents of L. squarrosulus and O. submucida were 26.32% and 14.70%, which could be comparable to other commercially cultivated species. T. aurantialba contained 74.11% of carbohydrate, of which soluble polysaccharide was 40.55%. Oudemansiella sudmusida contained 15.95% of arabitol as the highest sugar alcohol in three mushrooms. These mushrooms also possessed distinct taste by their flavor component composition. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained 10.68% and 9.25% of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet amino acids, which were higher than the other two mushrooms. However, the nucleotide amounts of the three mushrooms were all lower than those of other commercially cultivated mushrooms. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained the highest amount of flavor nucleotides, which was 1.01‰. Results revealed that these three mushroom species are potentially suitable resources for commercial cultivation and healthy food.

  1. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Los, Renata; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic) from Poland. Methods Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) microbial strains was analyzed. Results As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic) and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic). Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively). A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml). Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and

  2. Total quality index of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms packed in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Djekic, Ilija; Vunduk, Jovana; Tomašević, Igor; Kozarski, Maja; Petrovic, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Pudja, Predrag; Klaus, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a total quality index and examine the effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms stored for 22 days at 4 °C. Mushrooms were packaged under three MAPs: high nitrogen packaging (HNP), low carbon dioxide packaging (LCP) and low oxygen packaging (LOP). Passive MAP with air inside initially was used as the atmosphere treatment (AIR). This research revealed two phases in quality deterioration of A. bisporus mushrooms. During the first week, most of the quality parameters were not statistically different. Thereafter, odor intensities were stronger for all four types of packaging. Color difference and browning index values showed significantly lower color changes for AIR and LOP compared with HNP and LCP mushrooms. The best total quality index was calculated for LOP, followed by LCP and AIR. The findings of this study are useful with respect to examining two-component MAPs, separating the limiting factors (O 2 and CO 2 ) and evaluating quality deterioration effects and the total quality index of A. bisporus mushrooms. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Toxic Mushrooms Causing Food-Poisoning Incidents.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Sakuma, Daisuke; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, species-specific identification of five toxic mushrooms, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Gymnopilus junonius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Pleurocybella porrigens, and Tricholoma ustale, which have been involved in food-poisoning incidents in Japan, was investigated. Specific primer pairs targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were designed for PCR detection. The specific amplicons were obtained from fresh, cooked, and simulated gastric fluid (SGF)-treated samples. No amplicons were detected from other mushrooms with similar morphology. Our method using one-step extraction of mushrooms allows rapid detection within 2.5 hr. It could be utilized for rapid identification or screening of toxic mushrooms.

  4. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Treesearch

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  5. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  6. The effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder as prebiotic agent on yoghurt quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupamahu, Ivana Putri Christantia; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Mushroom has already been known as a good source of proteins, carbohydrates and some vitamins. It is then the objective of this research to find out the effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) powder addition on yoghurt fermentation. The resulting yoghurt product will be monitor by measuring its total lactic acids, acidity (pH), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, and the organoleptic properties, including colour, taste, flavour and texture. The mushroom were dried and grinded into powder up to 200 mashes, continued with its addition in yoghurt making process. Mushroom powder concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% were added on the milk to be fermented. The result showed that mushroom powder addition resulting in increase lactic acid concentration, reduced its acidity, and increased LAB viability. Based on the lactic acid counts, acidity, and LAB viability, a concentration of 1.5% powder addition is the optimal concentration for fermentation, but the product is not preferred by the panelists. The addition of 1% mushroom powder resulting in increased yoghurt quality, and the preferred yoghurt product by most of the panelists. It is then proven that the addition of mushroom powder will increase yoghurt quality and public acceptance.

  7. Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases.

  8. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  9. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  10. MushBase: A Mushroom Information Database Application

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vang Quy; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    A database application, namely MushBase, has been built based on Microsoft Access in order to store and manage different kinds of data about mushroom biological information of species, strains and their physiological characteristics such as geometries and growth condition(s). In addition, it is also designed to store another group of information that is experimental data about mushroom classification by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). These two groups of information are stored and managed in the way so that it is convenient to retrieve each group of data and to cross-refer between them as well. PMID:24015087

  11. An Overview of Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms in Neurodegeneration and Neurotrauma Research.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Ng, Chai-Chee; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Yow, Yoon-Yen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    Culinary and medicinal mushrooms have been appreciated since prehistoric times as valuable resources for food and medicine. Edible mushrooms represent an untapped source of nutraceuticals and valuable palatable food. Long considered tonics, they are now treasured as functional foods that can improve human health and quality of life. Numerous studies have provided insights into the neuroprotective effects of edible mushrooms, which are attributed to their antioxidant, antineuroinflammatory, and cholinesterase inhibitory properties, and their ability to prevent neuronal death. Here we review the recent literature on the role of culinary and medicinal mushrooms in the management of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. We highlight some of the molecular mechanisms for how these alternative medicines provide health benefits that could help us to harness their neuroprotective effects.

  12. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  15. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in U.S. Mushrooms and Substrate in Relation to Dietary Exposure.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McClatchy, Colleen; Paukett, Michelle

    2016-09-06

    Wild mushrooms can absorb high quantities of metal(loid)s, yet the concentration, speciation, and localization of As, Pb, and Cd in cultivated mushrooms, particularly in the United States, are unresolved. We collected 40 samples of 12 types of raw mushrooms from 2 geographic locations that produce the majority of marketable U.S. mushrooms and analyzed the total As, Pb, and Cd content, the speciation and localization of As in select samples, and assessed the metal sources and substrate-to-fruit transfer at one representative farm. Cremini mushrooms contained significantly higher total As concentrations than Shiitake and localized the As differently; while As in Cremini was distributed throughout the fruiting body, it was localized to the hymenophore region in Shiitake. Cd was significantly higher in Royal Trumpet than in White Button, Cremini, and Portobello, while no difference was observed in Pb levels among the mushrooms. Concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd were less than 1 μg g(-1) d.w. in all mushroom samples, and the overall risk of As, Cd, and Pb intake from mushroom consumption is low in the U.S. However, higher percentages of tolerable intake levels are observed when calculating risk based on single serving-sizes or when substrate contains elevated levels of metal(loid)s.

  17. Quality characteristic of liquid smoked straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) ball during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, C. W.; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Sanjaya, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) ball was soaked for 15, 30, and 45 minutes with the concentration level 1%, 2%, and 3% (v/v) of the coconut shell liquid smoke. The chemical characteristics (water contains, total phenol, carbonil contains, total-N, TVB-N, and pH), microbiological characteristics (Total Plate Count), and sensory characteristics (color, flavor, taste, texture, and overalls) of the liquid smoked straw mushroom ball during 14 days storage at freezing temperature were investigated. The result showed that the water content and TVB-N were decreased after soaked and were increased after storaged. On the other hand, the result of total phenol, carbonyl content, and Total-N were increased after soaked and were decreased after storage. The level of pH and Total Plate Count of the straw mushroom ball were decreased during storage. Due to the sensory characteristics of the straw mushroom ball, the panelists provide high values for the straw mushroom ball which was soaked in 3% concentration level with 30 minutes soaked time. The best-soaked treatment was by soaked at 30 minutes with 3% concentration level liquid smoke. The straw mushroom ball has 70.95±0.10% water contains; 0.32±0.02% total phenol; 1.08±0.22% carbonyl contains; and 2.29±0.07% total-N.

  18. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  19. Myo- and cardiotoxic effects of the wild winter mushroom ( Flammulina velutipes) on mice.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Määttänen, Maija; Kärjä, Vesa; Puukka, Katri; Aho, Jari; Saarela, Seppo; Nieminen, Petteri

    2018-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of striated muscle) is a novel form of mushroom poisoning in Europe and Asia indicated by increased circulating creatine kinase levels. Particular wild fungi have also been reported to induce elevated creatine kinase activities in mice. Flammulina velutipes (enokitake or winter mushroom) is one of the most actively cultivated mushroom species globally. As it is marketed as a medicinal mushroom and functional food, it is important to examine whether it could induce potentially harmful health effects similar to some previously studied edible fungi. The present study examined the effects of F. velutipes consumption on the plasma clinical chemistry, hematology, and organ histology of laboratory mice. Wild F. velutipes were dried, pulverized, mixed with a regular laboratory rodent diet, and fed to the animals at 0, 3, 6, or 9 g/kg body mass/day for five days ( n = 6/group). F. velutipes consumption caused increased activities of plasma creatine kinase and the MB-fraction of creatine kinase at 6-9 g/kg/d, indicating potentially deleterious effects on both skeletal and cardiac muscle. The plasma total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (at 9 g/kg/d) and white blood cell and lymphocyte counts (at 6-9 g/kg/d) decreased. Although the cholesterol-lowering properties of F. velutipes can be beneficial, the previously unexamined, potentially hazardous side effects of mushroom consumption (myo- and cardiotoxicity) should be thoroughly investigated before recommending this mushroom species as a health-promoting food item. Impact statement This work is important to the field of functional foods, as it provides novel information about the potential myo- and cardiotoxic properties of an edible mushroom, Flammulina velutipes. The results are useful and of importance because F. velutipes is an actively cultivated mushroom and marketed as a health-promoting food item. The findings contribute to the understanding of the complexity of

  20. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic interested party, to conduct an administrative review...

  1. Comparative nutrient composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from two agro-ecological zones, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nakalembe, Immaculate; Kabasa, John David; Olila, Deogratias

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, wild mushrooms are mainly collected during the rainy season and valued as a traditionally nutritious food by the rural poor. However, their nutritional attributes have not been adequately studied and documented. Comparative nutrient composition of five wild edible mushroom species was determined, namely: P. tenucuilus, T. tyleranus, T. clypeatus, V. speciosa and T. microcarpus of sub-humid and humid agro-ecological zones. Standard analytical techniques following the AOAC were used for proximate and mineral contents determinations. Vitamins determination followed the established standard protocols of the laboratories where the analyses were conducted. Combined use of nutrient concentration and scores were used to compare the level of the contents in the mushroom species. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in nutrient values were demonstrated between and among the mushroom species obtained from the two agro-ecological zones. On dry weight basis, all proximate compositions were high in mushroom species obtained from the humid zone with exception of the total carbohydrates and energy values. Irrespective of the source of the mushrooms, significant amounts were demonstrated in protein, dry matter, ash and total carbohydrates ranging between 11.56-27.42%, 82.34-99.76%, 10.79-16.87%, and 37.12-61.05%, respectively. In comparison with recommended dietary daily intakes, the K, P, Se, Mn, Cu and Fe contents were relatively high with low Ca, Mg, Zn and Na. Thiamin, folic acid, vitamin C, and niacin levels were high but below the recommended FAO references. Considering mushrooms from different agro-ecological zones, significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in all mushroom species in P except in T. clypeatus, T. tyleranus, T. microcarpus and T. clypeatus in potassium, T. clypeatus and T. microcarpus in Mg. Mushrooms from humid agro-ecological zones had relatively high overall mineral and vitamin supply potential. In conclusion, consumption of these

  2. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  3. Book Review :The Essential Guide to Rocky Mountain Mushrooms by Habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mushroom guide book, 'The Essential Guide to Rocky Mountain Mushrooms by Habitat' by Cathy L. Cripps, Vera S. Evenson, and Michael Kou (University of Illinois Press, 260 pages), is reviewed in non-technical fashion from the standpoints of format, comprehensiveness, and clarity. Postive features (...

  4. Hallucinogenic mushrooms on the German market - simple instructions for examination and identification.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Madea, B; Beike, J

    2000-09-11

    'Magic mushrooms' is the name most commonly given to psychoactive fungi containing the hallucinogenic components psilocybin and psilocin. Material confiscated by local authorities was examined using morphologic, microscopic, microchemical, and toxicological methods. Psilocybe cubensis was the most popular mushroom in the sample collective, followed by Psilocybe semilanceata, Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe tampanensis. The alkaloid content was determined with <0.003-1.15% of psilocybin and 0.01-0.90% psilocin. Panaeolus cyanescens was the mushroom with highest levels of psilocybin and psilocin.

  5. The merit of medicinal mushrooms from a pharmaceutical point of view.

    PubMed

    Lindequist, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Whereas pharmaceuticals prepared by extraction of medicinal plants constitute an important part of evidence-based medicine also in the Western Hemisphere, medicinal mushrooms are mainly used as dietary supplements without declaration of a medical indication. Scientific investigations and case studies from Asian medicine show that fungi have very promising pharmacological potential. This article provides an overview of the principles of authorization and market access of herbal drugs in Europe, with special reference to Germany. The current status regarding mushrooms is reported, with an aim toward supporting the development of legalized pharmaceutical preparations of medicinal mushrooms in Europe.

  6. Effect of time, temperature, and slicing on respiration rate of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, T; Rodrigues, F A S; Mahajan, P V; Kerry, J P

    2009-08-01

    Respiration rate measurement considering the effects of cutting, temperature, and storage time are important for the shelf life study and modified atmosphere-packaging design of fresh-cut produce. This study investigates in the respiration rate of fresh whole and sliced mushrooms at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 degrees C under ambient atmosphere and different storage times. The O(2) consumption rate increased with temperature and ranged from 22.13 to 102.41 mL/(kg.h) and 28.87 to 143.22 mL/(kg.h) for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively, in the temperature range tested. Similar trend was observed for CO(2) production rate. Slicing of mushrooms increased the respiration rate by 30% at 0 degrees C and 40% at 20 degrees C indicating that the mushrooms are not as sensitive to the stress caused by cutting as other fresh produce. Storage time affected both respiration rate of whole and sliced mushrooms and this effect was prominent at higher temperatures. The respiration rates increased initially for some time, then decreased and reached steady state value at 12, 16, and 20 degrees C. A 2nd-order polynomial equation was used to fit the respiration rate data as a function of time at each temperature tested.

  7. Presence of phenylethylamine in hallucinogenic Psilocybe mushroom: possible role in adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Beck, O; Helander, A; Karlson-Stiber, C; Stephansson, N

    1998-01-01

    The use of mushrooms containing the hallucinogenic substance psilocybin for intentional intoxication is relatively common. Occasionally, this results in adverse reactions with typical tachycardia that is not evidently caused by psilocybin. This study demonstrates the presence of phenylethylamine in the species Psilocybe semilanceata using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and shows that the amount of this substance may vary much more than that of psilocybin. The highest amount of phenylethylamine (146 microg/g wet weight) was observed in mushrooms from a case of three young men hospitalized because of adverse reactions. Comparison of the symptoms observed in clinical cases of magic mushroom intoxication with those after intake of pure psilocybin or phenylethylamine suggests that phenylethylamine might have a role in the development of adverse reactions to Psilocybe mushroom intake.

  8. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitativemore » results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.« less

  10. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    PubMed

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  11. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed.

  12. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  13. [Shiitake dermatitis: flagellate dermatitis after eating mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Vogt, R; Sterry, W

    2001-02-01

    The name of flagellate dermatitis originates from self-flagellating medieval people. This dermatitis is not rare as a drug eruption following bleomycin therapy. An identical skin eruption caused by the mushroom shiitake Lentinus edodes is more common but reported mostly from Japan. We saw a 67-year-old patient who presented with the typical linear scratch marks after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. The basic mechanism is a toxic epidermal damage. Since it is not clear why the dermatitis does not occur frequently since Shiitake is the second most popular mushroom in the world, we discuss possible cofactors that may trigger the toxic reaction.

  14. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India. The period of review is February 1, 2011... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms...

  15. The cultivation of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Champignon): micro-organisms and preservability.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena; Panata, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms requires the use of substrates that are potentially dangerous from the microbiological point of view, such as chicken and horse manure. Microorganisms can pose risks to consumers and workers, and generate lower profits. Packaging of fresh mushrooms with impermeable films is used to extend their shelf life but creates anaerobic and humidity conditions that could favour the growth of microorganisms such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. This paper examines some alternatives for packaging fresh mushrooms and the resulting potential microbiological hazards.

  16. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  17. Influence of productivity and processing method on physicochemical characteristics of white button mushrooms in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Penachio, Sara Maciel; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Ferraz, Rafael Augusto; Vieites, Rogério Lopes

    2014-11-01

    The white button mushroom is the edible fungus most commonly cultivated and commercialized in Brazil and worldwide. This work assesses the productivity of the different strains ABI 07/06 and ABI 06/05 of Agaricus bisporus grown under the conditions normally employed by growers in the southeast of Brazil, and the influence of four different chemical conservation methods on the physicochemical characteristics and storage properties of the fruit bodies. The productivities of strains ABI 07/06 and ABI 06/05 of white button mushrooms were found to be comparable. The colorimetric characteristics and chemical compositions (fat, fiber and protein contents) of the mushroom strains were similar, and these parameters were not influenced significantly by the conservation processes. Texture was negatively affected by all processing methods employed. It was concluded that chemical methods of processing mushrooms were not fully effective and novel alternative technologies should be considered by mushroom processors in Brazil. Some methods of mushroom storage using chemicals such as sodium metabisulfite are harmful to the human organism, so processing using autoclaving may be the best form of conservation of canned mushrooms. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Amplicon density-weighted algorithms for analyzing dissimilarity and dynamic alterations of RAPD polymorphisms of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-sang; Gao, Ling; Li, Yu-ling; Ma, Shao-li; Wu, Zi-mei; Tan, Ning-zhi; Wu, Jian-yong; Ni, Lu-qun; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2014-08-18

    To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs). Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs). Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris. The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD

  20. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.\\1\\ \\1... received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a petitioner and a domestic...

  1. Mycophilic or Mycophobic? Legislation and Guidelines on Wild Mushroom Commerce Reveal Different Consumption Behaviour in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour. PMID:23704957

  2. Mycophilic or mycophobic? Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries.

    PubMed

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.

  3. Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Elsayed A.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Wadaan, Mohammad A. M.; Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25505823

  4. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis.

  5. Compost bacteria and fungi that influence growth and development of Agaricus bisporus and other commercial mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Michael A; Thai, Meghann

    2018-02-01

    Mushrooms are an important food crop for many millions of people worldwide. The most important edible mushroom is the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), an excellent example of sustainable food production which is cultivated on a selective compost produced from recycled agricultural waste products. A diverse population of bacteria and fungi are involved throughout the production of Agaricus. A range of successional taxa convert the wheat straw into compost in the thermophilic composting process. These initially break down readily accessible compounds and release ammonia, and then assimilate cellulose and hemicellulose into compost microbial biomass that forms the primary source of nutrition for the Agaricus mycelium. This key process in composting is performed by a microbial consortium consisting of the thermophilic fungus Mycothermus thermophilus (Scytalidium thermophilum) and a range of thermophilic proteobacteria and actinobacteria, many of which have only recently been identified. Certain bacterial taxa have been shown to promote elongation of the Agaricus hyphae, and bacterial activity is required to induce production of the mushroom fruiting bodies during cropping. Attempts to isolate mushroom growth-promoting bacteria for commercial mushroom production have not yet been successful. Compost bacteria and fungi also cause economically important losses in the cropping process, causing a range of destructive diseases of mushroom hyphae and fruiting bodies. Recent advances in our understanding of the key bacteria and fungi in mushroom compost provide the potential to improve productivity of mushroom compost and to reduce the impact of crop disease.

  6. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are

  7. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-09-21

    Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order

  8. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely

  9. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic.

    PubMed

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B; Perrat, Paola N; Waddell, Scott

    2016-03-16

    Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First study of hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Dourado, Fernanda Aparecida; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-10-05

    The use of fungicides is common in mushroom cultivation, but no study was carried out applying reduced doses of fungicides in order to increase yield, taking account the hormesis effect. The aim of this manuscript was to verify the effects of different concentrations of fungicides to stimulate the productivity of different strains of Agaricus bisporus. Two stages were developed, an in vitro study to define the best concentration to be applied in the second experiment an agronomic study, which consisted of the application of the selected fungicides, in their respective concentrations, in an experiment carried out in the mushroom chamber. Clearly, the result of the hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation can be verified. The results obtained in the 1st stage of the study (in vitro) were not always reproduced in the 2nd stage of the study (in vivo). The kresoxim methyl active ingredient may be an important chemical agent, while strain ABI 15/01 may be an extremely important biological agent to increase yield in the study of hormesis effects.

  11. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p < 0.001) between examined saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  12. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  13. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2017-01-01

    There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Mushrooms and their extracts appear to hold many health benefits, including immune-modulating effects. A number of edible mushrooms have been shown to contain rare and exotic compounds that exhibit positive effects on brain cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we summarize the scientific information on edible and culinary mushrooms with regard to their antidementia/AD active compounds and/or pharmacological test results. The bioactive components in these mushrooms and the underlying mechanism of their activities are discussed. In short, these mushrooms may be regarded as functional foods for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki

    2009-12-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  15. Mushroom Consumption and Incident Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that edible mushrooms may have preventive effects against cognitive impairment. However, few cohort studies have yet examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia. We examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia in a population of elderly Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study. 13,230 individuals aged ≥65 years living in Ohsaki City, northeastern Japan. Daily mushroom consumption, other lifestyle factors, and dementia incidence. The 5.7 years incidence of dementia was 8.7%. In comparison with participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/wk, the multi-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident dementia among those did so 1-2 times/week and ≥3 times/week were 0.95 (0.81, 1.10) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.95), respectively (P-trend <.01). The inverse association persisted after excluding participants whose dementia event occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up and whose baseline cognitive function was lower. The inverse association did not differ statistically in terms of vegetable consumption (P-interaction = .10). This cohort study suggests that frequent mushroom consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Department) initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  18. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  19. [An outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by poisonous Boletus mushroom in Sichuan, China, 2012].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-jun; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Lun-guang; Zhang, Li-jie; Shi, Guo-qing; Wang, Qi-xing

    2012-12-01

    To identify the source of infection and risk factors and to provide control measures regarding an outbreak of gastroenteritis involving 30 villagers. Who attended the same wedding party held on March 5(th), 2012, a survey was carried out. Case was defined as having onset of vomiting, nausea, stomachache or diarrhea among the attendees of a wedding party. We randomly selected and interviewed 140 from 470 attendees on their symptoms and food exposures at the wedding. We compared food-specific attack rates (AR) for gastroenteritis in a retrospective cohort study. The leftover foods were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. The leftover Boletus mushrooms were examined and species determined by the Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of the 140 attendees 61% (85) developed gastroenteritis. Case-attendees had vomiting (94%), nausea (89%), stomachache (53%), and diarrhea (51%). The AR among attendees who ate Boletus mushroom was 69% (81/118), compared to 18% (4/22) of those who did not (RR = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.2). When comparing the ARs between the attendees on consumption of other foods, data did not show statistically significant differences. Among the 7 species of Boletus identified from the leftover mushrooms, 3 (B. venenatus, B. sinicus and B. magnificus) were toxic. Store keepers bought dried or fresh mushrooms from local villagers who had picked up them from the mountains. Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus tests on those leftover food showed negative results. Poisonous Boletus mushroom contributed to this outbreak. We recommended that education should be targeted on mushroom-pickers regarding how to recognize the poisonous mushrooms. Regulations and laws should also be developed to facilitate the necessary process.

  20. A novel biocoagulant agent from mushroom chitosan as water and wastewater therapy.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Oday; Abidin, Zurina Z; Idris, Azni; Kamarudin, Suryani; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq

    2017-08-01

    A new commercial cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CM), obtained from the waste of mushroom production, was examined using models of water and wastewater namely kaolin and palm oil mill effluent (pome). As it is biocompatible, widely available, and economically feasible, chitosan mushroom has high potential to be a suitable replacement for alum. Also, it can be a promising alternative to chitosan obtained traditionally from Crustaceans due to its higher zeta potential and homogeneity based on the raw material required for its production. A wide range of coagulant dose (5-60 mg l -1 ) and wastewater pH (2-12) were taken into account to find the optimal conditions of coagulation. The optimal doses are 10 and 20 mg l -1 at best pH (11 and 3) when treated with kaolin and palm oil mill effluent, respectively, while 1200 mg l -1 of alum was not enough to reach the efficiency of chitosan mushroom. On the other hand, the optimum dose of chitosan mushroom (20 mg l -1 ) at pH 3 of pome produced (75, 73, and 98%) removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS), respectively. The significant potential of chitosan mushroom was proved by zeta potential measurement. Indeed, it possesses the highest zeta potential (+70 mV) as compared to the traditional chitosan produced from crustaceans. In short, chitosan mushroom as a biocoagulant is eco-friendly and it enhances water quality that meets the requirements of environmental conservatives.

  1. Regulation of the exopolysaccharide from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cell sarcoma (DCS) cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; He, Zhenyue; Wang, Chenhao; Yuan, Fengjiao; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Weiyun

    2013-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been regarded as a precious tonic food and herbal medicine in China for thousands of years. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis was found to have antitumor immunomodulatory activity. Mature dendritic cells play a role in initiating antitumor immunity, so we try to investigate the effects of EPS on the murine dendritic cell line DCS. Flow cytometry was used to assay the expression levels of cell surface molecules including major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and their ability to take up antigens. The ability of DCS cells to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. IL-12 and TNF-α levels were detected using ELISA. Western blotting was performed to estimate the levels of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and p105. EPS increased the expressions of MHC-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and up-regulated their ability to take up antigens. EPS also enhanced their ability to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells. IL-12 and TNF-α secreted from DCS cells were up-regulated after EPS treatment. Furthermore, EPS significantly caused the decline of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, significantly increased levels of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus and decreased levels of NF-κB p105 in the cytoplasm. EPS may induce DCS cells to exhibit mature characteristics, and the mechanism involved is probably related to the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway and promotion of the NF-κB signal pathway.

  2. Tea waste: an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Doudou; Liang, Jin; Wang, Yunsheng; Sun, Feng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-01-30

    Tea waste is the residue that remains after tea leaves have been extracted by hot water to obtain water-soluble components. The waste contains a re-usable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute the environment if they are not dealt with appropriately. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied as substrates for cultivating mushrooms. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of re-using it, tea waste was added to the substrate at different ratios in different experimental groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. Substrates with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. The substrate containing 40-60% of tea waste resulted in the highest yield. Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided a useful way of dealing with massive amounts of tea waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Its Common Adulterates Using Species-Specific Primers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiao-yue; Gao, Zi-tong; Han, Jian-ping; Xiang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies (stromata) that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. sinensis based on a segment of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was developed. The segments is 146-bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O. sinensis and potential adulterants as well as sequences date from 41 Ophiocordyceps species and 26 Cordyceps species available in GenBank. Tests with primer pair, DCF4/DCR4, demonstrated generation of an amplicon from DNA extracted from O. sinensis stromata, but not from extracts derived from adulterants. Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O. sinensis and for the detection of fungi used as adulterants in these preparations. PMID:28680424

  4. Physical, Predictive Glycaemic Response and Antioxidative Properties of Black Ear Mushroom (Auricularia auricula) Extrudates.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Margaux; Lu, Xikun; Narciso, Joan Oñate; Li, Wenhui; Qin, Yuyue; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2017-09-01

    Black ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula) is an important genus of cultivated mushroom, which contains health benefits. Incorporating black ear (BE) mushroom into brown rice by extrusion changed the physicochemical, and more importantly, the nutritional characteristics of the extrudates. With increased incorporation of BE mushroom in the extrudates in vitro starch digestion of the different extrudates revealed significantly reduced starch digestion, suggesting a lower glycaemic index. In addition, incorporation of BE in brown rice extrudates increased the total phenolic concentration of the samples, which led to higher % scavenging effect against free-radicals in DPPH assay. In the ORAC assay for anti-oxidant activity, BE powder exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity, followed by 10% BE and 15% BE, and 5% BE extruded products. The extruded brown rice control exhibited the lowest antioxidant activity. Inclusion of black ear mushroom was shown to improve the nutritional qualities of the food product illustrating the connection between plant bioactive ingredients and human health.

  5. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivationmore » of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.« less

  6. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  7. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  8. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). EFFECTIVE DATE: April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  9. On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

    2012-06-01

    Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

  10. Modelling the influence of time and temperature on the respiration rate of fresh oyster mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Sílvia; Cunha, Luís M; Fonseca, Susana C

    2015-12-01

    The respiration rate of mushrooms is an important indicator of postharvest senescence. Storage temperature plays a major role in their rate of respiration and, therefore, in their postharvest life. In this context, reliable predictions of respiration rates are critical for the development of modified atmosphere packaging that ultimately will maximise the quality of the product to be presented to consumers. This work was undertaken to study the influence of storage time and temperature on the respiration rate of oyster mushrooms. For that purpose, oyster mushrooms were stored at constant temperatures of 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 ℃ under ambient atmosphere. Respiration rate data were measured with 8-h intervals up to 240 h. A decrease of respiration rate was found after cutting of the carpophores. Therefore, time effect on respiration rate was modelled using a first-order decay model. The results also show the positive influence of temperature on mushroom respiration rate. The model explaining the effect of time on oyster mushroom's respiration rate included the temperature dependence according to the Arrhenius equation, and the inclusion of a parameter describing the decrease of the respiration rate, from the initial time until equilibrium. These yielded an overall model that fitted well to the experimental data. Moreover, results show that the overall model is useful to predict respiration rate of oyster mushrooms at different temperatures and times, using the initial respiration rate of mushrooms. Furthermore, predictive modelling can be relevant for the choice of an appropriate packaging system for fresh oyster mushrooms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: A case report.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera M; Costa, Ana Elisa; Andrade, Sérgio; Carneiro, Ana Cristina; Conceição, Filipe; Paiva, José Artur; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-09-01

    Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. A 68-year-old female was presented to São João hospital (Portugal) with complaints of extreme dizziness, hallucinations, vertigo and imbalance, 3 h after consuming a stew of wild mushrooms. The first observations revealed altered mental state and elevated blood pressure. The examination of cooked mushroom fragments allowed a preliminary identification of Amanita pantherina. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of muscimol in urine. Moreover, through high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) analysis of the gastric juice, the presence of α-amanitin was found, showing that amatoxins-containing mushrooms were also included in the stew. After 4 days of supportive treatment, activated charcoal, silybin and N-acetylcysteine, the patient recovered being discharged 10 days post-ingestion with no organ complications. The prompt and appropriate therapy protocol for life-threatening amatoxins toxicity probably saved the patient's life as oral absorption was decreased and also supportive care was immediately started. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volatile Composition of Some Cultivated and Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mariann; Geosel, Andras; Amtmann, Maria; Korany, Kornel

    2017-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the fruiting bodies of 4 culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Hericium erinaceus) from Hungary were examined to review their aroma composition. Simultaneous distillation/extraction was applied to extract volatile compounds from fungi, and the values were measured with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Although the fragrances of fungi are not as characteristic as those of spices, several groups of volatile compounds have been found in mushrooms. The number of identified components ranged between 61 and 100, with a high ratio of 8-carbon volatiles generally occurring in fungi. Beyond common properties, individual attributes have been identified as well: an outstanding ratio of benzene compounds in champignons, numerous N-containing volatiles in boletes, carotenoid degradation products in chanterelles, and esters and fatty acids with a high carbon number in the lion's mane mushroom. The identification of these characteristic fragrance constituents can be very important in differentiating between species and confirming their presence in mushroom products.

  13. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

  14. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  15. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture.

  16. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  18. Chain conformation and immunomodulatory activity of a hyperbranched polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Guan, Jia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-09-22

    A polysaccharide, named as cordysinan, extracted from natural Cordyceps sinensis, was identified as a hyperbranched heteropolysaccharide from the results of FT-IR, GC-MS, and carbohydrate analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis, as well as the degree of branching of cordysinan was 43.3%. The solution properties of cordysinan were investigated by using size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and triple detector array, respectively. The molecular weights, the radius of gyration and the intrinsic viscosity of cordysinan were determined as 22.45±0.26 kDa and 22.37 kDa, 15.4±2.4 nm and 1.41 mL/g, respectively. By applying the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν and α) values of g1/2=kMwv and [η]=kMwα were calculated as 0.28 and 0.42, respectively, which firstly revealed that cordysinan existed as a globular shape in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the results showed that cordysinan could obviously stimulate macrophages functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with themore » mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.« less

  20. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  1. Difference in the volatile composition of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades.

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-06-28

    The differences in volatile components of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to their grades were observed by applying multivariate statistical methods to GC-MS data sets. A total of 35 and 37 volatile components were identified in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms, respectively. The volatile components in pine-mushrooms were primarily composed of C8 species, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, (E)-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, (E)-2-octenal, and octanoic acid. The levels of ethyl octanoate, junipene, and 3-methyl-3-buten-2-one were much higher in raw pine-mushroom of higher grades, whereas the reverse was true for C8 components. On the other hand, furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, 2(5H)-furanone, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenal, furfural, phenylacetaldehyde, benzoic acid methyl ester, camphene, and beta-pinene were the major components of cooked mushrooms. These volatile components formed by various thermal reactions could be mainly responsible for the difference in volatile components of cooked pine-mushrooms according to their grades.

  2. Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides. PMID:26167490

  3. Screening of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Mushrooms Collected on Tunisian Territory.

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Aouadhi, Chedia; Aschi-Smiti, Samira

    2017-01-01

    This study is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate the pharmacological importance of wild Tunisian mushrooms. Ethanolic extracts of 5 Tunisian mushrooms-Phellinus torulosus, Fomes fomentarius, Trametes versicolor, Pisolithus albus, and Fomitopsis pinicola-were collected from the Kroumirie Region (North Tunisia). The dry basidomes of mushrooms were extracted using ethanol and evaluated for total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, tannin, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin content. In addition, their antioxidant activities were determined using 3 assays (testing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical scavenging, the reducing power of iron, and the iron-chelating power). Their antimicrobial activities were assessed against 8 bacterial species. The results revealed the presence of significant differences between the secondary metabolites and biological activities of the different tested extracts. In addition, significant correlations were observed between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents. Crude ethanol extracts prepared from basidomes of F. fomentarius and Ph. torulosus have higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity per the DPPH and metal-chelating activity assays. The reducing power assay showed that the ethanolic extract of F. pinicola had the highest activity. Ethanolic extracts of the 5 mushrooms have antibacterial activity against the evaluated strains.

  4. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... of certain preserved mushrooms from India. EFFECTIVE DATE: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... review of certain preserved mushrooms from India covering the period of review of February 1, 2000...

  5. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  6. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source termmore » and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.« less

  7. The Key Role of Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway in the Cytotoxic Effect of Mushroom Extracts on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ling, Ming-Tat; Chen, Jiezhong

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have been extensively studied for their medicinal effects. They can stimulate immune responses and thus have been explored in cancer treatment. Recently, it has also been shown that some mushroom extracts can produce direct cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the cytotoxic effect of mushroom extracts in cancer treatment revealed by both in vitro and in vivo studies. We also summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms associated with such an effect with an emphasis on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The recent finding that mushroom extracts have direct cytotoxic effects supplements their known immune stimulating effects. Thus, novel anticancer agents based on new findings from mushroom extracts may soon be added to the present pool of anticancer drugs. Specifically, we propose that nanodelivery of the bioactive compounds of mushroom extracts to mitochondria will further increase their potential treatment efficacy.

  8. Rapid Species Identification of Cooked Poisonous Mushrooms by Using Real-Time PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Maeta, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Tomoya; Tokimoto, Keisuke; Shimomura, Norihiro; Maekawa, Nitaro; Kawaguchi, Nobuhisa; Nakaya, Makoto; Kitamoto, Yutaka; Aimi, Tadanori

    2008-01-01

    Species-specific identification of the major cooked and fresh poisonous mushrooms in Japan was performed using a real-time PCR system. Specific fluorescence signals were detected, and no nonspecific signals were detected. Therefore, we succeeded in developing a species-specific test for the identification of poisonous mushrooms within 1.5 h. PMID:18378653

  9. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Differences in Cu content in selected mushroom species growing in the same unpolluted areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Gąsecka, Monika; Rissmann, Iwona; Goliński, Piotr; Sobieralski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate copper (Cu) accumulation efficiency in whole-fruiting bodies of 18 edible and non-edible wild growing mushrooms collected from 27 places in the Wielkopolska Voivodeship. Mushrooms were collected each time from the same places to estimate the diversity in Cu accumulation between tested mushroom species within 3 consecutive years of study (2011-2013). The study results revealed various accumulation of Cu in the whole-tested mushroom fruiting bodies. The highest mean accumulation of Cu was observed in Macrolepiota procera (119.4 ± 20.0 mg kg(-1) dm), while the lowest was in Suillus luteus and Russula fellea fruiting bodies (16.1 ± 3.0 and 18.8 ± 4.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively). Significant differences in Cu accumulation between mushroom species collected in 2011 and in the two following years (2012 and 2013) were observed. The results indicated that sporadic consumption of these mushrooms was not related to excessive intake of Cu for the human body (no toxic influence on health).

  11. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2010, to July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  12. 76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  13. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  14. 76 FR 41215 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  15. Inhibitory effect of red koji extracts on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yun-Chen; Ho, Ja-An Annie; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2003-07-16

    Red koji has been recognized as a cholesterol-lowering diet supplement because of it contains fungi metabolites, monacolins, which reduce cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. In this study, water extracts of red koji were loaded onto a C(18) cartridge, and the acetonitrile eluate was collected as test fraction. Red koji water extracts and its C(18) cartridge acetonitrile eluent had total phenols concentrations of 5.57 and 1.89 mg/g of red koji and condensed tannins concentrations of 2.71 and 1.20 mg/g of red koji, respectively. Both exhibited an antioxidant activity and an inhibitory activity to mushroom tyrosinase. The higher antioxidant activity of the red koji acetonitrile eluent was due to the existence of a high percentage of condensed tannins. The results from the kinetic study for inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by red koji extracts showed that the compounds in the extracts competitively inhibited the oxidation of tyrosine catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase with an ID(50) of 5.57 mg/mL.

  16. Enhancement of β-Glucan Content in the Cultivation of Cauliflower Mushroom (Sparassis latifolia) by Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Ryu, Sung-Ryul

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of three kinds of enzymes (chitinase, β-glucuronidase, and lysing enzyme complex), employed as elicitors to enhance the β-glucan content in the sawdust-based cultivation of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia), was examined. The elicitors were applied to the cauliflower mushroom after primordium formation, by spraying the enzyme solutions at three different levels on the sawdust-based medium. Mycelial growth was fully accomplished by the treatments, but the metabolic process during the growth of fruiting bodies was affected. The application of a lysing enzyme resulted in an increase in the β-glucan concentration by up to 31% compared to that of the control. However, the treatment resulted in a decrease in mushroom yield, which necessitated the need to evaluate its economic efficiency. Although we still need to develop a more efficient way for using elicitors to enhance functional metabolites in mushroom cultivation, the results indicate that the elicitation technique can be applied in the cultivation of medicinal/edible mushrooms.

  17. Structural insight into the active site of mushroom tyrosinase using phenylbenzoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Takahiro; Yoshimori, Atsushi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Akira; Kamiya, Takanori; Abe, Hideaki; Abe, Takehiko; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    So far, many inhibitors of tyrosinase have been discovered for cosmetic and clinical agents. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition in the active site of tyrosinase have not been well understood. To explore this problem, we examined here the inhibitory effects of 4'-hydroxylation and methoxylation of phenylbenzoic acid (PBA) isomers, which have a unique scaffold to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase. The inhibitory effect of 3-PBA, which has the most potent inhibitory activity among the isomers, was slightly decreased by 4'-hydroxylation and further decreased by 4'-methoxylation against mushroom tyrosinase. Surprisingly, 4'-hydroxylation but not methoxylation of 2-PBA appeared inhibitory activity. On the other hand, both 4'-hydroxylation and methoxylation of 4-PBA increased the inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. In silico docking analyses using the crystallographic structure of mushroom tyrosinase indicated that the carboxylic acid or 4'-hydroxyl group of PBA derivatives could chelate with cupric ions in the active site of mushroom tyrosinase, and that the interactions of Asn260 and Phe264 in the active site with the adequate-angled biphenyl group are involved in the inhibitory activities of the modified PBAs, by parallel and T-shaped π-π interactions, respectively. Furthermore, Arg268 could fix the angle of the aromatic ring of Phe264, and Val248 is supposed to interact with the inhibitors as a hydrophobic manner. These results may enhance the structural insight into mushroom tyrosinase for the creation of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. Recently, we successfully cultivated four edible medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid cultures. One of these is Ganoderma lucidum. With the aim to elucidate the functional bioactive lipids, we identified the lipid species of the solven...

  19. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  20. Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: an application to quantification of mushroom volatiles.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-04-03

    Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033-0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111-0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3-108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  2. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca

    2011-10-03

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of mineralsmore » and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].« less

  3. Development of 44 Novel Polymorphic SSR Markers for Determination of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Moon, Suyun; Shim, Donghwan; Hong, Chang Pyo; Lee, Yi; Koo, Chang-Duck; Chung, Jong-Wook; Ryu, Hojin

    2017-01-01

    The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) is one of the most popular edible mushrooms in the world and has attracted attention for its value in medicinal and pharmacological uses. With recent advanced research and techniques, the agricultural cultivation of the shiitake mushroom has been greatly increased, especially in East Asia. Additionally, demand for the development of new cultivars with good agricultural traits has been greatly enhanced, but the development processes are complicated and more challenging than for other edible mushrooms. In this study, we developed 44 novel polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the determination of shiitake mushroom cultivars based on a whole genome sequencing database of L. edodes. These markers were found to be polymorphic and reliable when screened in 23 shiitake mushroom cultivars. For the 44 SSR markers developed in this study, the major allele frequency ranged from 0.13 to 0.94; the number of genotypes and number of alleles were each 2–11; the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.00–1.00 and 0.10–0.90, respectively; and the polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.10 to 0.89. These new markers can be used for molecular breeding, the determination of cultivars, and other applications. PMID:28338645

  4. Compton scattering by internal shields based on melanin-containing mushrooms provides protection of gastrointestinal tract from ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Bryan, Ruth A; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9 Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors.

  5. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    PubMed

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  6. Radiocaesium in mushrooms from northeast Italy, 1986-2002.

    PubMed

    Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M; Scruzzi, E

    2004-01-01

    Late in the summer of 1986, the Health Physics Departments of Pordenone, Udine and Trieste, entrusted with monitoring radioactivity in the environment and food as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, started noticing high concentrations of radionuclides--especially radiocaesium--in mushroom samples coming from different areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (northeast Italy). To date, the authors have conducted 14 annual rounds of sampling and gamma spectrometry measurements on mushrooms, generating a total of over 2250 samples belonging to more than 300 species, which were picked in about 30 stations in the region. This surveys the main results from 15 years of macromycetes radiocontamination analysis in the region, the still unsolved problems, and hypotheses for future work.

  7. Species clarification of the culinary Bachu mushroom in western China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Sulayman, Mamtimin; Zhu, Xue-Tai; Zhao, Yong-Chang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The Bachu mushroom, previously identified as Helvella leucopus, is characterized by a saddle-shaped, to irregularly lobed pileus, with a gray, brown to blackish hymenium and a whitish to pale receptacle surface and white, terete stipe with enlarged basal grooves. It has high economic value, mostly as a dietary supplement in western China, and its medicinal functions have raised broad interest. In the present paper species of the Bachu mushroom in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China were investigated with morphology and DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS, 28S and TEF1 sequence data strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. The Bachu mushroom, which differs from the European Helvella leucopus, comprises two distinct new species, namely Helvella bachu and Helvella subspadicea. In this paper we introduce the new species with descriptions and figures and compare them with similar taxa. The European Helvella spadicea is also re-examined, described and illustrated. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Accumulation route and chemical form of mercury in mushroom species

    SciTech Connect

    Minagawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Takizawa, Y.

    1980-09-01

    Some papers were published on several species of fungi having more accumulating abilities of mercury than other land plants and a relatively small part of mercury being present as methylmercury in most species (Stegnar et al. 1973, Stijve and Roschnik 1974). But, little information is available regarding the routes of mercury in fungi, and also no report on mercury speciation (chemical form and complexation) in them have been published, apart from methylmercury. In order to evaluate accurately their biological characteristics such as absorption, excretion, accumulation and toxicity (The Task Group on Metal Interaction 1978), the mercury speciation present in mushrooms,more » regardless of edible or nonedible, should be identified. In this report, we present (1) contents of total and methylmercury in mushrooms near the acetaldehyde factory which had the mounds of sludge containing mercury, (2) data or exposure experiment of mercury vapor to raw mushrooms (Shiitake) on the market, and (3) data on mercury speciation of mercury other than methylmercury.« less

  9. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. Themore » mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.« less

  10. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  11. Bioremediation of aflatoxin B1-contaminated maize by king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    PubMed

    Branà, Maria Teresa; Cimmarusti, Maria Teresa; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Altomare, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.

  12. Evaluation of the proximate quality of the combination of Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) nuggets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufidasari, H. S.; Prihanto, A. A.; Nurdiani, R.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nugget is a processed meat product which has great market demand but need variations to increase its nutritional content. Tuna is rich in omega-3 protein, vitamins, and minerals. White oyster mushrooms have high nutritional content which are about 23-33% protein, 36-68 % carbohydrates and 12-22 % amino acids. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the chemical quality of Tuna nugget (Thunnus albacores) with combination of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Complete Randomized Design (RAL) with parameters of Tuna and white oyster mushroom formulation, TJ1 (70 % Tuna: 30 % white oyster mushroom), TJ2 (50 % Tuna: 50 % white oyster mushroom), TJ3 (30 % Tuna: 70 % white oyster mushroom), and Control or K Treatment (100 % Tuna) is used. Results of Tuna nuggets with white oyster mushroom combination showed the highest value of water content in TJ3 50.14 %, protein K 19.6 %, fat TJ3 22.98 %, ash K 3.99 % and 2.47 % crude fiber. From these results, there is a need for further research on fat, ash and coarse fiber content that is used in the manufacture of fish nuggets combined with oyster mushrooms because it failed to meet Indonesian National Standard (SNI).

  13. An experimental study of mushroom shaped stall cells. [on finite wings with separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Surface patterns characterized by a pair of counter-rotating swirls have been observed in connection with the conduction of surface flow visualization experiments involving test geometries with separated flows. An example of this phenomenon occurring on a finite wing with trailing edge stall has been referred to by Winkelmann and Barlow (1980) as 'mushroom shaped'. A description is presented of a collection of experimental results which show or suggest the occurrence of mushroom shaped stall cells on a variety of test geometries. Investigations conducted with finite wings, airfoil models, and flat plates are considered, and attention is given to studies involving the use of bluff models, investigations of shock induced boundary layer separation, and mushroom shaped patterns observed in a number of miscellaneous cases. It is concluded that the mushroom shaped stall cell appears commonly in separated flow regions.

  14. A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

  15. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  16. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  17. Vitamin D2 from light-exposed edible mushrooms is safe, bioavailable and effectively supports bone growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S; Babu, U S; Garthoff, L H; Woods, T O; Dreher, M; Hill, G; Nagaraja, S

    2013-01-01

    Widespread poor vitamin D status, a health risk for bone disease, increases the need for new food sources of vitamin D. Light-exposed edible mushrooms synthesize vitamin D(2). Bioavailability, safety, and efficacy of high levels of vitamin D(2) from mushrooms to support bone health was established in chronically fed growing rats. Poor vitamin D status from reduced sun exposure is made worse by limited access to vitamin D-containing foods. Exposing white button mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light markedly increases their vitamin D(2) content, creating a new food source of vitamin D. We used a growing rat model to determine safety, bioavailability, and efficacy in support of bone growth by vitamin D(2) from UVB-exposed mushrooms. We fed 150 weanling female rats one of five diets for 10 weeks, all formulated on AIN-93 G. Control diets contained no mushrooms either with or without vitamin D(3). Other diets contained 2.5% and 5.0% of UVB-exposed or -unexposed mushrooms. Safety of the high levels of vitamin D(2) from mushrooms was assessed by animal growth and by Von Kossa staining for soft tissue calcification. Bioavailability was determined from changes in circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Efficacy in support of bone growth was determined from measures of femur bending properties, size, mineralization, and microarchitecture. Diets containing 2.5% and 5.0% light-exposed mushrooms significantly raised 25(OH)D and suppressed PTH levels compared to control-fed rats or rats fed 5.0% mushroom unexposed to light. Microarchitecture and trabecular mineralization were only modestly higher in the light-treated mushroom-fed rats compared to the controls. Von Kossa staining revealed no soft tissue calcification despite very high plasma 25(OH)D. Vitamin D(2) from UVB-exposed mushrooms is bioavailable, safe, and functional in supporting bone growth and mineralization in a growing rat model without evidence of toxicity.

  18. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Huang, Jian; Xie, Xing; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2009-03-15

    To investigate effects of dietary mushrooms and joint effects of mushrooms and green tea on breast cancer, a case-control study was conducted in southeast China in 2004-2005. The incident cases were 1,009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1,009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from outpatient breast clinics. Information on frequency and quantity of dietary intake of mushrooms and tea consumption, usual diet, and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Compared with nonconsumers, the Odds ratios (Ors) were 0.36 (95% CI = 0.25-0.51) and 0.53 (0.38-0.73) for daily intake of >or=10 g fresh mushrooms and >or=4 g dried mushrooms, based on multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for established and potential confounders. There were dose-response relationships with significant tests for trend (p < 0.001). The inverse association was found in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Compared with those who consumed neither mushrooms nor green tea, the ORs were 0.11 (0.06-0.20) and 0.18 (0.11-0.29) for daily high intake of fresh and dried mushrooms combined with consuming beverages made from >or=1.05 g dried green tea leaves per day. The corresponding linear trends were statistically significant for joint effect (p < 0.001). We conclude that higher dietary intake of mushrooms decreased breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women and an additional decreased risk of breast cancer from joint effect of mushrooms and green tea was observed. More research is warranted to examine the effects of dietary mushrooms and mechanism of joint effects of phytochemicals on breast cancer.

  20. [Influence of storing conditions of on quality and safety quality and safety of mushroom tins].

    PubMed

    Bakaĭtis, V I

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to the influence of period of time and storage conditions on microbiological, physical-and-chemical, sensory indices of mushrooms in brine salted (enzyme mushrooms). The invention establishes the fact that mushroom tin storage in a refrigerator at temperature between 0 degrees C and + 4 degrees C provides high quality and microbiological stability of the product during 2 years, storage in a warehouse with temperature between +10 degrees C and +18 degrees C - for 1 year.

  1. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of traditional knowledge for wild edible mushrooms consumed by residents living in Jirisan National Park (Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang

    2014-04-11

    This study aims to record and analyze the traditional knowledge of wild edible mushrooms utilized by residents living in Jirisan National Park (Korea). Data was collected through participant observations and in-depth interviews with semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative comparative analyses were accomplished through informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), and inter-network analysis (INA). The amounts of traditional knowledge recorded from the communities were 158 practices classified within 22 families, 33 genera, and 38 species. The representative families were Tricholomataceae (23.20%) followed by Pleurotaceae (13.10%), Polyporaceae (8.21%), and Hymenochaetaceae (6.33%). The results revealed 24 modes of preparation for the mushrooms, with the most common methods being for preparing them as, seasoned cooked mushrooms (40.75%), soups (13.84%), teas (12.18%), simmered (9.19%), and roasted (6.20%). The informant consensus factor (ICF) values in the ailment categories were birth-related disorders (1.00), genitourinary system disorders (1.00), other conditions (0.91), circulatory system disorders (0.76), and diabetes (0.33). In terms of fidelity levels, five mushroom species showed 100% of fidelities. Regarding the inter-network analysis (INA) of mushrooms and ailments, the positions of medicinal mushrooms is distributed into three main groups. Also, regarding the network of mushrooms and foods, the location of edible mushrooms is distributed into two main food groups. The utilization of the inter-network analysis has been used typically within the social sciences for the analysis of social trends and phenomena through the interrelationship of specific social components, from this study it is being applied for the interpretation of traditional knowledge utilizing mushrooms in the local communities. Through this study, we are confident that the useful application of the inter-network analysis has been successfully proven. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  3. Golden Needle Mushroom: A Culinary Medicine with Evidenced-Based Biological Activities and Health Promoting Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Calyn; Hoo, Pearl Ching-Xin; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Pusparajah, Priyia; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes (enoki, velvet shank, golden needle mushroom or winter mushroom), one of the main edible mushrooms on the market, has long been recognized for its nutritional value and delicious taste. In recent decades, research has expanded beyond detailing its nutritional composition and delved into the biological activities and potential health benefits of its constituents. Many bioactive constituents from a range of families have been isolated from different parts of the mushroom, including carbohydrates, protein, lipids, glycoproteins, phenols, and sesquiterpenes. These compounds have been demonstrated to exhibit various biological activities, such as antitumour and anticancer activities, anti-atherosclerotic and thrombosis inhibition activity, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering effects, anti-aging and antioxidant properties, ability to aid with restoring memory and overcoming learning deficits, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, ribosome inactivation and melanosis inhibition. This review aims to consolidate the information concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of various compounds isolated from F. velutipes to demonstrate that this mushroom is not only a great source of nutrients but also possesses tremendous potential in pharmaceutical drug development. PMID:28003804

  4. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of February 1, 2002, through January 31, 2003. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  5. Physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of noodle enriched with oyster mushroom (Pleorotus ostreatus) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyono, A.; Novianti; Bakri, A.; Kasutjianingati

    2018-01-01

    Oyster Mushroom is a mushroom that can be used for food and medicine. It contains highly nutritious and functional substances such as statins and beta-glucan. A comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder has not been performed so far. In this study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of noodle-enriched with Oyster Mushroom powder. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of enrichment of Oyster Mushroom Powder (OMP) on the quality of noodle. The quality of noodle was evaluated based on physical, chemical and sensorial characteristics. This study was done by substituting wheat flour with OMP at the level of 0 (control); 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5; and 15%. The results showed that OMP significantly affected (P<0.05) the chemical, physical and sensorial quality of enriched noodles. Increased OMP level concurrently increased ash, crude fiber content and water activity (Aw) of resulting noodles. The enrichment was significantly raised the redness and yellowness of noodles, but decreased whiteness index. In addition, the enrichment of OMP significantly affected the sensorial properties of enriched noodles including color, taste, aroma and texture. OMP enrichment can be done at the level of 5% without compromising color, aroma, and texture of noodle, but 12.5% for taste attribute. Thus, OMP enrichment is feasible to enhance the nutritional values of noodle.

  6. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  7. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  8. FROM GARBAGE TO GOURMET: SUSTAINABLE WASTE PREVENTION AND MUSHROOM CULTIVATION FROM USED COFFEE GROUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected outputs of the project will include: 1) compost, 2) mushrooms for demonstration 3) report and website documenting recommendations for gourmet mushroom cultivation and results of the pilot study, and 4) tri-fold displays. The expected outcomes of the project wil...

  9. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  10. Occurrence of Internal Stipe Necrosis of Cultivated Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Caused by Ewingella americana in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jhune, Chang-Sung; Cheong, Jong-Chun; Yun, Hyung-Sik; Cho, Weon-Dae

    2009-01-01

    The internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a species of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, Ewingella americana was isolated from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea evidencing symptoms of internal stipe browning. Its symptoms are visible only at harvest, and appear as a variable browning reaction in the center of the stipes. From these lesions, we isolated one bacterial strain (designated CH4). Inoculation of the bacterial isolate into mushroom sporocarps yielded the characteristic browning symptoms that were distinguishable from those of the bacterial soft rot that is well known to mushroom growers. The results of Gram stain, flagellal staining, and biochemical tests identified these isolates as E. americana. This was verified by pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the results of an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the fatty acids profile. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea. PMID:23983509

  11. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from enriched mushrooms in prediabetic adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, A; Calvo, M S; Beelman, R B; Levy, E; Siuty, J; Kalaras, M D; Uribarri, J

    2014-10-01

    Based on the growing evidence of risk reduction from fresh fruit and vegetable consumption and an inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we determined the benefits of regularly consuming vitamin D-enriched mushrooms in a prediabetic cohort. Exposing edible mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light increases vitamin D2 (D2) and raises serum 25OHD2 in healthy young adults; however, their benefit to deficient prediabetics and glucose metabolism remains untested. Forty-three prediabetic, D-deficient adults (25OHD≤20 ng/ml), BMI>25 were randomized to four groups consuming daily entrées containing 100 g fresh sliced cooked mushrooms prepared by a chef for 16 weeks. Two groups were fed UVB-treated mushrooms initially containing: 600 IU D2 or 4000 IU D2; each one also received one capsule of placebo daily. Two control groups were fed untreated mushrooms and D3 dietary supplements at two label doses: 600 IU D3 and 4000 IU D3. D2 and D3 content were analyzed in mushrooms, before and after cooking and in over-the-counter supplements. After 16 weeks, both D2-UVB-mushroom entrée doses, which were significantly lower after cooking, produced modest or no increases in 25OHD2 or total 25OHD relative to the positive control subjects who actually consumed about 1242 and 7320 IU per day of D3 (higher than stated on the label). Unanticipated D2 cooking loss from fresh UVB mushrooms and probable low absorption and/or hydroxylation may explain the smaller increase in 25OHD2 in our prediabetic overweight/obese cohort compared with past findings in younger, healthy subjects. Moreover, no dose or vitamin D source was associated with modifying T2D risk factors.

  12. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced up to 33% by all mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer.

  13. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  14. Determination of anti-inflammatory activities of standardised preparations of plant- and mushroom-based foods.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Shanmugam, Kirubakaran; Low, Mitchell; Bennett, Louise; Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Head, Richard; Ooi, Lezanne; Münch, Gerald

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes contribute to the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. In search of anti-inflammatory foods, we have systematically screened a variety of common dietary plants and mushrooms for their anti-inflammatory activity. A selection of 115 samples was prepared by a generic food-compatible processing method involving heating. These products were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in murine N11 microglia and RAW 264.7 macrophages, using nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as pro-inflammatory readouts. Ten food samples including lime zest, English breakfast tea, honey-brown mushroom, button mushroom, oyster mushroom, cinnamon and cloves inhibited NO production in N11 microglia, with IC50 values below 0.5 mg/ml. The most active samples were onion, oregano and red sweet potato, exhibiting IC50 values below 0.1 mg/ml. When these ten food preparations were retested in RAW 264.7 macrophages, they all inhibited NO production similar to the results obtained in N11 microglia. In addition, English breakfast tea leaves, oyster mushroom, onion, cinnamon and button mushroom preparations suppressed TNF-α production, exhibiting IC50 values below 0.5 mg/ml in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In summary, anti-inflammatory activity in these food samples survived 'cooking'. Provided that individual bioavailability allows active compounds to reach therapeutic levels in target tissues, these foods may be useful in limiting inflammation in a variety of age-related inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, these foods could be a source for the discovery of novel anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. The Mushroom: A half-sky energetic ion and electron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Andrews, G. B.; Cooper, S. A.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hayes, J. R.; Layman, R. S.; McNutt, R. L.; Nelson, K. S.; Parker, C. W.; Schlemm, C. E.; Stokes, M. R.; Begley, S. M.; Boyle, M. P.; Burgum, J. M.; Do, D. H.; Dupont, A. R.; Gold, R. E.; Haggerty, D. K.; Hoffer, E. M.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Liang, S. X.; London, S. M.; Noble, M. W.; Roelof, E. C.; Seifert, H.; Strohbehn, K.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Westlake, J. H.

    2017-02-01

    We present a time-of-flight mass spectrometer design for the measurement of ions in the 30 keV to 10 MeV range for protons (up to 40 MeV and 150 MeV for He and heavy ions, respectively) and 30 keV to 1 MeV range for electrons, covering half of the sky with 80 apertures. The instrument, known as the "Mushroom," owing to its shape, solves the field of view problem for magnetospheric and heliospheric missions that employ three-axis stabilized spacecraft, yet still require extended angular coverage; the Mushroom is also compatible with a spinning spacecraft. The most important new feature of the Mushroom is the method through which uncomplicated electrostatic optics and clean position sensing combine to permit many apertures to fit into a compact, low-mass sensor head (or wedge), several of which (ideally eight) compose a full instrument. Most of the sensor head's volume is an empty, equipotential region, resulting in the modest 250 g mass of each 10-aperture wedge. The Mushroom is capable of separating ion species across most of its energy range and angular field of view. For example, separation of the neighboring 3He and 4He isotopes is excellent; the full width at half maximum mass resolution has been measured to be 0.24 amu to 0.32 amu, respectively. Converting this to a Gaussian width σm in mass m, this represents a σm/m mass resolution better than 0.04. This separation is highly desirable for the flight program for which the first Mushroom was built, the Solar Probe Plus mission. More generally, we estimate the mass resolution to be σm/m ≈ 0.1, but this is energy, mass, and angularly dependent. We also discuss the solid-state detector stack capability, which extends the energy range of protons and helium, with composition, to 100 MeV.

  16. How gamma-rays and electron-beam irradiation would affect the antimicrobial activity of differently processed wild mushroom extracts?

    PubMed

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, Â; Barreira, J C M; Lourenço, I; Fernandes, D; Moura, A; Ribeiro, A R; Salgado, J; Antonio, A; Ferreira, I C F R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of irradiation (gamma-rays and electron-beams), up to 10 kGy, in the antimicrobial activity of mushroom species (Boletus edulis, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera and Russula delica) differently processed (fresh, dried, freeze) were evaluated. Clinical isolates with different resistance profiles from hospitalized patients in Local Health Unit of Mirandela, Northeast of Portugal, were used as target micro-organisms. The mushrooms antimicrobial activity did not suffer significant changes that might compromise applying irradiation as a possible mushroom conservation technology. Two kGy dose (independently of using gamma-rays or electron-beams) seemed to be the most suitable choice to irradiate mushrooms. This study provides important results in antimicrobial activity of extracts prepared from irradiated mushroom species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. A survey of hallucinogenic mushroom use, factors related to usage, and perceptions of use among college students.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Robert M; Dean, Andrew; Knecht, Zachary A; Spencer, Jared; Taverna, Elise C

    2013-06-01

    Recreational usage and attitudes toward psilocybin-containing hallucinogenic mushrooms among college students are seldom explored. We surveyed 882 randomly selected undergraduates at Skidmore College in upstate New York and quantified whether participants had ever used psilocybin mushrooms, their attitudes toward the drug, and polydrug use. There were 409 responses and 29.5% of the sample reported psilocybin use. Among users, the mean number of times they reported using mushrooms was 3.4 (mode=1). The top factors cited that influenced their decisions to try hallucinogenic mushrooms for the first time were 'curiosity', 'to achieve a mystical experience', and 'introspection'. Users and non-users had significantly different perceptions of mushrooms: non-users were more likely to say that hallucinogenic mushrooms were addictive and had the potential for abuse than users. Users did not believe that psilocybin negatively impacts their academics, mental health, or physical health, while non-users did. Both users and non-users of psilocybin reported high life-time use of alcohol (97% vs 96%, respectively), marijuana (98% vs 73%, respectively) and tobacco (82% vs 54%, respectively). Psilocybin users were significantly more likely to use other drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, opiates, non-prescribed prescription drugs, opiates, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) than non-users of psilocybin. This study uncovers important insights into hallucinogenic mushroom use by college students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Used in the Noun Division of the West Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njouonkou, André Ledoux; De Crop, Eske; Mbenmoun, Abdoulayi Mbouombouo; Kinge, Tonjock Rosemary; Biyé, Elvire Hortense; Verbeken, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents discussions of mushrooms as a source of food, income, as well as medicine among the Bamoun people of the highlands of West Cameroon, where the vegetation is mainly savannah mixed with forest galleries. Like most tribes in tropical Africa, the Bamoun people use a wide range of natural products as mushrooms. This study attempts to identify the various mushrooms exploited by the Bamoun. Ethnomycological surveys and field trips were conducted over 4 years in several villages in the Noun Division. Samples of wild mushrooms were collected from both the savannah and the forest galleries. These were described, preserved, and identified. The study shows that the Bamoun people use at least 40 species of mushrooms for either food or medicine. These species belong to 8 genera: Auricularia, Cantharellus, Ganoderma, Pleurotus, Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces. Species of genera Lactarius, Lactifluus, Russula, and Termitomyces are most often used for food, whereas Ganoderma spp. and Pleurotus tuber-regium are mainly exploited for medicinal purposes. This survey provides an overview of the diversity of mushrooms and their importance to the local people of this area. Since some of the species mentioned by the local population were not fruiting at the time of our field trips, additional investigations are needed to further clarify the diversity and the usage of mushrooms in this region.

  19. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by bacteriocin-producing bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, A S; Pennone, V; O'Connor, P M; Coffey, A; Nicolau, A I; McAuliffe, O; Jordan, K

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the ability of naturally occurring bacteria isolated from mushroom substrate to prevent biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes or to remove existing biofilms in mushroom production facilities. It is generally recognized that L. monocytogenes forms biofilms that can facilitate its survival in food-processing environments. Eleven bacteriocin-producing isolates were identified and the bacteriocins characterized based on heat and enzyme inactivation studies. Further characterization was undertaken by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, PCR and sequencing. Production of nisin Z (by Lactococcus lactis isolates), subtilomycin (by Bacillus subtilis isolates) and lichenicidin (by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sonorensis isolates) was detected. In co-culture with L. monocytogenes, the bacteriocin-producing strains could prevent biofilm formation and reduce pre-formed biofilms. Mushroom substrate can be a source of bacteriocin-producing bacteria that can antagonize L. monocytogenes. The results highlight the potential of bacteriocin-producing strains from mushroom substrate to reduce L. monocytogenes biofilm in food production environments, contributing to a reduction in the risk of food contamination from the environment. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Drying kinetics and characteristics of combined infrared-vacuum drying of button mushroom slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Jafarianlari, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Infrared-vacuum drying characteristics of button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, including infrared radiation power (150-375 W), system pressure (5-15 kPa) and time (0-160 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of button mushroom slices were investigated. Both the infrared lamp power and vacuum pressure influenced the drying time of button mushroom slices. The rate constants of the nine different kinetic's models for thin layer drying were established by nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data which were found to be affected mainly by the infrared power level while system pressure had a little effect on the moisture ratios. The regression results showed that the Page model satisfactorily described the drying behavior of button mushroom slices with highest R value and lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increases as power increases and range between 0.83 and 2.33 × 10-9 m2/s. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the ΔE and with increasing in infrared radiation power it was increased.

  1. Novel endophytic lineages of Tolypocladium provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of Cordyceps-like fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a group of unknown endophytic fungal isolates from the living sapwood of wild and planted Hevea (rubber tree) populations. Three novel lineages of Tolypocladium are described based on molecular and morphological data. Findings from this study open a window for novel hypotheses regarding the ecology and role of endophytes within plant communities as well as trait evolution and potential forces driving diversification of Cordyceps-like fungi. This study stresses the importance of integrating asexual and sexual fungal states for a more complete understanding of the natural history of this diverse group. In addition, it highlights the study of fungi in the sapwood of tropical trees as habitat for the discovery of novel fungal lineages and substrate associations. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Unrecognized magic mushroom abuse in a 28-year-old man.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Ryan L; Watts, David J; Melanson, Scott

    2008-10-01

    A 28-year-old man with a history of drug and alcohol abuse presented multiple times to the hospital over 2 months with an elusive constellation of symptoms, resolving spontaneously in each instance. This patient required a high level of care for management and stabilization, including 3 emergency department visits, 2 medical floor admissions, and 1 intensive care unit admission. In both the emergency department and inpatient setting, all laboratory and imaging study results, including gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry of the urine, were negative/normal. A definitive diagnosis eluded multiple emergency medicine, critical care, and consulting physicians. His symptoms included altered mental status, vomiting, diaphoresis, and mydriasis. The patient later admitted using mushrooms to a nurse. In the absence of confirmatory testing, but supported by exclusionary and anecdotal data, we believe that our patient's symptoms are consistent with Psilocybe mushroom toxicity. We feel that had this been considered initially, the correct diagnosis would have led to a better utilization of resources, and we want to remind emergency physicians of the possibility of mushroom abuse in any similar clinical setting.

  3. Cytotoxicity of blended versus single medicinal mushroom extracts on human cancer cell lines: contribution of polyphenol and polysaccharide content.

    PubMed

    Durgo, Ksenija; Koncar, Mladen; Komes, Drazenka; Belscak-Cvitanovic, Ana; Franekic, Jasna; Jakopovich, Ivan; Jakopovich, Neven; Jakopovich, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The use of mushrooms contributes to human nutrition by providing low lipid content of lipids and high dietary fiber content, as well as significant content of other biologically active compounds such as polysaccharides, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenolic antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the content of polyphenols and polysaccharides, as well as the cytotoxic and antioxidative properties of several medicinal mushroom preparations. The content of total phenols and flavonoids of preparations of blended mushroom extracts (Lentifom, Super Polyporin, Agarikon, Agarikon Plus, Agarikon.1, and Mykoprotect.1) was evaluated quantitatively by using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant capacity of the preparations was evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides was determined using a specific gravimetric method, based on ethanol precipitation. To determine cytotoxic effects of single and blended mushroom extracts, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red assays were conducted using human small cell lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colon cancer, and brain astrocytoma cancer cells. The obtained results suggest that due to the significant content of beneficial polyphenolic antioxidants and soluble polysaccharides, use of these mushroom preparations is beneficial in maintaining good health, as well as in the prevention and adjuvant biotherapy of various human pathological aberrations. These results reveal that these extracts exhibit different cytotoxic effects on tumor cells originating from different tissues. In addition, the comparison of investigated blended mushroom extracts with three well-known commercial mushroom products derived from single mushroom species or single mushroom compounds shows that blended mushroom extracts exhibit significantly stronger

  4. Lack of energy compensation over 4 days when white button mushrooms are substituted for beef.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Davis, Lisa M; Lipsky, Leah M; Mitola, Andrea H; Lycan, Thomas; Mitchell, Vanessa; Mickle, Brooke; Adkins, Emily

    2008-07-01

    Increasing intake of low energy density (ED) foods in place of high ED foods has been proposed as a strategy for preventing or treating obesity. This study investigated how substituting mushrooms for beef in a test lunch affected energy intake, fat intake, palatability, appetite, satiation and satiety in normal weight, overweight and obese adults. Each subject consumed a total of eight test lunches in our lab over two consecutive weeks. The order of presentation of four consecutive meat lunches and four consecutive mushroom lunches was randomized. Energy content of meat and mushroom lunches varied (783 kcal versus 339 kcal), while volume was held constant. Energy intakes were significantly higher during meat lunches than mushroom lunches (730+/-7.9 kcal versus 310+/-5.8 kcal). Subjects exhibited only partial compensation (11.4+/-12.0%) for this difference over 4 days. Total daily energy intake and fat intake were significantly greater in the meat condition than in the mushroom condition, while ratings of palatability, appetite, satiation and satiety did not differ significantly. These results suggest that substituting low ED foods for high ED foods in otherwise similar recipes can be an effective method for reducing daily energy and fat intake.

  5. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Antioxidant Potential of Coastal Dune Mushroom Species from the Southwest of France.

    PubMed

    Smolskaite, Lina; Talou, Thierry; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mushroom species are used as food and for medicinal purposes; however, many species that may contain bioactive compounds remain underinvestigated. In this study, the antioxidant properties of extracts sequentially isolated with cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and methanol from 25 costal dune mushroom species collected in the southwestern region of France were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and Folin-Ciocalteu-determined total phenolic content. Overall, the antioxidant potential of dried mushrooms was assessed using integrated antioxidant scores. The highest antioxidant capacity values were demonstrated by the Cortinarius infractus, Agaricus coniferarum, A. menieri, and A. freirei species. These results may foster further studies of the selected mushroom species to valorize their nutritional and medicinal properties.

  6. Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Saad, Hazwani Mat; Sim, Kae Shin; Tan, Yee Shin

    2018-01-01

    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.

  7. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: an integrated evaluation of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J N; Mihail, J D; Pickens, J B

    2009-12-01

    Two outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes) cultivation experiments, established in Missouri USA in 1999 and 2000, produced mushrooms in 2000-2005. We examined shiitake production in response to substrate species, inoculum form, inoculum strain, and inoculation timing, using total mushroom weight per log as the primary response variable with log characteristics as covariates. The significantly greater mushroom weight produced by sugar maple logs compared with white or northern red oak was attributable to the higher proportion of undiscolored wood volume in the maple logs, rather than to bark thickness or log diameter. The "wide temperature range" shiitake strain produced significantly greater yield compared with the "warm" or "cold" weather strains. Both the wide-range and warm-weather strains were stimulated to fruit by significant rain events, while the cold-weather strain was responsive to temperature. Inoculation with sawdust spawn gave significantly greater yield than colonized wooden dowels or pre-packaged "thimble" plug inoculum. The second and third full years following inoculation were the most productive.

  8. Photocatalytic, antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised using forest and edible mushroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramulu, Mohana; Sumathi, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    Mushroom has been part of the human diet for thousands of years, and in recent times, the amounts consumed have risen greatly, involving a large number of species. Mushrooms used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. In this study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using an edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and forest mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, powder XRD and SEM. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised at room temperature and at 60 °C. FTIR results recognised the presence of bioactive functional groups responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. From the XRD, it was observed that the nanoparticles are silver with an average size of 10-80 nm. The silver nanoparticles are explored for photocatalytic activity and biological activities such as in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus organisms. 98% of textile dye (direct blue 71) degradation was noticed under UV light within 150 min for forest mushroom synthesised silver nanoparticles at room temperature.

  9. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  10. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M Rosário; Vicente, Henrique; Caldeira, A Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  11. Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations of edible wild-grown mushrooms from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Honggao; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-03-04

    The heavy metal contents (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) of eight species of wild edible mushrooms from China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry after microwave digestion. The contents of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn in caps of mushroom samples were 0.7-7.2, 16.2-70.4, 371-1315, 12.5-29.8, 7.1-58.5, and 77.8-187.4 mg kg -1 dry matter (dm), respectively, while considerable differences were found to be 1.8-25.9, 9.8-36.3, 288-6762, 13.3-103.9, 5.9-78.7, and 38.7-118 mg kg -1 dm for stipes. The results indicated that higher levels of Co, Fe, and Ni were found in the mushrooms samples analyzed. Zinc and manganese levels were similar to previous reports, whereas Cu was lower than literature values. Correlation analysis suggested that significant correlations were found between the minerals determined and the greatest amount of contamination is associated with Co, Mn, Ni, and Fe. The results of this study indicate that heavy metal contents in mushroom species are mainly related to the mineral resources of sampling sites.

  12. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M. Rosário

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data. PMID:29623092

  13. Health and Risk Assessment by ICP-OES of Heavy Metals and Trace Minerals in Commercial Mushrooms Marketed in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengyi; Zeng, Huansong; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate mineral profiles of 35 species of edible mushrooms collected in China; we compared nutritional values and tolerable values with the official recommended daily intakes (RDIs), maximum intake limits, and provisional tolerable weekly intakes. A total of 19 minerals were detected in edible mushrooms by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed that the mushroom samples had a low percentage of RDI for the minerals calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc, potassium, and sodium and a relatively higher percentage of RDI for copper and molybdenum. The samples also had a very high percentage of RDI for chromium and selenium. The level of heavy metals in a majority of the mushrooms was above the limited level, and only concentrations of copper and zinc were safe in all mushrooms. In conclusion, the mushrooms collected in China are a good source of minerals such as molybdenum and selenium but are badly contaminated with aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead.

  14. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19948751

  15. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mushroom tumor: a new disease on Flammulina velutipes caused by Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhipeng; Peng, Weihong; He, Xiaolan; Wang, Bo; Gan, Bingcheng; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom tumor on Flammulina velutipes has become the main disease during the off-season cultivation of F. velutipes while the causal organism has remained unknown. The present study was aimed at identifying the pathogen confirming its pathogenisity following Koch's Postulates, characterizing it using morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular features, and studying its current distribution. We determined that mushroom tumor is a new bacterial infection disease caused by Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense. It produces tumor-like structures on the surface of the substrate, and inhibits the formation of primordia and fruiting of F. velutipes. The molecular studies showed that this new pathogen is closely related to Ochrobactrum based on 16S rRNA sequences. This is the first time that Ochrobactrum has been shown to be a pathogen of a mushroom. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Disentangling visual and olfactory signals in mushroom-mimicking Dracula orchids using realistic three-dimensional printed flowers.

    PubMed

    Policha, Tobias; Davis, Aleah; Barnadas, Melinda; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Raguso, Robert A; Roy, Bitty A

    2016-05-01

    Flowers use olfactory and visual signals to communicate with pollinators. Disentangling the relative contributions and potential synergies between signals remains a challenge. Understanding the perceptual biases exploited by floral mimicry illuminates the evolution of these signals. Here, we disentangle the olfactory and visual components of Dracula lafleurii, which mimics mushrooms in size, shape, color and scent, and is pollinated by mushroom-associated flies. To decouple signals, we used three-dimensional printing to produce realistic artificial flower molds that were color matched and cast using scent-free surgical silicone, to which we could add scent. We used GC-MS to measure scents in co-occurring mushrooms, and related orchids, and used these scents in field experiments. By combining silicone flower parts with real floral organs, we created chimeras that identified the mushroom-like labellum as a source of volatile attraction. In addition, we showed remarkable overlap in the volatile chemistry between D. lafleurii and co-occurring mushrooms. The characters defining the genus Dracula - a mushroom-like, 'gilled' labellum and a showy, patterned calyx - enhance pollinator attraction by exploiting the visual and chemosensory perceptual biases of drosophilid flies. Our techniques for the manipulation of complex traits in a nonmodel system not conducive to gene silencing or selective breeding are useful for other systems. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius. The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively. The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies, while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus. BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

  19. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum.

  20. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of... Ltd. (formerly Ponds India, Ltd.), Transchem, Ltd., and Weikfield Foods Pvt. Ltd. Monterey Mushrooms...

  1. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: Follow-up study in Kawauchi village.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Nakashima, Kanami; Taira, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Toshiki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Endo, Yuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2017-07-27

    Since the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, it has become well known that radiocesium tends to concentrate in wild mushrooms. During the recovery process after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), it is important to perform follow-up measurements of the activity concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms. We evaluated the activity concentrations of the detected artificial radionuclides (radiocesium) in wild mushrooms collected from Kawauchi village, which is within 30 km of the FDNPS, in 2015, four years after the accident. We found that the radiocesium was determined in 147 of 159 mushroom samples (92.4%). Based on the average mushroom consumption of Japanese citizens (6.28 kg per year), we calculated committed effective doses ranging from <0.001 to 0.6 mSv. Although committed effective doses are relatively limited, even if residents have consumed mushrooms several times, continuous monitoring of the radiocesium in mushrooms in Fukushima is needed for sustained recovery from the nuclear disaster.

  2. Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Marcella D; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Shaffer, Brenda T; Goebel, Neal C; Burlinson, Peter; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Bentley, Michael A; Rangel, Lorena I; Davis, Edward W; Thomashow, Linda S; Zabriskie, T Mark; Preston, Gail M; Loper, Joyce E

    2014-07-01

    Bacteria in the diverse Pseudomonas fluorescens group include rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, and mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes brown, sunken lesions on peeled caps of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) that resemble brown blotch symptoms caused by P. tolaasii. Strain Pf-5 produces six known antifungal metabolites under the control of the GacS/GacA signal transduction system. A gacA mutant produces none of these metabolites and did not cause lesions on mushroom caps. Mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin caused less-severe symptoms than wild-type Pf-5 on peeled mushroom caps, whereas mutants deficient in the production of lipopeptide orfamide A caused similar symptoms to wild-type Pf-5. Purified pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mimicked the symptoms caused by Pf-5. Both compounds were isolated from mushroom tissue inoculated with Pf-5, providing direct evidence for their in situ production by the bacterium. Although the lipopeptide tolaasin is responsible for brown blotch of mushroom caused by P. tolaasii, P. protegens Pf-5 caused brown blotch-like symptoms on peeled mushroom caps through a lipopeptide-independent mechanism involving the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin.

  3. Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvilli, Nona A

    2009-11-01

    Solid waste from anaerobic digestion of litter from the commercial production of broiler chickens has limited use as fertilizer. Its disposal is a major problem for digester operators who are seeking alternative use for anaerobic digester solids, also referred to as solid waste (SW). The use of SW as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus strain MBFBL400 was investigated. Lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield were evaluated in ten different substrate combinations (SCs) containing varying amounts of solid waste, wheat straw, and millet. Nutritional content of mushrooms produced on the different substrates was also determined. Substrates containing 70-80% wheat straw, 10-20% SW, and 10-20% millet were found to produce the highest mushroom yield (874.8-958.3 g/kg). Loss of organic matter in all SCs tested varied from 45.8% to 56.2%, which had positive correlation with the biological efficiency. Laccase, peroxidase, and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities were higher before fruiting, whereas xylanase showed higher activities after mushroom fruiting. SW increased the nutritional content in mushrooms harvested, and the combination of wheat straw and SW with millet significantly improved mushroom yield. Our findings demonstrated the possibility of utilizing anaerobic digester solids in mushroom cultivation. The application of SW as such could improve the financial gains in the overall economy of anaerobic digester plants.

  4. Nutrient conservation during spent mushroom compost application using spent mushroom substrate derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zimo; Sun, Yue; Bian, Shuping; Ali Baig, Shams; Hu, Baolan; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-02-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived compost, is always applied to agriculture land to enhance soil organic matter and nutrient contents. However, nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter contained in SMC can leach out and contaminate ground water during its application. In this study, biochars prepared under different pyrolytic temperatures (550 °C, 650 °C or 750 °C) from SMS were applied to soil as a nutrient conservation strategy. The resultant biochars were characterized for physical and mineralogical properties. Surface area and pore volume of biochars increased as temperature increased, while pore size decreased with increasing temperature. Calcite and quartz were evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis in all biochars produced. Results of column leaching test suggested that mixed treatment of SMC and SMS-750-800 (prepared with the temperature for pyrolysis and activation was chosen as 750 °C and 800 °C, respectively) could reduce 43% of TN and 66% of COD Cr in leachate as compared to chemical fertilizers and SMC, respectively. Furthermore, increasing dosage of SMS-750-800 from 1% to 5% would lead to 54% COD Cr reduction in leachate, which confirmed its nutrient retention capability. Findings from this study suggested that combined application of SMC and SMS-based biochar was an applicable strategy for reducing TN and COD Cr leaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A GC-MS study of the volatile organic composition of straw and oyster mushrooms during maturity and its relation to antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

    2008-09-01

    Mushrooms are very popular in the market for their nutritional and medicinal use. Mushroom volatiles are not only an important factor in the flavor, but also contain many antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity is a very important property for disease prevention. The volatile compositional characteristics of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea [Bull. ex Fr.] Sing.) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus [Jacq. ex Fr.] Kummer) during maturity and the mushroom antioxidant activity related to the non-volatiles and volatiles are studied by a chromatographic method in combination with a spectrophotometric method. The volatile compounds of straw and oyster mushrooms are sampled and identified by a combination sampling method, including headspace solid phase microextraction and steam distillation, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Among all the volatile compounds identified, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the two main compounds with the highest amounts in the volatile compositions of straw and oyster mushrooms. During maturity time of the straw mushrooms, the unsaturated 1-octen-3-ol peak area is reduced, whereas the saturated 3-octanone peak area is increased. However, during normal maturity time of oyster mushrooms, the peak areas of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone remain at the same level. 1-Octen-3-ol has a different antioxidant activity from 3-octanone. Combining the results of antioxidant experiments of water extract and main volatile components by the use of a phosphomolybdenum spectrophotometric method, the conclusion is drawn that oyster mushrooms might possess stronger antioxidant activities than straw mushrooms.

  6. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band.

  7. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown ‘blotches’ on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. Results We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This effect also occurred in funga, where B. bacteriovorus was administered to post-harvest mushroom caps before and after administration of the P. tolaasii pathogen. A significant, visible improvement in blotch appearance, after incubation, was observed on administration of Bdellovibrio. A significant reduction in viable P. tolaasii cell numbers, recovered from the mushroom tissue, was detected. This was accompanied by a more marked reduction in blotch severity on Bdellovibrio administration. We found that there was in some cases an accompanying overgrowth of presumed-commensal, non-Pseudomonas bacteria on post-harvest mushroom caps after Bdellovibrio-treatment. These bacteria were identified (by 16SrRNA gene sequencing) as Enterobacter species, which were seemingly resistant to predation. We visualised predatory interactions occuring between B. bacteriovorus and P. tolaasii on the post-harvest mushroom cap surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy, seeing predatory invasion of P. tolaasii by B. bacteriovorus in funga. This anti-P. tolaasii effect worked well in post-harvest supermarket mushrooms, thus Bdellovibrio was not affected by any pre-treatment of mushrooms for commercial/consumer purposes. Conclusions The soil-dwelling B. bacteriovorus HD100 preys upon and kills P. tolaasii, on mushroom surfaces, and could therefore be applied to prevent spoilage in post-harvest situations where mushrooms are stored and packaged for sale. PMID:24946855

  8. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. More than 2,000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the...

  9. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2016-11-29

    More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases.

  10. Mushroom Polysaccharides: Chemistry and Antiobesity, Antidiabetes, Anticancer, and Antibiotic Properties in Cells, Rodents, and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mendel

    2016-01-01

    More than 2000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, many of which are widely consumed, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the mushrooms, including polysaccharides. Although β-glucans (homopolysaccharides) are believed to be the major bioactive polysaccharides of mushrooms, other types of mushroom polysaccharides (heteropolysaccharides) also possess biological properties. Here we survey the chemistry of such health-promoting polysaccharides and their reported antiobesity and antidiabetic properties as well as selected anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects that demonstrate their multiple health-promoting potential. The associated antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities in fat cells, rodents, and humans are also discussed. The mechanisms of action involve the gut microbiota, meaning the polysaccharides act as prebiotics in the digestive system. Also covered here are the nutritional, functional food, clinical, and epidemiological studies designed to assess the health-promoting properties of polysaccharides, individually and as blended mixtures, against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and infectious diseases, and suggestions for further research. The collated information and suggested research needs might guide further studies needed for a better understanding of the health-promoting properties of mushroom polysaccharides and enhance their use to help prevent and treat human chronic diseases. PMID:28231175

  11. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  12. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis.

  13. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis phytoestrogen on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Wang, Zhen-lin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue

    2014-12-13

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant chemicals belonging to the "phytoestrogen" class. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of isoflavones obtained from Cordyceps sinensis (CSIF) on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. After the rats were treated orally with CSIF, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol and interferonγ (IFN-γ) level were examined. At the same time, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus and the mass of uterus, thymus and body were also examined. The beneficial effects of CSIF on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSIF also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary CSIF can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. The significant estrogenic activity of CSIF demonstrated that CSIF has significant estrogenic effects in OVX rats.

  14. GC-MS Profiling of Volatile Components in Different Fermentation Products of Cordyceps Sinensis Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Li, Yahui; Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuerong; Jiang, Zhihong; Hu, Ping

    2017-10-24

    The fermentation products of Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) mycelia are sustainable substitutes for natural C. sinensis . However, the volatile compositions of the commercial products are still unclear. In this paper, we have developed a simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the profiling of volatile components in five fermentation products. A total of 64, 39, 56, 52, and 44 components were identified in the essential oils of Jinshuibao capsule (JSBC), Bailing capsule (BLC), Zhiling capsule (ZLC), Ningxinbao capsule (NXBC), and Xinganbao capsule (XGBC), respectively. 5,6-Dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (massoia lactone) was first discovered as the dominant component in JSBC volatiles. Fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were also found to be major volatile compositions of the fermentation products. The multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a clear discrimination among the different commercial products as well as the counterfeits. This study may provide further chemical evidences for the quality evaluation of the fermentation products of C. sinensis mycelia.

  15. The Use of Mushroom Growing Media Waste for Making Composite Particle Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanti, P. H.; Sutarman; Widodo, E.; Kusuma, A. T.

    2017-05-01

    One of the agricultural waste is mushroom growing media, where the number of this waste is huge and accumulated after mushroom harvest. This accumulation is caused by using the new planting medias. Meanwhile, the old planting medias have thrown out and been as solid matter to widen the slope of cliff area. Therefore, this research aims to use mushroom growing media waste (MGMW) as a composite particle board added by polyester resin and mekpo (methyl ethyl ketone peroxides) as catalys. Some physical and mechanic tests which are done, namely: density, moisture content, thickness swelling after immersion in water, strength of absorption water, internal bonding, modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and screw holding power. The composition of 75% MGMW + 24% polyester resin + 1% catalyst mekpo suitable to the physical and mechanic tests and accordance with SNI 03-2105-2006 and JIS A 5908-2003.

  16. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  17. Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Mikołajczak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink.

  18. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Preserved Mushrooms... New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 14772 (April 1, 2009) unchanged at Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 28882 (June 18...

  19. Inhibiting effect of bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation on bacterial quorum sensing-regulated behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Wang, Shou-Xian; Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Cao, Chun-Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation. The culture supernatant was condensed into 0.2 vol by freeze-drying. The condensed supernatant was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm membrane filter and added to Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used to monitor QS inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. The results have revealed that, of 102 mushroom strains, the bioactive metabolites produced by 14 basidiomycetes were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in C. violaceum. Higher fungi can produce QS-inhibitory compounds. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Three Wild Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms from Tripura, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aparajita Roy; Borthakur, Madhusmita; Saha, Ajay Krishna; Joshi, Santa Ram; Das, Panna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 3 wild culinary-medicinal mushrooms using molecular tools and to analyze their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties were studied by evaluating free radical scavenging, reducing power, and chelating effect. The mushrooms were identified as Lentinus squarrosulus, L. tuber-regium, and Macrocybe gigantean by amplifying internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA. The results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of M. gigantean has the highest free radical scavenging effect and chelating effect, whereas the methanolic extract of L. squarrosulus has the highest reducing power. The highest total phenol content and the most ascorbic acid were found in the M. gigantean extracts. Among the 3 mushroom extracts, M. gigantean displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. Molecular characterization using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region as a universal DNA marker was an effective tool in the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the studied mushrooms. The study also indicated that these wild macrofungi are rich sources of natural antioxidants.

  1. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  2. Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.

    Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the presentmore » paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).« less

  3. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  4. Improved production of jiangxienone in submerged fermentation of Cordyceps jiangxiensis under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Xi; Han, Li-Liang; Wang, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jun-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    2018-06-14

    Jiangxienone produced by Cordyceps jiangxiensis exhibits significant cytotoxicity and good selectivity against various human cancer cells, especially gastric cancer cells. In this work, the effect of nitrogen deficiency on the accumulation of jiangxienone and the transcription levels of jiangxienone biosynthesis genes was studied in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis. Results showed that accumulation of jiangxienone was improved under nitrogen deficiency condition. A maximal jiangxienone content of 3.2 µg/g cell dry weight was reached at 5 mM glutamine, and it was about 8.9-fold higher than that obtained at 60 mM glutamine (control). The transcription levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes hmgr and sqs and the nitrogen regulatory gene areA were upregulated by 7-, 14-, and 28-fold, respectively, in culture with 5 mM glutamine compared to the control. It was hypothesized that the jiangxienone biosynthesis may involve the mevalonate pathway in C. jiangxiensis. Taken together, our study indicated that nitrogen deficiency is an efficient strategy for enhancing jiangxienone accumulation in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis, which is useful for further understanding the regulation of jiangxienone biosynthesis.

  5. Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Ji ARI Research Note 91-10 Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty N Taxonomy IFrederick A. Muckler, Sally Seven, and...11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Military intelligence Evaluation taxonomy MOS restructuring

  6. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of exopolysaccharides produced by fluorescent pseudomonads associated with commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production.

    PubMed

    Fett, W F; Wells, J M; Cescutti, P; Wijey, C

    1995-02-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from 63 strains of mushroom production-associated fluorescent pseudomonads which were mucoid on Pseudomonas agar F medium (PAF) were isolated, partially purified, and characterized. The strains were originally isolated from discolored lesion which developed postharvest on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) caps or from commercial lots of mushroom casing medium. An acidic galactoglucan, previously named marginalan, was produced by mucoid strains of the saprophyte Pseudomonas putida and the majority of mucoid strains of saprophytic P. fluorescens (biovars III and V) isolated from casing medium. One biovar II strain (J1) of P. fluorescens produced alginate, a copolymer of mannuronic and guluronic acids, and one strain (H13) produced an apparently unique EPS containing neutral and amino sugars. Of 10 strains of the pathogen "P. gingeri," the causal agent of mushroom ginger blotch, 8 gave mucoid growth on PAF. The "P. gingeri" EPS also was unique in containing both neutral sugar and glucuronic acid. Mucoid, weakly virulent strains of "P. reactans" produced either alginate or marginalan. All 10 strains of the pathogen P. tolaasii, the causal agent of brown blotch of mushrooms were nonnmucoid on PAF. Production of EPS by these 10 strains plus the 2 nonmucoid strains of "P. gingeri" also was negative on several additional solid media as well as in two broth media tested. The results support our previous studies indicating that fluorescent pseudomonads are a rich source of novel EPSs.

  8. Identification of exopolysaccharides produced by fluorescent pseudomonads associated with commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production.

    PubMed Central

    Fett, W F; Wells, J M; Cescutti, P; Wijey, C

    1995-01-01

    The acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from 63 strains of mushroom production-associated fluorescent pseudomonads which were mucoid on Pseudomonas agar F medium (PAF) were isolated, partially purified, and characterized. The strains were originally isolated from discolored lesion which developed postharvest on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) caps or from commercial lots of mushroom casing medium. An acidic galactoglucan, previously named marginalan, was produced by mucoid strains of the saprophyte Pseudomonas putida and the majority of mucoid strains of saprophytic P. fluorescens (biovars III and V) isolated from casing medium. One biovar II strain (J1) of P. fluorescens produced alginate, a copolymer of mannuronic and guluronic acids, and one strain (H13) produced an apparently unique EPS containing neutral and amino sugars. Of 10 strains of the pathogen "P. gingeri," the causal agent of mushroom ginger blotch, 8 gave mucoid growth on PAF. The "P. gingeri" EPS also was unique in containing both neutral sugar and glucuronic acid. Mucoid, weakly virulent strains of "P. reactans" produced either alginate or marginalan. All 10 strains of the pathogen P. tolaasii, the causal agent of brown blotch of mushrooms were nonnmucoid on PAF. Production of EPS by these 10 strains plus the 2 nonmucoid strains of "P. gingeri" also was negative on several additional solid media as well as in two broth media tested. The results support our previous studies indicating that fluorescent pseudomonads are a rich source of novel EPSs. PMID:7574589

  9. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant Correlation between TLR2 Agonist Activity and TNF-α Induction in J774.A1 Macrophage Cells by Different Medicinal Mushroom Products.

    PubMed

    Coy, Catherine; Standish, Leanna J; Bender, Geoff; Lu, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    In the US market, there is a variety of mushroom preparations available, even within the same species of mushroom. Nonetheless, little is known about whether species or the various extraction methods affect biological activity and potency of the immune modulatory activity of mushroom extracts. After discovering that protein-bound polysaccharide-K, a hot water extract from Trametes versicolor, was a potent Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 agonist that stimulates both innate and adaptive immunity, this study was initiated to evaluate whether other medicinal mushroom products also have TLR2 agonist activity and immune-enhancing potential as measured by the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in J774.A1 murine macrophage cells. Furthermore, the products were divided by extraction method and species to determine whether these factors affect their immunomodulatory activity. The results showed that the majority (75%) of mushroom products tested had TLR2 agonist activity and that there was a significant correlation between TLR2 agonist activity and TNF-α induction potential in the mushroom products analyzed. In addition, the data demonstrated that hot water mushroom extracts are more potent than ground mushroom products in activating TLR2 and inducing TNF-α. These data provide evidence that extraction methods may affect the biological activity of mushroom products; thus, further studies are warranted to investigate the structural differences between various mushroom products.

  11. Three edible wild mushrooms from Nigeria: their proximate and mineral composition.

    PubMed

    Alofe, F V; Odeyemi, O; Oke, O L

    1996-01-01

    The pilei (caps) and the stipes (stalks) of the button and early open-cap (cup) stages of Lentinus subnudus, Psathyrella atroumbonata and Termitomyces striatus were assayed separately for their proximate and mineral composition. The differences observed in the contents of some of the proximate components seem to be related to species and mushroom parts. P. atroumbonata was richest in crude and true protein, L. subnudus was richer in crude fiber, ash and carbohydrates. Mineral contents appeared to be dependent on type and parts of the mushrooms analysed. The three mushrooms were good sources of magnesium, zinc and iron. L. subnudus contained between 14.83 and 20.00 ppm of iron, P. atroumbonata contained between 20.01 and 22.09 ppm and T. striatus contained between 17.13 and 22.93 ppm of iron. The pilei of P. atroumbonata and T. striatus are very good sources of zinc. Zinc contents for the pilei of P. atroumbonata were 63.81 and 64.94 ppm respectively. Zinc contents for T. striatus were 90.45 and 92.49 ppm respectively.

  12. Amelioration of Atherosclerosis by the New Medicinal Mushroom Grifola gargal Singer

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Etsuko; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N.; Toda, Masaaki; Morizono, Toshihiro; Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Urawa, Masahito; Yasuma, Taro; Yano, Yutaka; Sumiya, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-β1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice. PMID:25799023

  13. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Wu, Xiaohong; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Harada, Etsuko; Kanno, Tomomi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-generated halogenating molecules, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), in inflammatory regions are postulated to contribute to disease progression. In this study, we showed that ergothioneine (EGT), derived from an edible mushroom, inhibited MPO activity as well as the formation of 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro. The HOBr scavenging effect of EGT is higher than those of ascorbic acid and glutathione. We initially observed that the administration of Coprinus comatus, an edible mushroom containing a high amount of EGT, inhibited the UV-B-induced inflammatory responses and DNA halogenation, suggesting that EGT is a promising anti-inflammatory agent from mushrooms.

  15. Utilization of treated conifer wood chips by Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Karst. species for cultivating mushrooms

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2003-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot basidiomycetes can grow rapidly and produce heavy mycelial growth on treated conifer wastes with extractive-degrading fungi. This study evaluates the treatment of scaled-up conifer wood chips with Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97). Treated conifer chips were used as substrates for cultivating mushroom-producing basidiomycetes of various...

  16. Influence of Different Supplements on the Commercial Cultivation of Milky White Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul

    2010-01-01

    Calocybe indica, known as milky white mushroom, grows and cultivated in the sub-tropical and temperate zones of South Asia. We investigated the most suitable supplements and their levels for the commercial cultivation of milky white mushroom. Rice bran, maize powder, and wheat bran with their different levels (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) were used as supplements to evaluate the yield and yield contributing characteristics of C. indica. Primordia initiation was observed between 13.5 and 19.3 days. The results indicated that the 30% maize powder supplement was effective for producing viable fruiting bodies. The maximum diameters of the pileus and stalk were observed with 30% maize powder. The highest biological and economic yield and biological efficiency were also obtained with 30% maize powder as a supplement. The results indicate that increasing the supplement level resulted in less biological efficiency, and that 30% maize powder was the best supplement level for rice straw substrate to cultivate milky white mushrooms. PMID:23956652

  17. The determination of mercury in mushrooms by CV-AAS and ICP-AES techniques.

    PubMed

    Jarzynska, Grazyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    This research presents an example of an excellent applied study on analytical problems due to hazardous mercury determination in environmental materials and validity of published results on content of this element in wild growing mushrooms. The total mercury content has been analyzed in a several species of wild-grown mushrooms and some herbal origin certified reference materials, using two analytical methods. One method was commonly known and well validated the cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) after a direct sample pyrolysis coupled to the gold wool trap, which was a reference method. A second method was a procedure that involved a final mercury measurement using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) at λ 194.163 nm, which was used by some authors to report on a high mercury content of a large sets of wild-grown mushrooms. We found that the method using the ICP-AES at λ 194.163 nm gave inaccurate and imprecise results. The results of this study imply that because of unsuitability of total mercury determination using the ICP-AES at λ 194.163 nm, the reports on great concentrations of this metal in a large sets of wild-grown mushrooms, when examined using this method, have to be studied with caution, since data are highly biased.

  18. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  19. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost.

    PubMed

    Cloonan, Kevin R; Andreadis, Stefanos S; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E; Baker, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  20. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    PubMed Central

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  1. An In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Colonic Microbial Profile Levels following Mushroom Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Vamanu, Emanuel; Avram, Ionela; Nita, Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The biological activity of mushroom consumption is achieved by the antioxidant effect of constituent biomolecules released during digestion. In the following study, the consumption of mushroom fungi was determined to increase the number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains within the colon. The main phenolic antioxidant compounds identified were both gentisic and homogentisic acids. Moreover, the flavonoid catechin as well as a significant amount of δ- and γ-tocopherols was determined. The amount of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from different sections of the human colon was significantly correlated with levels of antioxidative biomolecules. The experimental data clearly demonstrate a significant impact of mushroom consumption on the fermentative function of microorganisms in the human colon, resulting in the homeostasis of normal physiological colonic functions. PMID:24027755

  2. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  3. Extracts of Cordyceps sinensis inhibit breast cancer cell metastasis via down-regulation of metastasis-related cytokines expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Gu, Baohua; Xiao, Ying; Chen, Rongsheng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xiaomin; Cao, Li

    2018-03-25

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used as adjuvant treatments for cancer and it has been also demonstrated to be effective in cancer patients. The objective of the present study is to investigate the anti-metastasis effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) in breast cancer and the potential mechanisms. The cytotoxicity of WECS on 4T1 breast cancer cells was evaluated in vitro using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. The in vivo anti-metastatic activity of intraperitoneally administered WECS and its effect on animal survival were measured in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastasis effect of WECS, the expression of matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) in serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, a protein array was used to examine the cytokine expression profiles in lung homogenates. Treatment with WECS (0.10-0.40mg/ml) significantly inhibited 4T1 cell viability in vitro. In animal studies, 50mg/kg WECS significantly reduced the number of metastatic lung nodules and the weight of lung, without affecting body weight of mice. Furthermore, WECS increased the survival rate of 4T1 tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner, and at high dose, WECS (50mg/kg) significantly increased the life span of the mice compared to untreated control group. The expression level of MMP-9 in serum was decreased about 50% in 50mg/kg WECS treated group compared to control group. The results of protein array showed that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17), MMP-9, osteopontin (OPN), interleukin-33 (IL-33), CC chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12) and CC chemokine ligand 6 (CCL6) in the lungs of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was increased more than two fold compared with normal mice. Among them, the expression of CCL17, MMP-9, OPN, IL-33 was significantly reduced by treatment of 50mg/kg WECS. Our results demonstrated that WECS has potent anti

  4. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  5. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials.

  6. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  7. Yield and size of oyster mushroom grown on rice/wheat straw basal substrate supplemented with cotton seed hull.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjie; Guo, Fengling; Wan, Zhengjie

    2013-10-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was cultivated on rice straw basal substrate, wheat straw basal substrate, cotton seed hull basal substrate, and wheat straw or rice straw supplemented with different proportions (15%, 30%, and 45% in rice straw substrate, 20%, 30%, and 40% in wheat straw substrate) of cotton seed hull to find a cost effective substrate. The effect of autoclaved sterilized and non-sterilized substrate on growth and yield of oyster mushroom was also examined. Results indicated that for both sterilized substrate and non-sterilized substrate, oyster mushroom on rice straw and wheat basal substrate have faster mycelial growth rate, comparatively poor surface mycelial density, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation, lower yield and biological efficiency, lower mushroom weight, longer stipe length and smaller cap diameter than that on cotton seed hull basal substrate. The addition of cotton seed hull to rice straw and wheat straw substrate slowed spawn running, primordial development and fruit body formation. However, increasing the amount of cotton seed hull can increase the uniformity and white of mycelium, yield and biological efficiency, and increase mushroom weight, enlarge cap diameter and shorten stipe length. Compared to the sterilized substrate, the non-sterilized substrate had comparatively higher mycelial growth rate, shorter total colonization period and days from bag opening to primordia formation. However, the non-sterilized substrate did not gave significantly higher mushroom yield and biological efficiency than the sterilized substrate, but some undesirable characteristics, i.e. smaller mushroom cap diameter and relatively long stipe length.

  8. Biodegradation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus sapidus: a novel strategy to produce mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, M P; Singh, V K

    2012-12-22

    Edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus sapidus was cultivated, on pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves, brassica straw in various combinations of paddy straw. The mushroom failed to grow on these vegetable wastes separately. However, it grew very well on these vegetable wastes when mixed with various combinations of paddy straw as substrate. Total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom cultivated on substrate containing 20% and 30% vegetable wastes mixed with 70% and 80% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and efficiency obtained with paddy straw alone (100%). The protein content in the fruit bodies was found to be higher in the mushroom grown on paddy straw mixed with vegetable wastes than that obtained with paddy straw alone. Similarly, six amino acids (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met and Phe) showed a significant increase when the mushroom was grown on a mixed substrate containing both vegetable wastes and paddy straw. On the contrary, the total sugar and reducing sugar content declined in the mushroom grown on the mixture of paddy straw and other wastes, when compared with the results obtained with paddy straw alone.

  9. Multielemental analysis of 20 mushroom species growing near a heavily trafficked road in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, M; Niedzielski, P; Kalač, P; Budka, A; Siwulski, M; Gąsecka, M; Rzymski, P; Magdziak, Z; Sobieralski, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to compare 10 mostly edible aboveground and 10 wood-growing mushroom species collected near a heavily trafficked road (approximately 28,000 vehicles per 24 h) in Poland with regard to their capacity to accumulate 26 trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Re, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, and Zn) in their fruit bodies in order to illustrate mushroom diversity in element accumulation. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) spectrometer in synchronous dual view mode. The aboveground species had significantly higher levels of 12 elements, including Ag, As, Pb, and Se, compared to the wood-growing species. An opposite relationship was observed only for Au, Ba, and Sr. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) implied some new relationships among the analyzed species and elements. Of the analyzed mushroom species, lead content in Macrolepiota procera would seem to pose a health risk; however, at present knowledge regarding lead bioaccessibility from mushrooms is quite limited.

  10. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P < 0.05). Product expansion increased with the introduction of both barley and mushroom fraction (P < 0.05) which in turn resulted in a reduction in product hardness (P < 0.05). In vitro digestion protocol illustrated that inclusion of barley and mushroom β-glucan rich fractions manipulated the starch digestibility profile and hence rate of glucose release during digestion compared to the control sample. This in turn resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in potential glycaemic response of the samples of between 20 and 25 % for barley β-glucan rich fractions and between 17 and 25 % for mushroom β-glucan rich fractions. We conclude that the inclusion of these fractions could be utilised by the food industry to manipulate the glycaemic response of extruded snack products.

  11. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material. Results Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples. Conclusion Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material. PMID:25727040

  12. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequen-ces were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material. Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples. Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material.

  13. Vitamin D2 Stability During the Refrigerated Storage of Ultraviolet B-Treated Cultivated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Slawinska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Jablonska-Rys, Ewa; Parfieniuk, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on the synthesis of vitamin D2 and its stability during refrigerated storage was determined in fresh cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lentinus edodes) after harvest. The irradiated mushrooms were stored at 4°C for up to 10 days. The concentrations of vitamin D2 and ergosterol were determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The cultivated mushrooms not treated with UVB were devoid of vitamin D2. After UVB irradiation, we obtained mushrooms with a large amount of ergocalciferol. A. bisporus showed the lowest vitamin D2 content (3.55 ± 0.11 μg D2/g dry weight); P. ostreatus contained 58.96 ± 1.15 μg D2/g dry weight, and L. edodes contained 29.46 ± 2.21 μg/g dry weight. During storage at 4°C, the amount of vitamin D2 was gradually decreased in P. ostreatus and L. edodes, whereas in A. bisporus vitamin D2 gradually increased until the sixth day, then decreased. Mushrooms exposed to UVB radiation contain a significant amount of vitamin D2 and are therefore an excellent food source of vitamin D.

  14. Exceedingly biocompatible and thin-layered reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using an eco-friendly mushroom extract strategy.

    PubMed

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Bai, Renu Geetha; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Sudheer, Surya Mudavasseril; Lim, Hong Ngee; Loh, Hwei-San; Huang, Nay Ming; Chia, Chin Hua; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    A simple, one-pot strategy was used to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by utilizing an easily available over-the-counter medicinal and edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. The mushroom was boiled in hot water to liberate the polysaccharides, the extract of which was then used directly for the reduction of graphene oxide. The abundance of polysaccharides present in the mushroom serves as a good reducing agent. The proposed strategy evades the use of harmful and expensive chemicals and avoids the typical tedious reaction methods. More importantly, the mushroom extract can be easily separated from the product without generating any residual byproducts and can be reused at least three times with good conversion efficiency (75%). It was readily dispersible in water without the need of ultrasonication or any surfactants; whereas 5 minutes of ultrasonication with various solvents produced RGO which was stable for the tested period of 1 year. Based on electrochemical measurements, the followed method did not jeopardize RGO's electrical conductivity. Moreover, the obtained RGO was highly biocompatible to not only colon (HT-29) and brain (U87MG) cancer cells, but was also viable towards normal cells (MRC-5). Besides being eco-friendly, this mushroom based approach is easily scalable and demonstrates remarkable RGO stability and biocompatibility, even without any form of functionalization.

  15. Traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms using data fusion of UV-visible and FTIR combined with chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Yao, Sen; Li, Tao; Liu, HongGao; Li, JieQing; Wang, YuanZhong

    2018-04-01

    Boletaceae mushrooms are wild-grown edible mushrooms that have high nutrition, delicious flavor and large economic value distributing in Yunnan Province, China. Traceability is important for the authentication and quality assessment of Boletaceae mushrooms. In this study, UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were applied for traceability of 247 Boletaceae mushroom samples in combination with chemometrics. Compared with a single spectroscopy technique, data fusion strategy can obviously improve the classification performance in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and grid-search support vector machine (GS-SVM) models, for both species and geographical origin traceability. In addition, PLS-DA and GS-SVM models can provide 100.00% accuracy for species traceability and have reliable evaluation parameters. For geographical origin traceability, the accuracy of prediction in the PLS-DA model by data fusion was just 64.63%, but the GS-SVM model based on data fusion was 100.00%. The results demonstrated that the data fusion strategy of UV-visible and FTIR combined with GS-SVM could provide a higher synergic effect for traceability of Boletaceae mushrooms and have a good generalization ability for the comprehensive quality control and evaluation of similar foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Evaluation of the potential use of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Sławińska, Aneta; Radzki, Wojciech; Gustaw, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    The available literature does not provide data on the application of probiotic strains in mushroom processing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential to use the L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties in the process of lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies (Agaricus bisporus). Fresh button mushroom fruiting bodies and cultures of lactic acid bacteria L. plantarum Ib and a probiotic strain L. plantarum 299v were the material analysed. Sensory evaluation was performed with a 5-point scale, an instrumental method of colour measurement based on the CIA L*a*b* scale, total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin method, antioxidant properties were assayed with the DPPH radical test, and reducing power was determined using the FRAP method. After a week-long lactic fermentation, the pH value in the samples declined to a level of 3.6 (L. plantarum Ib) and 3.75 (L. plantarum 299v); these values persisted or decreased slightly during the period of maturation of the fermented samples under refrigeration. Fermented mushrooms were assigned high grades in the organoleptic evaluation. The colour analysis revealed significant changes in the values of the L*a*b* parameters in the fermented product, in comparison with fresh mushrooms. Blanching contributed to a significant decrease in the content of total phenolic compounds in the mushroom fruiting bodies and to a decline in antioxidant activity. Mushrooms fermented with the probiotic strain were characterised by higher phenolic compound content and higher antioxidant activity. L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties can be applied in fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies. Products obtained with the use of both strains were characterised by good sensory properties. The type of strain used in the lactic fermentation of mushroom fruiting bodies had an effect on the phenolic compound content and antioxidant properties of the final product.

  17. Influence of soil characteristics on rare earth fingerprints in mosses and mushrooms: Example of a pristine temperate rainforest (Slavonia, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Medunić, Gordana; Furdek Turk, Martina; Ivanić, Maja; Kniewald, Goran

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate levels and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in soils, mosses and mushrooms of a pristine temperate rainforest, a non-polluted natural system, in order to characterise their environmental availability and mobility. The multielement analysis of digested soil, moss and mushroom samples was performed by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The distribution of rare earths in mosses and mushrooms was found primarily affected by local pedological setting. Mosses displayed a consistent lithological signature with an almost insignificant REE fractionation compared to soils. Mushrooms showed differences in REE concentrations in certain parts of the fruiting body with regard to their main physiological function and indicated a significant impact of soil organic content on the overall REEs uptake. Results of our work highlight the importance of substrate characteristics on the initial levels of REEs in mosses and mushrooms. Moreover, this study provides baseline data on the rare earth element levels in mosses and mushrooms growing in a pristine forest area characterised by naturally elevated REE levels in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin. PMID:26244793

  19. A New Unusual Ice-induced Sedimentary Structure: the Silt Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Jianhua, Zhong; Liangtian, Ni; Ningliang, Sun; Chuang, Liu; Bing, Hao; Mengchun, Cao; xin, Chen; Ke, Luo; Shengxin, Liu; Leitong, Huang; Guanqun, Yang; Shaojie, Wang; Feifei, Su; Xuejing, He; Yanqiu, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Upon channel bars or point bars within the lows of the Yellow River, a new sedimentary structure, named ‘silt mushroom’, has been observed. The process of their formation is interpreted to be via the ice process. The name, the silt mushroom comes from their figurative form. This is because they look somewhat similar to mushroom’s in size and shape; being in the range of 1 to 10 cm in diameter, with the medium 3–5 cm, and on average 10 cm in height, occuring generally in groups, and occasionally in isolation in relatively soft silt. They develop in the transition from winter to spring, and are convincingly related to ice processes. Ice-induced silt mushrooms are best examined in association with the many other newly discovered ice-induced sedimentary structures (over 20 kinds). Clearly, up to now, ice processes have been significantly underestimated. With the substantial discovery of the ice-induced silt mushroom, it opens up new questions. This is because its structure mirrors the same sedimentary structures found in rocks, questioning their genesis, and sedimentary environment analysis. This achievement is significant not only in sedimentology, but also in palaeogeography, palaeoclimate, geological engineering, hydraulics and fluviology. PMID:27833155

  20. Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as α- and β-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and