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Sample records for mushroom cordyceps militaris

  1. Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qunying; Long, Liangkun; Wu, Liangliang; Zhang, Fenglun; Wu, Shuling; Zhang, Weiming; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), cereal grains are usually utilized as cultivation substrates. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low-cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control. CS and CCP were suitable for fruit body formation of C. militaris, with yields of 22 and 20 g per bottle respectively. Fruit bodies grown on CCP showed the highest levels of cordycepin and adenosine, up to 9.45 and 5.86 mg g -1 respectively. The content of d-mannitol in fruit bodies obtained on CS was 120 mg g -1 (80% of the control group), followed by that on CCP, 100 mg g -1 . Fruit bodies cultivated on CCP displayed a high crude polysaccharide level of 26.9 mg g -1 , which was the closest to that of the control group (34.5 mg g -1 ). CS and CCP are effective substrates for the production of fruit bodies and bioactive compounds by C. militaris. This study provides a new approach to decreasing the cost of C. militaris cultivation and dealing with these agricultural wastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Heat and light stresses affect metabolite production in the fruit body of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Zhang; Fen, Wang; Kuanbo, Liu; Qing, Liu; Ying, Yang; Caihong, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage. The optimal growth temperature of C. militaris was 20 °C. It was found that a heat stress of 25 °C for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin and carotenoid production without affecting the biological efficiency. Light stress at 6000 lx for 5-20 days during the late growth stage significantly promoted cordycepin production but decreased the carotenoid content. Both heat and light stresses promoted N 6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine production. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that there were simultaneous increases in the expression of genes encoding a metal-dependent phosphohydrolase (CCM_04437) and ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (CCM_04438) that are involved in the cordycepin biosynthesis pathway, which was consistent with the accumulation of cordycepin during heat stress for 5-20 days. A positive weak correlation between the cordycepin and adenosine contents was observed with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.338 (P < 0.05). The results presented herein provide a new strategy for the production of a superior quality fruit body of C. militaris and contribute to further elucidation of the effects of abiotic stress on metabolite accumulation in fungi.

  3. Effects of Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate and Lactobacillus plantarum on mucosal, serum immunology and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Chitmanat, Chanagun; Tayyamath, Khambou

    2017-11-01

    An 8-weeks feeding trial was performed to investigate the possible effects of supplementation of Nile tilapia diet with Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate (SMS) single or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on immune parameters and growth performance. For this aim, Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed with four experimental diets namely: Diet 1 (0 - control), Diet 2 (10 g kg -1 SMS), Diet 3 (10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum), and Diet 4 (10 g kg -1 SMS + 10 8  CFU g -1 L. plantarum). At the end of feeding trial, skin mucus parameters, serum immune parameters, and growth performance were measured. The results indicated that supplementations SMS + L. plantarum or/and resulted in a significant increase in skin mucus lysozyme and peroxidase activities compared with the control group after 8 weeks of feeding trial (P < 0.05). The highest values of these parameters were recorded for fish fed both SMS + L. plantarum supplementations. Nonetheless, no significant difference was recorded between other supplemented groups (P < 0.05). For serum immunology, the results showed that serum lysozyme activity, alternative complement, phagocytosis, serum peroxidase, and respiratory burst activities were significantly higher in supplemented groups compared to the control (P < 0.05). The highest values were recorded in fish fed both SMS and L. plantarum with respect to the individual application. No significant differences were observed between fish fed SMS and L. plantarum (P < 0.05). Results on growth performance indicated that fish fed supplemented diets showed a statistically significant increase in the specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG), final weight (FW) compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The highest SGR and WG values were observed in fish fed both dietary SMS and L. plantarum. However, no significant differences in these parameters were observed in fish fed SMS or L. plantarum alone (P > 0.05). The FCR was significantly

  4. Isolation and purification of a polysaccharide from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) fruit bodies and its immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lina; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Zhong; Gao, Xinhua; Wang, Shiping; Wang, Zhaolong

    2014-01-01

    A novel polysaccharide (CP2-S) was purified from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-400 high-resolution chromatography. The polysaccharide had a molecular weight of 5.938 × 10(6) g/mol and was mainly composed of glucose. CP2-S had carbohydrate content estimated to be 100% using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Immunostimulating experiments in vitro indicated that CP2-S could stimulate nitric oxide production, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-2 of macrophages, suggesting that this water-soluble polysaccharide from the fruit body of C. militaris is a natural immunostimulating polysaccharide with potential for further application.

  5. Molecular Markers to Detect the Formation of Heterokaryon and Homokaryon from Asexual Spores of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Cai, Tao; Wei, Jing; Feng, Aiping; Lin, Nan; Bao, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is widely cultivated on artificial media in China; however, the cultures often are afflicted with the degeneration of nonfruiting strains. To understand the mechanism of degeneration of C. militaris, from the heterokaryotic strain into the homokaryotic strain, we examined the mating-type genes present in individual asexual spores. Further, we determined the distribution ratio of the different mating-type genes among a sample of asexual spores and the growth rate of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic strains of C. militaris. The distribution ratio of 3 groups of asexual spores from C. militaris heterokaryotic strains was determined as 1:1:1 by statistical analysis, whereas that of the two types of nuclei among asexual spores was 1:1. Nearly two-thirds of the asexual spore isolates were homokaryon, which showed a growth speed similar to the heterokaryon. However, the homokaryon (bearing mating-type MAT-HMG) grew significantly faster at times compared with the heterokaryon. Therefore, the purity of the spawn was difficult to establish. C. militaris heterokaryotic strains can transform into a homokaryotic strain following continued subculture.

  6. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production.

  7. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Ko, Wing-Hung

    2008-04-17

    The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis (CS) (Clavicipitaceae) improves pulmonary function and is used to treat respiratory disease. Here, we compare the efficacy and mechanisms of action of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Clavicipitaceae) in Calu-3 human airway epithelial monolayer model. The extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris, as well as their isolated compounds, cordycepin and adenosine, stimulated ion transport in a dose-dependent manner in Calu-3 monolayers. In subsequent experiments, transport inhibitor bumetanide and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide were added after Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts to determine their effects on Cl- and HCO3- movement. The results suggested that Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris extracts may affect the anion movement from the basolateral to apical compartments in the airway epithelia. Basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter and apical cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel are involved in the process. The results provide the first evidence for the pharmacological mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris on respiratory tract.

  8. Fruit body formation on silkworm by Cordyceps militaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injection inoculation protocols for fruit body formation of Cordyceps militaris were investigated to improve the incidence of infection in the silkworm species Bombyx mori. Injection, with suspensions of C. militaris hyphal bodies into living silkworm pupae, was used to test for fruit body productio...

  9. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains.

    PubMed

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-03-01

    Cordyceps militaris , known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris . The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry.

  10. Development of High Cordycepin-Producing Cordyceps militaris Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Naru; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Inmyoung

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris, known as Dong-Chong-Xia-Cao, produces the most cordycepin among Cordyceps species and can be cultured artificially. For these reasons, C. militaris is widely used as herb or functional food in the East Asia. In this study, we developed a new strain of C. militaris that produces higher cordycepin content than parent strains through mating-based sexual reproduction. Twenty parent strains were collected and identified as C. militaris based on internal trasncrived spacer and rDNA sequences. Seven single spores of MAT 1-1 idiomorph and five single spores of MAT 1-2 idiomorph were isolated from 12 parent strains. When 35 combinations were mated on the brown rice medium with the isolated single spores, eight combinations formed a stroma with a normal perithecia and confirmed mated strains. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis showed that mated strain KSP8 produced the most cordycepin in all the media among all the tested strains. This result showed due to genetic recombination occurring during the sexual reproduction of C. militaris. The development of C. militaris strain with increased cordycepin content by this approach can help not only to generate new C. militaris strains, but also to contribute to the health food or medicine industry. PMID:28435352

  11. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  12. Effect of Polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) on Physical Fatigue Induced by Forced Swimming.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is the one of the most important medicinal mushrooms, widely used in East Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered to be the principal active component in C. militaris and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of polysaccharide from C. militaris (PCM) on physical fatigue induced in animals through a forced swimming test. The mice were divided into 4 groups receiving 28 days' treatment with drinking water (exercise control) or low-, medium-, and high-dose PCM (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day, respectively). After 28 days, the mice were subjected to the forced swimming test; the exhaustive swimming time was measured and fatigue-related biochemical parameters, including serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, glutathi- one peroxidase, catalase, malondialdehyde, liver glycogen, and muscle glycogen, were analyzed. The results showed that PCM could significantly prolong the exhaustive swimming time of mice; decrease concentrations of serum lactic acid, urea nitrogen, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde; and increase liver and muscle glycogen contents and the concentrations of serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione per- oxidase, and catalase. The data suggest that PCM has an antifatigue effect, and it might become a new functional food or medicine for fatigue resistance.

  13. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris link and analysis on its main active components.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lei, C; Ai, Xun R; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium on the main active components of Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies, selenium-enriched cultivation of C. militaris and the main active components of the fruit bodies were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, and organic selenium of fruit bodies were sodium selenite concentration dependent; contents of adenosine and cordycep polysaccharides were significantly enhanced by adding sodium selenite in the substrates, but not proportional to sodium selenite concentrations. In the cultivation of wheat substrate added with 18.0 ppm sodium selenite, SOD activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, cordycep polysaccharides, and total amino acids were enhanced by 121/145%, 124/74%, 325/520%, 130/284%, 121/145%, and 157/554%, respectively, compared to NS (non-selenium-cultivated) fruit bodies and wild Cordyceps sinensis; organic selenium contents of fruit bodies reached 6.49 mg/100 g. So selenium-enriched cultivation may be a potential way to produce more valuable medicinal food as a substitute for wild C. sinensis.

  14. Characterization of Newly Bred Cordyceps militaris Strains for Higher Production of Cordycepin through HPLC and URP-PCR Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Hee; Kang, Naru; Park, Inmyoung; Park, Jungwook; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Namgyu; Lee, Jae-Yun; Seo, Young-Su

    2017-07-28

    Cordyceps militaris , a member of Ascomycota, a mushroom referred to as caterpillar Dongchung-ha-cho, is commercially valuable because of its high content of bioactive substances, including cordycepin, and its potential for artificial cultivation. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is highly associated with the pharmacological effects of C. militaris . C. militaris is heterothallic in that two mating-type loci, idiomorph MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 , exist discretely in two different spores. In this study, nine C. militaris strains were mated with each other to prepare newly bred strains that produced a larger amount of cordycepin than the parent strains. Nine strains of C. militaris were identified by comparing the internal transcribed spacer sequence, and a total of 12 single spores were isolated from the nine strains of C. militaris . After the MAT idiomorph was confirmed by PCR, 36 mating combinations were performed with six single spores with MAT1-1 and the others with MAT1-2 . Eight mating combinations were successfully mated, producing stroma with perithecia. Cordycepin content analysis of all strains by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the KASP4-bred strain produced the maximum cordycepin among all strains, regardless of the medium and stroma parts. Finally, universal rice primer-PCR was performed to demonstrate that the bred strains were genetically different from the parental strains and new C. militaris strains. These results may be related to the recombination of genes during mating. The newly produced strains can be used to meet the industrial demand for cordycepin. In addition, breeding through mating suggests the possibility of producing numerous cordycepin-producing C. militaris strains.

  15. Effects of Cordyceps militaris on the growth of rumen microorganisms and in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Hanigan, M D; Lee, S J; Lee, S M; Kim, D H; Hyun, J H; Yeo, J M; Lee, S S

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L) of dried Cordyceps militaris mushroom on in vitro anaerobic ruminal microbe fermentation and methane production using soluble starch as a substrate. Ruminal fluids were collected from Korean native cattle, mixed with phosphate buffer (1:2), and incubated anaerobically at 38 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. The addition of C. militaris significantly increased total volatile fatty acid and total gas production. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased and that of propionate was increased, with a corresponding decrease in the acetate:propionate ratio. As the concentration of C. militaris increased from 0.10 to 0.30 g/L, methane and hydrogen production decreased. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 14.1, 22.0, 24.9, 39.7, and 40.9% for the 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 g/L treatments, respectively. Ammonia-N concentration and numbers of live protozoa decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of C. militaris. The pH of the medium significantly decreased at the highest level of C. militaris compared with the control. In conclusion, C. militaris stimulated mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation and inhibited methane production in vitro. Therefore, C. militaris could be developed as a novel compound for antimethanogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel protein from edible fungi Cordyceps militaris that induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ke-Chun; Sheu, Fuu

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a dietary therapeutic fungus that is an important model species in Cordyceps research. In this study, we purified a novel protein from the fruit bodies of C. militaris and designated it as Cordyceps militaris protein (CMP). CMP has a molecular mass of 18.0 kDa and is not glycosylated. Interestingly, CMP inhibited cell viability in murine primary cells and other cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Using trypan blue staining and a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, we showed that CMP caused cell death in the murine hepatoma cell line BNL 1MEA.7R.1. Furthermore, the frequency of BNL 1MEA.7R.1 cells at the sub-G1 stage was increased by CMP. Apoptosis, as determined by Annexin V and propidium iodide analysis, indicated that CMP could mediate BNL 1MEA.7R.1 apoptosis, but not necrosis. After coincubation with CMP, a decrease in mitochondria potential was detected using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide. These results suggest that CMP is a harmful protein that induces apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent pathway. Stability experiments demonstrated that heat treatment and alkalization degraded CMP and further destroyed its cell-death-inducing ability, implying that cooking is necessary for food containing C. militaris. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Jing, Tianjiao; Meng, Qingfan; Liu, Chungang; Hu, Shuang; Ma, Yihang; Liu, Yan; Lu, Jiahui; Cheng, Yingkun; Teng, Lirong

    2014-01-01

    Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment. PMID:24738047

  18. Biotechnological production and applications of Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a potential harborer of biometabolites for herbal drugs. For a long time, C. militaris has gained considerable significance in several clinical and biotechnological applications. Much knowledge has been gathered with regard to the C. militaris's importance in the genetic resources, nutritional and environmental requirements, mating behavior and biochemical pharmacological properties. The complete genome of C. militaris has recently been sequenced. This fungus has been the subject of many reviews, but few have focused on its biotechnological production of bioactive constituents. This mini-review focuses on the recent advances in the biotechnological production of bioactive compositions of C. militaris and the latest advances on novel applications from this laboratory and many others.

  19. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise.

  20. Cordyceps militaris extract attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zaixin; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jinshan; Jia, Jing; Ding, Jie; Luo, Rongzhen; Liu, Zhangqin

    2012-12-01

    Memory impairment is one of main clinical symptoms of brain senescence. To address the effects of Cordyceps militaris Link extract (CE) on memory impairment, a D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced aging mouse model was employed. Mice injected with D-Gal showed a significant learning and memory impairment that was rescued by CE treatment. The mechanism was further investigated by analyzing the protein level and activity of oxidant and antioxidant molecules, including malondialdehyde (MDA), monoamine oxidase (MAO), total super-oxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), which played critical roles in the development of brain senescence. The results showed that CE treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the oxidative activity of MAO and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant activities of T-SOD and T-AOC in the cerebral cortices. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes GSH-px in serum were significantly upregulated after CE treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Cordyceps militaris extract could ameliorate experimental memory impairment in mice with D-Gal-induced aging through its potent antioxidant activities.

  1. Targeted Gene Deletion in Cordyceps militaris Using the Split-Marker Approach.

    PubMed

    Lou, HaiWei; Ye, ZhiWei; Yun, Fan; Lin, JunFang; Guo, LiQiong; Chen, BaiXiong; Mu, ZhiXian

    2018-05-01

    The macrofungus Cordyceps militaris contains many kinds of bioactive ingredients that are regulated by functional genes, but the functions of many genes in C. militaris are still unknown. In this study, to improve the frequency of homologous integration, a genetic transformation system based on a split-marker approach was developed for the first time in C. militaris to knock out a gene encoding a terpenoid synthase (Tns). The linear and split-marker deletion cassettes were constructed and introduced into C. militaris protoplasts by PEG-mediated transformation. The transformation of split-marker fragments resulted in a higher efficiency of targeted gene disruption than the transformation of linear deletion cassettes did. The color phenotype of the Tns gene deletion mutants was different from that of wild-type C. militaris. Moreover, a PEG-mediated protoplast transformation system was established, and stable genetic transformants were obtained. This method of targeted gene deletion represents an important tool for investigating the role of C. militaris genes.

  2. Metabolomic comparison between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yuetao; Guo, Qingfeng; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Wancun

    2018-05-11

    A systematic study on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O. sinensis, indicating metabolome difference among wild O. sinensis, R-CM and T-CM. The metabolome differences between R-CM and T-CM indicated that C. militaris could accommodate to culture medium by differential metabolic regulation. Hierarchical clustering analysis was further performed to cluster the differential metabolites and samples based on their metabolic similarity. The higher content of amino acids (pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine and arginine), unsaturated fatty acid (linolenic acid and linoleic acid), peptides, mannitol, adenosine and succinoadenosine in O. sinensis make it as an excellent choice as a traditional Chinese medicine for invigoration or nutritional supplementation. Similar compositions with O. sinensis and easy cultivation make artificially cultured C. militaris a possible alternative to O. sinensis. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Melanogenesis effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth on the melanin formation of B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Park, Mi-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Tae; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-10-13

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris culture broth (CMB) on melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells was evaluated by measurement of the melanin concentration after 3 days of incubation. The B16F0 melanoma cells were treated with various concentrations of CMB 10-100 μg/mL and arbutin of 200 μM. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of CMB were also measured. Phenolic content of CMB was 3.28 mg/g. The DPPH radical scavenging and ferric ion donating activities were 79.64% and 0.16, respectively. The melanin concentration and cell viability of melanoma cells by arbutin treatment decreased to 43% and 91% of the control, respectively. The CMB treatment showed a significant inhibitory effect of melanin production by 29%, 50%, and 56% at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentration treatment, respectively, while over 90% of cells were viable. The CMB treatment at 50, 80, and 100 μg/mL concentrations in cultivation decreased extracellular melanin release induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment by 19%, 38%, and 48%, respectively. The CMB showed inhibitory activity against intracellular tyrosinase extracted from melanoma cells, while it had no inhibition on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The cellular glutathione contents were enhanced by CMB treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that CMB suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity and total melanin content in cultured B16F0 melanoma cells without any significant effects on cell proliferation and it might be candidate anti-melanogenic agent.

  4. Genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris useful for comparative analysis of entomopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Raethong, Nachon; Mujchariyakul, Warasinee; Nguyen, Nam Ninh; Leong, Hon Wai; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-08-30

    The first genome-scale metabolic network of Cordyceps militaris (iWV1170) was constructed representing its whole metabolisms, which consisted of 894 metabolites and 1,267 metabolic reactions across five compartments, including the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, peroxisome and extracellular space. The iWV1170 could be exploited to explain its phenotypes of growth ability, cordycepin and other metabolites production on various substrates. A high number of genes encoding extracellular enzymes for degradation of complex carbohydrates, lipids and proteins were existed in C. militaris genome. By comparative genome-scale analysis, the adenine metabolic pathway towards putative cordycepin biosynthesis was reconstructed, indicating their evolutionary relationships across eleven species of entomopathogenic fungi. The overall metabolic routes involved in the putative cordycepin biosynthesis were also identified in C. militaris, including central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism (glycine, l-glutamine and l-aspartate) and nucleotide metabolism (adenosine and adenine). Interestingly, a lack of the sequence coding for ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor was observed in C. militaris that might contribute to its over-production of cordycepin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluation of metal ions and surfactants effect on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production in two-stage submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2012-11-01

    During the two-stage submerged fermentation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris, it was found that K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) were favorable to the mycelial growth. The EPS production reached the highest levels in the media containing Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). However, Ca(2+) and K(+) almost failed to increase significantly exopolysaccharides (EPS) production. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly enhanced EPS production compared with that of without adding SDS when SDS was added on static culture stage of two-stage cultivation process. The presence of Tween 80 in the medium not only simulated mycelial growth but also increased EPS production. By response surface methods (RSM), EPS production reached its peak value of 3.28 g/L under optimal combination of 27.6 mM Mg(2+), 11.1 mM Mn(2+), and 0.05 mM SDS, which was 3.76-fold compared with that of without metal ion and surfactant. The results obtained were useful in better understanding the regulation for efficient production of EPS of C. militaris in the two-stage submerged culture.

  6. Isolation of adenosine, iso-sinensetin and dimethylguanosine with antioxidant and HIV-1 protease inhibiting activities from fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Wong, J H; Fu, M; Ng, T B; Liu, Z K; Wang, C R; Li, N; Qiao, W T; Wen, T Y; Liu, F

    2011-01-15

    According to previous studies, a close relationship between oxidative stress and AIDS suggests that antioxidants might play an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Cordyceps militaris was selected from nine edible mushrooms by assay of inhibition of erythrocyte hemolysis. Macroporous adsorption resin and HPLC were used to purify three micromolecular compounds named L3a, L3b and L3c. L3a was identified to be adenosine with the molecular formula C(10)H(13)N(5)O(4); L3b was 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone with the molecular formula C(20)H(20)O(7), and L3c was dimethylguanosine with the molecular formula C(12)H(17)N(5)O(5). The compound 6,7,2',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone was first isolated from C. militaris. The assay of inhibition of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) was based on the fact that the expression of this enzyme can inhibit the growth of E. coli. This is a new screening system for HIV-1 PR inhibitors. Both L3a and L3b showed high inhibition to HIV-1 PR. These compounds could be new anti-HIV-1 PR drugs. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps militaris from Multi-Ascospore Isolates and Their Single Ascospore Progeny Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Interest in commercial cultivation and product development of Cordyceps species has shown a recent increase. Due to its biochemical and pharmacological effects, Cordyceps militaris, commonly known as orange caterpillar fungus, is being investigated with great interest. Cultivation of C. militaris has been practiced on a large scale in order to fulfill a demand for scientific investigation and product development. Isolates of C. militaris can be easily established from both spores and tissue. For isolation of spores, ascospores released from mature stromata are trapped in sterile medium. Multi-ascospore isolates, as well as combinations of single ascospore strains, are used for production of fruiting bodies. Progeny ascospore strains can be isolated from artificial fruiting bodies, thus, the cycle of fruiting body production can be continued for a long period of time. In this study, we examined fruiting body production from multi-ascospore isolates and their progeny strains for three generations. F1 progeny strains generally produced a larger number of fruiting bodies, compared with their mother multi-ascospore isolates; however, F2 and F3 progeny strains produced fewer fruiting bodies. Optimum preservation conditions could help to increase the vitality of the progeny strains. In order to retain the fruiting ability of the strains, further testing of various methods of preservation and different methods for isolation should be performed. PMID:22870051

  9. Optimization of extraction of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) link using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Thi, Dinh Huynh Mong; Pham, Dinh Chuong

    2018-04-01

    Polysaccharides from fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link possess various pharmaceutical activities. In this study, polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris were extracted with different solvents. Of those solvents tested, distilled water was identified as the most efficient solvent for the extraction, resulting in a significant increase in polysaccharides yield. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions and establish a reliable mathematical model for prediction. A maximum polysaccharides yield of 11.07% was reached at a ratio of water to raw material of 23.2:1 mL/g, an extraction time of 76 min, and a temperature of 93.6°C. This study indicates that the obtained optimal extraction conditions are an efficient method for extraction of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of C. militaris.

  10. [Separation, purification and primary reverse cholesterol transport study of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shou-Dong; Cui, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhong; Wang, Ren-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Xue; Ma, Teng

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed to separate, purify and determine the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps militaris, and study its effect on reverse cholesterol transport in vivo by isotope tracing assay. Polysaccharides were separate and purify by ion exchange column Q-sepharose Fast Flow and size exclusion column Sephacryl S200HR; the molecular weight and monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coming with pre-column derivation, respectively. Finally, three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were obtained, their total carbohydrate contents were 87%, 89%, 95%, respectively; their protein contents were 6.5%, 1.3%, 2.8%, respectively; their molecular weights were 772.1, 20.9, 13.2 kDa, respectively; CMBW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 7.25: 0.17: 1.29: 0.23: 6.30: 11.08: 0.79; CMBW2 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, galactose and arabinose with a molar ratio of 2.40: 0.16: 2.92: 0.24; CMYW1 was composed of mannose, glucosamine, glucuronic acid and glucose with a molar ratio of 0.59: 0.57: 0.45: 25.61. Polysaccharide at 50 mg x kg(-1) could significantly improve the transport of 3H- cholesterol to blood and excretion from feces. All of the three purified polysaccharides CMBW1, CMBW2 and CMYW1 were heteropolysaccharide; and they could improve reverse cholesterol transport in vivo, the underlying mechanisms are being studied.

  11. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Anti-Allergic Activity of Silkworm Pupa-Grown Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Feng; Chan, Yu-Yi; Shi, Wan-Yin; Jhong, Meng-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has been widely used as an herbal drug and tonic food in East Asia and has also been recently studied in the West because of its various pharmacological activities such as antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-allergic activity of ethanol extract prepared from silkworm pupa-cultivated Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies in activated mast cells. Our results showed that ethanol extract treatment significantly inhibited the release of [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase (a degranulation marker) and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] as well as interleukin-4 in RBL-2H3 cells. The cells were sensitized with 2,4-dinitrophenol specific IgE and then stimulated with human serum albumin conjugated with 2,4-dinitrophenol. Oral administration of 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg ethanol extract significantly ameliorated IgE-induced allergic reaction in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Western immunoblotting results demonstrated that ethanol extract incubation significantly inhibited Syk/PI3K/MEKK4/JNK/c-jun biochemical cascade in activated RBL-2H3 cells, which activated the expression of various allergic cytokines. In addition, it suppressed Erk activation and PLC[Formula: see text] evocation, which would respectively evoke the synthesis of lipid mediators and Ca[Formula: see text] mobilization to induce degranulation in stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. A compound, identified as [Formula: see text]-sitostenone, was shown to inhibit [Formula: see text]-hexosaminidase secretion from activated mast cells. Our study demonstrated that ethanol extract contained the ingredients, which could inhibit immediate degranulation and de novo synthesis of allergic lipid mediators and cytokines in activated mast cells.

  12. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  13. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  14. Evaluation of anti-fatigue property of the extruded product of cereal grains mixed with Cordyceps militaris on mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Fangmei; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Yong; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is a biological phenomenon that involves a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness that could potentially cause some severe chronic diseases. Recently, diet therapy has provided a new alternative to alleviate physical fatigue. In our previous study, addition of Cordyceps militaris ( C. militaris ) into an extruded product was shown to provide high nutrition and unique flavors; however, little is known whether this product has some scientific evidence regarding anti-fatigue property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of extruded products of cereal grains (EC) and EC mixed with C. militaris (ECC). The mice were divided into seven groups: one group received distilled water (Control group, n  = 20), and the other groups received different dosages of EC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) or of ECC (5, 10 and 20 g/kg body weight, n  = 20 per group) solution in water. All of the mice were administered with distilled water, EC or ECC continuously for 30 days by gavage and the anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with assessments of fatigue-related indicators. The mode of fighting fatigue was investigated by determining changes in exercise endurance and biochemical markers, including exhaustive swimming time, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood lactic acid (BLA), creatine kinase (CK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and hepatic and muscle glycogen levels. EC and ECC prolonged the swimming endurance time of mice compared to the control. The content of BLA at high dose of ECC group (20 g/kg) was significantly lower than that in the negative control group. CK, BUN and MDA levels were significantly reduced by treatment with EC and ECC compared to the negative control, while the low and middle dose of EC had no significant effect on MDA levels. Additionally, only

  15. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... high potential for abuse and serve no legitimate medical purpose. Possession or use of hallucinogenic mushrooms is punishable by fines and jail time. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Ecstasy) View more ...

  16. A brief chronicle of the genus cordyceps fr., the oldest valid genus in cordycipitaceae (hypocreales, ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-06-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases.

  17. Optimal conditions for cordycepin production in surface liquid-cultured Cordyceps militaris treated with porcine liver extracts for suppression of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lai, Ying-Jang; Wu, She-Ching; Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Tai, Chen-Jei

    2018-01-01

    Cordycepin is one of the most crucial bioactive compounds produced by Cordyceps militaris and has exhibited antitumor activity in various cancers. However, industrial production of large amounts of cordycepin is difficult. The porcine liver is abundant in proteins, vitamins, and adenosine, and these ingredients may increase cordycepin production and bioconversion during C. militaris fermentation. We observed that porcine liver extracts increased cordycepin production. In addition, air supply (2 h/d) significantly increased the cordycepin level in surface liquid-cultured C. militaris after 14 days. Moreover, blue light light-emitting diode irradiation (16 h/d) increased cordycepin production. These findings indicated that these conditions are suitable for increasing cordycepin production. We used these conditions to obtain water extract from the mycelia of surface liquid-cultured C. militaris (WECM) and evaluated the anti-oral cancer activity of this extract in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that WECM inhibited the cell viability of SCC-4 oral cancer cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial fission) were observed in SCC-4 cells treated with WECM for 12 hours. Furthermore, WECM reduced tumor formation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis through the downregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, and c-fos expression. The results indicated that porcine liver extracts irradiated with blue light light-emitting diode and supplied with air can be used as a suitable medium for the growth of mycelia and production of cordycepin, which can be used in the treatment of oral cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Higher Anti-Liver Fibrosis Effect of Cordyceps militaris-Fermented Product Cultured with Deep Ocean Water via Inhibiting Proinflammatory Factors and Fibrosis-Related Factors Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2017-06-08

    Deep ocean water (DOW) has been shown to enhance the functional components of fungi, resulting in increased health benefits. Therefore, using DOW for culturing fungi can enhance the cordycepin and adenosine of Cordyceps militaris (CM) and its protective effects on the liver. In this study, the antiliver fibrosis effects and mechanisms of ultrapure water-cultured CM (UCM), DOW-cultured CM (DCM), synthetic water-cultured CM, DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine were compared in the liver fibrosis mice induced by intraperitoneal injections of thioacetamide (TAA). The results indicated that DCM exhibited superior performance in reducing liver collagen accumulation, mitigating liver injuries, inhibiting proinflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factor (TGF-β1, Smad2/3, α-SMA, COL1A1) expression compared with UCM. DOW, cordycepin, and adenosine also performed antiliver fibrosis effect. Therefore, because DCM is rich in DOW and functional components, it can achieve anti-liver fibrosis effects through multiple pathways. These ameliorative effects are considerably superior to those of UCM.

  19. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  20. Evaluation of carbohydrates in natural and cultured Cordyceps by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jia; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-06-11

    Free and polymeric carbohydrates in Cordyceps, a valued edible mushroom and well-known traditional Chinese medicine, were determined using stepwise pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) extraction and GC-MS. Based on the optimized PLE conditions, acid hydrolysis and derivatization, ten monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, mannitol, fructose and sorbose in 13 samples of natural and cultured Cordyceps were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared with myo-inositol hexaacetate as internal standard. The results showed that natural C. sinensis contained more than 7.99% free mannitol and a small amount of glucose, while its polysaccharides were usually composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:16.61-3.82:1.60-1.28. However, mannitol in cultured C. sinensis and cultured C. militaris were less than 5.83%, and free glucose was only detected in a few samples, while their polysaccharides were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with molar ratios of 1.00:3.01-1.09:3.30-1.05 and 1.00:2.86-1.28:1.07-0.78, respectively. Natural and cultured Cordyceps could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on its free carbohydrate contents.

  1. Cordycepin-enriched WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris inhibits ADP-induced [Ca(2+)] i mobilization and fibrinogen binding via phosphorylation of IP 3R and VASP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ha; Kwon, Hyuk-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Hong; Lim, Deok Hwi; Nam, Gi Suk; Shin, Jung-Hae; Kim, Yun-Yi; Kim, Jong-Lae; Lee, Jong-Jin; Kwon, Ho-Kyun; Park, Hwa-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C from Cordyceps militaris on ADP (20 µM)-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 18.5 μg/mL. CE-WIB801C decreased TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of COX-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS) in ADP-activated platelets, which suggests that the inhibition of TXA2 production by CE-WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. CE-WIB801C inhibited ATP release and [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and increased cAMP level and IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation in ADP-activated platelets. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased CE-WIB801C-inhibited [Ca(2+)]i mobilization, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-increased IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation. CE-WIB801C elevated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser(157)), an A-kinase substrate, but inhibited fibrinogen binding to αIIb/β3. These results suggest that CE-WIB801C-elevated cAMP involved in IP3RI (Ser(1756)) phosphorylation to inhibit [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and, VASP (Ser(157)) phosphorylation to inhibit αIIb/β3 activation. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C may have a preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

  2. Rapid authentication of Cordyceps by lateral flow dipstick.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yuk-Lau; Wong, Ka-Lok; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps (Dongchongxiacao), a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, is composed of the fruiting body of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Family: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on a caterpillar of ghost-moth species (Family: Hepialidae). Owing to its multiple potential functions, Cordyceps are in great demand and represent significant economic value. Adulterants or substitutes named Cordyceps or Chongcao from related fungi have been reported. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) system was developed to distinguish genuine herb O. sinensis from its common adulterant Cordyceps gunnii and Cordyceps militaris. Specific primers (EF-CS-F1-Biotin, EF-CG-F1-Biotin and EF-CM-F1- Biotin) were designed to differentiate the three Cordyceps species. Internal control (EF-F1-b-DIG and EF-R1-FITC) was included to minimize the false signal due to PCR inhibitors or DNA degradation. LFD was then successfully employed for speedy and accurate detection of the respective PCR products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic classification of Cordyceps and the clavicipitaceous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.; Sung, Jae-Mo; Luangsa-ard, J. Jennifer; Shrestha, Bhushan; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2007-01-01

    Cordyceps, comprising over 400 species, was historically classified in the Clavicipitaceae, based on cylindrical asci, thickened ascus apices and filiform ascospores, which often disarticulate into part-spores. Cordyceps was characterized by the production of well-developed often stipitate stromata and an ecology as a pathogen of arthropods and Elaphomyces with infrageneric classifications emphasizing arrangement of perithecia, ascospore morphology and host affiliation. To refine the classification of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae, the phylogenetic relationships of 162 taxa were estimated based on analyses consisting of five to seven loci, including the nuclear ribosomal small and large subunits (nrSSU and nrLSU), the elongation factor 1α (tef1), the largest and the second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (rpb1 and rpb2), β-tubulin (tub), and mitochondrial ATP6 (atp6). Our results strongly support the existence of three clavicipitaceous clades and reject the monophyly of both Cordyceps and Clavicipitaceae. Most diagnostic characters used in current classifications of Cordyceps (e.g., arrangement of perithecia, ascospore fragmentation, etc.) were not supported as being phylogenetically informative; the characters that were most consistent with the phylogeny were texture, pigmentation and morphology of stromata. Therefore, we revise the taxonomy of Cordyceps and the Clavicipitaceae to be consistent with the multi-gene phylogeny. The family Cordycipitaceae is validated based on the type of Cordyceps, C. militaris, and includes most Cordyceps species that possess brightly coloured, fleshy stromata. The new family Ophiocordycipitaceae is proposed based on Ophiocordyceps Petch, which we emend. The majority of species in this family produce darkly pigmented, tough to pliant stromata that often possess aperithecial apices. The new genus Elaphocordyceps is proposed for a subclade of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, which includes all species of Cordyceps that parasitize

  4. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  6. Characterization and discrimination of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps using saccharide mapping based on PACE and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Ju, Yao-Jun; Feng, Kun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-03-15

    Polysaccharides from seven species of natural and cultured Cordyceps were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, partially acidic/enzymatic (α-amylase, β-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed with polysaccharide analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis, respectively, to obtain the comprehensive profiles of hydrolysates of the polysaccharides and their characters. The results showed that 1,4-α-D-glucosidic, 1,4-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosidic linkages were existed in natural and cultured Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps militaris, natural Cordyceps gracilis and Cordyceps ciecadae. The similarity of polysaccharides from cultured C. militaris to natural C. sinensis was relatively high, which might contribute to the rational use of C. militaris. Moreover, different species of natural and cultured Cordyceps can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Cordyceps and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in natural and cultured Cordyceps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-11-22

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas.

  8. Cordyceps collected from Bhutan, an appropriate alternative of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lv, Guang-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Li, Qian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C. sinensis. All data suggest that Cordyceps from Bhutan is a rational alternative of natural C. sinensis, which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. PMID:27874103

  9. Effects of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. fermentation on the nutritional, physicochemical, functional properties and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of red bean (Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu; Sun, Mingmei; Zhang, Qiuqin; Chen, Yulian; Miao, Junqing; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2018-04-01

    The effects of solid-state fermentation with Cordyceps militaris (L.) Fr. on the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of red bean ( Phaseolus angularis [Willd.] W.F. Wight.) flour were determined. Fermentation increased the amount of small peptides but significantly decreased large peptides. Fermentation also increased proteins and essential amino acids (by 9.31 and 13.89%, respectively) and improved the in vitro protein digestibility (6.54%) of red beans. Moreover, fermentation increased the water holding capacity (from 2.36 to 2.59 mL/g), fat absorption capacity (from 84.65 to 114.55%), emulsion activity (from 10.96 to 52.77%), emulsion stability (from 5.43 to 53.82%), and foaming stability (from 11.95 to 20.68%). Fermented red bean flour achieved a lower least gelation concentration of 14% than that of the control (18%). In contrast to the non-fermented red bean, the fermented red bean showed ACE inhibitory activity, with IC 50 value of 0.63 mg protein/mL. Overall, fermentation improved the nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties as well as the biological activity of red bean flour. Thus, fermented red bean flour may serve as a novel nutritional and functional ingredient for applications in food design.

  10. Improvement of Learning and Memory Induced by Cordyceps Polypeptide Treatment and the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Our previous research revealed that Cordyceps militaris can improve the learning and memory, and although the main active ingredient should be its polypeptide complexes, the underlying mechanism of its activity remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which Cordyceps militaris improves learning and memory in a mouse model. Mice were given scopolamine hydrobromide intraperitoneally to establish a mouse model of learning and memory impairment. The effects of Cordyceps polypeptide in this model were tested using the Morris water maze test; serum superoxide dismutase activity; serum malondialdehyde levels; activities of acetyl cholinesterase, Na+-k+-ATPase, and nitric oxide synthase; and gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate contents in brain tissue. Moreover, differentially expressed genes and the related cellular signaling pathways were screened using an mRNA expression profile chip. The results showed that the genes Pik3r5, Il-1β, and Slc18a2 were involved in the effects of Cordyceps polypeptide on the nervous system of these mice. Our findings suggest that Cordyceps polypeptide may improve learning and memory in the scopolamine-induced mouse model of learning and memory impairment by scavenging oxygen free radicals, preventing oxidative damage, and protecting the nervous system. PMID:29736181

  11. Cordyceps sinensis increases hypoxia tolerance by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein via Nrf2 activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrinalini; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Koganti, Praveen; Chauhan, Amitabh; Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NF κ B (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor- α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor- β . Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NF κ B and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NF κ B levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.

  12. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia. PMID:24063008

  13. Evaluation of an Epitypified Ophiocordyceps formosana (Cordyceps s.l.) for Its Pharmacological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Wen; Hong, Tzu-Wen; Tai, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ying-Jing; Tsai, Sheng-Hong; Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Chou, Tzu-Ho; Lai, Jui-Ya; Chu, Richard; Ding, Shih-Torng; Irie, Kenji; Li, Tsai-Kun; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Shen, Tang-Long

    2015-01-01

    The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. PMID:26451152

  14. Furlough Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  15. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  16. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-10-11

    Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.

  17. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of culinary-medicinal mushrooms and their toxicity assessment using differentiating Neuro-2a and embryonic fibroblast BALB/3T3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity. Methods The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively. Results Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 ± 4.2%, 38.1 ± 2.6%, 33.4 ± 4.6%, 33.7 ± 1.5%, and 35.8 ± 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts. Conclusion Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health. PMID:24119256

  18. [Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2005-01-01

    The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis.

  19. Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2).

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Shin; Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

    2007-01-01

    Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 microg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 microg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Cytoprotective effect of polysaccharide isolated from different mushrooms against 7-ketocholesterol induced damage in mouse liver cell line (BNL CL. 2)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hau Yin; Na, Keun

    2007-01-01

    Cytoprotective ability of polysaccharides isolated from different edible mushrooms was investigated on the 7-ketocholesterol-induced damaged cell line. Polysaccharide extracts from six different edible mushrooms-Flammulina velutipes, Peurotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe aegerita, Agaricus blazei, and Cordyceps militaris- were prepared by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Cytoprotective ability was evaluated by measuring the viable cells of the normal embryonic liver cell line (BNL CL. 2) in the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. At 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, cytotoxicity was very high with a loss of 98% of viable cells after 20 h of incubation. With the addition of 200 µg/mL of each polysaccharide isolate to the cell line containing 80 µg/mL of 7-ketocholesterol, polysaccharide isolates from both Flammulina velutipes and Peurotus ostreatus could significantly inhibit the 7-ketochoelsterol-induced cytotoxicity in the cells. But other polysaccharide isolates were not effective in inhibiting cell damage caused by the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:20368935

  1. Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nachshol; Cohen, Jacob; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Varshney, Vinay K; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Yang, Yi-Chi; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    This research gives the results of a proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, total carbohydrates, and total energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], ergothioneine, lovastatin, and cordycepin); fatty acid and amino acid analysis; and an analysis of macro- and microelement content of fruit bodies and mycelia of 15 higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom strains belonging to 12 species. The results obtained demonstrate that almost all investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and carbohydrates, with content varying in the ranges of 8.6-42.5% and 42.9-83.6%, respectively. Different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The total amino acid content was highest in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (MB) (23.84 mg/g) and Cordyceps militaris (FB) (23.69 mg/g). The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that, in general, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied, and the highest results were (as milligrams per kilogram) 224-7307 for calcium, 1668-38564 for potassium, 1091-11676 for phosphorus, and 5-97 for zinc. Bioactive components were lovastatin, GABA, and ergothioneine, which are commonly found in most mushrooms. C. militaris (FB), Pleurotus ostreatus (FB), and Coprinus comatus (FB) were most abundant and contained a high amount of GABA (756.30 μg/g, 1304.99 μg/g, 1092.45 μg/g, respectively) and ergothioneine (409.88 μg/g, 2443.53 μg/g, 764.35 μg/g, respectively). The highest lovastatin content was observed in Hericium erinaceus (FB) (14.38 μg/g) and Ganoderma lucidum (FB) (11.54 μg/g). In contrast to C. militaris (FB), cordycepin was not detected in O. sinensis (MB). The fruit body biomass of C. militaris cordycepin content reached 1.743 mg/g dry weight. The nutritional values of the mushroom species studied here could potentially be used in well-balanced diets and as sources

  2. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  3. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds.

    PubMed

    Chiriví, Juan; Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra; Restrepo, Silvia; Sanjuan, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  4. Metabolomic profile and nucleoside composition of Cordyceps nidus sp. nov. (Cordycipitaceae): A new source of active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Danies, Giovanna; Sierra, Rocio; Schauer, Nicolas; Trenkamp, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently. In this study, we propose a new species, Cordyceps nidus, which parasitizes underground nests of trapdoor spiders. This species is phylogenetically related to Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps pruinosa, and a sibling species of Cordyceps caloceroides. It is found in tropical rainforests from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. We also investigated the medicinal potential of this fungus based on its biochemical properties when grown on four different culture media. The metabolic profile particularly that of nucleosides, in polar and non-polar extracts was determined by UPLC, and then correlated to their antimicrobial activity and total phenolic content. The metabolome showed a high and significant dependency on the substrate used for fungal growth. The mass intensities of nucleosides and derivative compounds were higher in natural culture media in comparison to artificial culture media. Among these compounds, cordycepin was the predominant, showing the potential use of this species as an alternative to O. sinensis. Furthermore, methanol fractions showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, and less than 3.00 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dried extract were obtained when assessing its total phenolic content by modified Folin-Ciocalteu method. The presence of polyphenols opens the possibility of further exploring the antioxidant capacity and the conditions that may enhance this characteristic. The metabolic composition and

  5. The oldest fossil mushroom.

    PubMed

    Heads, Sam W; Miller, Andrew N; Crane, J Leland; Thomas, M Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M; Methven, Andrew S; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana.

  6. The oldest fossil mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew N.; Crane, J. Leland; Thomas, M. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M.; Methven, Andrew S.; Raudabaugh, Daniel B.; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. PMID:28591180

  7. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium ameliorate exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (Clavicipitaceae) is a famous medicinal fungus (mushroom) in Chinese herbal medicine. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis (CSP) have been identified as active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological actions of CSP have received a great deal of attention, research in this area continues. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of CSP on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. The mice were divided into four groups: control (C), low-dose CSP treated (LC), intermediate-dose CSP treated (IC) and high-dose CSP treated (HC). The treated groups received CSP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received drinking water for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo exhaustive swimming exercise, and some biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured using detection kits according to the manufacturers' instructions. Compared with the C group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); SOD activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); GPx activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05); CAT activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the HC groups (p < 0.05); MDA and 8-OHdG levels in serum, liver and muscle were significantly lower in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained herein indicate that CSP could ameliorate exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  8. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  9. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30 cm s- 1. The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis.

  10. [Quantitative analysis of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Qing; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Zhou, Miao-Xia; Sun, Min-Tian; Gao, Hao; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-07-01

    To compare the main nucleosides in Cordyceps genus herbs (C. sinensis, C. millitaris, Hirsutella sinensis and C. sobolifera), an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of uridine, inosine, guanosine, adenosine and cordycepine in Cordyceps genus herbs was developed. The sample was extracted with 0.5% phosphoric acid solution to prepare test solution. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) column with gradient elution by 0.04 mol•L⁻¹ potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution and acetonitrile, column temperature 30 ℃,flow rate 0.8 mL•min⁻¹,and detection wavelength 260 nm. The content of nucleosides in four Cordyceps genus herbs was evaluated by fingerprint analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The calibration curves of five nucleosides showed good linear regression (r>0.99) and the average recoveries were between 95.0% and 105.0%. The contents of the five nucleosides in the four Cordyceps genus herbs were different and could be obviously distinguished by HCA. The fingerprint analysis result showed that the similarity between C. sinensis and the others was less than 0.9. The method was accurate and reliable, which can be used for quality control of Cordyceps genus herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Differentiation and quality estimation of Cordyceps with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Song, Ping; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Feng, Shu; Tao, Jia-Xun

    2009-11-01

    Heretofore, a scientific and systemic method for differentiation and quality estimation of a well-known Chinese traditional medicine, 'Cordyceps', has not been established in modern market. In this paper, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) are employed to propose a method for analysis of Cordyceps. It has presented that IR spectra of real Cordyceps of different origins and counterfeits have their own macroscopic fingerprints, with discriminated shapes, positions and intensities. Their secondary derivative spectra can amplify the differences and confirm the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands 1400-1700 cm -1 to be investigated in 2D-IR. Many characteristic fingerprints are discovered in 2D-IR spectra in the range of 1400-1700 cm -1 and hetero 2D spectra of 670-780 cm -1 × 1400-1700 cm -1. The different fingerprints display different chemical constitutes. Through the three steps, different Cordyceps and their counterfeits can be discriminated effectively and their qualities distinctly display. Successful analysis of eight Cordyceps capsule products has proved the practicability of the method, which can also be applied to the quality estimation of other Chinese traditional medicines.

  12. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  13. Functional foods from mushroom

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  14. Application of microscopy in authentication of valuable Chinese medicine I--Cordyceps sinensis, its counterfeits, and related products.

    PubMed

    Au, Dawn; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Dajian; Mok, Daniel K W; Chan, Albert S C; Xu, Hongxi

    2012-01-01

    Light and polarized microscope was applied to authenticate 32 Cordyceps and 6 artificial counterfeits and 8 fermented Cordyceps as well as 7 Cordyceps capsules available in Hong Kong markets. Results showed that transverse sections of stroma and powder of larvae can be used to differentiate C. sinensis from its counterfeits. The fermented Cordyceps are in powder form. Among the eight fermented Cordyceps collected, half of them were pure; three were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; one was a mixture of unknown plant tissues and soya beans. For the seven Cordyceps capsules, the powders of five samples were a mixture of fermented Cordyceps and soya beans; the powders of other two were a mixture of C. sinensis stroma powder and fermented Cordyceps. The study indicated that the microscopy is an unambiguous method that requests fewer sample for the authentication of valuable Chinese medicine-C. sinensis and its related products. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia by using UHPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Jia-Ning; Wang, Jing-Rong; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 101 sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its five mycelia were quantitatively profiled by using a fully validated UHPLC-MS method. The results revealed that a general rank order for the abundance of different classes of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its mycelia is sphingoid bases/ceramides > phosphosphingolipids > glycosphingolipids. However, remarkable sphingolipid differences between wild Cordyceps and its mycelia were observed. One is that sphingoid base is the dominant sphingolipid in wild Cordyceps, whereas ceramide is the major sphingolipid in mycelia. Another difference is that the abundance of sphingomyelins in wild Cordyceps is almost 10-folds higher than those in most mycelia. The third one is that mycelia contain more inositol phosphorylceramides and glycosphingolipids than wild Cordyceps. Multivariate analysis was further employed to visualize the difference among wild Cordyceps and different mycelia, leading to the identification of respective sphingolipids as potential chemical markers for the differentiation of wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia. This study represents the first report on the quantitative profiling of sphingolipids in wild Cordyceps and its related mycelia, which provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the quality control and rational utilization of wild Cordyceps and its mycelia. PMID:26868933

  16. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming

    2015-10-12

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95

  17. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  18. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  19. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  20. [Comparison and review on specifications of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Yong-Wen

    2018-02-01

    There are five kinds of fermented Cordyceps crude drug and their preparations that have been approved as medicine on the market. Since the initial strains of the crude drug were all isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis, they have similar names, chemical components and even clinical applications. However, because of the different strain species and fermentation processes, there was significant difference in quality. As a result, they should be clearly distinguished in clinical use. Most of the products were researched and developed during the 1980s and 1990s, so there was difference in quality standards for different products, and their quality control levels of some products were not perfect. At present, some of the products are approved as Chinese medicine, others are approved as chemical drugs, with a confusion in products name, management and clinical application. In this paper, the approval numbers, quality standards and clinical applications, and current problems of these products were summarized and compared; some suggestions were put forward, such as standardizing the product name, unifying the management of approval number category, and increasing the specific quality control attributes, in order to provide reference for standard implementation, quality control and drug regulation for fermented Cordyceps crude drugs and their preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Mushroom tyrosinase: recent prospects.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sung-Yum; Sharma, Vinay K; Sharma, Niti

    2003-05-07

    Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom, and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.

  2. Identification of Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis by depth-profiling mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Changwen; Zhou, Jianmin; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-02-15

    With increased demand for Cordyceps sinensis it needs rapid methods to meet the challenge of identification raised in quality control. In this study Cordyceps sinensis from four typical natural habitats in China was characterized by depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. Results demonstrated that Cordyceps sinensis samples resulted in typical photoacoustic spectral appearance, but heterogeneity was sensed in the whole sample; due to the heterogeneity Cordyceps sinensis was represented by spectra of four groups including head, body, tail and leaf under a moving mirror velocity of 0.30cms -1 . The spectra of the four groups were used as input of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) to identify the source of Cordyceps sinensis, and all the samples were correctly identified by the PNN model. Therefore, depth-profiling Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy provides novel and unique technique to identify Cordyceps sinensis, which shows great potential in quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterothallic Type of Mating System for Cordyceps cardinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Kim, Soo-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cordyceps cardinalis successfully produced its fruiting bodies from multi-ascospore isolates. However, subcultures of multi-ascospore isolates could not produce fruiting bodies after few generations. Fruiting body production also differed from sector to sector of the same isolate. Single ascospore isolates were then co-inoculated in combinations of two to observe the fruiting characteristics. Combinations of certain isolates produced perithecial stromata formation, whereas other combinations did not produce any fruiting bodies. These results show that C. cardinalis is a heterothallic fungus, requiring two isolates of opposite mating types for fruiting body production. It was also shown that single ascospore isolates are hermaphrodites. PMID:23956667

  4. Successful Development of Cordyceps bassiana Stromata from Beauveria bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-O; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    A specimen of Beauveria bassiana was collected from Yang-yang of Gangwon province, Korea in October 2006. Conidial isolates were prepared from the specimen by the dilution method and inoculated in brown rice medium for fruiting body production. After nearly two months incubation for perithecial stromata developed from single isolates as well as from their combinations. They were determined as Cordyceps bassiana by observing the stromatal characters and their conidial structures. This is the first report of the development of C. bassiana from B. bassiana cultures. PMID:23956619

  5. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  6. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  7. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  8. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  10. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  11. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. The level of elements and antioxidant activity of commercial dietary supplement formulations based on edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Stilinović, Nebojša; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Mrmoš, Nataša; Pavlović, Nebojša; Vukmirović, Saša

    2014-12-01

    Commercial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Coprinus comatus mushroom marketed as healthy food supplements in Serbia were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace (GFAAS) for their element content. Antioxidant activity potential and total phenolics of the same mushrooms were determined. The element content of mushroom samples was in the range of 0.130-0.360 mg kg(-1) for lead (Pb), <0.03-0.46 mg kg(-1) for arsenic (As), 0.09-0.39 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 98.14-989.18 mg kg(-1) for iron (Fe), 0.10-101.32 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), 5.06-26.50 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.20-0.70 mg kg(-1) for cobalt (Co), 1.74-136.33 mg kg(-1) for chromium (Cr) and 2.19-21.54 mg kg(-1) for manganese (Mn). In the tests for measuring the antioxidant activity, the methanolic extract of C. sinensis showed the best properties. The same was seen for the analysis of selected phenolic compounds; C. sinensis was found to have the highest content. Commercial preparations of C. sinensis and C. comatus can be considered to be safe and suitable food supplements included in well-balanced diets.

  13. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Investigation of metabolic action of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on Escherichia coli by microcalorimetry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan-Lei; Yan, Dan; Li, Bao-Cai; Wu, Yan-Shu; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-06-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, and microcalorimetric method was carried out to evaluate its biological activity. The study will provide the basis for the quality control of Cordyceps sinensis. Experimental result will show the effect of natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia on growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli, with index of P(1max) and effective rate (E) by microcalorimetry, the data of experiment were studied by cluster analysis. The results showed that Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia not only can promote growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli but also can regulate the balance of intestinal microecology efficiently. When the concentrations of samples > 6.0 mg mL(-1), natural Cordyceps sinensis can promote the growth and metabolism of Escherichia coli efficiently (P < 0.05) compared with the control group, and have better dose-effect relationship with concentration (r > 0.9), its cultured mycelia does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05) and have not dose-effect relationship with concentration (r < 0.6); when the concentration of samples < 6.0 mg mL(-1), all samples does not show conspicuous auxoaction (P > 0.05). Natural Cordyceps sinensis and its cultured mycelia can be distinguished by cluster analysis. Microcalorimetry has a good prospect on the quality evaluation of the traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (< 1 microg Se/g dry weight). The fruitbody of some species of wild-grown edible mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements. The Goat's Foot (Albatrellus pes-caprae) with approximately 200 microg Se/g dw on average (maximum up to 370 microg/g dw) is the richest one in this element among the species surveyed. Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Of the most popular edible wild-grown mushrooms, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is considered abundant in selenium as well; on average, it contains approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (maximum up to 70 microg/g dw). Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, and B. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium. Some other relatively rich sources of selenium include the European Pine Cone Lepidella (Amanita strobiliformis), which contains, on average, approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (up to 37 microg/g dw); the Macrolepiota spp., with an average range of approximately 5 to < 10 microg/g dw (an exception is M. rhacodes with < 10 microg/g dw); and the Lycoperdon spp., with an average of approximately 5

  16. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  18. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  19. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity.

  20. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  1. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  2. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  3. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  4. MALDI-TOF to compare polysaccharide profiles from commercial health supplements of different mushroom species.

    PubMed

    López-García, Marta; García, María Sonia Dopico; Vilariño, José Manuel López; Rodríguez, María Victoria González

    2016-05-15

    In this work MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy was investigated to characterise the β-glucan profiles of several commercial health supplements, without any derivatisation or purification pre-treatment. The effect of two solvents (water and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two MALDI matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone) was first evaluated on dextran standards. MALDI-TOF was found as a useful and quick technique to obtain structural information of diverse food supplements based on mushroom extracts. The MALDI polysaccharide profiles of 5 supplements from different mushroom species were qualitatively similar showing [Glucan+Na](+) cations with a peak-to-peak mass difference of 16 Da consistent with the repeating unit of the β-(1→3)-glucan. The profiles strongly depended on the sample solvent used, with m/z values around 5000-8000 for water and 2000 for dimethyl sulfoxide; differences between samples were revealed in the molecular weight of the aqueous preparation, with the highest values for Maitake and Cordyceps species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cordyceps sinensis extracts attenuate aortic transplant arteriosclerosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mei; Gong, Shuwen; Yang, Yu; Chen, Bicheng; Cai, Yong; Zheng, Shaoling; Yang, Yirong; Xia, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a hallmark of chronic rejection and is still the major limiting factor affecting the success of long-term organ transplants. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, and adequate therapy is not yet available. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Cordyceps sinensis extracts in reducing the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Lewis rat aortic allografts were transplanted into Brown-Norway recipient rats. Recipients received 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of Cordyceps sinensis extracts (or control saline) daily via intragastric injection for 60 d. Grafts were harvested 60 d post-transplantation and intimal thickness determined microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and abdominal aorta protein profiles determined by Western blot analysis. Cellular localization was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry and the serum analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. sinensis administration resulted in a significant reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal thickness 8.27 ± 1.95 μm [0.5 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg] versus 11.42 ± 2.67 μm [control]) and in the proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, localized expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in transplant aortas was characterized by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses demonstrating that C. sinensis treatment significantly reduced TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels compared with levels observed in controls (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced in C. sinensis-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.05). C. sinensis treatment effectively reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Copyright

  6. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis in rats by Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    PubMed

    Qi, W; Yan, Y-B; Lei, W; Wu, Z-X; Zhang, Y; Liu, D; Shi, L; Cao, P-C; Liu, N

    2012-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been known as a traditional medicine in China, and C. sinensis plus strontium could prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The present study shows that daily oral administration of C. sinensis at higher doses in adult hind limb suspension rats can prevent disuse-induced bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture. Cordyceps sinensis induces estradiol production and prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This study was to examine whether C. sinensis can prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, and five groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). One HLS group received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) orally, and to the three other HLS groups to each group, a different amount of C. sinensis (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 8 weeks before and after HLS. The remaining HLS group was set as a control without treatment. Each group consisted of 10 males and females. The body weights, biochemical parameters in serum and urine, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical testing, and bone microarchitecture were examined. Treatments with higher C. sinensis dosage (300 and 500 mg/kg/day) or alendronate had a positive effect on body weights, mechanical strength, BMD, and BMC compared to the other HLS groups. C. sinensis decreased markers of bone turnover dose dependently and increased the osteocalcin levels in HLS rats. The result of micro-CT analysis from the L4 vertebra showed that C. sinensis (500 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabeculae number, and thickness as well as improved the trabeculae separation and structure model index in HLS rats. The present study demonstrates that administration of C. sinensis at higher doses over an 8-week period can prevent the disuse osteoporosis in rats. It implies that C. sinensis might be an alternative therapy for prevention

  7. Mycelia extracts of fungal strains isolated from Cordyceps sinensis differently enhance the function of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Bo; Feng, Kun; Hu, De-Jun; Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-07-30

    Cordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine with multiple pharmacological activities. However, its usage has been limited due to the high price and short supply. Isolate of fungi strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis to achieve a large-scale production by fermentation is an alternative choice. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of mycelia extracts of different fungal stains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophage functions in vitro. Macrophages' proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokines secretion, iNOS, NF-κB p65 activation and translocation were investigated by the MTT assay, flow cytometry assay, Griess reagent method, ELISA, western blot and immunostaining assay, respectively. The results showed that the effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia of different fungal strains isolated from natural Cordyceps sinensis on macrophages greatly variant. Among 17 Cordyceps aqueous extracts, only five extracts (UM01, QH11, BNQM, GNCC and DCXC) could significantly increase cell proliferation and NO production of RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Moreover, the five extracts, especially UM01 and QH11, significantly enhanced phagocytosis and promoted cytokines release of macrophages. Polysaccharides in cultured UM01 mycelia were found to be the main immune stimulating compounds. The variation of biological effects of fermented mycelia of different fungal strains from natural Cordyceps sinensis may be derived from their chemical diversity, especially polysaccharides, which need further study in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as “DongChong XiaCao”, is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  9. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  10. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  11. Cordyceps bassiana and production of stromata in vitro showing Beauveria anamorph in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Cordyceps species was found with Beauveria anamorph state on larval insect cadavers on Obong Mountsin in Gangwon Pronvince, Republic of Korea. Cultures from discharged ascospores formed an anamorph identifiable as Beauveria bassiana. This teleomorph-anamorph connection was also confirmed by the in...

  12. Efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis as an adjunctive treatment in kidney transplant patients: A systematic-review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Bee Yean; Aziz, Zoriah

    2017-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (cordyceps) is a fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine as adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in patients with kidney transplant. This review evaluates current evidence on the efficacy and safety of natural and fermented cordyceps preparations in patients with kidney transplant. English and Chinese electronic databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched up to December 2015 for relevant randomized controlled trials. Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. The primary outcome measures were incidence of acute graft rejection in the first year post-transplantation, one-year graft survival rate (defined as the percentage of patients with functioning grafts) and patient survival rate (or all-cause mortality). Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. These studies were considered to be at moderate risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods. Four studies that compared cordyceps-based therapy with azathioprine-based therapy gave comparable acute rejection rates, and graft and patient survival. The cordyceps-treated group however showed better kidney function and lower incidences of hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and liver injury. Cordyceps used with different combinations of immunosuppressant therapy showed significant reduction in proteinuria after 6-12 months. Compared to the group receiving cyclosporine A monotherapy, treatment with a combination of cordyceps and cyclosporine A showed less treatment-induced nephrotoxicity. Adverse events were either not monitored or poorly documented in most trials. Current evidence shows that cordyceps as an adjuvant to routine immunosuppressant therapy may benefit kidney transplant patient, however, better quality evidence is still required. Copyright © 2016

  13. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these.

  14. Entomopathogens of Amazonian stick insects and locusts are members of the Beauveria species complex (Cordyceps sensu stricto).

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Tatiana; Tabima, Javier; Restrepo, Silvia; Læssøe, Thomas; Spatafora, Joseph W; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    In the Amazon the only described species of Cordyceps sensu stricto (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) that parasitize insects of Orthopterida (orders Orthoptera and Phasmida) are Cordyceps locustiphila and C. uleana. However, the type specimens for both taxa have been lost and the concepts of these species are uncertain. To achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the systematics of these species, collections of Cordyceps from the Amazon regions of Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana were subjected to morphological, ecological and molecular phylogenetic studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on partial sequences of SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1 and RPB2 nuclear loci. Two new species are proposed including C. diapheromeriphila, a parasite of Phasmida, and C. acridophila, a parasite of the superfamily Acridomorpha (Orthoptera), which is broadly distributed across the Amazon. For C. locustiphila a lectotypification and an epitypification are made. Cordyceps locustiphila is host specific with Colpolopha (Acridomorpha: Romaleidae), and its distribution coincides with that of its host. The phylogenetic placement of these three species was resolved with strong support in the Beauveria clade of Cordyceps s. str. (Cordycipitaceae). This relationship and the morphological similarity of their yellow stromata with known teleomorphs of the clade, suggest that the holomorphs of these species may include Beauveria or Beauveria-like anamorphs. The varying host specificity of the beauverioid Cordyceps species suggest the potential importance of identifying the natural host taxon before future consideration of strains for use in biological control of pest locusts.

  15. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613

  16. Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou

    2010-10-19

    Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

  17. Authentication of Cordyceps sinensis by DNA Analyses: Comparison of ITS Sequence Analysis and RAPD-Derived Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Xin, Gui-Zhong; Xu, Hong; Ku, Chuen-Fai; Chen, Jian-Ping; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huang-Quan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-15

    Cordyceps sinensis is an endoparasitic fungus widely used as a tonic and medicinal food in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In historical usage, Cordyceps specifically is referring to the species of C. sinensis. However, a number of closely related species are named themselves as Cordyceps, and they are sold commonly as C. sinensis. The substitutes and adulterants of C. sinensis are often introduced either intentionally or accidentally in the herbal market, which seriously affects the therapeutic effects or even leads to life-threatening poisoning. Here, we aim to identify Cordyceps by DNA sequencing technology. Two different DNA-based approaches were compared. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) were developed here to authenticate different species of Cordyceps. Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of C. sinensis from others. The application of the two methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, the SCAR markers derived from the RAPD results provide a new method for quick authentication of Cordyceps.

  18. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed.

  20. Mushrooms (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used as an addition to standard cancer treatments in Asia. Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have anticancer effects. Get detailed information about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this clinician summary.

  1. Mushrooms (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used as an addition to standard cancer treatments in Asia. Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have antitumor effects. Learn more about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  3. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  7. Quantum mushroom billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo; School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL

    2007-12-15

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvaluemore » spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.« less

  8. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Wei; Lin, Zhi Xiu; Tung, Yuk Stewart; Kwan, Tze Hoi; Mok, Chun Keung; Leung, Connie; Chan, Lai Sum

    2014-12-18

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps, Dong Chong Xia Cao), a herbal medicine also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps sinensis for the treatment of people with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 14 April 2014 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched CINAHL, AMED, Current Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE, and Chinese databases including CBM, CMCC, TCMLARS, Chinese Dissertation Database, CMAC and Index to Chinese Periodical Literature. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing Cordyceps or its products with placebo, no treatment, or conventional treatment were considered for inclusion in the review. Two authors independently assessed data quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 22 studies that involved 1746 participants. Among people with CKD who were not receiving dialysis, Cordyceps preparations were found to significantly decrease serum creatinine (14 studies, 987 participants): MD -60.76 μmol/L, 95% CI -85.82 to -35.71); increase creatinine clearance (6 studies, 362 participants): MD 9.22 mL/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 15.34) and reduce 24 hour proteinuria (4 studies, 211 participants: MD -0.15 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.05). However, suboptimal reporting and flawed methodological approaches meant that risk of bias was assessed as high in four studies and unclear in 18 studies, and hence, these results need to be interpreted with caution. We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine

  9. Inhibitory mechanisms of CME-1, a novel polysaccharide from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, in platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liao, Jiun-Cheng; Lin, Mei-Jiun; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-01-01

    CME-1 is a polysaccharide purified from the mycelia of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, its molecular weight was determined to be 27.6 kDa by using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The initiation of arterial thromboses is relevant to various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and is believed to involve platelet activation. Our recent study exhibited that CME-1 has potent antiplatelet activity via the activation of adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP ex vivo and in vivo. The aggregometry, and immunoblotting were used in this study. In this study, the mechanisms of CME-1 in platelet activation is further investigated and found that CME-1 inhibited platelet aggregation as well as the ATP-release reaction, relative intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2 and protein kinase C (PKC) stimulated by collagen. CME-1 has no effects on inhibiting either convulxin, an agonist of glycoprotein VI, or aggretin, an agonist of integrin α2β1 stimulated platelet aggregation. Moreover, this compound markedly diminished thrombin and arachidonic acid (AA) induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, and Akt. Treatment with SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly diminished the CME-1-mediated increasing of cyclic AMP level and reversed prostaglandin E1- or CME-1-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation stimulated by thrombin or AA. Furthermore, phosphodiesterase activity of human platelets was not altered by CME-1. The crucial finding of this study is that the antiplatelet activity of CME-1 may initially inhibit the PLCγ2-PKC-p47 cascade, and inhibit PI3-kinase/Akt and MAPK phosphorylation through adenylate cyclase/ cyclic AMP activation, then inhibit intracellular [Ca(+2)] mobilization, and, ultimately, inhibit platelet activation. The novel role of CME-1 in

  10. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  12. [Studies on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Cordyceps sinensis and its counterfeits].

    PubMed

    Chan, Siutsau; Liu, Baoling; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Lam, Markin; Law, Kwokwai; Chen, Hubiao

    2011-05-01

    To provide a rapid, simple, accurate and reproducible identification method from which Cordyceps sinensis can be distinguished from other species. To observe the larva and stroma of Cordyceps family with macroscopic identification method, and with powder microscopic identification method. For macroscopic, only stroma of C. sinensis is mostly non-inflated, and un-obtuse at the tip, the caterpillar annulations of C. sinensis and the C. gracilis is distinct, about 20-30, and feet of above two are 8 pairs, 4 of 8 pairs are relatively distinct. The above appearance shows its unique characteristic. For microscopic identification, only C. sinensis exists microtrichia, the tip is pointed. The arranging order of stubby setae is irregular, the tip is blunt while the basal is gradually broader; the top of some setae bends slightly like a hook.

  13. [Maturation of Cordyceps sinensis associates with alterations of fungal expressions of multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in stroma of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Jian-qing; Lu, Ji-hong; Zhao, Jia-gang; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2012-06-18

    To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma. MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes. MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased. Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and

  14. [Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yan; Qiu, Yi; Wan, De-Guang; Lu, Xian-Ming; Guo, Jin-Lin

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent.

  15. WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

  16. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  17. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  18. Mushrooming vulnerability to EMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, E. J.

    1984-08-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated by a single thermonuclear bomb detonated above the continental U.S. could set up electrical fields of 50 kV/m over nearly all of North America. Since the progressively microminiaturized integrated circuits of current military and civilian electronics become more vulnerable with decreasing circuit element size, even shield-protected chips can now be destroyed by the substantially shield-dampened EMP pulses. It is noted as a source of special concern that, as nuclear weapons have evolved, the EMP characteristically generated by them has shifted to increasingly shorter wavelengths, requiring significant redesign of EMP shields devised a decade or more ago. The surge arresters currently employed may not react sufficiently rapidly for existing weapons.

  19. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  20. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  1. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis, the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis, and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products. PMID:29850373

  2. Analysis of the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprints and Quantitative Analysis of Multicomponents by Single Marker of Products of Fermented Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Yao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Jin, Chen; Zhu, Wei-Feng; Yang, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fermented Cordyceps sinensis , the succedaneum of Cordyceps sinensis which is extracted and separated from Cordyceps sinensis by artificial fermentation, is commonly used in eastern Asia in clinical treatments due to its health benefit. In this paper, a new strategy for differentiating and comprehensively evaluating the quality of products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis has been established, based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis combined with similar analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS). Ten common peaks were collected and analysed using SA, HCA, and QAMS. These methods indicated that 30 fermented Cordyceps sinensis samples could be categorized into two groups by HCA. Five peaks were identified as uracil, uridine, adenine, guanosine, and adenosine, and according to the results from the diode array detector, which can be used to confirm peak purity, the purities of these compounds were greater than 990. Adenosine was chosen as the internal reference substance. The relative correction factors (RCF) between adenosine and the other four nucleosides were calculated and investigated using the QAMS method. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the QAMS method was confirmed by comparing the results of that method with those of an external standard method with cosines of the angles between the groups. No significant difference between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, the method established herein was efficient, successful in identifying the products of fermented Cordyceps sinensis , and scientifically valid to be applicable in the systematic quality control of fermented Cordyceps sinensis products.

  3. Temperature Control System for Mushroom Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, I. A.; Indah, Nur; Sebayang, D.; Adam, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    The main problem in mushroom cultivation is the handling after the harvest. Drying is one technique to preserve the mushrooms. Traditionally, mushrooms are dried by sunshine which depends on the weather. This affects the quality of the dried mushrooms. Therefore, this paper proposes a system to provide an artificial drying for mushrooms in order to maintain their quality. The objective of the system is to control the mushroom drying process to be faster compared to the natural drying at an accurate and right temperature. A model of the mushroom dryer has been designed, built, and tested. The system comprises a chamber, heater, blower, temperature sensor and electronic control circuit. A microcontroller is used as the controller which is programmed to implement a bang-bang control that regulates the temperature of the chamber. A desired temperature is inputted as a set point of the control system. Temperature of 45 °C is chosen as the operational drying temperature. Several tests have been carried out to examine the performance of the system including drying speed, the effects of ambient conditions, and the effects of mushroom size. The results show that the system can satisfy the objective.

  4. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  5. Identification of irradiated mushrooms (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Bugyaki, L.

    1973-01-01

    From international colloquium: the identification of irradiated foodstuffs; Karlsruhe, Germany (24 Oct 1973). Cuttings from non-irradiated mushrooms, when kept at normal or sub-zero temperatares, produce new hyphae in solld culture media even after slx days, thus proving that they are living. On the other hand, cultures from mushrooms irradiated with 250 krad never show any sign of cellular proliferation. (auth)

  6. Identification of irradiated mushrooms (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Muenzner, R.

    1973-01-01

    A very simple method is described using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution as an indicator. The experiments have shown that only non- irradiated mushrooms could reduce the indicator solution to the red triphenylfornsazane. In the case of irradiated mushrooms, the solution retains its brown color. (GE)

  7. Functional study of Cordyceps sinensis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chia; Chen, Ying-Hui; Pan, Bo-Syong; Chang, Ming-Min; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2017-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has various biological and pharmacological functions, and it has been claimed as a tonic supplement for sexual and reproductive dysfunctions for a long time in oriental society. In this article, the in vitro and in vivo effects of C. sinensis and cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis are briefly described, the stimulatory mechanisms are summarized, and the recent findings related to the alternative substances regulating male reproductive functions are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Vanadium-Enriched Cordyceps sinensis, a Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianyou; Li, ChangYu; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    This article studies a contemporary treatment approach toward both diabetes and depression management by vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS). Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats were used in the study. After the rats were administered with VECS, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels was seen (P < .05) and the levels of serum insulin increased significantly (P < .05). At the same time, the study revealed a significant decrease in immobility with a corresponding increase in the swimming and climbing behavior in hyperglycemic rats following VECS treatment. The results described herein demonstrate that VECS is a contemporary treatment approach that advocates an aggressive stance toward both diabetes and depression management. PMID:21799679

  9. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory Properties of Plants and Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Martel, Jan; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2017-11-01

    Plants and mushrooms are used for medicinal purposes and the screening of molecules possessing biological activities. A single plant or mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on experimental conditions, but the reason behind this dichotomy remains obscure. We present here a large body of experimental data showing that water extracts of plants and mushrooms usually activate immune cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit immune cells. The mode of extraction of plants and mushrooms may thus determine the effects produced on immune cells, possibly due to differential solubility and potency of stimulatory and inhibitory compounds. We also examine the possibility of using such plant and mushroom extracts to treat immune system disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  12. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  13. [Amplicon density-weighted algorithms for analyzing dissimilarity and dynamic alterations of RAPD polymorphisms of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-sang; Gao, Ling; Li, Yu-ling; Ma, Shao-li; Wu, Zi-mei; Tan, Ning-zhi; Wu, Jian-yong; Ni, Lu-qun; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2014-08-18

    To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs). Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs). Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris. The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD

  14. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines.

  15. Cordyceps sinensis protects against liver and heart injuries in a rat model of chronic kidney disease: a metabolomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhong, Fang; Tang, Xu-long; Lian, Fu-lin; Zhou, Qiao; Guo, Shan-mai; Liu, Jia-fu; Sun, Peng; Hao, Xu; Lu, Ying; Wang, Wei-ming; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Nai-xia

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that the traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis could improve the metabolic function of extrarenal organs to achieve its anti-chronic kidney disease (CKD) effects. Methods: Male SD rats were divided into CKD rats (with 5/6-nephrectomy), CKD rats treated with Cordyceps sinensis (4 mg•kg-1•d-1, po), and sham-operated rats. After an 8-week treatment, metabolites were extracted from the hearts and livers of the rats, and then subjected to 1H-NMR-based metabolomic analysis. Results: Oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acid and protein metabolism and choline metabolism were considered as links between CKD and extrarenal organ dysfunction. Within the experimental period of 8 weeks, the metabolic disorders in the liver were more pronounced than in the heart, suggesting that CKD-related extrarenal organ dysfunctions occurred sequentially rather than simultaneously. Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis exerted statistically significant rescue effects on the liver and heart by reversely regulating levels of those metabolites that are typically perturbed in CKD. Conclusion: Oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis significantly attenuates the liver and heart injuries in CKD rats. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach has provided a systematic view for understanding of CKD and the drug treatment, which can also be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:24632844

  16. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-α. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-α production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-α response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-α and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food. PMID:19232107

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis on hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Feixiang; Lin, Liming; Hu, Min; Qi, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide fraction from Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The CSP1, one component of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP), was obtained after water extraction, deproteinization, de-colorization and purification with DEAE-cellulose 52. And a more homogeneous component CSP1-2 was obtained using Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. CSP1-2 mainly consisted of mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of about 2:2:1 and its average molecular weight was approximately 2.70×10(4)Da. Pharmacological tests showed that CSP1, in which the CSP1-2 was its main component, had antihypertensive effect by stimulating the secretion of vasodilator NO, decreasing the level of ET-1, epinephrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin II, inhibiting the increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and lowering the level of inflammatory mediator of C-reactive protein (CRP). These results suggested that CSP1 may possess high potential in treating hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  20. A novel orellanine containing mushroom Cortinarius armillatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dahai; Tang, Shusheng; Healy, Rosanne A; Imerman, Paula M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-05-01

    Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a tetrahydroxylated di-N-oxidized bipyridine compound. The toxin, present in certain species of Cortinarius mushrooms, is structurally similar to herbicides Paraquat and Diquat. Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus are the major orellanine-containing mushrooms. Cortinarius mushrooms are widely reported in Europe where they have caused human poisoning and deaths through accidental ingestion of the poisonous species mistaken for the edible ones. In North America, Cortinarius orellanosus mushroom poisoning was recently reported to cause renal failure in a Michigan patient. Cortinarius mushroom poisoning is characterized by delayed acute renal failure, with some cases progressing to end-stage kidney disease. There is debate whether other Cortinarius mushroom contain orellanine or not, especially in North America. Currently, there are no veterinary diagnostic laboratories in North America with established test methods for detection and quantitation of orellanine. We have developed two diagnostic test methods based on HPLC and LC-MSMS for identification and quantitation of orellanine in mushrooms. Using these methods, we have identified Cortinarius armillatus as a novel orellanine-containing mushroom in North America. The mean toxin concentration of 145 ug/g was <1% of that of the more toxic C. rubellus. The HPLC method can detect orellanine at 17 μg g(-1) while the LC-MSMS method is almost 2000 times more sensitive and can detect orellanine at 30 ng g(-1). Both tests are quantitative, selective and are now available for veterinary diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-07-20

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms.

  2. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  3. Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Hardeep S; Sandhu, Sardul S; Sharma, A K

    2014-02-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Cordyceps sp. has been known to have numerous pharmacological and therapeutic implications, especially, in terms of human health making it a suitable candidate for ethno-pharmacological use. Main constituent of the extract derived from this fungus comprises a novel bio-metabolite called as Cordycepin (3'deoxyadenosine) which has a very potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The current review discusses about the broad spectrum potential of Cordycepin including biological and pharmacological actions in immunological, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular systems as well as an anti-cancer agent. The article also reviews the current efforts to delineate the mechanism of action of Cordycepin in various bio-molecular processes. The study will certainly draw the attention of scientific community to improve the bioactivity and production of Cordycepin for its commercial use in pharmacological and medical fields.

  4. The mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis and strontium in prevention of osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Wang, Pu-jie; Guo, Wen-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang; Lei, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) and strontium ranelate on ovariectomized osteopenic rats was studied in this paper. After the rats were treated orally with C. sinensis, strontium, and C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate (CSS) respectively, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine, C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) level were examined. The beneficial effects of CSS on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level, and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSS also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. This study demonstrates the value of C. sinensis rich in strontium ranelate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis in humans.

  5. [Study on effect of cordyceps sinensis on early-stage silicotic pulmonary fibrosis in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianzhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Hongfu; Ying, Yanhong

    2014-07-01

    To establish a rabbit model of silicotic pulmonary fibrosis and to investigate the effect of cordyceps sinensis in this model. Thirty healthy male white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, silicosis model group, and intervention group. The rabbits in silicosis model group and intervention group received endotracheal perfusion of silicon dioxide suspension (120 mg/kg), and the control group was treated with the same volume of saline. All the rabbits were sacrificed 30 days later. The lung coefficient was calculated by comparing the lung weight and body weight; the right lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured by alkaline hydrolysis. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β₁) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 (Smad7) in rabbit lung sections were determined by real-time PCR. No abnormalities were observed by HE staining in the lung tissues of control group, while fibrosis and silicotic nodules were discovered in the silicosis model group and intervention group. The lung coefficient and the content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue were significantly higher in the silicosis model group than in the control group and intervention group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the silicosis model group and intervention group had significantly increased TGF-β₁ mRNA levels but significantly reduced Smad7 mRNA levels (P < 0.02). Compared with the silicosis model group, the intervention group had a significantly reduced TGF-β₁ mRNA level but a significantly increased Smad7 mRNA level (P < 0.05). Cordyceps sinensis is able to reduce the expression of TGF-β₁ mRNA and increase the expression of Smad7 mRNA in lung tissues of rabbits with silicotic pulmonary fibrosis, and thus postpone the progression of fibrosis.

  6. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p < 0.05). The Cordyceps daily cotreatment alleviated the testicular damage by EMP exposure, increased spermatozoa formation, and reduced apoptotic spermatogenic cells. These observations warrant further preclinical and clinical studies as an innovative approach for potential protection against electromagnetic radiation in the current age of networked society and digital citizenship.

  7. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  8. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  9. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  10. Military Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that while a certain level of fairness is necessary in considering the equity of compulsory military service, the most important issue is that of "winning the war." Also asserts that sex, age, and race discrimination are more important than social class discrimination in military service. (Author/GC)

  11. Characterization of nucleosides and nucleobases in natural Cordyceps by HILIC-ESI/TOF/MS and HILIC-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng-Qiang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Bin; Yang, Hong-Jun; Huang, Luqi

    2013-08-15

    A method combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was developed for the characterization and determination of natural Cordyceps. Separation was achieved on a Waters Xbridge Amide column with gradient elution. Identification of 15 target nucleosides and nucleobases was based on retention time, UV spectra and mass measurements of the protonated molecules ([M+H]⁺) and main fragment ions (ESI-TOF/MS). Eight non-target compounds were tentatively identified by ESI-TOF/MS. The 15 target compounds were quantified by HILIC-ESI-MS/MS using time-programmed selective ion monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring in positive-ion mode under optimized mass conditions. This technique showed good linearity, repeatability and recovery. This approach was also successfully implemented in the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in 12 batches of natural Cordyceps samples that were collected from different regions in China. The developed HILIC-ESI-MS method exhibited clear advantages in identifying and determining highly polar bioactive components in Cordyceps, as well as their quality control.

  12. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Symbiosis and synergy: Can mushrooms and timber be managed together?

    Treesearch

    Sally Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Recreational and tribal use of mushrooms has been historically important, and during the last two decades, commercial demand for mushrooms has burgeoned. A large nontimber forest product market in the Pacific Northwest is for various species of wild edible mushrooms. Many of these species grow symbiotically with forest trees by forming nutrient exchange structures...

  14. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  15. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei, E-mail: Ogawa.Shimpei@eb.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved bymore » isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.« less

  16. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingxia; Tang, Rong; Zhou, Qiaoling; Liu, Kanghan; Xiao, Zhou; Pouranan, Veeraragoo

    2013-05-01

    To examine the expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the kidney of rats with diabetic nephropathy before and after the treatment of Cordyceps sinensis, and to explore the mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis against hypoxia. The diabetes model was produced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, then the rats whose 24 h urine protein level was above 30 mg/d were thought to have suffered diabetic nephropathy. Thirty rats were randomly divided into a diabetic nephropathy group (DN group, n=15) and a Cordyceps sinensis group (CS group, n=15), and another 15 normal rats served as a normal control group (NC group, n=15). The CS group were intragastrically administered Cordyceps sinensis extract liquid [5.0 g/(kg.d)], the other groups were intragastrically administered drinking water of equal volume. Five rats in each group were killed after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The 24 h urine protein excretion, urine β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase) and serum creatinine were measured; the renal pathological changes were evaluated by HE and Masson staining; the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF were dectected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal control group, the renal tubular vacuolar degeneration was obvious, and the glomerular mesangial matrix increased in the DN group. The 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine also increased significantly (all P<0.05); the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in the renal tissue gradually increased with time, and the expression of HIF-1α was correlated with that of VEGF in the 2 groups (r=0.850, r=0.887, both P<0.05) . Compared with the DN group, the pathological changes were relieved, the 24 h urinary protein excretion, urine NAGase and serum creatinine level were decreased, and the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF decreased in the CS group (all P<0.05), but

  17. Military Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE C) OD MILITARY RESPONSIBILITY by Captain Yedidiah Ya’ari, ISN D T IC 3 Nay 1988 SELECTED E A paper submitted to the ADM Colbert...ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. CCESSION NO. 1. TITLE (kxhl* Secur4 y S saflcation Military Responsibility 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) CAPT Yedidiah Ya’Ar ISN 13a TYPE...GROUP Military Responsibility 19. ABSTRACT (Continw on reverse if 1Nceury and identi by block winbed An attempt to expose the inner basis of the

  18. [Shiitake dermatitis: flagellate dermatitis after eating mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Vogt, R; Sterry, W

    2001-02-01

    The name of flagellate dermatitis originates from self-flagellating medieval people. This dermatitis is not rare as a drug eruption following bleomycin therapy. An identical skin eruption caused by the mushroom shiitake Lentinus edodes is more common but reported mostly from Japan. We saw a 67-year-old patient who presented with the typical linear scratch marks after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. The basic mechanism is a toxic epidermal damage. Since it is not clear why the dermatitis does not occur frequently since Shiitake is the second most popular mushroom in the world, we discuss possible cofactors that may trigger the toxic reaction.

  19. Microcontroller based automatic temperature control for oyster mushroom plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihombing, P.; Astuti, T. P.; Herriyance; Sitompul, D.

    2018-03-01

    In the cultivation of Oyster Mushrooms need special treatment because oyster mushrooms are susceptible to disease. Mushroom growth will be inhibited if the temperature and humidity are not well controlled because temperature and inertia can affect mold growth. Oyster mushroom growth usually will be optimal at temperatures around 22-28°C and humidity around 70-90%. This problem is often encountered in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. Therefore it is very important to control the temperature and humidity of the room of oyster mushroom cultivation. In this paper, we developed an automatic temperature monitoring tool in the cultivation of oyster mushroom-based Arduino Uno microcontroller. We have designed a tool that will control the temperature and humidity automatically by Android Smartphone. If the temperature increased more than 28°C in the room of mushroom plants, then this tool will turn on the pump automatically to run water in order to lower the room temperature. And if the room temperature of mushroom plants below of 22°C, then the light will be turned on in order to heat the room. Thus the temperature in the room oyster mushrooms will remain stable so that the growth of oyster mushrooms can grow with good quality.

  20. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  1. The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana (higher Basidiomycetes): an indigenous medicinal mushroom new to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Habib, Mouthana N; Holliday, John C; Tura, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana, a species new to Iraq, is described from the sub-arid region of Aljazira (Iraq). Both classical taxonomy and DNA analyses confirm the identification of the fungus strain (RM-0861) as P. candolleana, a species that belongs to the family Psatherellaceae known to possess medicinal properties. Being a saprophyte, this fungus is cultivatable in laboratory conditions and therefore shows potential for production and use as a medicinal mushroom in human and veterinary health.

  2. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  3. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining...

  6. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  7. Beneficial and harmful mushrooms in the landscape

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Landowners and clients often confront arborists and landscapers about mushrooms or other visible signs of fungi. Questions can run the gamut from "Are they killing the trees," "Should I knock them off," to "Are they good to eat?" Although no one can have the perfect answer to all possible questions, the practitioner can guide the client to...

  8. Improved production of jiangxienone in submerged fermentation of Cordyceps jiangxiensis under nitrogen deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Xi; Han, Li-Liang; Wang, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jun-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    2018-06-14

    Jiangxienone produced by Cordyceps jiangxiensis exhibits significant cytotoxicity and good selectivity against various human cancer cells, especially gastric cancer cells. In this work, the effect of nitrogen deficiency on the accumulation of jiangxienone and the transcription levels of jiangxienone biosynthesis genes was studied in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis. Results showed that accumulation of jiangxienone was improved under nitrogen deficiency condition. A maximal jiangxienone content of 3.2 µg/g cell dry weight was reached at 5 mM glutamine, and it was about 8.9-fold higher than that obtained at 60 mM glutamine (control). The transcription levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes hmgr and sqs and the nitrogen regulatory gene areA were upregulated by 7-, 14-, and 28-fold, respectively, in culture with 5 mM glutamine compared to the control. It was hypothesized that the jiangxienone biosynthesis may involve the mevalonate pathway in C. jiangxiensis. Taken together, our study indicated that nitrogen deficiency is an efficient strategy for enhancing jiangxienone accumulation in submerged fermentation of C. jiangxiensis, which is useful for further understanding the regulation of jiangxienone biosynthesis.

  9. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Using FT-NIR spectroscopy technique to determine arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis mycelium.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Xu, Ning; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectral technique for determining arginine content in fermented Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) mycelium. Three different models were carried out to predict the arginine content. Wavenumber selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the most important wavenumbers and reduce the high dimensionality of the raw spectral data. Only a few wavenumbers were selected by CARS and CARS-SPA as the optimal wavenumbers, respectively. Among the prediction models, CARS-least squares-support vector machine (CARS-LS-SVM) model performed best with the highest values of the coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp(2)=0.8370) and residual predictive deviation (RPD=2.4741), the lowest value of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP=0.0841). Moreover, the number of the input variables was forty-five, which only accounts for 2.04% of that of the full wavenumbers. The results showed that FT-NIR spectral technique has the potential to be an objective and non-destructive method to detect arginine content in fermented C. sinensis mycelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis.

  12. Construction of a Cordyceps sinensis exopolysaccharide-conjugated selenium nanoparticles and enhancement of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yidong; Huang, Qilin; Zheng, Zhaomin; Guan, Han; Liu, Shiyu

    2017-06-01

    A Cordyceps sinensis exopolysaccharide (EPS)-conjugated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were successfully constructed through the reduction of SeO 3 2- . The EPS-SeNPs were characterized in terms of formation, morphology, size, Se distribution and phase by UV-vis, FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Results revealed that the SeNPs conjugated to EPS were amorphous and could be well dispersed at a size range of 80-125nm. The interactions between the OH groups of EPS and SeNPs substituted for intermolecular interaction in native EPS to form new CO⋯Se bonds, resulting in good dispersion of SeNPs in the EPS matrix. Besides, the EPS-SeNPs at different Se/P ratios exhibited significant scavenging ability on superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) and ABTS radical cation (ABTS + ) when compared to pure EPS, indicating that the conjugated SeNPs reinforced antioxidant effect of EPS. This work not only provides a simple and efficient way to construct well-dispersed SeNPs in aqueous system, and demonstrates the vital role of the EPS as a biopolymer template for dispersion, stabilization and size control of SeNPs, but also finds the EPS-SeNPs can potentially serve as a good antioxidant towards O 2 - and ABTS + . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis phytoestrogen on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Wang, Zhen-lin; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue

    2014-12-13

    Isoflavones are naturally occurring plant chemicals belonging to the "phytoestrogen" class. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of isoflavones obtained from Cordyceps sinensis (CSIF) on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. After the rats were treated orally with CSIF, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartarate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY), C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX), estradiol and interferonγ (IFN-γ) level were examined. At the same time, the urine calcium, plasma calcium, plasma phosphorus and the mass of uterus, thymus and body were also examined. The beneficial effects of CSIF on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, CTX level and IFN-γ level. At the same time, CSIF also increase the OC and estradiol level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary CSIF can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. The significant estrogenic activity of CSIF demonstrated that CSIF has significant estrogenic effects in OVX rats.

  14. Cordyceps sinensis inhibits airway remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Liu, Tian; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Cao, Liuzao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yahui; Chi, Jingyu; Zou, Minfang; Li, Shuo; Xu, Jiawei; Dong, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensis on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated. C. sinensis treatment significantly ameliorated airway wall thickening, involving collagen deposition, airway wall fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in model rats with COPD. Additionally, C. sinensis administration in rats with COPD reduced inflammatory cell accumulation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I in the COPD group were also markedly decreased by C. sinensis treatment. Furthermore, compared with untreated rats with COPD, C. sinensis reduced the expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2, p-Smad3, TGF-β1 and its receptors, with the concomitant increased expression of Smad7 in the lungs of rats with COPD. These results indicated that treatment with C. sinensis may be a useful approach for COPD therapy. PMID:29456676

  15. Cordyceps sinensis inhibits airway remodeling in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Zhao, Jiping; Liu, Tian; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Xiaohui; Cao, Liuzao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Yahui; Chi, Jingyu; Zou, Minfang; Li, Shuo; Xu, Jiawei; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to soothe the lung for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of C. sinensi s on airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Rats with COPD were orally administered C. sinensis at low, moderate or high doses (2.5, 5 or 7.5 g/kg/day, respectively) for 12 weeks. Airway tissue histopathology, lung inflammation and airway remodeling were evaluated. C. sinensis treatment significantly ameliorated airway wall thickening, involving collagen deposition, airway wall fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy and epithelial hyperplasia in model rats with COPD. Additionally, C. sinensis administration in rats with COPD reduced inflammatory cell accumulation and decreased inflammatory cytokine production, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I in the COPD group were also markedly decreased by C. sinensis treatment. Furthermore, compared with untreated rats with COPD, C. sinensis reduced the expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Smad2, p-Smad3, TGF-β1 and its receptors, with the concomitant increased expression of Smad7 in the lungs of rats with COPD. These results indicated that treatment with C. sinensis may be a useful approach for COPD therapy.

  16. Therapeutic effect of captopril, pentoxifylline, and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed F; El-Maraghy, Nabila N; Abdel Ghaney, Rasha H; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2012-01-01

    Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Wistar male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level.

  17. GC-MS Profiling of Volatile Components in Different Fermentation Products of Cordyceps Sinensis Mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Li, Yahui; Mi, Jianing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuerong; Jiang, Zhihong; Hu, Ping

    2017-10-24

    The fermentation products of Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) mycelia are sustainable substitutes for natural C. sinensis . However, the volatile compositions of the commercial products are still unclear. In this paper, we have developed a simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the profiling of volatile components in five fermentation products. A total of 64, 39, 56, 52, and 44 components were identified in the essential oils of Jinshuibao capsule (JSBC), Bailing capsule (BLC), Zhiling capsule (ZLC), Ningxinbao capsule (NXBC), and Xinganbao capsule (XGBC), respectively. 5,6-Dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (massoia lactone) was first discovered as the dominant component in JSBC volatiles. Fatty acids including palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were also found to be major volatile compositions of the fermentation products. The multivariate partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a clear discrimination among the different commercial products as well as the counterfeits. This study may provide further chemical evidences for the quality evaluation of the fermentation products of C. sinensis mycelia.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide inhibits PDGF-BB-induced inflammation and ROS production in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wang; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-07-10

    CPS-F, a polysaccharide derived from Cordyceps sinensis, is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. We demonstrated that CPS-F not only inhibits platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), but also acts synergistically in combination with MAPK/ERK inhibitor U0126 and PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. Additionally, up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors was reversed by use of a combination of CPS-F and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) or silencing of NOX1. Furthermore, CPS-F prevents the PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB in transfected cells and ameliorates increased levels of TNF-α, TNFR1, and MCP-1 when PDGFRβ is silenced, thereby suggesting that CPS-F possesses a bidirectional regulatory function. Our findings suggest CPS-F may exert its therapeutic effect for the treatment of glomerulonephritis related to human mesangial cells (HMCs) through the ERK1/2/Akt pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effectiveness of cultured Cordyceps sinensis combined with glucocorticosteroid on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin in rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Huijuan; Li, Shiyue; Lin, Yunen; Liu, Rong; Gu, Yingying; Liao, Dongjiang

    2011-08-01

    To study the treatment effects of cultured Cordyceps sinensis combined with glucocorticosteroid on experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats induced by bleomycin. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control group, model group, cultured C. sinensis groups, prednisone group, cultured C. sinensis combined with prednisone group. On experimental day 0, the rats were respectively intratracheally instilled with bleomycin, and rats in the control group and model group with the same volume of normal saline. One day after the injection, cultured C. sinensis and glucocorticosteroid was respectively given to rats daily by gastric gavage, while the same volume of normal saline was given to those in the control group and model group. On 28th d, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Histological changes of the lungs were evaluated by HE stain, Masson's trichrome stain. Collagen content of the lung tissue was assessed by hydroxyprolin concentration. Lung expression of CTGF protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The level of TGF-beta1 protein was measured by ELISA. Compared to model group, pulmonary fibrosis were alleviated in cultured C. sinensis and prednisone group, and CTGF expression, Hydroxyproline concentrations and protein TGF-beta1 were decreased. The combination effect of C. sinensis and prednisone group is augmented compared with using C. sinensis or prednisone group alone. The cultured C. sinensis and prednisone alleviates pulmonary fibrosis, and the combination use of both drugs has synergia effects in anti-fibrous degeneration.

  20. A comparative proteomic characterization and nutritional assessment of naturally- and artificially-cultivated Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ping; Alolga, Raphael N; Qi, Lian-Wen; Yin, Xiaojian

    2018-06-15

    Cordyceps sinensis has gained increasing attention due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Herein, we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to explore the proteome differences between naturally- and artificially-cultivated C. sinensis. A total of 22,829 peptides with confidence ≥95%, corresponding to 2541 protein groups were identified from the caterpillar bodies/stromata of 12 naturally- and artificially-cultivated samples of C. sinensis. Among them, 165 proteins showed significant differences between the samples of natural and artificial cultivation. These proteins were mainly involved in energy production/conversion, amino acid transport/metabolism, and transcription regulation. The proteomic results were confirmed by the identification of 4 significantly changed metabolites, thus, lysine, threonine, serine, and arginine via untargeted metabolomics. The change tendencies of these metabolites were partly in accordance with changes in abundance of the proteins, which was upstream of their synthetic pathways. In addition, the nutritional value in terms of the levels of nucleosides, nucleotides, and adenosine between the artificially- and naturally-cultivated samples was virtually same. These proteomic data will be useful for understanding the medicinal value of C. sinensis and serve as reference for its artificial cultivation. C. sinensis is a precious and valued medicinal product, the current basic proteome dataset would provide useful information to understand its development/infection processes as well as help to artificially cultivate it. This work would also provide basic proteome profile for further study of C. sinensis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Physico-chemical properties and cytotoxic potential of Cordyceps sinensis metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jang, Ka-Hee; Im, Seon-Young; Lee, Yoon-Kyung; Farooq, Muhammad; Farhoudi, Rozbeh; Lee, Dong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the antioxidant activities, biochemical properties and biological activities of one of the entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps sinensis. Analysis of fungal metabolites indicated that the most abundant free sugar was glucose; the highest component of organic acids was citric acid from 10-day culture medium and the glutamate was the predominant amino acid observed from 3-day culture medium. Maximum total polyphenols and flavonoids were detected in the 15-day culture medium. For cytotoxicity test, three cancer cell lines, HepG2 (liver), MCF-7 (breast) and A549 (lung) were used. The IC50 values of the highest toxicity of HepG2 cell lines were observed from 10-day cultured medium, whereas the highest toxicity of MCF-7 and A549 was observed on 5-day cultured medium. This is the first study reporting on the strong antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of C. sinensis. Culture medium of C. sinensis may thus be used as an effective antioxidant and anticancer treatment of natural origin.

  2. Chain conformation and immunomodulatory activity of a hyperbranched polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Wang, Lan-Ying; Lv, Guang-Ping; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Hu, De-Jun; Guan, Jia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-09-22

    A polysaccharide, named as cordysinan, extracted from natural Cordyceps sinensis, was identified as a hyperbranched heteropolysaccharide from the results of FT-IR, GC-MS, and carbohydrate analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis, as well as the degree of branching of cordysinan was 43.3%. The solution properties of cordysinan were investigated by using size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and triple detector array, respectively. The molecular weights, the radius of gyration and the intrinsic viscosity of cordysinan were determined as 22.45±0.26 kDa and 22.37 kDa, 15.4±2.4 nm and 1.41 mL/g, respectively. By applying the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν and α) values of g1/2=kMwv and [η]=kMwα were calculated as 0.28 and 0.42, respectively, which firstly revealed that cordysinan existed as a globular shape in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. Moreover, the results showed that cordysinan could obviously stimulate macrophages functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main nucleosides of cultivated and wild Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zan, Ke; Huang, Li-Li; Guo, Li-Nong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia

    2017-10-01

    This study is to establish the HPLC specific chromatogram and determine four main nucleosides of wild and cultivated Cordyceps sinensis. Uridine, inosine, guanosine and adenosine were selected as reference substance. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of water(A)-acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL•min⁻¹ (0-5 min,0% B;5-15 min,0%-10% B, 15-30 min,10%-20% B, 30-33 min, 20%-50% B, 33-35 min, 50%-0% B, 35-40 min, 0% B). The detection wavelength was 260 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 5 μL. HPLC specific chromatogram of wild and cultivated C. sinensis was established and four main nucleosides were simultaneously determined by the above method. Specific chromatograms and contents of four main nucleosides showed no significant differences between cultivated and wild C. sinensis. These results can provide scientific evidences for further development and utilization of cultivated C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-You; Han, Chun-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. PMID:19948751

  6. Determination of essential and toxic elements in Cordyceps kyushuensis Kawam by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Zhao, Yanxin; Liu, Fengjun; Ling, Jianya; Lin, Jianqiang; Zhang, Changkai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a total of 20 elements (essential, non-essential and toxic): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), gallium (Ga), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se), barium (Ba), tin (Sn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in natural and cultured Cordyceps kyushuensis have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cultured stroma, natural stroma and natural worm were digested by microwave-assisted method before analysis. The proposed ICP-MS method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material (CRM) GBW10015 (spinach). The results of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the element concentrations in the three kinds of samples were significantly different (p<0.05). Except for Mg, Zn, Cu, the values of other elemental contents were the highest in the stroma of natural C. kyushuensis. In comparison with the worm, the concentrations of determined elements in wild stroma were higher. The remarkable difference of elemental contents between cultured and natural stroma may be caused by distinct growing environment. This finding highlighted the usefulness of ICP-MS elemental analysis and enhanced the value of C. kyushuensis as a candidate for nourishing food based on its composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis ( C. sinensis ) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  8. Metabolic Profiles and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cordyceps bassiana Fruiting Bodies According to Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana. PMID:24058459

  9. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis.

  11. Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: Inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smad signalling, MMPs and TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinghua; Li, Xuemei; Feng, Qin; Chen, Liang; Xu, Lili; Hu, Yiyang

    2013-06-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used to treat liver disease in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Polysaccharide extracted from cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS) is the major active components of cordyceps sinensis with anti-liver injury effects. In the present study, the effects of CS-PS on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2, MMP9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1, TIMP2, were investigated in liver fibrosis in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Colchicine was used as a positive control. The effect of CS-PS inhibition liver injury and fibrosis was confirmed by decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, hepatic hydroxyproline and increasing serum albumin, as well as alleviation of histological changes, which was comparable to that of colchicine. With CS-PS treatment, hepatic α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR)-I, TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3 and TIMP2 proteins expression were down-regulated comparing to that in CCl4 group. The activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in liver tissue were also inhibited in CS-PS-treated group. It is indicated that the effects of CS-PS anti-liver fibrosis are probably associated with the inhibition on HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smads signalling pathway, as well as MMP2, MMP9 activity and TIMP2 expression.

  12. Gustatory Learning and Processing in the Drosophila Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhart, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila mushroom bodies are critical association areas whose role in olfactory associative learning has been well characterized. Recent behavioral studies using a taste association paradigm revealed that gustatory conditioning also requires the mushroom bodies (Masek and Scott, 2010; Keene and Masek, 2012). Here, we examine the representations of tastes and the neural sites for taste associations in the mushroom bodies. Using molecular genetic approaches to target different neuronal populations, we find that the gamma lobes of the mushroom bodies and a subset of dopaminergic input neurons are required for taste associative learning. Monitoring responses to taste compounds in the mushroom body calyx with calcium imaging reveals sparse, taste-specific and organ-specific activation in the Kenyon cell dendrites of the main calyx and the dorsal accessory calyx. Our work provides insight into gustatory representations in the mushroom bodies, revealing the essential role of gustatory inputs not only as rewards and punishments but also as adaptive cues. PMID:25878268

  13. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

    2013-05-24

    Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties.

  14. Radionuclides in mushrooms and soil-to-mushroom transfer factors in certain areas of China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Yao, Shuaimo; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Zeshu

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in 64 mushroom samples collected in China from Yunnan, Fujian and Heilongjiang Provinces, were measured. Gamma-ray emissions were determined by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry. The range of concentrations (Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in all investigated mushroom samples were from 0.12 to 12, 0.05 to 7.5, 0.14 to 14, MDC(<0.01) to 339, and 396 to 1880, respectively. Activity concentrations of 137 Cs in mushrooms showed some variation between species sampled at the same site. To calculate soil to mushroom transfer factors, levels of radionuclide in 15 paired soil samples and mushrooms were also investigated. The median transfer factors for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K were 8.32 × 10 -2 , 3.03 × 10 -2 , 6.69 × 10 -2 , 0.40 and 1.19, respectively. The results were compared with values of other areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    The water supply may be disrupted or poluted . ( 4) Hospital facilities and medical supplies may be extremely scarce. Dead may be found unburied and...insurance unit may supervise all insurance companies, or an income tax unit may audit internal revenue offices. (2) Other military government units carry

  16. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article…

  17. Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janet L. S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Forging Partnerships into the Twenty-First Century" (Brown); "Uncle Sam Wants You to Go to School!" (Perez); "Maintaining Educational Access" (Kelly); "College on Military Bases" (Anderson); "Air Force Members Set High Goals for Continuing Education" (Hoban); "Post-Secondary…

  18. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    PubMed

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  19. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  20. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  1. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  2. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  3. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  4. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    PubMed

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  5. Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases.

  6. Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  7. Production and in vivo antioxidant activity of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia by Cordyceps sinensis SU-01.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan; Hao, Long; Ma, Hua; Tian, Chengye; Li, Tong; Sun, Xinyi; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

    2014-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a traditionally edible and medicinal fungus in China, cannot be artificially solid-cultured. Zinc (Zn), germanium (Ge), and selenium (Se) are the essential trace elements for human body. In this work, C. sinensis SU-01 was cultivated in liquid medium simultaneously containing Zn, Ge, and Se. The bioactive ingredients and in vivo antioxidant activities of Zn, Ge, Se-enriched mycelia (ZGSM) of C. sinensis SU-01 were investigated. Under the determined conditions, the Zn, Ge, and Se contents of ZGSM were 2543.16 ± 158.92, 1873.85 ± 81.82, and 1260.16 ± 107.12 μg/g, respectively. The optimal concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Se had a positive effect on biosynthesis of protein, polysaccharide, cordycepic acid, and amino acids. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of mice blood were 3.72 ± 0.15 and 28.74 ± 2.53 % higher than that of control, respectively, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was 41.01 ± 3.66 % lower than that of control.

  8. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis extract suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-an; Yang, Jun; Huang, Ji; Cui, Xiang-jun; Chen, Shi-xiong; Den, Hong-yan; Xiang, Guang-ming

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herb Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) extract on hypoxia-induced proliferation and the underlying mechanisms involved. This prospective study was carried out at the Central Laboratory of Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang, China from March 2008 to April 2010. The C. sinensis was extracted from the Chinese herb C. sinensis using aqueous alcohol extraction techniques. Forty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycles were analyzed using FACSort flow cytometric analysis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-jun, and c-fos in rat PASMCs was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found an increased proliferation of PASMCs and increased expression of transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos in PASMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions. The C. sinensis extract significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, C. sinensis extract also significantly inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-jun, and c-fos in these PASMCs. Our results indicated that C. sinensis extract inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat PASMCs, probably by suppressing the expression of PCNA, c-fos, c-jun, and decreasing the percentage of cells in synthesis phase, second gap phase, and mitotic phase in cell cycle (S+G2/M) phase. Our results therefore, provided novel evidence that C. sinensis extract may be used as a therapeutic reagent in the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Captopril, Pentoxifylline, and Cordyceps Sinensis in Pre-Hepatic Portal Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed F.; El-Maraghy, Nabila N.; Ghaney, Rasha H. Abdel; Elshazly, Shimaa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Portal hypertension is an important and potentially fatal complication of liver disease whereby cellular and fibrotic alterations manifest to increase portal venous pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of captopril, pentoxifylline (PTX), and cordyceps sinensis in pre-hepatic portal hypertensive rats. Settings and Design: Wister male rats were divided at random into 3 main groups: the first group: control rats. The second group: sham-operated rats and the third group: prehepatic portal hypertensive rats (PHPHT) induced by regulated pre-hepatic portal vein ligation. After 14 days, Group 3 was subdivided into 5 subgroups. Subgroup (1): portal vein-ligated (PVL) was killed at once; Subgroup (2): received distilled water for 30 days (untreated PVL group); subgroups 3-5 were treated with captopril (60 mg/kg, orally); PTX (100 mg/kg, orally); and C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, orally), respectively, as a single daily dose for 30 days. Patients and Methods: Portal pressure, nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes, Liver enzymes, and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the status of the liver state. Results: Portal vein ligation produced significant increments in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure concomitant with significant decrements in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity. Treatment with captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis resulted in a significant reduction in liver enzymes, NO, creatinine and portal pressure and observable increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions: captopril, PTX, and C. sinensis have promising effect in controlling PHPHT and reducing hyperdynamic circulatory state through reduction of portal pressure and NO level. PMID:22626797

  12. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antagonistic interaction between cordyceps sinensis and exercise on protection in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Herb supplements are widely used by Asian athletes; however, there are no studies evaluated the co-effects of exercise and herb supplements on hepatic failure. In this study, D-GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure was used to examine whether there are synergistic or antagonistic effects of exercise and Cordyceps sinensis (CS). Mice were randomly divided into eight groups: control, swimming exercise for four weeks, D-GalN/LPS challenge, swimming exercise plus D-GalN/LPS, 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreated for four weeks plus D-GalN/LPS, and swimming exercise combined with 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment plus D-GalN/LPS. Either exercise or 40 mg/kg CS pretreatment alone significantly decreased D-GalN/LPS-induced TNF-α, AST, NO, apoptotic-related proteins, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Exercise or 40 mg/kg CS alone increased the IL-10 and D-GalN/LPS-suppressed Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) level. However, no protective or worse effect was observed in the mice treated with exercise preconditioning combined 40 mg/kg CS compared to those receive exercise alone or CS alone. TNF-α, AST, NO level, caspase-3 activity, and hepatocytes apoptosis were not significantly different in the exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS compared to mice challenged with D-GalN/LPS. The IL-10 level was significantly decreased after D-GalN/LPS stimulation in the mice received exercise combined with 40 mg/kg CS, indicating the combination strongly reduced the anti-inflammatory effect. In summary, preconditioning exercise or CS pretreatment alone can protect mice from septic liver damage, but in contrast, the combination of exercise and CS does not produce any benefit. The antagonistic interactions between exercise and CS imply taking CS is not recommended for people who undertake regular exercise.

  14. The Herbal Medicine Cordyceps sinensis Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells from Streptozotocin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Cao, Diyong; Liu, Hua; Liu, Xinghai; Mai, Wenli; Lan, Haitao; Huo, Wen; Zheng, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Our previous work found that Cordyceps sinensis (CS) improves the activity and secretory function of pancreatic islet beta cells. The objective was to observe a further possible role of CS in the protection of insulin-secreting cells. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was developed with streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-energy fat diet (HFD). CS was administered in the successful model of rats with type 2 diabetes. After 4 weeks, the biochemistry index of blood samples was measured, and pathologic observation was performed by immunohistochemistry. In the rats with type 2 diabetes induced by a HFD and STZ, the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were elevated, and the insulin sensitivity index was decreased. Pathologic examination found an increased number of apoptotic cells, an elevated protein expression of pro-apoptotic C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and an increased c-Jun level by means of JNK phosphorylation, responsive to the endoplasmic reticulum stress of islet beta cells. With treatment by CS for 4 weeks, the elevated levels of both fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin in the rats with type 2 diabetes were significantly lower, and the decreased insulin sensitivity index was reversed. Compared to the control rats with type 2 diabetes, CS application significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and decreased protein expression of both CHOP and c-Jun. The herbal compound CS could protect pancreatic beta cells from the pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by HFD-STZ. This suggests an alternative approach to treating type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on renal function of patients with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Xiangwei; Zhang, Yuanning; Ye, Gang

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (Bailing capsule, fermented agent of C. sinensis) on renal function of patients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). A total of 231 CAN patients who underwent transplantation between 2005 and 2008 and experienced chronic graft dysfunction were randomly divided into 2 groups. Patients in group A (n = 122) were treated with immunosuppressive agents and C. sinensis (2.0 g/day, 3 times a day), while patients in group B (n = 109) were treated with traditional immunosuppressive drugs. Serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance rate (C(Cr)) and urinary protein in 24 h (24-hour Upro) of all patients were measured before and after treatment. Urinary concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG) were detected at the same time. After 6-month treatment with C. sinensis, SCr and C(Cr) in group A were significantly improved (p < 0.05), while there was no significant improvement observed for group B. There was no significant change in BUN in groups A and B (p > 0.05). 24-hour Upro, RBP and β(2)-MG were lower in group A after treatment with C. sinensis (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and urinary TGF-β(1) in group A was significantly lower than the values before C. sinensis treatment (p < 0.05), but showed no change in patients of group B. In group A, renal function had improved in 72 cases, stabilized in 38 cases, and worsened in 12 cases. In group B, renal function had improved in 14 cases, stabilized in 50 cases, and worsened in 45 cases (p < 0.05). C. sinensis therapy is advantageous in improving renal function of CAN patients by retarding CAN progression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. HPLC-ICP-MS speciation analysis and risk assessment of arsenic in Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tian-Tian; Li, Yao-Lei; Jin, Hong-Yu; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ya-Dan; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis , one of the most valued traditional herbal medicines in China, contains high amount of arsenic. Considering the adverse health effects of arsenic, this is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze arsenic speciation in C. sinensis , and to measure the associated human health risks. We used microwave extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine and analyze the arsenic content in C. sinensis , and measured the associated human health risks according to the hazard index (HI), lifetime cancer risk (CR), and target hazard quotient (THQ). The main arsenic speciation in C. sinensis were not the four organic arsenic compounds, including dimethyl arsenic, monomethyl arsenic, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, but comprised inorganic arsenic and other unknown risk arsenic compounds. HI scores indicated that the risk of C. sinensis was acceptable. CR results suggested that the cancer risk was greater than the acceptable lifetime risk of 10 -5 , even at low exposure levels. THQ results indicated that at the exposure level < 2.0 months/year, the arsenic was not likely to harm human health during a lifetime; however, if the exposure rate was > 3.0 months/year, the systemic effects of the arsenic in C. sinensis was of great concern. The arsenic in C. sinensis might not be free of risks. The suggested C. sinensis consumption rate of 2.0 months/year provided important insights into the ways by which to minimize potential health risks. Our study not only played the role of "cast a brick to attract jade" by which to analyze arsenic speciation in C. sinensis but also offered a promising strategy of risk assessment for harmful residues in traditional herbal medicines.

  17. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  18. Military Strategy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-01

    whenever necessary, there is round-the-clock air patrolling by heavy barbers , carrying nu- clear bombs, along the northern coasts of Greenland, Canada...aa well as highly developed machine building industries. In them Is con- centrated 75 percent o* all coal, SO percent of the oil , about 70 percent...the import of many types of alloy metals and code oil from the de- 120 Military Strategy veloping countries in the Near East, Far East, Africa, and

  19. Military Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    United States Army War College Department of Command, Leadership, and Management Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA Military Preparednessa Dr...The question seems a simple one at the national level, but in defense management practice it is actually two questions rolled into one, and the...documents, readiness management processes and systems assess those capabilities and aid in remedial action to correct deficiencies. The second question is

  20. [Microscopic study of powders of hallucinogenic mushrooms--Psilocybe sp].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents simple methods for microscopic examination and basic microchemical testing for the identification of suspect mushroom powders. The microscopic features of the most commonly cultivated and trafficked hallucinogenic genus Psilocybin are described and may serve for the decision whether any suspect material consists of such mushroom powder (and is therefore to be subjected to further analysis) or not.

  1. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  2. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Treesearch

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  3. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  4. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Guillas, Floriane; Jordan, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28239137

  5. Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms.

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2004-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gourmet and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on conifer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and an unknown species of southern yellow pine...

  6. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Agata; Kała, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2018-03-15

    Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a "superfood" and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  8. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  9. Reinventing Military Retirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    private sector retirement plan principles to the military retirement system. The increasing cost and generosity of military retirement coupled with political pressures to reduce federal spending have focused attention on reforming the military retirement system. Previous studies of the military retirement system are addressed and critiqued. Private retirement options are reviewed and a 401(k) plan is proposed to replace the current military retirement system. The new retirement system would eventually reduce federal outlays for military retirement by 66 percent while

  10. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2011, through January..., available in Antidumping Duty Order: Mushrooms From India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom...

  11. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). In accordance with section 751(a)(2... mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC therefore...

  12. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China... orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  13. Bistability in mushroom-type metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, David E.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-07-01

    Here, we study the electromagnetic response of asymmetric mushroom-type metamaterials loaded with nonlinear elements. It is shown that near a Fano resonance, these structures may have a strong tunable, bistable, and switchable response and enable giant nonlinear effects. By using an effective medium theory and full wave simulations, it is proven that the nonlinear elements may allow the reflection and transmission coefficients to follow hysteresis loops, and to switch the metamaterial between "go" and "no-go" states similar to an ideal electromagnetic switch.

  14. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm). Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS) were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes) (P<0.01) after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01). At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total antioxidant capacity in heart tissue was not

  15. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model

  16. [Proapoptotic effect of angiotensin II on renal tubular epithelial cells and protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Tu, Shan; Zhou, Qiaoling; Tang, Rong; Tang, Tianfeng; Hu, Sai; Ao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on the apoptosis of cultured NRK-52E induced by angiotension II (AngII). NRK-52E cells were incubated with C. sinensis (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L) and 10(-8) mol/ L AngII for 24, 48, 72 h. The optimal concentration of C. sinensis was selected. Either NRK-52E cells were incubated with different doses of AngII (0, 10(-12), 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) mol/L) for 24 h, or with 10(-8) mol/L AngII for 24, 48, and 72 h, to observe the effect of AngII on the apoptosis of NRK- 52E cells. The optimal concentration and time of AngII were selected. In another experiment cells were divided into 5 groups: a control, AngII (10(-8) mol/L), AngII (10(-8) mol/L)+ C. sinensis (40 mg/ L), Ang II (10(-8) mol/L)+ fosinopril (10(-5) mmol/L), and Ang II (10(-8) mol/L)+ fosinopril (10(-5) mol/ L)+C. sinensis (40 mg/L). MTT assay was used to test the changes in the proliferation of NRK-52E cultured with different concentration of C. sinensis for 24, 48, 72 h. The Annecxin V-FITC and PI stainings were applied to detect the apoptosis rate induced by AngII by flow cytometer (FCM) and to determine the eddects of C. sinensis. The activity of caspase-3 was assayed by spectrophotometry. Certain concentrations of C. sinensis (10-40 mg/L) promoted the proliferation of NRK- 52E cells inhibited by AngII(P<0.05). AngII induced the apoptosis of NRK-52E in a dose and timedependent manner, accompanied with increased activity of caspase-3 (P<0.05). C. sinensis partially suppressed the apoptosis of NRK-52E induced by AngII, and declined the activity of caspase-3 (P<0.05). No significant difference was shown as between the fosinopril group and the fosinopril+C. sinensis group (P>0.05). C. sinensis can suppress the apoptosis of NRK-52E by AngII, and the protective effect of C. sinensis may be inhibiting the activation of caspase-3 during the AngII-induced apoptosis of NRK-52E.

  17. Altered proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with

  18. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  19. Production of intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides from thin stillage by Cordyceps sinensis and its bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shengli; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Thin stillage was used as the substrate to produce intracellular selenium-enriched polysaccharides (ISPS) from Cordyceps sinensis to increase the value of agricultural coproducts. Methods Fermentation parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the production of ISPS. Then, the effects of ISPS on the antioxidant activities in vitro, as well as the glycosylated serum protein concentration, malondialdehyde level, and total antioxidant capacity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied. Results The optimized conditions were as follows: sodium selenite concentration, 33.78 µg/L; incubation time, 8.24 days; and incubation temperature, 26.69°C. A maximum yield of 197.35 mg/g ISPS was obtained from the validation experiments, which was quite close to the predicted maximum yield of 198.6839 mg/g. FT-IR spectra indicated that ISPS has been successfully selenylation modified with similar structure to polysaccharide of intracellular polysaccharides. The in vitro scavenging effects of 1.0 mg/mL ISPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 74.62±4.05, 71.45±3.63, and 79.48±4.75%, respectively. The reducing power of ISPS was 0.45±0.01 (absorbance at 700 nm). Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein of group C (rats with diabetes that received drinking water with ISPS) were significantly lower than those of group B (rats with diabetes) (P<0.01) after treatment was administered for 2 and 4 weeks. Serum malonaldehyde content of group C was significantly lower than that of group B at 4 weeks (P<0.01). At 4 weeks, malonaldehyde contents in heart, liver, and kidney tissues of group C were significantly lower than those of group B; however, malonaldehyde content in pancreas tissue of group C was not significantly different. Total antioxidant capacities in liver, pancreas and kidney tissues of group C were significantly higher than those of group B, but total antioxidant capacity

  20. Treatment with Cordyceps sinensis enriches Treg population in peripheral lymph nodes and delays type I diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fen; Zhu, Qing-Hua; He, Yu-Gong

    2013-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a widely used Chinese traditional herb with a long history. In China C. sinensis is usually applied in the treatment of respiratory diseases, however, the efficacy of C. sinensis still lacks experimental evidence. Type I diabetes is a multi-factor related autoimmune disease caused by cellular-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in the islets in human. We tested C. sinensis for its ability to work as an immune modulator in NOD mice, an animal model which mimicks the progression of type I diabetes in humans and found that treatment with C. sinensis extract could slow down disease development in NOD mice. Further research also suggested that treatment with C. sinensis extract increased the frequency of Treg cells and IFN-gama producing Th1 cells in peripheral lymph nodes. However, C. sinensis has no effect on the natural Treg cell differentiation in thymus.

  1. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Kiho, T; Hui, J; Yamane, A; Ukai, S

    1993-12-01

    Crude polysaccharides were obtained from a hot-water extract and alkaline extracts of the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. They showed significant activity in normal mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice as a result of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP) obtained from 5% sodium hydroxide extract slightly lowered the plasma glucose level in normal mice by oral (p.o.) administration. A neutral polysaccharide (CS-F30) exhibited higher hypoglycemic activity than its crude polysaccharide (CS-OHEP), exhibited by i.p. injection, and it significantly lowered the glucose level by p.o. administration (50 mg/kg). However, it hardly affected the plasma insulin level in normal mice. CS-F30 ([alpha]D + 21 degrees in water) is composed of galactose, glucose and mannose (molar percent, 62:28:10), and its molecular weight is about 45000.

  2. Novel endophytic lineages of Tolypocladium provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of Cordyceps-like fungi.

    PubMed

    Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a group of unknown endophytic fungal isolates from the living sapwood of wild and planted Hevea (rubber tree) populations. Three novel lineages of Tolypocladium are described based on molecular and morphological data. Findings from this study open a window for novel hypotheses regarding the ecology and role of endophytes within plant communities as well as trait evolution and potential forces driving diversification of Cordyceps-like fungi. This study stresses the importance of integrating asexual and sexual fungal states for a more complete understanding of the natural history of this diverse group. In addition, it highlights the study of fungi in the sapwood of tropical trees as habitat for the discovery of novel fungal lineages and substrate associations. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  3. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  4. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  5. Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

  6. Regulation of the exopolysaccharide from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cell sarcoma (DCS) cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; He, Zhenyue; Wang, Chenhao; Yuan, Fengjiao; Dong, Ping; Zhang, Weiyun

    2013-03-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been regarded as a precious tonic food and herbal medicine in China for thousands of years. The exopolysaccharide (EPS) from an anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis was found to have antitumor immunomodulatory activity. Mature dendritic cells play a role in initiating antitumor immunity, so we try to investigate the effects of EPS on the murine dendritic cell line DCS. Flow cytometry was used to assay the expression levels of cell surface molecules including major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and their ability to take up antigens. The ability of DCS cells to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. IL-12 and TNF-α levels were detected using ELISA. Western blotting was performed to estimate the levels of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and p105. EPS increased the expressions of MHC-II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 of DCS cells and up-regulated their ability to take up antigens. EPS also enhanced their ability to activate the proliferation of CTLL-2 T cells. IL-12 and TNF-α secreted from DCS cells were up-regulated after EPS treatment. Furthermore, EPS significantly caused the decline of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3, significantly increased levels of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus and decreased levels of NF-κB p105 in the cytoplasm. EPS may induce DCS cells to exhibit mature characteristics, and the mechanism involved is probably related to the inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway and promotion of the NF-κB signal pathway.

  7. Wild mushroom exposures in Florida, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Kintziger, Kristina W; Mulay, Prakash; Watkins, Sharon; Schauben, Jay; Weisman, Richard; Lewis-Younger, Cynthia; Blackmore, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wild mushrooms can lead to serious illness and death. However, there is little information on the epidemiology of mushroom exposures nationwide, as there is no specific surveillance for this outcome. We described mushroom exposures in Florida using available data sources. We performed a population-based study of mushroom exposure calls to the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) and cases of mushroom poisoning reported in hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) data from 2003 through 2007. There were 1,538 unduplicated mushroom exposures reported during this period, including 1,355 exposure calls and 428 poisoning cases. Most exposures reported to FPICN occurred in children ≤6 years of age (45%) and males (64%), and most were unintentional ingestions (60%). Many exposures resulted in no effect (35%), although 21% reported mild symptoms that resolved rapidly, 23% reported prolonged/systemic (moderate) symptoms, and 1% reported life-threatening effects. Most calls occurred when in or en route to a health-care facility (43%). More than 71% of poisonings identified in hospital records were managed in an ED, and most occurred in young adults 16-25 years of age (49%), children ≤6 years of age (21%), adults >25 years of age (21%), and males (70%). No deaths were reported. Combined, these data were useful for describing mushroom exposures. Most exposures occurred in males and in young children (≤6 years of age) and young adults (16-25 years of age), with 78% resulting in contact with a health-care facility. Education should target parents of young children-especially during summer, when mushrooms are more abundant-and young adults who are likely experimenting with mushrooms for their potential hallucinogenic properties.

  8. Volunteerism Among Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Project on Volunteerism Among Military Families . Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Nonprofit Management Concentration in the Department of...Marywood UNIVERSITY MF| Research Report 98-1 Volunteerism Among Military Families Sherry J. Fontaine Mark A. Brennan C. Estelle Campenni...Kipling C. Lavo July 1998 MILITARY FAMILY INSTITUTE MARYWOOD UNIVERSITY, SCRANTON, PA Itfi r>o Military Family Institute MARYWOOD UNIVERSITY a

  9. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. SUMMARY The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines PMID:28250651

  10. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used : SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis : CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Military specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Philip

    1987-01-01

    The current situation relative to the military specification is that there is not one specific model of turbulence which people are using. Particular disagreement exists on how turbulence levels will vary with qualitative analysis. It does not tie one down to specifics. When it comes to flying quality specifications, many feel that one should stay with the definitions of the Cooper-Harper rating scale but allow the levels to shift depending on the level of turbulence. There is a ride quality specification in the MIL-SPEC having to do with flight control systems design that is related to a turbulence model. This spec (MIL-F8785C) and others are discussed.

  13. Simultaneous determination of nucleosides and their bases in Cordyceps sinensis and its substitutes by matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhibing; Li, Na; Wang, Min; Wang, Yue; Du, Lin; Ji, Xiaofeng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2013-07-01

    Nine nucleosides and nucleobases, including uracil, adenine, thymine, uridine, adenosine, thymidine, cytidine, guanosine, and cordycepin in natural Cordyceps sinensis, cultured Cordyceps mycelia, and Cordyceps fruiting bodies were extracted by matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and determined by HPLC. The experimental conditions for the MSPD extraction were optimized. Florisil was used as dispersant, petroleum ether as washing solvent, and methanol as elution solvent. The Florisil-to-sample ratio was selected to be 4:1 and no additional clean-up sorbent was needed. The calibration curves had good linear relationships (r > 0.9997). The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 12~79 and 41~265 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precision were lower than 8.3%. The recoveries were between 61.5 and 93.2%. The present method consumed less sample compared with ultrasonic extraction and heating reflux extraction (HRE). The extraction yields obtained by using the present method are much higher than those obtained by UE and comparable to those obtained by HRE. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into

  15. Identifying 8-hydroxynaringenin as a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Meng-Yi; Lin, Hsuan-Jung

    2010-01-01

    A biotransformed metabolite of naringenin was isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus oryzae, fed with naringenin, and identified as 8-hydroxynaringenin based on the mass and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectral data. The compound showed characteristics of both an irreversible inhibitor and a substrate of mushroom tyrosinase in preincubation and HPLC analysis. These results demonstrate that 8-hydroxynaringenin belongs to a suicide substrate of mushroom tyrosinase. The partition ratio between the compound's molecules in the formation of product and in the inactivation of the enzyme was determined to be 283 +/- 21. The present study's results, together with our previous findings, which proved that both 8-hydroxydaidzein and 8-hydroxygenistein are suicide substrates of mushroom tyrosinase, show that 7,8,4'-trihydroxyl functional groups on flavonoids' skeletons play important roles in producing suicide substrate properties toward mushroom tyrosinase.

  16. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Treesearch

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  17. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  18. An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gabriella Hannah; Thoen, Hanne Halkinrud; Marshall, Justin; Sayre, Marcel E

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution. PMID:28949916

  19. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  20. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  1. [Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].

    PubMed

    Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

    2009-05-01

    Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for

  2. Psilocybin mushroom (Psilocybe semilanceata) intoxication with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Borowiak, K S; Ciechanowski, K; Waloszczyk, P

    1998-01-01

    Intentional intoxication with natural hallucinogenic substances such as hallucinogenic mushrooms continues to be a major problem in the US and Europe, particularly in the harbor complex of northwest Poland (Pomerania). A case is described of Psilocybe intoxication in an 18-year-old man resulting in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. The indole concentrations of hallucinogenic mushrooms may predict the risk for adverse central nervous system and cardiac toxicity.

  3. Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

    2003-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found.

  4. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  5. Toxic isolectins from the mushroom Boletus venenatus.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Dohra, Hideo; Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Kamei, Masugu; Hirabayashi, Jun; Matsuura, Masanori; Yamada, Mina; Saikawa, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kimiko; Nakata, Masaya; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2010-04-01

    Ingestion of the toxic mushroom Boletus venenatus causes a severe gastrointestinal syndrome, such as nausea, repetitive vomiting, diarrhea, and stomachache. A family of isolectins (B. venenatus lectins, BVLs) was isolated as the toxic principles from the mushroom by successive 80% ammonium sulfate-precipitation, Super Q anion-exchange chromatography, and TSK-gel G3000SW gel filtration. Although BVLs showed a single band on SDS-PAGE, they were further divided into eight isolectins (BVL-1 to -8) by BioAssist Q anion-exchange chromatography. All the isolectins showed lectin activity and had very similar molecular weights as detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Among them, BVL-1 and -3 were further characterized with their complete amino acid sequences of 99 amino acids determined and found to be identical to each other. In the hemagglutination inhibition assay, both proteins failed to bind to any mono- or oligo-saccharides tested and showed the same sugar-binding specificity to glycoproteins. Among the glycoproteins examined, asialo-fetuin was the strongest inhibitor. The sugar-binding specificity of each isolectin was also analyzed by using frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, indicating that they recognized N-linked sugar chains, especially Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4Manbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->4GlcNAc (Type II) residues in N-linked sugar chains. BVLs ingestion resulted in fatal toxicity in mice upon intraperitoneal administration and caused diarrhea upon oral administration in rats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  7. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another,more » fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.« less

  8. [Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field.

  9. National Military Family Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Action Volunteer Mark Your Calendar Donate Twitter Facebook Instagram Donate Appreciating Military Families: Meet the Wilsons This ... 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better ...

  10. Extracts of Cordyceps sinensis inhibit breast cancer cell metastasis via down-regulation of metastasis-related cytokines expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Gu, Baohua; Xiao, Ying; Chen, Rongsheng; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xiaomin; Cao, Li

    2018-03-25

    Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine and has been used as adjuvant treatments for cancer and it has been also demonstrated to be effective in cancer patients. The objective of the present study is to investigate the anti-metastasis effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) in breast cancer and the potential mechanisms. The cytotoxicity of WECS on 4T1 breast cancer cells was evaluated in vitro using cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. The in vivo anti-metastatic activity of intraperitoneally administered WECS and its effect on animal survival were measured in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anti-metastasis effect of WECS, the expression of matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) in serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, a protein array was used to examine the cytokine expression profiles in lung homogenates. Treatment with WECS (0.10-0.40mg/ml) significantly inhibited 4T1 cell viability in vitro. In animal studies, 50mg/kg WECS significantly reduced the number of metastatic lung nodules and the weight of lung, without affecting body weight of mice. Furthermore, WECS increased the survival rate of 4T1 tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner, and at high dose, WECS (50mg/kg) significantly increased the life span of the mice compared to untreated control group. The expression level of MMP-9 in serum was decreased about 50% in 50mg/kg WECS treated group compared to control group. The results of protein array showed that the expression of CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17), MMP-9, osteopontin (OPN), interleukin-33 (IL-33), CC chemokine ligand 12 (CCL12) and CC chemokine ligand 6 (CCL6) in the lungs of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was increased more than two fold compared with normal mice. Among them, the expression of CCL17, MMP-9, OPN, IL-33 was significantly reduced by treatment of 50mg/kg WECS. Our results demonstrated that WECS has potent anti

  11. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  12. Cordyceps sinensis Oral Liquid Inhibits Damage Induced by Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying-Xin; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Ruan, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Jia-Chun; Chu, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. It has been demonstrated to have a variety of biological activities, and an extract of it has been demonstrated to possess a protective effect in occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia of the middle cerebral artery in rats. It could be explored as an agent for treatment of ischemic stroke, and the mechanisms need to be studied further. The study intended to investigate the protective effects of the Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) against damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y cells. DESIGN • The research team designed an in vitro study. The study occurred at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Shanghai, China. SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to CSOL in doses of 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL, creating 5 intervention groups. The OGD condition was induced by transfer of the cells from high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) in a box gassed with air containing 5% CO2 to glucose-free DMEM in a box gassed with 94% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. Like the cells for the interventions groups, the cells for a model group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM and were transferred to the OGD, but they received no dose of COSL. Cells in a control group were cultured with high-glucose DMEM, were not transferred to the OGD condition, and did not receive any dose of COSL. Cell viability was assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by flow cytometry, and the protein expression of caspase-3 was observed by western blot. After exposure to OGD, the cell viability of cells treated with 0.01, 0.03, 0.10, 0.30, and 1.00 mg/mL of CSOL increased in a dose-effect relationship. Compared with the cells in the model group, the treatment of CSOL at all the experimental concentrations significantly inhibited both the cell apoptosis

  13. Is Military Science Scientific?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    application of military theory, as expressed through strategy, doctrine, and planning, was becoming more of a science and less of an art . This perspective...noting that “no empirical science , consequently also no theory of the art of war, can always cor- roborate its truths by historical proof.”26...84 Commentary / Is Military Science “Scientific”? JFQ 75, 4th Quarter 2014 Is Military Science “Scientific”? By Glenn Voelz T he term military

  14. Assassination: A Military View.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Assassination: A Military View Individual Essay S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTI4OR(e) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMGER(e) COL Charles K. Eden S...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(hen Data Entered) USAWC MILITARY STUDIES PROGRAM PAPER ASSASSINATION: A MILITARY VILW An Individual Essay hceess ’. :’r by...Military View FORMAT: Individual Essay DATE: 23 March 1987 PAGES: 17 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified -Assassination is a topic with which most Americans

  15. Soviet Military Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    The Soviet build-up is made possible by a national policy that has con - sistently made military materiel production its highest economic priority...classes of consumable supplies and war reserve equipment available in the USSR, as well as transport, repair and con - struction units. It includes a...the Soviet military establishment r and to the continuing growth and moderniza-tion of Soviet military power. The CPSU con .-..•_"" trols military

  16. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  17. Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).

    PubMed

    Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

    2006-08-23

    The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms.

  18. Military tropical medicine.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M S; Ellis, C J

    2009-03-01

    Tropical diseases remain a significant threat to deployed military personnel as demonstrated by recent outbreaks amongst troops in Sierra Leone, Iraq and Afghanistan. Five cases are presented from military deployments in tropical or sub-tropical areas, which illustrate important diseases and diagnostic principles for military physicians.

  19. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  20. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead... Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review). By...

  1. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of comments... is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  2. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). EFFECTIVE DATE: April 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  3. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India... Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic interested party, to conduct an administrative review...

  4. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... Department) initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  5. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India. The period of review is February 1, 2011... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms...

  6. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  7. Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

    1996-01-01

    An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in…

  8. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012.\\1\\ \\1... received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a petitioner and a domestic...

  9. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  10. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in packaged fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    González-Fandos, E; Olarte, C; Giménez, M; Sanz, S; Simón, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Listeria monocytogenes to grow in mushrooms packaged in two different types of PVC films when stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. Mushrooms were packed in two polymeric films (perforated and nonperforated PVC) and stored at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C. The carbon dioxide and oxygen content inside the packages, aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, anaerobic spores and major sensory factors were determined. The mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 4 degrees C had the most desirable quality parameters (texture, development stage and absence of moulds). Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C in inoculated mushrooms packaged in perforated and nonperforated films between 1 and 2 log units during the first 48 h. After 10 d of storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes were higher in mushrooms packaged in nonperforated film and stored at 10 degrees C. MAP followed by storage at 4 degrees C or 10 degrees C extends the shelf life by maintaining an acceptable appearance, but allows the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes. According to this study additional hurdles must be studied in order to prevent the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  11. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  12. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  13. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  15. Environmental impact of mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Francisco; Saenz-Díez, Juan-Carlos; Martínez, Eduardo; Jiménez, Emilio; Blanco, Julio

    2016-09-01

    This research analyses the environmental impact of the creation of Agaricus bisporus compost packages. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs-outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a 1 year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22216099

  17. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Brembs, Björn

    2009-08-25

    To make good decisions, we evaluate past choices to guide later decisions. In most situations, we have the opportunity to simultaneously learn about both the consequences of our choice (i.e., operantly) and the stimuli associated with correct or incorrect choices (i.e., classically). Interestingly, in many species, including humans, these learning processes occasionally lead to irrational decisions. An extreme case is the habitual drug user consistently administering the drug despite the negative consequences, but we all have experience with our own, less severe habits. The standard animal model employs a combination of operant and classical learning components to bring about habit formation in rodents. After extended training, these animals will press a lever even if the outcome associated with lever-pressing is no longer desired. In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive stimulus is present. This inhibition enables generalization of the classical memory and prevents premature habit formation. Extended training in wild-type flies produced a phenocopy of MB-impaired flies, such that generalization was abolished and goal-directed actions were transformed into habitual responses.

  18. Cardiovascular protection and antioxidant activity of the extracts from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis act partially via adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Miao; Yao, Hong-Yi; Guan, Yan; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Lin-Hui; Jia, Yong-Liang; Wang, Ru-Wei

    2013-11-01

    Mycelia of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is one of the most common substitutes for natural CS and was approved for arrhythmia in China. However, the role of CS in ameliorating injury during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is still unclear. We examined effects of extracts from CS on I/R and investigated the possible mechanisms. Post-ischemic coronary perfusion pressure, ventricular function, and coronary flow were measured using the Langendorff mouse heart model. Oxidative stress of cardiac homogenates was performed using an ELISA. Our results indicate that CS affords cardioprotection possibly through enhanced adenosine receptor activation. Cardioprotection was demonstrated by reduced post-ischemic diastolic dysfunction and improved recovery of pressure development and coronary flow. Treatment with CS largely abrogates oxidative stress and damage in glucose- or pyruvate-perfused hearts. Importantly, observed reductions in oxidative stress [glutathione disulfide (GSSG)]/[GSSG + glutathione] and [malondialdehyde (MDA)]/[superoxide dismutase + MDA] ratios as well as the resultant damage upon CS treatment correlate with functional markers of post-ischemic myocardial outcome. These effects of CS were partially blocked by 8-ρ-sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. Our results demonstrate a suppressive role of CS in ischemic contracture. Meanwhile, the results also suggest pre-ischemic adenosine receptor activation may be involved in reducing contracture in hearts pretreated with CS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Nan; Yan, Bing-Xiong; Xu, Wen-Di; Qiu, Ye; Guo, Yun-Long; Qiu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-10-23

    Compound K (CK), a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO₄ without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C-50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1→Rd→F2→CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  20. Rheological behaviors of an exopolysaccharide from fermentation medium of a Cordyceps sinensis fungus (Cs-HK1).

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengyuan; Huang, Qilin; Wu, Jianyong

    2014-12-19

    The rheological behaviors of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Cordyceps sinensis fungus fermentation were investigated. The intrinsic viscosity of 1986 ± 55 mL/g indicated an extended and rigid chain for EPS. Shear-thinning behavior was observed and became apparent with increasing concentration. According to cross model, two critical transition concentrations (c(*) and c(**)) from dilute solution to semidilute and then to concentrated domain were 0.45 and 6.14 mg/mL. Flow activation energy was calculated by Arrhenius equation and decreased with increasing concentration, indicating a lower sensitivity to temperature. From dynamic frequency sweep, EPS system was classified to three regions including dilution solution (1.25mg/mL), entanglement network (3.75 and 5.00 mg/mL) and weak gel (≥ 7.50 mg/mL). Notably, the increase in η(*) at high frequencies was attributed to a large flow resistance depended on the rigid chain of EPS. Based on Winter-Chambon criterion, EPS formed gel at 2.6 mg/mL (cgel) and showed typical weak gel from temperature ramp and repetitive strain sweep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools. In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth–associated transcription factors. Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma. PMID:27531890

  2. [Climate change impacts on yield of Cordyceps sinensis and research on yield prediction model of C. sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Dong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Ma, Xing-Tian; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Le, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Mei-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a Chinese unique precious herbal material, its genuine producing areas covering Naqu, Changdu in Qinghai Tibet Plateau, Yushu in Qinghai province and other regions. In recent 10 years, C. sinensis resources is decreasing as a result of the blindly and excessively perennial dug. How to rationally protect, develop and utilize of the valuable resources of C. sinensis has been referred to an important field of research on C. sinensis. The ecological environment and climate change trend of Qinghai Tibet plateau happens prior to other regions, which means that the distribution and evolution of C. sinensis are more obvious and intense than those of the other populations. Based on RS (remote sensing)/GIS(geographic information system) technology, this paper utilized the relationship between the snowline elevation, the average temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours in harvest period (April and may) of C. sinensis and the actual production of C. sinensis to establish a weighted geometric mean model. The model's prediction accuracy can reach 82.16% at least in forecasting C. sinensis year yield in Naqu area in every early June. This study can provide basic datum and information for supporting the C. sinensis industry healthful, sustainable development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Fast Simultaneous Determination of 13 Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shi-Yu; Han, Han; Wang, Bing; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Zhang, Tong; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-12-04

    A reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the fast simultaneous determination of 13 nucleosides and nucleobases in Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) with 2-chloroadenosine as internal standard was developed and validated. Samples were ultrasonically extracted in an ice bath thrice, and the optimum analyte separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(TM) HSS C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution. All targeted analytes were separated in 5.5 min. Furthermore, all calibration curves showed good linear regression (r > 0.9970) within the test ranges, and the limits of quantitation and detection of the 13 analytes were less than 150 and 75 ng/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precisions were <6.23%. Recoveries of the quantified analytes ranged within 85.3%-117.3%, with RSD < 6.18%. The developed UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine nucleosides and nucleobases in 11 batches of C. sinensis samples from different regions in China. The range for the total content in the analyzed samples was 1329-2057 µg/g.

  4. [Study on distribution of five heavy metal elements in different parts of Cordyceps sinensis by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Quan; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The contents of five heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Hg) in 17 batches of Cordyceps sinensis were determined by microwave digestion-ICP-MS, and their distribution in C. sinensis were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg in all batches were in accordance with the international standards of Chinese Medicine-Chinese Herbal Medicine Heavy Metal Limit, with their contents in the stroma higher than that in the caterpillar body, and the excess rate of As, which mainly concentrated in the caterpillar body part of C. sinensis, was 88.24%, as the content of As in the caterpillar body was 7 to 12 fold of that in the stroma. In this study, the distribution of five heavy metals in C. sinensis was clarified, and the existing problems of arsenic limit of heavy metal in C. sinensis were analyzed, and some suggestions were put forward. It is hoped that the reference standard can be provided for the limited standard of arsenic in C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Combinatorial usage of fungal polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma atrum ameliorate drug-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Songtao; Huang, Xiaojun; Wang, Sunan; Li, Chang; Zhang, Zhihong; Xie, Mingyong; Nie, Shaoping

    2018-05-15

    This study investigated the possible protective effect of combined fungal polysaccharides (CFP), consisting of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharides (CSP) and Ganoderma atrum polysaccharides (PSG) with well-defined structural characteristics, against cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Our results indicated CFP effectively prevented the liver injury by decreasing toxicity markers (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase). Further biochemical and molecular analysis indicated CSP particularly inhibited the activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and its related inflammatory signals, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 to modulate hepatic inflammation response. Relatively, through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), PSG increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content depleted by CTX, as well as prevented mitochondria-dependent apoptosis with regulation on Bcl-2 family proteins (Bad, Bax and Bcl-2). In addition, protective effect of CFP was associated with enhanced modulations on cellular oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and pro-inflammatory factors via PPARα upregulation and TLR9 downregulation. Taking together, the combinatorial approach based on CSP and PSG presented a practical option for the management of drug-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geon Joon; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha; Kwon, Young-Wan; Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  7. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated watermore » (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.« less

  8. Systematic revelation of the protective effect and mechanism of Cordycep sinensis on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocellular carcinoma with proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Li, Wen-Tai; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Pan, Tai-Long

    2016-09-13

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has been reported to treat liver diseases. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of C. sinensis on hepatocarcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat model with functional proteome tools.In the DEN-exposed group, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were increased while C. sinensis application remarkably inhibited the activities of these enzymes. Histopathological analysis also indicated that C. sinensis could substantially restore hypertrophic hepatocytes caused by DEN, suggesting that C. sinensis is effective in preventing DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.We therefore comprehensively delineated the global protein alterations using a proteome platform. The most meaningful changes were found among proteins involved in oxidative stress and detoxification. Meanwhile, C. sinensis application could attenuate the carbonylation level of several enzymes as well as chaperone proteins. Network analysis implied that C. sinensis could obviously alleviate hepatocarcinoma via modulating redox imbalance, protein ubiquitination and tumor growth-associated transcription factors.Our findings provide new insight into the potential effects of C. sinensis in preventing carcinogenesis and might help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against chemical-induced hepatocarcinoma.

  9. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient conservation during spent mushroom compost application using spent mushroom substrate derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zimo; Sun, Yue; Bian, Shuping; Ali Baig, Shams; Hu, Baolan; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-02-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a spent mushroom substrate (SMS) derived compost, is always applied to agriculture land to enhance soil organic matter and nutrient contents. However, nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter contained in SMC can leach out and contaminate ground water during its application. In this study, biochars prepared under different pyrolytic temperatures (550 °C, 650 °C or 750 °C) from SMS were applied to soil as a nutrient conservation strategy. The resultant biochars were characterized for physical and mineralogical properties. Surface area and pore volume of biochars increased as temperature increased, while pore size decreased with increasing temperature. Calcite and quartz were evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis in all biochars produced. Results of column leaching test suggested that mixed treatment of SMC and SMS-750-800 (prepared with the temperature for pyrolysis and activation was chosen as 750 °C and 800 °C, respectively) could reduce 43% of TN and 66% of COD Cr in leachate as compared to chemical fertilizers and SMC, respectively. Furthermore, increasing dosage of SMS-750-800 from 1% to 5% would lead to 54% COD Cr reduction in leachate, which confirmed its nutrient retention capability. Findings from this study suggested that combined application of SMC and SMS-based biochar was an applicable strategy for reducing TN and COD Cr leaching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-05

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Theoretical searches and spectral computations of preferred conformations of various absolute configurations for a cyclodipeptide, cordycedipeptide A from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mang, Chao-Yong; Liu, Cai-Ping; Liu, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Bei; Lan, Hai; Wu, Ke-Chen; Yan, Ya; Li, Hai-Fei; Yang, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    A cyclic dipeptide often has the multiple configurations and the abundant conformations. The density functional theory (DFT) method is used to search the preferred conformation of the most probable configuration for cordycedipeptide A isolated from the culture liquid of Cordyceps sinensis. The time-dependent DFT approach is exploited to describe the profile of electronic circular dichroism (CD). The calculated results show that the most probable configuration is 3S6R7S, whose preferred conformation has a negative optical rotation and a positive lowest energy electronic CD band.

  13. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  15. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  16. Foreign Bodies in Dried Mushrooms Marketed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Maria Rita; Manno, Claudia; Zimmardi, Antonina; Vodret, Bruna; Tilocca, Maria Giovanna; Altissimi, Serena; Haouet, Naceur M

    2015-11-02

    The presence of foreign bodies in mushrooms affects their marketability and may result in health risks to consumers. The inspection of fresh or dried mushrooms today is very important in view of the increased consumption of this kind of food. Ten samples of dried mushrooms collected in supermarkets were examined for evidence of entomological contamination by macro and microscopic analytical methods, the so-called filth-test . A total of 49 46 determinations, comprising 15 g of the vegetable matrix, were made. The microscopic filth test consistently detected an irregular distribution of physical contaminants following repeated determinations of the same sample. Visual examination, on the other hand, was not sufficient to ensure a product free of contaminants.

  17. Species clarification of the culinary Bachu mushroom in western China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Sulayman, Mamtimin; Zhu, Xue-Tai; Zhao, Yong-Chang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The Bachu mushroom, previously identified as Helvella leucopus, is characterized by a saddle-shaped, to irregularly lobed pileus, with a gray, brown to blackish hymenium and a whitish to pale receptacle surface and white, terete stipe with enlarged basal grooves. It has high economic value, mostly as a dietary supplement in western China, and its medicinal functions have raised broad interest. In the present paper species of the Bachu mushroom in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China were investigated with morphology and DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS, 28S and TEF1 sequence data strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. The Bachu mushroom, which differs from the European Helvella leucopus, comprises two distinct new species, namely Helvella bachu and Helvella subspadicea. In this paper we introduce the new species with descriptions and figures and compare them with similar taxa. The European Helvella spadicea is also re-examined, described and illustrated. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  19. Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    Ji ARI Research Note 91-10 Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty N Taxonomy IFrederick A. Muckler, Sally Seven, and...11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Construction of Military Intelligence Military Occupational Specialty Taxonomy 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Military intelligence Evaluation taxonomy MOS restructuring

  20. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J P; Rooney, J

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and upper airways symptoms have been ascribed to fungal exposures. Mushroom workers may be at risk of these as a consequence. To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in mushroom workers. A cross-sectional study assessed 4 weeks of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers divided into four categories of exposure, using a self-administered respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. The population of 191 subjects was predominantly (66%) from Eastern Europe; 61% were women and 39% were under 30. It included 73 growers, 38 composters, 26 administrators and 52 packers. Among all workers, there was a high prevalence (67%) of one or more respiratory symptoms which did not appear to vary by age, gender, pack-years of smoking or duration of employment. There was a significant improvement in respiratory symptoms in workers during absence from the workplace (P < 0.001). Spirometry readings across all groups were within normal values. Symptom profiles suggest that as many as 22 workers had symptoms of airways disease; 18 (82%) of these were mushroom growers. Growers were significantly more likely to have symptoms consistent with airways disease than all other workers, odds ratio 9.2 (95% CI 3.0-28.4). There was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers. Mushroom growers may be at high risk of airways disease, possibly from fungal antigens or related exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Microbial ecology of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom cropping process.

    PubMed

    McGee, Conor F

    2018-02-01

    Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions. Extensive research has been conducted investigating the biochemistry and genetics of A. bisporus throughout the cultivation process; however, little is currently known about the wider microbial ecology that co-inhabits the composted substrate and casing layers. The compost and casing microbial communities are known to play important roles in the mushroom production process. Microbial species present in the compost and casing are known for (1) being an important source of nitrogen for the A. bisporus mycelium, (2) releasing sugar residues through the degradation of the wheat straw in the composted substrate, (3) playing a critical role in inducing development of the A. bisporus fruiting bodies and (4) acting as pathogens by parasitising the mushroom mycelium/crop. Despite a long history of research into the mushroom cropping process, an extensive review of the microbial communities present in the compost and casing has not as of yet been undertaken. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the literature investigating the compost and casing microbial communities throughout cultivation of the A. bisporus mushroom crop.

  2. In vivo bioavailability of selenium in enriched Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marliane C S; Naozuka, Juliana; Oliveira, Pedro V; Vanetti, Maria C D; Bazzolli, Denise M S; Costa, Neuza M B; Kasuya, Maria C M

    2010-02-01

    The in vivo bioavailability of Se was investigated in enriched Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms. A bioavailability study was performed using 64 Wistar male rats separated in 8 groups and fed with different diets: without Se, with mushrooms without Se, with enriched mushrooms containing 0.15, 0.30 or 0.45 mg kg(-1) Se and a normal diet containing 0.15 mg kg(-1) of Se using sodium selenate. The experiment was performed in two periods: depletion (14 days) and repletion (21 days), according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. After five weeks, the rats were sacrificed under carbon dioxide, and blood was drawn by heart puncture. Blood plasma was separated by centrifugation. The total Se concentration in the plasma of rats fed with enriched mushrooms was higher than in rats fed with a normal diet containing sodium selenate. The plasma protein profiles were obtained using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and UV detectors. Aliquots of effluents (0.5 mL per minute) were collected throughout in the end of the chromatographic column. However, Se was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) only in the aliquots where proteins were detected by SEC-UV. The plasma protein profile of rats fed with different diets was similar. The highest Se concentration was observed in a peptide presenting 8 kDa. Furthermore, the higher Se concentration in this peptide was obtained for rats fed with a diet using enriched mushrooms (7 μg L(-1) Se) compared to other diets (2-5 μg L(-1) Se). These results showed that Se-enriched mushrooms can be considered as an alternative Se food source for humans, due to their high bioavailability.

  3. MushBase: A Mushroom Information Database Application

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vang Quy; Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    A database application, namely MushBase, has been built based on Microsoft Access in order to store and manage different kinds of data about mushroom biological information of species, strains and their physiological characteristics such as geometries and growth condition(s). In addition, it is also designed to store another group of information that is experimental data about mushroom classification by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). These two groups of information are stored and managed in the way so that it is convenient to retrieve each group of data and to cross-refer between them as well. PMID:24015087

  4. A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-10-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on CM-cellulose. The enzyme exhibited a temperature optimum between 60 and 70 degrees C and a pH optimum at 3.5.

  5. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  6. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  7. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  8. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations.

  9. About Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... out why Close About Military Sexual Trauma Veterans Health Administration Loading... Unsubscribe from Veterans Health Administration? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 21K ...

  10. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    RD-fi49 439 MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS (U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE i/i 7" BARRACKS PA J D MEDLIN V MAY 84UNCLASSIFIED F/6 5/9 NL E=hhhhIhh SENSEhhhhh...appropriate military service or government agency. MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS BY COLONEL JACK D. MEDLIN MEDICAL SERVICE cl- " JAN25 C r- Y4 . S17 MY...PERIOD COVERED Military Retirement Benefits S 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER() Colonel Jack D. Medlin

  11. Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

  12. Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina

    2008-08-14

    Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

  13. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.

    1997-09-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

  14. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Ecology and management of commercially harvested chanterelle mushrooms.

    Treesearch

    David Pilz; Lorelei Norvell; Eric Danell; Randy Molina

    2003-01-01

    During the last two decades, the chanterelle mushroom harvest from Pacific Northwest forests has become a multimillion dollar industry, yet managers, harvesters, and scientists lack a current synthesis of information about chanterelles. We define chanterelles and then discuss North American species, their place among chanterelle species around the world, international...

  16. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  17. Mushrooms in the mist: stalking the wild chanterelle.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    Commercial, recreational, and subsistence harvesting of chanterelle mushrooms in Washington's Olympic Peninsula has long been an issue for managers and harvesters alike. What guidelines should be used to manage nontimber products?Is there concern about possible increased commercial harvesting? Pacific Northwest Research Station scientist Leon Liegel and...

  18. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  19. Diseases and pests noxious to Pleurotus spp. mushroom crops.

    PubMed

    Bellettini, Marcelo B; Bellettini, Sebastião; Fiorda, Fernanda A; Pedro, Alessandra C; Bach, Fabiane; Fabela-Morón, Miriam F; Hoffmann-Ribani, Rosemary

    The Pleurotus genus is one of most extensively studied white-rot fungi due to its exceptional ligninolytic properties. It is an edible mushroom that possesses biological effects, as it contains important bioactive molecules. It is a rich source of nutrients, particularly proteins, minerals as well as vitamins B, C and D. In basidiomycete fungi, intensive cultivations of edible mushrooms can often be affected by some bacterial, mold and virus diseases that rather frequently cause dramatic production loss. These infections are facilitated by the particular conditions under which mushroom cultivation is commonly carried out such as warm temperatures, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels and presence of pests. There is not much bibliographic information related to pests of mushrooms and their substrates. The updated review presents a practical checklist of diseases and pests of the Pleurotus genus, providing useful information that may help different users. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  2. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  3. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, P<0.001). Both antioxidants were more concentrated in pileus than stipe tissues in selected mushrooms species. Agaricus bisporus harvested during the third cropping flush contained higher levels of ergothioneine and glutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Extraction, Chemical Structures, and Chain Conformation of Polysaccharides from a Novel Cordyceps Sinensis Fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wang, Lan-Ying; Wu, Ding-Tao; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known tonic food with broad medicinal properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and characterize chemical structures and chain conformation of polysaccharides from a novel C. sinensis fungus UM01. Ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the polysaccharides. The chemical structure of purified polysaccharide was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with refractive index detector and multiangle laser light scattering were conducted to analyze the molecular weight (Mw ) and chain conformation of purified polysaccharide. Based on the orthogonal design L9 , optimal MAE conditions could be obtained through 1300 W of microwave power, with a 5-min irradiation time at a solid to water ratio of 1:60, generating the highest extraction yield of 6.20%. Subsequently, the polysaccharide UM01-S1 was purified. The UM01-S1 is a glucan-type polysaccharide with a (1→4)-β-d-glucosyl backbone and branching points located at O-3 of Glcp with a terminal-d-Glcp. The Mw , radius of gyration (Rg ) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) of UM01-S1 were determined as 5.442 × 10(6)  Da, 21.8 and 20.2 nm, respectively. Using the polymer solution theory, the exponent (ν) value of the power law function was calculated as 0.38, and the shape factor (ρ = Rg /Rh ) was 1.079, indicating that UM01-S1 has a sphere-like conformation with a branched structure in an aqueous solution. These results provide fundamental information for the future application of polysaccharides from cultured C. sinensis in health and functional food area. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  6. Culture Conditions for Production of Biomass, Adenosine, and Cordycepin from Cordyceps sinensis CS1197: Optimization by Desirability Function Method

    PubMed Central

    Ghatnur, Shashidhar M.; Parvatam, Giridhar; Balaraman, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is a traditional Chinese medicine contains potent active metabolites such as nucleosides and polysaccharides. The submerged cultivation technique is studied for the large scale production of CS for biomass and metabolites production. Objective: To optimize culture conditions for large-scale production of CS1197 biomass and metabolites production. Materials and Methods: The CS1197 strain of CS was isolated from dead larvae of natural CS and the authenticity was assured by the presence of two major markers adenosine and cordycepin by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize process parameters culturing temperature, pH, and inoculum volume for the biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin. The experimental results were regressed to a second-order polynomial equation by a multiple regression analysis for the prediction of biomass yield, adenosine and cordycepin production. Multiple responses were optimized based on desirability function method. Results: The desirability function suggested the process conditions temperature 28°C, pH 7 and inoculum volume 10% for optimal production of nutraceuticals in the biomass. The water extracts from dried CS1197 mycelia showed good inhibition for 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid-free radicals. Conclusion: The result suggests that response surface methodology-desirability function coupled approach can successfully optimize the culture conditions for CS1197. SUMMARY Authentication of CS1197 strain by the presence of adenosine and cordycepin and culturing period was determined to be for 14 daysContent of nucleosides in natural CS was found higher than in cultured CS1197 myceliumBox-Behnken design to optimize critical cultural conditions: temperature, pH and inoculum volumeWater extract showed better antioxidant activity proving credible source of natural antioxidants

  7. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  8. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yingxin; Liu, Yuxiang; Ruan, Minghua; Feng, Xu; Wang, Jiachun; Chu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process.

  9. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence.

  10. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.G.; Ren, Z.X.

    2017-01-01

    PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment. PMID:28793052

  11. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Ren, Z X

    2017-08-07

    PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment.

  12. Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid prolongs the lifespan of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, YINGXIN; LIU, YUXIANG; RUAN, MINGHUA; FENG, XU; WANG, JIACHUN; CHU, ZHIYONG; ZHANG, ZESHENG

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid (CSOL) on the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Following the lifelong treatment of fruit flies with CSOL, lifespan was examined. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), manganese-containing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), as well as the lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. The mRNA levels of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT were quantified by qPCR. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and paraquat were used to mimic the effects of damage caused by acute oxidative stress. D-galactose was used to mimic chronic pathological aging. CSOL significantly prolonged the lifespan of the fruit flies under physiological conditions. The activity of SOD1 and CAT was upregulated, and LF accumulation was inhibited by CSOL. CSOL had no effect on the transcriptional levels (mRNA) of these enzymes. The survival time of the fruit flies which were negatively affected by exposure to H2O2 or paraquat was significantly prolonged by CSOL. In fruit flies pathologically aged by epxosure to D-galactose, CSOL also significantly prolonged their lifespan, upregulated the activity of SOD1 and CAT, and inhibited LF accumulation. The findings of our study indicate that CSOL prolongs the lifespan of fruit flies through an anti-oxidative stress pathway involving the upregulation of SOD1 and CAT activity and the inhibition of LF accumulation. CSOL may thus be explored as a novel agent for slowing the human aging process. PMID:26239097

  13. Inaugural editorial: Military Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Military medicine is one of the most innovative part of human civilization. Along with the rapid development of medicine and advances in military techniques, military medicine has become the focus and intersection of new knowledge and new technologies. Innovation and development within military medicine are always ongoing, with a long and challenging path ahead. The establishment of "Military Medical Research" is expected to be a bounden responsibility in the frontline of Chinese military medicine.

  14. Bacterial population dynamics in recycled mushroom compost leachate.

    PubMed

    Safianowicz, Katarzyna; Bell, Tina L; Kertesz, Michael A

    2018-06-01

    Mushrooms are an important food crop throughout the world. The most important edible mushroom is the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), which comprises about 30% of the global mushroom market. This species is cultivated commercially on a selective compost that is produced predominantly from wheat straw/stable bedding and chicken manure, at a moisture content of around 70% (w/w) and temperatures of up to 80 °C. Large volumes of water are required to achieve this moisture content, and many producers therefore collect leachate from the composting windrows and bunkers (known in the industry as "goody water") and reuse it to wet the raw ingredients. This has the benefit of recycling and saving water and has the potential to enrich beneficial microorganisms that stimulate composting, but also the risk of enhancing pathogen populations that could reduce productivity. Here, we show by 16S rRNA gene sequencing that mushroom compost leachate contains a high diversity of unknown microbes, with most of the species found affiliated with the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. However, by far the most abundant species was the thermophile Thermus thermophilus, which made up approximately 50% of the bacterial population present. Although the leachate was routinely collected and stored in an aerated central storage tank, many of the bacterial species found in leachate were facultative anaerobes. However, there was no evidence for sulfide production, and no sulfate-reducing bacterial species were detected. Because T. thermophilus is important in the high temperature phase of composting, the use of recycled leachate as an inoculum for the raw materials is likely to be beneficial for the composting process.

  15. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are

  16. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  17. Heavy metal bioaccumulation by wild edible saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Širić, Ivan; Humar, Miha; Kasap, Ante; Kos, Ivica; Mioč, Boro; Pohleven, Franc

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals cause serious problems in the environment, and they can be accumulated in organisms, especially in the higher fungi. The concentration of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Hg in 10 species of edible mushrooms in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia was therefore determined. In addition, the similarity between the studied species was determined by cluster analysis based on concentrations of the aforementioned metals in the fruiting bodies. The contents of nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, and mercury in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The highest concentrations of Ni (3.62 mg kg(-1)), Cr (3.01 mg kg(-1)), and Cd (2.67 mg kg(-1)) were determined in Agaricus campestris. The highest concentration of Pb (1.67 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Macrolepiota procera, and the highest concentration of Hg (2.39 mg kg(-1)) was determined in Boletus edulis. The concentration of all heavy metals significantly differed (p < 0.001) between examined saprophytic and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Considering anatomical part of the fruiting body (cap-stipe), a considerably higher concentration of the analyzed elements was found in the cap for all mushroom species. According to calculated bioconcentration factors, all the examined species were found to be bioexclusors of Ni, Cr, and Pb and bioaccumulators of Cd and Hg. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of the accumulation of the studied metals revealed great phenotypic similarity of mushroom species belonging to the same genus and partial similarity of species of the same ecological affiliation.

  18. Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

    2013-06-01

    Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Glutathione, Selenium, and Malondialdehyde in Different Edible Mushroom Species.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hacer; Coteli, Ebru; Karatas, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and selenium was determined by using the fluorescence spectrophotometer in eight different species of edible mushrooms. Brittlegill mushroom (Russula delica), meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris), dryad's saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Pleurotus spp., ink mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius), ebekari mushroom (slimy) (Elazığ local) and çaşır mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (Tunceli local) were used for analysis. The amounts of GSH, GSSG, Se, and MDA with GSH/GSSG ratio in the eight different species of edible mushrooms were observed in between 269.10 ± 16.94-1554.83 ± 58.12 μg/g; 23.55 ± 1.89-841.90 ± 20.03 μg/g; 15.06 ± 1.56-82.10 ± 3.84 μg/g; 5.46 ± 0.50-27.45 ± 2.58 μg/g wet weight and 0.32-41.35, respectively. There is a weak correlation (R 2  = 0.389) between MDA and Se, on the other hand, the correlation (R 2  = 0.831) between GSH/GSSG ratio and selenium in mushrooms are reasonable well. In a similar manner, there is a weak correlation (R 2  = 0551) between GSH/GSSG and MDA ratios in mushrooms. It was found that these edible mushroom species are good source of glutathione (GSH, GSSG), and selenium (Se) in terms of quantities obtained; therefore, it can be said that mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants.

  20. Advising Transfer Military Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Today's students can come from a larger area than just high school. With the entire world's conflicts and today's society, more and more of our present day students may have come from the military ranks. Though we have not come to an actual draft system, more and more modern day students have served their time in the military, to keep America…

  1. Families in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military Families Resource Center . For additional information see: Center ... like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for America’s Kids . Your support will help us continue to ...

  2. Early Childhood Military Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Does the country's national security rely on top-quality early childhood education? Yes, say the military leaders of Mission: Readiness, an organization led by retired military commanders that promotes investment in education, child health, and parenting support. Actually, the generals are right, but for all the wrong reasons. The generals' aim is…

  3. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  5. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

  6. Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-11-01

    Mushroom industries generate a virtually in-exhaustible supply of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This is the unutilised substrate and the mushroom mycelium left after harvesting of mushrooms. As the mushroom industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing. In recent years, the mushroom industry has faced challenges in storing and disposing the SMS. The obvious solution is to explore new applications of SMS. There has been considerable discussion recently about the potentials of using SMS for production of value-added products. One of them is production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xylanase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase. This paper reviews scientific research and practical applications of SMS as a readily available and cheap source of enzymes for bioremediation, animal feed and energy feedstock.

  7. [The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms.

  8. Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    currying domestic favor and in times of low security threat, politicians often will promise cuts in military budgets while simultaneously “pursuing...lighter force was based on the lessons from the invasion of Afghanistan. In that conflict, precision guided weapons and unmanned aerial drones

  9. Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-21

    currying domestic favor and in times of low security threat, politicians often will promise cuts in military budgets while simultaneously “pursuing...lighter force was based on the lessons from the invasion of Afghanistan. In that conflict, precision guided weapons and unmanned aerial drones

  10. [Influence of storing conditions of on quality and safety quality and safety of mushroom tins].

    PubMed

    Bakaĭtis, V I

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to the influence of period of time and storage conditions on microbiological, physical-and-chemical, sensory indices of mushrooms in brine salted (enzyme mushrooms). The invention establishes the fact that mushroom tin storage in a refrigerator at temperature between 0 degrees C and + 4 degrees C provides high quality and microbiological stability of the product during 2 years, storage in a warehouse with temperature between +10 degrees C and +18 degrees C - for 1 year.

  11. Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    A. Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K. Janardhanan, Kainoor

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use. PMID:18398492

  12. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    PubMed

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  14. Analysis and Evaluation of the Characteristic Taste Components in Portobello Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinbin; Li, Wen; Li, Zhengpeng; Wu, Wenhui; Tang, Xueming

    2018-05-10

    To identify the characteristic taste components of the common cultivated mushroom (brown; Portobello), Agaricus bisporus, taste components in the stipe and pileus of Portobello mushroom harvested at different growth stages were extracted and identified, and principal component analysis (PCA) and taste active value (TAV) were used to reveal the characteristic taste components during the each of the growth stages of Portobello mushroom. In the stipe and pileus, 20 and 14 different principal taste components were identified, respectively, and they were considered as the principal taste components of Portobello mushroom fruit bodies, which included most amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. Some taste components that were found at high levels, such as lactic acid and citric acid, were not detected as Portobello mushroom principal taste components through PCA. However, due to their high content, Portobello mushroom could be used as a source of organic acids. The PCA and TAV results revealed that 5'-GMP, glutamic acid, malic acid, alanine, proline, leucine, and aspartic acid were the characteristic taste components of Portobello mushroom fruit bodies. Portobello mushroom was also found to be rich in protein and amino acids, so it might also be useful in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional food. The results in this article could provide a theoretical basis for understanding and regulating the characteristic flavor components synthesis process of Portobello mushroom. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. The structure of mushroom polysaccharides and their beneficial role in health.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping

    2015-10-01

    Mushroom is a kind of fungus that has been popular for its special flavour and renowned biological values. The polysaccharide contained in mushroom is regarded as one of the primary bioactive constituents and is beneficial for health. The structural features and bioactivities of mushroom polysaccharides have been studied extensively. It is believed that the diverse biological bioactivities of polysaccharides are closely related to their structure or conformation properties. In this review, the structural characteristics, conformational features and bioactivities of several mushroom polysaccharides are summarized, and their beneficial mechanisms and the relationships between their structure and bioactivities are also discussed.

  16. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  17. Compost bacteria and fungi that influence growth and development of Agaricus bisporus and other commercial mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Michael A; Thai, Meghann

    2018-02-01

    Mushrooms are an important food crop for many millions of people worldwide. The most important edible mushroom is the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), an excellent example of sustainable food production which is cultivated on a selective compost produced from recycled agricultural waste products. A diverse population of bacteria and fungi are involved throughout the production of Agaricus. A range of successional taxa convert the wheat straw into compost in the thermophilic composting process. These initially break down readily accessible compounds and release ammonia, and then assimilate cellulose and hemicellulose into compost microbial biomass that forms the primary source of nutrition for the Agaricus mycelium. This key process in composting is performed by a microbial consortium consisting of the thermophilic fungus Mycothermus thermophilus (Scytalidium thermophilum) and a range of thermophilic proteobacteria and actinobacteria, many of which have only recently been identified. Certain bacterial taxa have been shown to promote elongation of the Agaricus hyphae, and bacterial activity is required to induce production of the mushroom fruiting bodies during cropping. Attempts to isolate mushroom growth-promoting bacteria for commercial mushroom production have not yet been successful. Compost bacteria and fungi also cause economically important losses in the cropping process, causing a range of destructive diseases of mushroom hyphae and fruiting bodies. Recent advances in our understanding of the key bacteria and fungi in mushroom compost provide the potential to improve productivity of mushroom compost and to reduce the impact of crop disease.

  18. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  19. PCR-Based Method for the Detection of Toxic Mushrooms Causing Food-Poisoning Incidents.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Chie; Masayama, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Sakuma, Daisuke; Kajimura, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    In this study, species-specific identification of five toxic mushrooms, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Gymnopilus junonius, Hypholoma fasciculare, Pleurocybella porrigens, and Tricholoma ustale, which have been involved in food-poisoning incidents in Japan, was investigated. Specific primer pairs targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were designed for PCR detection. The specific amplicons were obtained from fresh, cooked, and simulated gastric fluid (SGF)-treated samples. No amplicons were detected from other mushrooms with similar morphology. Our method using one-step extraction of mushrooms allows rapid detection within 2.5 hr. It could be utilized for rapid identification or screening of toxic mushrooms.

  20. A Critical Review on Health Promoting Benefits of Edible Mushrooms through Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Xiao, Jianbo; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-08

    Mushrooms have long been used for medicinal and food purposes for over a thousand years, but a complete elucidation of the health-promoting properties of mushrooms through regulating gut microbiota has not yet been fully exploited. Mushrooms comprise a vast, and yet largely untapped, source of powerful new pharmaceutical substances. Mushrooms have been used in health care for treating simple and common diseases, like skin diseases and pandemic diseases like AIDS. This review is aimed at accumulating the health-promoting benefits of edible mushrooms through gut microbiota. Mushrooms are proven to possess anti-allergic, anti-cholesterol, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer properties. Mushrooms are rich in carbohydrates, like chitin, hemicellulose, β and α-glucans, mannans, xylans, and galactans, which make them the right choice for prebiotics. Mushrooms act as a prebiotics to stimulate the growth of gut microbiota, conferring health benefits to the host. In the present review, we have summarized the beneficial activities of various mushrooms on gut microbiota via the inhibition of exogenous pathogens and, thus, improving the host health.

  1. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Young; Seguin, Philippe; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Jong-Jin; Chun, Se-Chul; Kim, Eun-Hye; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Kim, Sun-Lim; Park, Yool-Jin; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chung, Ill-Min

    2008-08-27

    A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential.

  2. Mushroom cultivation, processing and value added products: a patent based review.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Somya; Rasane, Prasad; Kaur, Sawinder; Garba, Umar; Singh, Jyoti; Raj, Nishant; Gupta, Neeru

    2018-06-03

    Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value added products. To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipments, methods of preservation, value added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  4. Military Careers: A Guide to Military Occupations and Selected Military Career Paths, 1992-1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This book was developed to help educators and youth learn about career opportunities in the military. It is a compendium of military occupational, training, and career information and is designed for use by students interested in the military. The first section, military occupations, contains descriptions of 197 enlisted and officer occupations.…

  5. [Levels of psilocybin and psilocin in various types of mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Borovicka, J; Sokol, M

    2003-07-01

    Psilocin and psilocybin are psychoactive components of mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe and many others (Panaeolus, Inocybe, Pluteus etc.). In our republic, several species of Psilocybe with a high content of these components can be found. In the present study, we give a semiquantitative content of psilocin and psilocybin in some of our mushrooms in dry substance (Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe bohemica, Psilocybe arcana, Psilocybe cyanescens, Panaeolus acuminatus sensu Ricken, Inocybe haemacta and Pluteus salicinus). For quantification, the GC/MS instrumentation was applied. Psilocin and psilocybin were silylated by the derivatization agent N-methyl-N-trimet-hylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. As an internal standard, 5-methoxytryptamin was used. The results of this study prove the presence of at least three species of Psilocybe with a high content of psychoactive components growing in our republic: Psilocybe semilanceata, Psilocybe bohemica and Psilocybe arcana.

  6. Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: aspects of forced fruiting.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, J N; Mihail, J D

    2009-12-01

    Three outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) cultivation experiments were established during 2002-2004 at the University of Missouri Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, in central Missouri. Over three complete years following a year of spawn run, we examined shiitake mushroom production in response to the temperature of forcing water, inoculum strain, substrate host species and physical orientation of the log during fruiting. Forcing compressed the period of most productive fruiting to the two years following spawn run. Further, chilled forcing water, 10-12 degrees C, significantly enhanced yield, particularly when ambient air temperatures were favorable for the selected mushroom strain. The temperature of water available for force-fruiting shiitake logs depends on geographic location (latitude) and source (i.e., farm pond vs. spring or well water). Prospective growers should be aware of this effect when designing their management and business plans.

  7. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg -1 dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg -1 dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg -1 dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.

    Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the presentmore » paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).« less

  9. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  10. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

  12. Radiocaesium in mushrooms from northeast Italy, 1986-2002.

    PubMed

    Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M; Scruzzi, E

    2004-01-01

    Late in the summer of 1986, the Health Physics Departments of Pordenone, Udine and Trieste, entrusted with monitoring radioactivity in the environment and food as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, started noticing high concentrations of radionuclides--especially radiocaesium--in mushroom samples coming from different areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (northeast Italy). To date, the authors have conducted 14 annual rounds of sampling and gamma spectrometry measurements on mushrooms, generating a total of over 2250 samples belonging to more than 300 species, which were picked in about 30 stations in the region. This surveys the main results from 15 years of macromycetes radiocontamination analysis in the region, the still unsolved problems, and hypotheses for future work.

  13. Free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides in Finnish forest mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Hanna; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Aisala, Heikki; Hopia, Anu; Laaksonen, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture.

  15. WAR & Military Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Pols, Hans; Oak, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Involvement in warfare can have dramatic consequences for the mental health and well-being of military personnel. During the 20th century, US military psychiatrists tried to deal with these consequences while contributing to the military goal of preserving manpower and reducing the debilitating impact of psychiatric syndromes by implementing screening programs to detect factors that predispose individuals to mental disorders, providing early intervention strategies for acute war-related syndromes, and treating long-term psychiatric disability after deployment. The success of screening has proven disappointing, the effects of treatment near the front lines are unclear, and the results of treatment for chronic postwar syndromes are mixed. After the Persian Gulf War, a number of military physicians made innovative proposals for a population-based approach, anchored in primary care instead of specialty-based care. This approach appears to hold the most promise for the future. PMID:17971561

  16. Inhibitory effect of red koji extracts on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yun-Chen; Ho, Ja-An Annie; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2003-07-16

    Red koji has been recognized as a cholesterol-lowering diet supplement because of it contains fungi metabolites, monacolins, which reduce cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. In this study, water extracts of red koji were loaded onto a C(18) cartridge, and the acetonitrile eluate was collected as test fraction. Red koji water extracts and its C(18) cartridge acetonitrile eluent had total phenols concentrations of 5.57 and 1.89 mg/g of red koji and condensed tannins concentrations of 2.71 and 1.20 mg/g of red koji, respectively. Both exhibited an antioxidant activity and an inhibitory activity to mushroom tyrosinase. The higher antioxidant activity of the red koji acetonitrile eluent was due to the existence of a high percentage of condensed tannins. The results from the kinetic study for inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by red koji extracts showed that the compounds in the extracts competitively inhibited the oxidation of tyrosine catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase with an ID(50) of 5.57 mg/mL.

  17. Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitativemore » results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.« less

  18. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic.

    PubMed

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B; Perrat, Paola N; Waddell, Scott

    2016-03-16

    Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as α- and β-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34–35 amino acids in length and have no predicted signal peptides. The genes for α-amanitin (AMA1) and phallacidin (PHA1) are members of a large family of related genes, characterized by highly conserved amino acid sequences flanking a hypervariable “toxin” region. The toxin regions are flanked by invariant proline (Pro) residues. An enzyme that could cleave the proprotein of phalloidin was purified from the phalloidin-producing lawn mushroom Conocybe apala. The enzyme is a serine protease in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) subfamily. The same enzyme cuts at both Pro residues to release the linear hepta- or octapeptide. PMID:20564017

  20. First study of hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zied, Diego Cunha; Dourado, Fernanda Aparecida; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2017-10-05

    The use of fungicides is common in mushroom cultivation, but no study was carried out applying reduced doses of fungicides in order to increase yield, taking account the hormesis effect. The aim of this manuscript was to verify the effects of different concentrations of fungicides to stimulate the productivity of different strains of Agaricus bisporus. Two stages were developed, an in vitro study to define the best concentration to be applied in the second experiment an agronomic study, which consisted of the application of the selected fungicides, in their respective concentrations, in an experiment carried out in the mushroom chamber. Clearly, the result of the hormesis effect on mushroom cultivation can be verified. The results obtained in the 1st stage of the study (in vitro) were not always reproduced in the 2nd stage of the study (in vivo). The kresoxim methyl active ingredient may be an important chemical agent, while strain ABI 15/01 may be an extremely important biological agent to increase yield in the study of hormesis effects.

  1. Accumulation route and chemical form of mercury in mushroom species

    SciTech Connect

    Minagawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Takizawa, Y.

    1980-09-01

    Some papers were published on several species of fungi having more accumulating abilities of mercury than other land plants and a relatively small part of mercury being present as methylmercury in most species (Stegnar et al. 1973, Stijve and Roschnik 1974). But, little information is available regarding the routes of mercury in fungi, and also no report on mercury speciation (chemical form and complexation) in them have been published, apart from methylmercury. In order to evaluate accurately their biological characteristics such as absorption, excretion, accumulation and toxicity (The Task Group on Metal Interaction 1978), the mercury speciation present in mushrooms,more » regardless of edible or nonedible, should be identified. In this report, we present (1) contents of total and methylmercury in mushrooms near the acetaldehyde factory which had the mounds of sludge containing mercury, (2) data or exposure experiment of mercury vapor to raw mushrooms (Shiitake) on the market, and (3) data on mercury speciation of mercury other than methylmercury.« less

  2. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. Themore » mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.« less

  3. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with themore » mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.« less

  5. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  6. Lithium biofortification of medicinal mushrooms Agrocybe cylindracea and Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Mleczek, Mirosław; Budzyńska, Sylwia; Gąsecka, Monika; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Although an increase in dietary lithium (Li) has been suggested as a possible method for mood stabilization and for decreasing violence and suicidal rates, no Li-enriched food has entered the market. Here we continue to explore the feasibility of mushrooms in this respect and have investigated the growth, accumulation and mineral content (Ca, K, Mg and Na) of Agrocybe cylidracea and Hericium erinaceus cultivated on substrates supplemented with 0.25-1.0 mM of Li as acetate or chloride. As demonstrated, supplementation with LiCl yielded more satisfactory results, did not alter mushroom biomass, appearance, shape or size regardless of Li concentration. It also had no significant effect on mineral composition and resulted in a concentration-dependent uptake of Li and its accumulation in fruiting bodies. More promising results were found for H. erinaceus . As calculated, consumption of 100 g dw of its fruiting bodies obtained from cultivation with 1.0 mM of Li (as acetate or chloride) would constitute 69% of the provisional recommended dietary daily intake of Li set at 1.0 mg. The study highlights that H. erinaceus could be selected for further studies on Li-enriched food that concern the bioavailability of Li from mushrooms, their safety and activity in animal experimental models and eventually, human studies.

  7. Determination of myriocin in natural and cultured Cordyceps cicadae using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiawen; Xu, Hongjuan; Mo, Zhihong; Zhu, Huali; Mao, Xianbing

    2009-07-01

    A simple and sensitive reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method, based on the precolumn derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate, was developed for the determination of myriocin. The derivatization reaction was performed in organic solvents of pyridine and tetrahydrofuran at 40 degrees C. Several factors influencing the derivative yield were investigated and optimized. The formed derivative was stable for more than 24 h at room temperature. The detection wavelength was 262 nm. The system offered the following analytical parameters: the limit of detection was 0.045 microg ml(-1), the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9963 and the linear range response was from 2.0 to 500.0 microg ml(-1). The precision of the method was <2.0%. As a preliminary application, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of myriocin in natural and cultured Cordyceps cicadae.

  8. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingzhong; Ruiz Beguerie, Julieta; Sze, Daniel Man-Yeun; Chan, Godfrey C F

    2016-04-05

    Ganoderma lucidum is a natural medicine that is widely used and recommended by Asian physicians and naturopaths for its supporting effects on immune system. Laboratory research and a handful of preclinical trials have suggested that G. lucidum carries promising anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. The popularity of taking G. lucidum as an alternative medicine has been increasing in cancer patients. However, there is no systematic review that has been conducted to evaluate the actual benefits of G. lucidum in cancer treatment. To evaluate the clinical effects of G. lucidum on long-term survival, tumour response, host immune functions and quality of life in cancer patients, as well as adverse events associated with its use. We searched an extensive set of databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, NIH, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CMCC and VIP Information/Chinese Scientific Journals Database was searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in October 2011. Other strategies used were scanning the references of articles retrieved, handsearching of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms and contact with herbal medicine experts and manufacturers of G. lucidum. For this update we updated the searches in February 2016. To be eligible for being included in this review, studies had to be RCTs comparing the efficacy of G. lucidum medications to active or placebo control in patients with cancer that had been diagnosed by pathology. All types and stages of cancer were eligible for inclusion. Trials were not restricted on the basis of language. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Two independent review authors assessed the methodological quality of individual trials. Common primary outcomes were tumour response evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, immune function parameters such as natural killer (NK)-cell activity and T-lymphocyte co

  9. Acupuncture in Military Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 16 Acupuncture in Military Medicine Alexandra M. York, Kevin G. Berry, Rick C. Welton, Joan A. G. Walter, Richard C. Niemtzow and Wayne B...DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture in Military Medicine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Air Force Acupuncture Center,Joint Base Andrews, , , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  10. Acupuncture in Military Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 16 Acupuncture in Military Medicine Alexandra M. York, Kevin G. Berry, Rick C. Welton, Joan A. G. Walter, Richard C. Niemtzow and Wayne B...DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acupuncture in Military Medicine 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...States Air Force Acupuncture Center,Joint Base Andrews,MD,20762 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  11. Privatized Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to

  12. Military Personnel Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-09

    or mentally disabled, and because of sich disability shall be hospitalized continually and shall not be employed gainfully . Family members similarly...and is not employed gainfully because of such disability. 40. Temporary Duty (TDY). Duty at one or more locations, other than the permanent station...Military Service concerned that the service member is surplus to the Military Department’s requirements. To better employ those service members with

  13. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  14. Improving Military Educational Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-16

    military to take advantage of their educational benefits . o Adding recruiters or increasing bonuses are less costly ways to increase the number of...as members left to take advantage of their benefits --poorer retention would cancel out five percentage points of that gain. The overall cost of our...IMPROVING MILITARY EDUCATIONAL BENEFITS Statement of Robert F. Hale Assistant Director for National Security and International Affairs

  15. Evaluating Military Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    exclude tax advantages and noncash benefits . 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Cash...Military and Civilian Pay 12 Cash Compensation 12 Noncash and Deferred Benefits 13 General Limitations of Military–Civilian Comparisons 17 Linking...Office (CBO) estimates, regular military com- pensation adjusted for inflation—basic pay, allowances for food and housing, and the tax advantage

  16. The Professional Military Ethic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships...persuasive to an audience that lacks formal training in moral philosophy. Thus it has to be justifiable in concepts that are comprehensible and

  17. Mushroom Emergence Detected by Combining Spore Trapping with Molecular Techniques.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Carles; Oliva, Jonàs; Martínez de Aragón, Juan; Alday, Josu G; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining reliable and representative mushroom production data requires time-consuming sampling schemes. In this paper, we assessed a simple methodology to detect mushroom emergence by trapping the fungal spores of the fruiting body community in plots where mushroom production was determined weekly. We compared the performance of filter paper traps with that of funnel traps and combined these spore trapping methods with species-specific quantitative real-time PCR and Illumina MiSeq to determine the spore abundance. Significantly more MiSeq proportional reads were generated for both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal species using filter traps than were obtained using funnel traps. The spores of 37 fungal species that produced fruiting bodies in the study plots were identified. Spore community composition changed considerably over time due to the emergence of ephemeral fruiting bodies and rapid spore deposition (lasting from 1 to 2 weeks), which occurred in the absence of rainfall events. For many species, the emergence of epigeous fruiting bodies was followed by a peak in the relative abundance of their airborne spores. There were significant positive relationships between fruiting body yields and spore abundance in time for five of seven fungal species. There was no relationship between fruiting body yields and their spore abundance at plot level, indicating that some of the spores captured in each plot were arriving from the surrounding areas. Differences in fungal detection capacity by spore trapping may indicate different dispersal ability between fungal species. Further research can help to identify the spore rain patterns for most common fungal species. IMPORTANCE Mushroom monitoring represents a serious challenge in economic and logistical terms because sampling approaches demand extensive field work at both the spatial and temporal scales. In addition, the identification of fungal taxa depends on the expertise of experienced fungal taxonomists

  18. Mushroom Emergence Detected by Combining Spore Trapping with Molecular Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Jonàs; Martínez de Aragón, Juan; Alday, Josu G.; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining reliable and representative mushroom production data requires time-consuming sampling schemes. In this paper, we assessed a simple methodology to detect mushroom emergence by trapping the fungal spores of the fruiting body community in plots where mushroom production was determined weekly. We compared the performance of filter paper traps with that of funnel traps and combined these spore trapping methods with species-specific quantitative real-time PCR and Illumina MiSeq to determine the spore abundance. Significantly more MiSeq proportional reads were generated for both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal species using filter traps than were obtained using funnel traps. The spores of 37 fungal species that produced fruiting bodies in the study plots were identified. Spore community composition changed considerably over time due to the emergence of ephemeral fruiting bodies and rapid spore deposition (lasting from 1 to 2 weeks), which occurred in the absence of rainfall events. For many species, the emergence of epigeous fruiting bodies was followed by a peak in the relative abundance of their airborne spores. There were significant positive relationships between fruiting body yields and spore abundance in time for five of seven fungal species. There was no relationship between fruiting body yields and their spore abundance at plot level, indicating that some of the spores captured in each plot were arriving from the surrounding areas. Differences in fungal detection capacity by spore trapping may indicate different dispersal ability between fungal species. Further research can help to identify the spore rain patterns for most common fungal species. IMPORTANCE Mushroom monitoring represents a serious challenge in economic and logistical terms because sampling approaches demand extensive field work at both the spatial and temporal scales. In addition, the identification of fungal taxa depends on the expertise of experienced fungal taxonomists

  19. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2010, to July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  20. 76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  1. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of February 1, 2002, through January 31, 2003. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Final...

  2. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  3. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... of certain preserved mushrooms from India. EFFECTIVE DATE: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... review of certain preserved mushrooms from India covering the period of review of February 1, 2000...

  4. 76 FR 41215 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period February 1, 2009, to January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  5. Rapid Species Identification of Cooked Poisonous Mushrooms by Using Real-Time PCR▿

    PubMed Central

    Maeta, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Tomoya; Tokimoto, Keisuke; Shimomura, Norihiro; Maekawa, Nitaro; Kawaguchi, Nobuhisa; Nakaya, Makoto; Kitamoto, Yutaka; Aimi, Tadanori

    2008-01-01

    Species-specific identification of the major cooked and fresh poisonous mushrooms in Japan was performed using a real-time PCR system. Specific fluorescence signals were detected, and no nonspecific signals were detected. Therefore, we succeeded in developing a species-specific test for the identification of poisonous mushrooms within 1.5 h. PMID:18378653

  6. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Preserved Mushrooms... New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 14772 (April 1, 2009) unchanged at Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 28882 (June 18...

  7. Utilization of treated conifer wood chips by Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Karst. species for cultivating mushrooms

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2003-01-01

    Mushroom-producing white-rot basidiomycetes can grow rapidly and produce heavy mycelial growth on treated conifer wastes with extractive-degrading fungi. This study evaluates the treatment of scaled-up conifer wood chips with Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97). Treated conifer chips were used as substrates for cultivating mushroom-producing basidiomycetes of various...

  8. On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

    2012-06-01

    Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

  9. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  10. Rice straw addition as sawdust substitution in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) planted media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Christine Pamardining; Susilawati, Puspita Ratna

    2017-08-01

    Oyster mushroom is favorite by the people because of the high nutrients. The oyster mushroom cultivation usually using sawdust. The availability of sawdust become difficult to find. It makes difficulties of mushroom cultivation. Rice straw as an agricultural waste can be used as planted media of oyster mushroom because they contain much nutrition needed to the mushroom growth. The aims of this research were to analysis the influence of rice straw addition in a baglog as planted media and to analysis the concentration of rice straw addition which can substitute sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom. This research used 4 treatment of sawdust and rice straw ratio K = 75 % : 0 %, P1 = 60 % : 15 %, P2 = 40 % : 35 %, P3 = 15 % : 60 %. The same material composition of all baglog was bran 20%, chalk 5%, and water 70%. The parameters used in this research were wet weight, dry weight, moisture content and number of the mushroom fruit body. Data analysis was used ANOVA test with 1 factorial. The results of this research based on statistical analysis showed that there was no influence of rice straw addition in a planted media on the oyster mushroomgrowth. 15% : 60% was the concentrationof rice straw additionwhich can substitute the sawdust in planted media of oyster mushroom.

  11. Book Review :The Essential Guide to Rocky Mountain Mushrooms by Habitat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mushroom guide book, 'The Essential Guide to Rocky Mountain Mushrooms by Habitat' by Cathy L. Cripps, Vera S. Evenson, and Michael Kou (University of Illinois Press, 260 pages), is reviewed in non-technical fashion from the standpoints of format, comprehensiveness, and clarity. Postive features (...

  12. Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kimiko

    2013-11-01

    Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects).

  13. [Status of termite-mushroom artificial domestication cultivation--a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Guo, Huachun; Li, Rongchun

    2010-10-01

    Two models of domestication and cultivation of termite-mushroom were discussed: the cultivation of termitomyces model, which method of woodrotting fungi cultivation was emphasized and the original ecological model, which multiplication of symbiotic termites was focused. The problems and possible solutions during termite-mushroom cultivation were also discussed.

  14. FROM GARBAGE TO GOURMET: SUSTAINABLE WASTE PREVENTION AND MUSHROOM CULTIVATION FROM USED COFFEE GROUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected outputs of the project will include: 1) compost, 2) mushrooms for demonstration 3) report and website documenting recommendations for gourmet mushroom cultivation and results of the pilot study, and 4) tri-fold displays. The expected outcomes of the project wil...

  15. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of... Ltd. (formerly Ponds India, Ltd.), Transchem, Ltd., and Weikfield Foods Pvt. Ltd. Monterey Mushrooms...

  16. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of... Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with...

  17. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012... duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period... Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  18. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Notice of Amendment... Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with section...

  19. Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in U.S. Mushrooms and Substrate in Relation to Dietary Exposure.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McClatchy, Colleen; Paukett, Michelle

    2016-09-06

    Wild mushrooms can absorb high quantities of metal(loid)s, yet the concentration, speciation, and localization of As, Pb, and Cd in cultivated mushrooms, particularly in the United States, are unresolved. We collected 40 samples of 12 types of raw mushrooms from 2 geographic locations that produce the majority of marketable U.S. mushrooms and analyzed the total As, Pb, and Cd content, the speciation and localization of As in select samples, and assessed the metal sources and substrate-to-fruit transfer at one representative farm. Cremini mushrooms contained significantly higher total As concentrations than Shiitake and localized the As differently; while As in Cremini was distributed throughout the fruiting body, it was localized to the hymenophore region in Shiitake. Cd was significantly higher in Royal Trumpet than in White Button, Cremini, and Portobello, while no difference was observed in Pb levels among the mushrooms. Concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd were less than 1 μg g(-1) d.w. in all mushroom samples, and the overall risk of As, Cd, and Pb intake from mushroom consumption is low in the U.S. However, higher percentages of tolerable intake levels are observed when calculating risk based on single serving-sizes or when substrate contains elevated levels of metal(loid)s.

  20. A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

  1. Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qing-Jiu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Chuan-hua; Cao, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional composition of three recently domesticated culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba) was evaluated for contents of protein, fiber, fat, total sugar content, amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide components. The data indicated that fruiting bodies of these three mushroom species contained abundant nutritional substances. The protein contents of L. squarrosulus and O. submucida were 26.32% and 14.70%, which could be comparable to other commercially cultivated species. T. aurantialba contained 74.11% of carbohydrate, of which soluble polysaccharide was 40.55%. Oudemansiella sudmusida contained 15.95% of arabitol as the highest sugar alcohol in three mushrooms. These mushrooms also possessed distinct taste by their flavor component composition. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained 10.68% and 9.25% of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet amino acids, which were higher than the other two mushrooms. However, the nucleotide amounts of the three mushrooms were all lower than those of other commercially cultivated mushrooms. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained the highest amount of flavor nucleotides, which was 1.01‰. Results revealed that these three mushroom species are potentially suitable resources for commercial cultivation and healthy food.

  2. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. Recently, we successfully cultivated four edible medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid cultures. One of these is Ganoderma lucidum. With the aim to elucidate the functional bioactive lipids, we identified the lipid species of the solven...

  3. Mushroom polysaccharides: chemistry and antiobesity, antidiabetes, anticancer, and antibiotic properties in cells, rodents, and humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. More than 2,000 species of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms have been identified to date, stimulating much research on their health-promoting properties. These properties are associated with bioactive compounds produced by the...

  4. Abundance and distribution of Microdispus lambi (Acari: Microdispidae) in Spanish mushroom crops.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María-Jesús; Gea, Francisco-José; Escudero-Colomar, L Adriana

    2010-04-01

    The myceliophagous mite Microdispus lambi has become a veritable plague since 1996, when it was first observed in Spanish mushroom crops, and is now causing substantial economic losses, particulary in spring and summer. This study looks at seasonal variation of the pest, its distribution on commercial farms and the population development during the crop cycle of the common white mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Over a period of 18 months, 24 consecutive mushroom crop cycles were monitored and a total of 24 spawn and 960 substrate samples were analysed. We found that it is usually the substrates in the growing rooms that are infested, most commonly the compost. In many cases, the pest can be detected when the first 'flush'-i.e., mushroom growth surge, with weekly periodicity-is harvested, although damage does not become evident until the third flush. Mites were detected at the back of the mushroom growing room and, to a lesser extent, near the access door.

  5. Mushroom extract inhibits ultraviolet B-induced cellular senescence in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao; Matsuo, Haruka; Kuroda, Mai; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Katakura, Yoshinori

    2018-06-02

    Mushrooms possess various bioactivities and are used as nutritional supplements and medicinal products. Twenty-nine bioactive components have been extracted recently from mushrooms grown in Nepal. In this study, we evaluated the ability of these mushroom extracts to augment SIRT1, a mammalian SIR2 homologue localized in cytosol and nuclei. We established a system for screening food ingredients that augment the SIRT1 promoter in HaCaT cells, and identified a SIRT1-augmenting mushroom extract (number 28, Trametes versicolor). UVB irradiation induced cellular senescence in HaCaT cells, as evidenced by increased activity and expression of cellular senescence markers including senescence-associated β-galactosidase, p21, p16, phosphorylated p38, and γH2AX. Results clearly showed that the mushroom extract (No. 28) suppressed the ultraviolet B irradiation-induced cellular senescence in HaCaT cells possibly through augmenting SIRT1 expression.

  6. Physical, Predictive Glycaemic Response and Antioxidative Properties of Black Ear Mushroom (Auricularia auricula) Extrudates.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Margaux; Lu, Xikun; Narciso, Joan Oñate; Li, Wenhui; Qin, Yuyue; Brennan, Margaret A; Brennan, Charles S

    2017-09-01

    Black ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula) is an important genus of cultivated mushroom, which contains health benefits. Incorporating black ear (BE) mushroom into brown rice by extrusion changed the physicochemical, and more importantly, the nutritional characteristics of the extrudates. With increased incorporation of BE mushroom in the extrudates in vitro starch digestion of the different extrudates revealed significantly reduced starch digestion, suggesting a lower glycaemic index. In addition, incorporation of BE in brown rice extrudates increased the total phenolic concentration of the samples, which led to higher % scavenging effect against free-radicals in DPPH assay. In the ORAC assay for anti-oxidant activity, BE powder exhibited the highest anti-oxidant activity, followed by 10% BE and 15% BE, and 5% BE extruded products. The extruded brown rice control exhibited the lowest antioxidant activity. Inclusion of black ear mushroom was shown to improve the nutritional qualities of the food product illustrating the connection between plant bioactive ingredients and human health.

  7. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil: biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation.

    PubMed

    Largeteau, Michèle L; Llarena-Hernández, Régulo Carlos; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    Sun mushroom is a cultivated mushroom extensively studied for its medicinal properties for several years and literature abounds on the topic. Besides, agronomical aspects were investigated in Brazil, the country the mushroom comes from, and some studies focus on the biology of the fungus. This review aimed to present an overview of the non-medicinal knowledge on the mushroom. Areas of commercial production and marketing trends are presented. Its specific fragrance, taste, nutritional value and potential use of extracts as food additives are compared to those of the most cultivated fungi and laboratory models. The interest of the mushroom for lignocellulosic enzyme production and source of biomolecules for the control of plant pathogens are shown. Investigation of genetic variability among cultivars is reported. Growing and storage of mycelium, as well as cultivation conditions (substrate and casing generally based on local products; indoor and outdoor cultivation; diseases and disorders) are described and compared to knowledge on Agaricus bisporus.

  8. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  9. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focusmore » on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.« less

  10. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivationmore » of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.« less

  11. Vitamin D and Vitamin D from Ultraviolet-Irradiated Mushrooms (Review).

    PubMed

    Kamweru, Paul Kuria; Tindibale, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line.

  12. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  13. [Effect of Cordyceps sinensis powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-hui; Pan, Ming-ming; Ni, Hai-feng; Chen, Jun-feng; Xu, Mn; Gong, Yu-xiang; Chen, Ping-sheng; Liu, Bi-cheng

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) powder on renal oxidative stress and mitochondria functions in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, and to primarily explore its possible mechanisms. Totally 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, and the treatment group by random digit table, 10 in each group. A chronic kidney disease (CKD) rat model was prepared by one step 5/6 nephrectomy. Rats in the treatment group were intragastrically administered with CS powder solution at the daily dose of 2 g/kg, once per day. Equal volume of double distilled water was intragastrically administered to rats in the sham-operation group and the model group. All medication lasted for 12 weeks. The general condition of rats, their body weight, blood pressure, 24 h proteinuria, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr) , and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were assessed before surgery, at week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 10 after surgery. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed under light microscope. Morphological changes of mitochondria in renal tubular epithelial cells were observed under transmission electron microscope. Activities of antioxidant enzymes including reduced glutathione (GSH), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in fresh renal tissue homogenate were detected. Mitochondria of renal tissues were extracted to detect levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS). And expressions of cytochrome-C (Cyto-C) and prohibitin in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of the renal cortex were also measured by Western blot. (1) Compared with the sham-operation group, body weight was significantly decreased at week 2 (P <0. 01), but blood pressure increased at week 4 (P <0. 05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, body weight was significantly increased at week 12 (P <0. 01), but blood pressure decreased at week 8 (P < 0. 01) in the

  14. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study on Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan-Shan; Xiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Pen-Ju; He, Yang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yang-Yang; Rong, A; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guang-Zhi

    2017-10-05

    As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5). All the mice were observed for clinical assessment. Over the 30 days of CS treatment, flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of helper T-cell (Th) subsets, Th1 and Th17, and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. Meanwhile, pathological changes in brain were determined using both hematoxylin-eosin and luxol fast blue staining. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Over the 15 and 30 days of CS treatment, the clinical assessment for EAE demonstrated that both high-CS group (2.51 ± 0.31 and 2.26 ± 0.39 scores, respectively) and low-CS group (2.99 ± 0.40 and 2.69 ± 0.46, respectively) had lower disease severity scores than those of control group (3.57 ± 0.53 and 3.29 ± 0.53, all P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, after 15 and 30 days, the high-CS group (19.18 ± 1.34 g and 20.41 ± 1.56 g, respectively) and low-CS group (18.07 ± 1.18 g and 19.48 ± 1.69 g, respectively) had a lower body weight, as compared with control group (16.85 ± 1.15 g and 18.22 ± 1.63 g, all P < 0.01, respectively). At 30 days post-CS treatment, there was a lower Th1 frequency in the lymph nodes (2.85 ± 1.54% and 2.77 ± 1.07% vs. 5.35 ± 1.34%, respectively; P < 0.05) and spleens (3.96 ± 1.09% and 3.09 ± 0.84% vs. 5.07 ± 1.50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and less inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain of CS-treated mice than that of control group. Our preliminary

  15. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Pilot Study on Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shan-Shan; Xiang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Pen-Ju; He, Yang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yang-Yang; Rong, A; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guang-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Background: As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35–55 to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5). All the mice were observed for clinical assessment. Over the 30 days of CS treatment, flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of helper T-cell (Th) subsets, Th1 and Th17, and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes. Meanwhile, pathological changes in brain were determined using both hematoxylin-eosin and luxol fast blue staining. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Over the 15 and 30 days of CS treatment, the clinical assessment for EAE demonstrated that both high-CS group (2.51 ± 0.31 and 2.26 ± 0.39 scores, respectively) and low-CS group (2.99 ± 0.40 and 2.69 ± 0.46, respectively) had lower disease severity scores than those of control group (3.57 ± 0.53 and 3.29 ± 0.53, all P < 0.01, respectively). Meanwhile, after 15 and 30 days, the high-CS group (19.18 ± 1.34 g and 20.41 ± 1.56 g, respectively) and low-CS group (18.07 ± 1.18 g and 19.48 ± 1.69 g, respectively) had a lower body weight, as compared with control group (16.85 ± 1.15 g and 18.22 ± 1.63 g, all P < 0.01, respectively). At 30 days post-CS treatment, there was a lower Th1 frequency in the lymph nodes (2.85 ± 1.54% and 2.77 ± 1.07% vs. 5.35 ± 1.34%, respectively; P < 0.05) and spleens (3.96 ± 1.09% and 3.09 ± 0.84% vs. 5.07 ± 1.50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and less inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain of CS-treated mice than that of

  16. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    PubMed

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Methods Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Results Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min−1, P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. Conclusions These data suggest that diet–drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. PMID:24168107

  18. Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Raphael-John H.; Lu, Zhiren; Bogusz, Jaimee M.; Williams, Jennifer E.; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and tachysterol2. It was observed that the concentration of lumisterol2 remained constant in white button mushrooms for up to 24 h after being produced. However, in the same mushroom tachysterol2 concentrations rapidly declined and were undetectable after 24 h. Shiitake mushrooms not only produce vitamin D2 but also produce vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. A study of the bioavailability of vitamin D2 in mushrooms compared with the bioavailability of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement revealed that ingestion of 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 in mushrooms is as effective as ingesting 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement in raising and maintaining blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a marker for a person's vitamin D status. Therefore, mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. PMID:24494050

  19. Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2011-03-01

    The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. The chemical structure of polysaccharides and its connection to antitumor activity, including possible ways of chemical modification, experimental testing and clinical use of antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides, and possible mechanisms of their biological action, are discussed. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from medicinal mushrooms are described that appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Stimulation of host immune defense systems by bioactive polymers from medicinal mushrooms has significant effects on the maturation, differentiation, and proliferation of many kinds of immune cells in the host. Many of these mushroom polymers were reported previously to have immunotherapeutic properties by facilitating growth inhibition and destruction of tumor cells. While the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom polymers appears central. Particularly and most importantly for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phases I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal

  20. Improvement of Diet-induced Obesity by Ingestion of Mushroom Chitosan Prepared from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Shoichi; Hamaya, Tadao; Eguchi, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    The anti-obesity effects of mushroom chitosan prepared from Flammulina velutipes were investigated using an animal model with diet-induced obesity. In this study, 5-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were divided into six groups of 10 mice each and fed different diets based on the MF powdered diet (standard diet) for 6 weeks: standard diet control group, high-fat diet control group (induced dietary obesity) consisting of the standard diet and 20% lard, and mushroom chitosan groups consisting of the high-fat diet with mushroom chitosan added at 100, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight. On the final day of the experiment, mean body weight was 39.1 g in the high-fat control group and 36.3 g in the 2,000 mg/kg mushroom chitosan group, compared to 35.8 g in the standard diet control group. In the mushroom chitosan groups, a dose-dependent suppression of weight gain and marked improvements in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were found. The mushroom chitosan groups showed fewer and smaller fat deposits in liver cells than the high-fat diet control group, and liver weight was significantly reduced. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT), which are indices of the hepatic function, all showed dose-dependent improvement with mushroom chitosan administration. These results suggested that mushroom chitosan acts to suppress enlargement of the liver from fat deposition resulting from a high-fat diet and to restore hepatic function. The lipid content of feces showed a marked increase correlated with the mushroom chitosan dose. These findings suggest the potential use of mushroom chitosan as a functional food ingredient that contributes to the prevention or improvement of dietary obesity by inhibiting digestion and absorption of fats in the digestive tract and simultaneously promotes lipolysis in adipocytes.

  1. Effect of mushroom diet on pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Toh, Dorothy Su Lin; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Yee, Jie Yin; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Boon-Cher; Murray, Michael; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Chinese subjects who received a diet rich in shiitake mushrooms. Shiitake mushrooms have been shown to contain high amount of ergothioneine. In vitro studies have shown that OCTN1-mediated secretion of gabapentin is trans-stimulated by ergothioneine. This study also investigated the concentrations of ergothioneine in plasma at baseline and following mushroom consumption. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited and received a diet containing no mushrooms (treatment A) or a high mushroom diet (treatment B; after at least a 7 day washout period) 1 day prior to administration of a single oral dose of gabapentin 600 mg. Ingestion of shiitake mushrooms produced significant increases in plasma ergothioneine concentrations that were sustained for more than 48 h. A statistically significant but modest increase in the renal clearance (CLR ) of gabapentin occurred after intake of the mushroom diet (91.1 ± 25.1 vs. 76.9 ± 20.6 ml min(-1) , P = 0.031). No significant changes in AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin were observed (P = 0.726). Creatinine clearance did not correlate with CLR of gabapentin at baseline (treatment A). After ingestion of the mushroom diet, creatinine clearance accounted for 65.3% of the variance in CLR of gabapentin. These data suggest that diet-drug pharmacokinetic interactions may occur during co-exposure to gabapentin and mushroom constituents. However, as it does not affect the AUC(0,tlast ) of gabapentin, it may not have clinically important consequences. Shiitake mushrooms can also be used as a source of ergothioneine for future clinical studies. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    perceptual and behavioral dimensions of the human terrain of any military or military-supported mission. Its principal missions are curriculum design...CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF MILITARY TRAINING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff... Dimensions of Military Training 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Acasandrei Nicolae, Romania

  3. Genetic diversity of Kenyan native oyster mushroom (Pleurotus).

    PubMed

    Otieno, Ojwang D; Onyango, Calvin; Onguso, Justus Mungare; Matasyoh, Lexa G; Wanjala, Bramwel W; Wamalwa, Mark; Harvey, Jagger J W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Autonomy in military aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, D. W.

    Military users are becoming increasingly dependent on satellites for vital services related to communication, surveillance information, navigation, and meteorological data. The current military spacecraft, however, need the services of a ground support network which is vulnerable in connection with a variety of threats. It has, therefore, been proposed to decrease the dependence of the satellites on the ground segment by improving satellite autonomy, and the Satellite Autonomy Program at the recently created Air Force Space Technology Center is developing the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS) for a near term generic autonomy solution. Attention is given to the implementation of autonomy and technological requirements for ensuring autonomy.

  5. Committee on Military Nutrition Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9478 TITLE: COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION ...COVERED (From - To) 01 Jun 99 – 31 Dec 06 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the

  6. Bibliography of Military and Non-Military Personnel Turnover Literature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    AD-A122 895 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MILITARY AND NON -MILIARY PERSONNEL / TURNOVER LITERATURE(U) AI F ORC E HUMAN RE SOURCE S LAB1 UN S O BROOKS AFB TX G A...MILITARY AND NON -MILrTARY Interim PERSONNEL TURNOVER LITERATURE I July 190- 31 January 1982 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) . CONThACT OR...automated se e osf the lumt, the report is a cosmjuhmmlve b lfe of 259 military and 251 non -military studies of tur. The military turnover literature is

  7. Integrated Microcalorimeters Using Ir TES And Sn Mushroom Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Bogorin, D.; Galeazzi, M.

    2006-09-07

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters have the potential to meet the requirements of future x-ray missions. The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays. We deposit high purity iridium thin film as Transition Edge Sensors (TES). We chose iridium because it has a bulk transition temperature of 112 mK and we expect single layer TES to have good reproducibility and long term stability. Also we use integrated tin film in a mushroom geometry as the absorbers to get high filling factor, low heat capacity and easy array manufacturing process. We present here our preliminary results inmore » both areas.« less

  8. Fatal fulminant hepatitis associated with Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder.

    PubMed

    Wanmuang, Harirak; Leopairut, Juvady; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Wananukul, Winai; Bunyaratvej, Sukhum

    2007-01-01

    Hepatotoxic effect related to Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder was first described in a patient from Hong Kong in 2004. In 2005, the authors experienced a case of fatal fulminant hepatitis associated with such a preparation. Both patients had taken other therapeutic agents and traditionally boiled Lingzhi without any toxic effect. After switching to taking Lingzhi in powder form for 1-2 months, the hepatotoxic episode occurred in both patients. The toxic role of Lingzhi powder needs close monitoring in the future, especially in combination with other drugs.

  9. Screening of Tropical Wood-Rotting Mushrooms for Copper Biosorption

    PubMed Central

    Muraleedharan, T. R.; Iyengar, L.; Venkobachar, C.

    1995-01-01

    Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) of nine nonedible macrofungi were screened for copper(II) uptake potential. The maximum uptake potentials (Q(infmax)s) derived from equilibrium studies indicated that all nine species exhibited higher Q(infmax)s at pH 4.0 than that of Filtrasorb-400, a generally used adsorbent for metal removal. Wide variation in Q(infmax) was observed among the species and ranged from 0.048 to 0.383 mmol per g of sorbent. The uptake capacity of Ganoderma lucidum, which exhibited the highest Q(infmax), was higher than those of other microbial biosorbents reported in the literature. PMID:16535136

  10. Utilizing Mushrooms to Reduce Overall Sodium in Taco Filling Using Physical and Sensory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kristin M; Decker, Eric A; Autio, Wesley R; Toong, Ken; DiStefano, Garett; Kinchla, Amanda J

    2017-10-01

    This project investigated the use of integrating mushrooms into beef taco filling as a means to reduce overall sodium for food service applications. Initial product development used physical characterization analysis (moisture, yield, color, and texture) to determine initial threshold of mushroom inclusion with minimal differences against an all-meat control. Increasing mushroom inclusion increased moisture and yield before draining but decreased yield after draining, lightness, redness, and texture. Results showed that inclusion under 50% by weight minimized physical attribute deviation from an all-meat control. Additional physical analysis investigated a variety of other factors (mushroom type, blanching, and particle size) to determine if other attributing mushroom characteristics would yield statistical similarity to the all-meat control. Results showed that a formulation containing up to 45% mushrooms can be integrated into beef fillings using un-blanched, white button mushrooms with small grind (1 to 5 mm), which maximized mushroom usage while minimizing differences from the all-meat control. Additional sodium analysis showed that varying salt level in formulations did not affect physical characteristics and mushroom inclusion could not significantly reduce overall sodium level. Optimized mushroom samples were then fielded in a hedonic sensory study to untrained consumers to evaluate product liking attributes (overall liking, aroma, color, flavor, juiciness, saltiness, and texture). Samples with overall liking scores that closely matched the control were then fielded in a paired-preference test to determine acceptance. Consumers preferred a 45% mushroom with reduced sodium taco filling compared to its full sodium counterpart in a food service fielded paired-preference sensory test. Although diet can significantly reduce the risk of heart disease, American consumers continue to eat detrimental diets high in fat and sodium. Products need to be made that

  11. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis.

  12. Understanding and preventing military suicide.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Jennings, Keith W; Jobes, David A; Bradley, John C

    2012-01-01

    The continual rise in the U.S. military's suicide rate since 2004 is one of the most vexing issues currently facing military leaders, mental health professionals, and suicide experts. Despite considerable efforts to address this problem, however, suicide rates have not decreased. The authors consider possible reasons for this frustrating reality, and question common assumptions and approaches to military suicide prevention. They further argue that suicide prevention efforts that more explicitly embrace the military culture and implement evidence-based strategies across the full spectrum of prevention and treatment could improve success. Several recommendations for augmenting current efforts to prevent military suicide are proposed.

  13. Resilience among Military Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  14. On Military Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    sciences and philosophies are based on dubious premises or are in fact pseudosciences. Modern military theory was heavily influenced by empiricism and...determinism. Empiricism is described as a logical process based on pursuing knowledge through observation and experiments. One can make sensible

  15. Military Vision Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    accomplishments emanating from this research . • 3 novel computer-based tasks have been developed that measure visual distortions • These tests are based...10-1-0392 TITLE: Military Vision Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Darlene Dartt...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Schepens Eye Research

  16. Slowing Military Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    existential fear of one’s superpower rival. Nor was the Cold War the only arms race in history: naval rivalry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries...Military Review, July-August 2006; Norman Solomon, “The Bogus Blurring of Terrorism and Insurgency in Iraq,” The Humanist , Vol. 66, No. 2, March-April

  17. Military Deception Reconsidered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    operations through media channels to receive real benefits . If information advantage is properly formulated, carried out, and secured, it is a...timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage , consisting of surprise, information advantage ... Advantage , Surprise, Operational Advantage , Military Tactics, Deception Campaigns 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified

  18. Training for the Military.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFann, Howard H.

    Descriptions of major categories of training, and methodology, techniques, status, and trends are presented in this discussion of military training. After noting the five categories of training--recruit, officer acquisition, specialized skill, flight, and professional development education--emphasis is placed on a discussion of recruit, or basic…

  19. USSR Report, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-19

    Inspirer and Organizer of State Terrorism ...3 Snegov, V. - Japan’s Military Preparedness ................ ......... 9 Sykhotskiy, V. - Physical...intercept, DF and analysis of radar signals and fleet and satellite comunications . The aircraft is further equipped to process the data and transmit them to

  20. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576