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About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...
Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.
This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…
Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K
Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.
Mahon, Emily M; Mahon, Suzanne M
Music therapy is the supervised and therapeutic use of music by a credentialed therapist to promote positive clinical outcomes. It can be a valuable form of complementary medicine in the oncology setting to decrease patient stress and anxiety, relieve pain and nausea, provide distraction, alleviate depression, and promote the expression of feelings. The music therapist assesses the patient and consults other members of the multidisciplinary team to create a therapeutic treatment plan. Music therapists design music sessions based on patients' needs and their intended therapeutic goals. Patients can participate actively or passively in individual or group sessions. Only a credentialed music therapist can provide safe and beneficial music therapy interventions.
... needs; & follow up progress. Who Can Benefit from Music Therapy? Children, adolescents, adults, & the elderly with mental health needs, developmental & learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease, aging related conditions, substance abuse problems, brain ...
Gallagher, L M; Huston, M J; Nelson, K A; Walsh, D; Steele, A L
A partnership between The Cleveland Clinic Foundation and The Cleveland Music School Settlement has resulted in music therapy becoming a standard part of the care in our palliative medicine inpatient unit. This paper describes a music therapy program and its impact on patients, their families, and staff. A service delivery model is suggested for implementation and integration of music therapy within palliative medicine. Specific music therapy interventions, evaluation and documentation techniques are also mentioned. A description of patient and family responses to music therapy, staff satisfaction, and effectiveness of interventions is presented.
American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music ...
Lim, Hayoung A
The purpose of the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) was to measure the affective domain of music therapy students including their self-awareness as it relates to the music therapy career, value in human development, interest in general therapy, and aptitude for being a professional music therapist. The MTCAT was administered to 113 music therapy students who are currently freshman or sophomores in an undergraduate music therapy program or in the first year of a music therapy master's equivalency program. The results of analysis indicated that the MTCAT is normally distributed and that all 20 questions are significantly correlated with the total test score of the MTCAT. The reliability of the MTCAT was considerably high (Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha=0.8). The criterion-related validity was examined by comparing the MTCAT scores of music therapy students with the scores of 43 professional music therapists. The correlation between the scores of students and professionals was found to be statistically significant. The results suggests that normal distribution, internal consistency, homogeneity of construct, item discrimination, correlation analysis, content validity, and criterion-related validity in the MTCAT may be helpful in predicting music therapy career aptitude and may aid in the career decision making process of college music therapy students.
Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…
Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori
This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Robb, Sheri, Ed.
Music therapy is an established health care and human services profession that is dedicated to the implementation of controlled research studies to determine the underlying mechanisms in music that are responsible for therapeutic change, as well as clinical research to direct and guide the work of the music therapist. This growing body of research…
Chang, Shu-Min; Sung, Huei-Chuan
Music therapy was shown many years ago to have positive effects in various age groups of patients in the Western world. Music can produce physiological and psychological effects, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety, improvements in the immune system, decreases in cortisol levels, the reduction of stress and the promotion of well-being. Music therapy is an inexpensive and effective intervention for nurses to apply to patients. The application of such therapy to children, however, is different from that to adults due to their limited cognitive and language development. In Taiwan, nurses' knowledge of music therapy is limited, and it is rarely used in child care. This article introduces music therapy and its effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, handicapped children, and children receiving surgery. Music therapy is often used as an assisted intervention for patient care in clinical settings. Health care professionals can perform some of the music therapy activities for patients appropriately even if they have not been trained in music. This article aims to improve nurses' knowledge of music therapy and to provide a useful reference for those involved in child care.
Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy.
Munro, S.; Mount, B.
Initial observations regarding the use of music therapy at one hospital in the palliative care of patients with advanced malignant disease are presented. In the hands of a trained music therapist, music has proven to be a potent tool for improving the quality of life. The diversity of its potential is particularly suited to the deversity of the challenges - physical, psychosocial and spiritual - that these patients present. Images FIG. 1 PMID:84704
Dementia is now a leading cause of both mortality and morbidity, particularly in western nations, and current projections for rates of dementia suggest this will worsen. More than ever, cost effective and creative non-pharmacological therapies are needed to ensure we have an adequate system of care and supervision. Music therapy is one such measure, yet to date statements of what music therapy is supposed to bring about in ethical terms have been limited to fairly vague and under-developed claims about an improvement in well-being. This article identifies the relevant sense of wellbeing at stake in the question of dementia therapies of this type. In broad terms the idea is that this kind of therapy has a restorative effect on social agency. To the extent that music arouses a person through its rhythms and memory-inducing effects, particularly in communal settings, it may give rise to the recovery of one's narrative agency, and in turn allow for both carer and patient to participate in a more meaningful and mutually engaging social connection.
Racle, Gabriel L.
Suggestopaedia seems to be the only pedagogical approach using music as an integral part or essential component of the teaching process, in spite of the fact that the contribution of music to pedagogy and successful learning has been recognized for some time. In a suggestopaedic course, music plays a large part in creating a pleasant suggestive…
Kemper, Kathi J; Danhauer, Suzanne C
Music is widely used to enhance well-being, reduce stress, and distract patients from unpleasant symptoms. Although there are wide variations in individual preferences, music appears to exert direct physiologic effects through the autonomic nervous system. It also has indirect effects by modifying caregiver behavior. Music effectively reduces anxiety and improves mood for medical and surgical patients, for patients in intensive care units and patients undergoing procedures, and for children as well as adults. Music is a low-cost intervention that often reduces surgical, procedural, acute, and chronic pain. Music also improves the quality of life for patients receiving palliative care, enhancing a sense of comfort and relaxation. Providing music to caregivers may be a cost-effective and enjoyable strategy to improve empathy, compassion, and relationship-centered care while not increasing errors or interfering with technical aspects of care.
Solomon, Alan L., Ed.; Davis, William B., Ed.; Heller, George N., Ed.
This bibliography, produced by the American Music Therapy Association, represents a collection of research articles and publications over the past 50 years of music therapy's history. It is organized by author.
Hahna, Nicole D; Schwantes, Melody
This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between the use of feminist pedagogy and academic rank of the participants. Seventy-two participants responded to this study, with 69 participants included for data analysis. Stake and Hoffman's (2000) feminist pedagogy survey was adapted for this study, examining four subscales of feminist pedagogy: (a) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/ social activism, and (d) critical thinking/open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n=32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n=46) of participants identified as using feminist pedagogy. Results of a mixed analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant difference within the four survey subscales (p<.0001), no significant difference (p=.32) for academic rank, and no significant interaction (p=.08) of academic rank and the four survey subscales. Tukey's post hoc analysis of the data indicated that the survey subscale measuring political activism (p<.0001) was significantly lower than the other three survey subscales. In addition, a qualitative analysis on open-ended responses is also included. Discussion of the results, limitations, and areas for future research are addressed.
Alley, Jayne M.
The article discusses the roles of music education and music therapy in special education, specifically with reference to the concept of the individualized education program (IEP) as mandated by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142). Journal availability: National Association for Music Therapy, Inc., P.O. Box 610, Lawrence,…
As the music therapy profession has developed internationally over the last 25 years, so has its role in palliative care. Music is a highly versatile and dynamic therapeutic modality, lending itself to a variety of music therapy techniques used to benefit both those living with life-threatening illnesses and their family members and caregivers. This article will give a broad overview of the historical roots of music therapy and introduce the techniques that are employed in current practice. By combining a review of mainstream music therapy practice involving musical improvisation, song-writing and receptive/recreational techniques with case material from my own experience, this article aims to highlight the potential music therapy holds as an effective holistic practice for palliative care, whatever the care setting.
Zárate, P; Díaz, V
Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders.
Satoh, Masayuki; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kuzuhara, Shigeki
In the last decade, a considerable number of studies have been made on the cognitive processing of music. A patient with pure amusia due to the infarction of anterior portion of bilateral temporal lobes revealed the disturbance of the discrimination of chords. Using positron emission tomography, these regions were activated when musically naive normal subjects listened to the harmony compared to the rhythm of identical music. So, we concluded that anterior temporal portion might participate in the recognition of chords. Several articles reported that the musician's brain was different from nonmusicians' functionally and anatomically. This difference was considered to be caused by the musical training for a long time. Recent studies clarified that the reorganization might occur by musical training for a few months. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method aimed to improve speech output of aphasic patients, using short melodic phrase with a word. The literatures of mental processing of music suggested that right hemisphere might participate in the expression of music, namely singing and playing instrumentals. So, it was supposed that MIT utilized the compensational function of right hemisphere for damaged left hemisphere. We also reported that mental singing improved the gait disturbance of patients with Parkinson's disease. Music therapy is changing from a social science model based on the individual experiences to a neuroscience-guided model based on brain function and cognitive processing of the perception and expression of music.
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo
Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.
The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music.
Hahna, Nicole D.
Four music therapy educators participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews as part of a qualitative study. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomena of feminist pedagogy as experienced by music therapy educators using phenomenological inquiry. The study examined the following research questions: (a) do music therapy educators…
Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf
In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199
Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf
In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested.
Clair, Alicia Ann; Heller, George N.
Examines Willem van de Wall's historically significant contributions to seminal literature on music therapy and the influence of music on behavior. Reviews van de Wall's early writings, at his work on music for children, and on music in institutions. Cites his "Music in Hospitals" as the culmination of his work in music therapy, music…
Thaut, Michael H
The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated.
Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika
The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy is a part of a complementary medicine program in supportive cancer care which accompanies medical treatment. There are many benefits of music therapy for cancer patients-interactive music therapy techniques (instrumental improvisation, singing) as well as receptive music therapy techniques (listening to recorded or live music, music and imaginary) can be used to improve mood, decrease stress, pain, anxiety level and enhance relaxation. Music therapy is an effective form of supporting cancer care for patients during the treatment process. It may be also basic for planning effective programs of rehabilitation to promote wellness, improve physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life.
Stanczyk, Malgorzata Monika
The purpose of this paper is to show some aspects of music therapy application in cancer care and to present the integration of music therapy program into a continuous supportive cancer care for inpatients. A cancer diagnosis is one of the most feared and serious life events that causes stress in individuals and families. Cancer disrupts social, physical and emotional well-being and results in a range of emotions, including anger, fear, sadness, guilt, embarrassment and shame. Music therapy is a part of a complementary medicine program in supportive cancer care which accompanies medical treatment. There are many benefits of music therapy for cancer patients—interactive music therapy techniques (instrumental improvisation, singing) as well as receptive music therapy techniques (listening to recorded or live music, music and imaginary) can be used to improve mood, decrease stress, pain, anxiety level and enhance relaxation. Music therapy is an effective form of supporting cancer care for patients during the treatment process. It may be also basic for planning effective programs of rehabilitation to promote wellness, improve physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life. PMID:24376975
The present contribution describes the experience taken from music therapy of psychotic patients. The emotional and cognitive music perception and its possible influence on self perception and strengthening of ego are discussed. Since exercise instructions were limited the observed improvement of communication seems rather due to intra- and interpersonal effects of active improvisation than to a training process. With regard to schizophrenic patients possible effects of music therapy are discussed in the light of self-object-differentiation.
Suda, Miyuki; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Obata, Akiko; Koizumi, Hideaki; Maki, Atsushi
Neurocognitive research has the potential to identify the relevant effects of music therapy. In this study, we examined the effect of music mode (major vs. minor) on stress reduction using optical topography and an endocrinological stress marker. In salivary cortisol levels, we observed that stressful conditions such as mental fatigue (thinking and creating a response) was reduced more by major mode music than by minor mode music. We suggest that music specifically induces an emotional response similar to a pleasant experience or happiness. Moreover, we demonstrated the typical asymmetrical pattern of stress responses in upper temporal cortex areas, and suggested that happiness/sadness emotional processing might be related to stress reduction by music.
Rorke, M A
As music therapists continue to discover more about the therapeutic powers of music, it is interesting now and then to look to the past in order to seek the roots of our contemporary practices. In this regard, the writings of eighteenth-century physicians are pivotal in the development of music therapy, for it was these individuals who first began to depend greatly upon scientific experimentation and observation to formulate their procedures. Representative of this stage in the history of music therapy are the findings of the renowned London physician Richard Brocklesby, the only doctor to write a treatise on music therapy in eighteenth-century England. The subjects treated by Brocklesby in his Reflections on the Power of Music (1749) include his musical remedies for the excesses of various emotions-particularly fear, excessive joy, and excessive sadness. He also discusses his musical remedies for diseases of the mind recognized in the eighteenth century-delirium, frenzy, melancholia, and maniacal cases. He considers music as well an aid to the elderly and to pregnant women. In short, Brocklesby provides a lively account of the curative powers of music as viewed in the mid-eighteenth century by an excellent medical mind.
Solanki, Madhusudan Singh; Zafar, Mehnaz; Rastogi, Rajesh
Music is popularly believed to usher in bliss and serenity, and healing is considered its natural quality. It has an emotionally charging charisma of its own, that we all as listeners might have experienced at times. Music has been there with mankind since the beginning of history, but where does it stand as a therapy? Is there any evidence base? How this therapy came into being and how it has evolved, and what the old and current research says about its role in psychiatric disorders. This review tries to explore these questions and arrives at a conclusion that music certainly promises more than just entertainment, and evidence so far suggests music therapy can be beneficial in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, as a cost effective noninvasive adjunct to standard therapy in a variety of settings and patient groups, yet more validated scientific research is still required to establish it as a sole quantified therapy.
Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste
The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)
Coleman, Kathleen A.
The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…
Standley, Jayne M.; Jones, Jennifer
"Music Techniques in Therapy, Counseling, and Special Education" is the culmination of the first author's research in the skill development of prospective music therapists and music educators during graduate and undergraduate preparation. Standley studied the abilities and progress of students across multiple clinical music therapy and music…
Campbell, C. Ricardo
A career in music therapy is discussed--career description, educational training, and employment and earnings. Colleges and universities offering National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) curriculums for bachelor's and master's programs are listed. (EA)
Daveson, Barbara; Edwards, Jane
Reviews the literature on the role and application of music therapy in special education in an Australian context. Notes that music therapy in Australia is practiced in medical contexts, education contexts, and in private practice and community programs. (DB)
Hanser, Suzanne B
Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.
Pfaff, Valerie Kalsbeck
Music therapy, the systematic application of music and musical activities to elicit specific changes in emotional, physical, or social behavior, can help pediatric cancer patients to decrease their anxiety and cope with hospitalization. Because music is a nonverbal means of expression, it is an especially effective medium for young children who…
Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.
The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…
Langan, Dianne; Athanasou, James
This study is a measure of the effectiveness of music therapy education by testing it against a proven educational model. It evaluates the role of knowledge, interest and learning strategies in the Model of Domain Learning (Alexander, 1997, 2003). Participants (n = 79) were presented with a video of music therapy and the effect of the independent variables (knowledge, interest, strategies) on recall at two points in time were examined. Music therapy students were compared with music students and other therapy students (art therapy, dance therapy, counseling therapy) in terms of their recall of the video. Music therapy students achieved the highest levels of knowledge and interests. No significant differences were found between the three groups on the strategy component of the model. Overall, results were consistent with the Model and with the view that specific learning occurs within identified domains of knowledge or expertise. The results therefore, indicate efficacy for the music therapy education investigated in this study.
Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike J; Procter, Simon
Evidence is beginning to emerge that music therapy can improve the mental health of people with depression. We examine possible mechanisms of action of this complex intervention and suggest that music therapy partly is effective because active music-making within the therapeutic frame offers the patient opportunities for new aesthetic, physical and relational experiences.
Music therapy is a promising intervention with bereaved youth. In comparison to other programs, it appears particularly effective for promoting the resolution of grief-related feelings; providing opportunities to express and release feelings through musical participation. Descriptions from music therapy participants are supported by research…
Tomaino, Concetta M
The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals?
Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E
The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.
Guo, Shuang; Koelsch, Stefan
Humans process music even without conscious effort according to implicit knowledge about syntactic regularities. Whether such automatic and implicit processing is modulated by veridical knowledge has remained unknown in previous neurophysiological studies. This study investigates this issue by testing whether the acquisition of veridical knowledge of a music-syntactic irregularity (acquired through supervised learning) modulates early, partly automatic, music-syntactic processes (as reflected in the early right anterior negativity, ERAN), and/or late controlled processes (as reflected in the late positive component, LPC). Excerpts of piano sonatas with syntactically regular and less regular chords were presented repeatedly (10 times) to non-musicians and amateur musicians. Participants were informed by a cue as to whether the following excerpt contained a regular or less regular chord. Results showed that the repeated exposure to several presentations of regular and less regular excerpts did not influence the ERAN elicited by less regular chords. By contrast, amplitudes of the LPC (as well as of the P3a evoked by less regular chords) decreased systematically across learning trials. These results reveal that late controlled, but not early (partly automatic), neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing are modulated by repeated exposure to a musical piece. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.
Burns, Debra S; Sledge, Renata B; Fuller, Leigh Ann; Daggy, Joanne K; Monahan, Patrick O
The reason for lack of routine integration of music therapy into healthcare may be that patients are not comfortable being involved in a music therapy intervention. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine cancer patients' interest in and preferences for using 2 types of music therapy interventions, music-making and music listening. Sixty-five patients completed the Music Interest Survey in addition to standardized measures of coping, affect, anxiety, and fatigue. Results suggest adult cancer patients are interested in music therapy, especially music listening. Patient interest and preference were associated with negative affect, anxiety, age, perceived intervention-specific benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy. Findings highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of patient needs and preferences prior to intervention.
Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms.
In neuro-rehabilitation, the role of music therapy is expanding to include assessment of patients with severely-altered states of consciousness. Diagnosis of these conditions is a complex task for all, and cases of misdiagnosis have been reported. Aggregated findings from 33 music therapy assessments of patients suspected of being in a low awareness state are described and discussed here. The Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Low Awareness States (MATLAS) was used during these assessments. All assessments were offered as part of a specialist multidisciplinary assessment package. A brief description of the patient group is supplied, along with details regarding the assessment tool and the recommendations that followed. In summary, a difference in the time it took to assess patients in vegetative state (VS) as compared to those in minimally conscious state (MCS) was found and, on average, the assessment of those in VS took less time to complete than for those in MCS. A greater range in session length was found for patients in VS, as compared to those in MCS. Generally after the assessments, patients in VS were likely to be admitted to a sensory regulation group administered by a music therapy assistant, supervised by a qualified music therapist, to enable the continued collection of behavioral responses to stimuli. Patients in MCS were admitted to a music therapy treatment program offered by a qualified music therapist. Ongoing work is recommended to advance the assessment and treatment of this patient population, and to consolidate the role of music therapy with this population.
Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca
Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.
Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina
This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic…
Music therapists regard music therapy as a valuable intervention for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability or multiple disabilities, but many special educators would regard it as a controversial practice, unsupported by empirical research. This paper reviews the goals and strategies used by music therapists working with students…
Yeaw, John David Andrew
This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…
Standley, J M; Hanser, S B
Music therapy is a profession which meets multiple physical, social, and psychological needs. Music therapists can facilitate health objectives by reducing the intensity or duration of pain, alleviating anxiety, and decreasing the amount of analgesic medication needed. Rehabilitative objectives can include activities which incorporate exercise, range of motion therapy, or gait training. Reduction of fear, anxiety, stress, or grief are common psychological objectives. Music therapy is particularly effective in promoting social objectives such as increased interaction, verbalization, independence, and cooperation; enhanced relationships with health care personnel and family members; and increased stimulation during long-term hospitalization or isolation. Counseling techniques are often paired with music to achieve emotional objectives such as expression, adjustment, stability, or locus of control. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the extant music/medical research literature and clarify how music therapy can provide a quintessential combination of physical, social, and psychological benefits to enhance the health care of pediatric oncology patients.
Loewy, Joanne V., Ed.; Hara, Andrea Frisch, Ed.
A collection of reflections on music therapy interventions provided as a part of the New York City Music Therapy Relief Project, sponsored by AMTA and the Recording Academy after September 11th, 2001. Edited by Joanne V. Loewy and Andrea Frisch Hara. Each chapter is written by a different therapist involved in the project.
Johnson, Christopher M; Geringer, John M; Stewart, Erin E
The purpose of the two studies reported here was to investigate and describe information available about music therapy that is likely to be found on the Internet. The top 20 Internet search engines were surveyed using the term "Music Therapy." Information concerning the first 25 sites listed per engine was collected. The following categories of information were described: the frequency of mention across the search engine sites, the type of site, whether the site gave a definition of music therapy, the orientation of that definition, the number of links, orientation of links, and the number of hits shown on the main page. A rank order was then compiled of the 267 sites listed across all searches. Results showed that American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) web page was the most frequent and highest ranked site across the 20 search engine sites. Sites from educational institutions were frequent, as were commercial sites. Most of the highest ranked sites gave traditional definitions (as defined by AMTA) for music therapy and associated links were conventional as well. These procedures were replicated one year later, although the question "What is Music Therapy?" was used as the search term. Results from this second search revealed only 145 sites. Of those, American Music Therapy Association web page was again the most frequent and highest ranked site across the search engines. Sites from educational institutions were frequent, as were commercial sites, however, only half of the highest ranked sites gave traditional definitions for music therapy.
Boxill, Edith Hillman
The author's use of music therapy is illustrated in her account of therapy sessions with two autistic children. Music is seen to be particularly useful with the autistic child because it can make use of the child's rhythmic stereotypical actions to increase the child's self awareness. Techniques such as reflection (mimicking, through song and…
Wilson, Brian L., Ed.
This completely revised 2nd edition edited by Brian L. Wilson, addresses both theoretical issues and practical applications of music therapy in educational settings. 17 chapters written by a variety of authors, each dealing with a different setting or issue. A valuable resource for demonstrating the efficacy of music therapy to school…
Cheek, James R.; Bradley, Loretta J.; Parr, Gerald; Lan, William
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of music therapy techniques as an intervention for teacher burnout. Results of the study indicated that teachers who participated in school-based counseling groups, using music therapy techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral interventions, reported lower levels of burnout symptoms…
Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.
"An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…
Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy is an improvisational and compositional approach to individual and group therapy that resulted from the pioneering teamwork of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins over a period of 17 years. Nordoff and Robbins developed this approach for practical clinical purposes while working with the children at Sunfield Children's Home in 1959. This paper explores the critical academic year of 1959-1960 as a watershed in the early development of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy. By way of context, it also examines (a) how Paul Nordoff, as a distinguished American pianist and composer, became a music therapist; (b) how Nordoff's former musical career as a composer and pianist affected his clinical musicianship as a music therapist; (c) how Clive Robbins, as a British special educator, became a music therapist; (d) how their team work emerged; and (e) how they developed their own approach. In conclusion, the early development of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy resulted from Nordoff and Robbins' similar philosophical background, the supportive environment of Sunfield Children's Home, the guidance of Herbert Geuter, M.D., and their courage. Since the 1959-1960 academic years, the application and practice of Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy has undergone many changes. However, the pioneering spirit of Nordoff and Robbins manifested in that watershed year remains strong among contemporary Nordoff-Robbins music therapy practitioners.
Fish, Barbara J.
Image making is a common component of art therapy supervision but its use has not yet been formally evaluated. This article describes formative evaluation research used to investigate student responses to art-based supervision in which response art was used as a primary method to contain, explore, or express clinical work. Art-based supervision,…
Gantenbein, U L
The interaction of music and psyche constitutes a phenomenon, which is known to man since antiquity, and, for this reason, was ever since used for healing purposes. The pythagoreans developed a system of musical theory that declared consonance to be a musical interval with the frequencies in a ratio of integer numbers. The cosmical music of the spheres, the played instrumental music and the inner music of man, these all they conceived as a unity. Varied in a manyfold way, this great theme was handed down over the centuries to the present day, being a source of inspiration to music and the sciences. Modern musical therapy is, in the last analysis, based on these intuitive findings.
Gooding, Lori F; Gregory, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of music therapy-related videos on YouTube. Preliminary searches using the keywords music therapy, music therapy session, and "music therapy session" resulted in listings of 5000, 767, and 59 videos respectively. The narrowed down listing of 59 videos was divided between two investigators and reviewed in order to determine their relationship to actual music therapy practice. A total of 32 videos were determined to be depictions of music therapy sessions. These videos were analyzed using a 16-item investigator-created rubric that examined both video specific information and therapy specific information. Results of the analysis indicated that audio and visual quality was adequate, while narrative descriptions and identification information were ineffective in the majority of the videos. The top 5 videos (based on the highest number of viewings in the sample) were selected for further analysis in order to investigate demonstration of the Professional Level of Practice Competencies set forth in the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) Professional Competencies (AMTA, 2008). Four of the five videos met basic competency criteria, with the quality of the fifth video precluding evaluation of content. Of particular interest is the fact that none of the videos included credentialing information. Results of this study suggest the need to consider ways to ensure accurate dissemination of music therapy-related information in the YouTube environment, ethical standards when posting music therapy session videos, and the possibility of creating AMTA standards for posting music therapy related video.
Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried
Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms.
The author cites these benefits of music to the visually handicapped student: physiological music activities enhance psychomotor coordination and promote relaxation and the ability to cope with frustration; participation in music events encourages interaction with sighted peers. Organizations providing music instructional materials for the…
Hauck, Michael; Metzner, Susanne; Rohlffs, Fiona; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K
Modern forms of music therapy are clinically established for various therapeutic or rehabilitative goals, especially in the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that underlie pain modulation by music. Therefore, we attempted to characterize the effects of music therapy on pain perception by comparing the effects of 2 different therapeutic concepts, referred to as receptive and entrainment methods, on cortical activity recorded by magnetencephalography in combination with laser heat pain. Listening to preferred music within the receptive method yielded a significant reduction of pain ratings associated with a significant power reduction of delta-band activity in the cingulate gyrus, which suggests that participants displaced their focus of attention away from the pain stimulus. On the other hand, listening to self-composed "pain music" and "healing music" within the entrainment method exerted major effects on gamma-band activity in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Pain music, in contrast to healing music, increased pain ratings in parallel with an increase in gamma-band activity in somatosensory brain structures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the 2 music therapy approaches operationalized in this study seem to modulate pain perception through at least 2 different mechanisms, involving changes of activity in the delta and gamma bands at different stages of the pain processing system.
Liao, Huan; Jiang, Guohui; Wang, Xuefeng
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases. Currently, the primary methods of treatment include pharmacological and surgical treatment. However, approximately one-third of patients exhibit refractory epilepsy. Therefore, a novel approach to epilepsy treatment is necessary. Several studies have confirmed that music therapy can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges, thus providing a new option for clinicians in the treatment of epilepsy. Although the underlying mechanism of music therapy is unknown, it may be related to resonance, mirror neurons, dopamine pathways and parasympathetic activation. Large sample, multicenter, randomized double-blind and more effectively designed studies are needed for future music therapy studies.
Ross, Stephen; Cidambi, Indra; Dermatis, Helen; Weinstein, Jason; Ziedonis, Douglas; Roth, Serena; Galanter, Marc
Co-occurring mental illness and addiction is very common and results in worse treatment outcomes compared to singly diagnosed addicted individuals. Integrated treatment for co-occurring disorders is associated with better treatment outcomes; however there is a wide range of what is included in integrated treatment. Due to patient and staff interests, integrated treatment often includes complementary and alternative therapies, including music and art therapy. There is a need to study how these approaches effect treatment engagement, retention, and outcome. This study was a prospective naturalistic non-randomized pilot study without a control group that sought to evaluate how participation in a music therapy program affected treatment outcomes for individuals with co-occurring mental illness and addiction. In summary, music therapy appears to be a novel motivational tool in a severely impaired inpatient sample of patients with co-occurring disorders. Future studies of music therapy in integrated co-occurring disorder setting should include a control group.
Music therapy, as a part of arts therapies, is used as a therapeutical tool for restoring, maintaining and improving the mental, physical and emotional health of human beings. The main mission of receptive music therapy is not found on the performance level, but on the level of attentive and intimate music listening that is not passive at all, contributing to musical pleasure and to wellbeing. At first we introduce the basic vocabulary used in receptive music therapy, flow experience and the main dimensions (bio-psycho-social) influenced by stimulating music listening. We also present the aims of this psycho-pedagogical project: The focus lies on determining the sensitivity of physically handicapped persons to different music stimuli (music styles). In this case, we can talk of the degree of music reception. We worked in an institution for persons suffering from a physical handicap. The applied methodology is based on the psycho-musical survey by Verdeau-Paillès (1). This psychological record consists in a basic interview and a test of music listening performances leading to the construction of a summary graph and the final receptivity psychogram. An observational frame conceived by Schiltz (2) and adapted to the actual situation offers the possibility of making exact observations as to non-verbal and verbal variables during the therapeutical sessions. Thus, we can present the results of descriptive and non-parametric statistical procedures, but also the results of case studies. The statistical tests used were Wilcoxon's sign-rank test for a pre-post comparison of variables related to non-verbal and verbal behaviour (two different sessions of music therapy with similar contents) and Spearman's Rho which permitted us to compute the correlations between non-verbal expression and verbal communication (N=14). Finally we conclude that our patients considered their musical experience as very positive. The results of the personal interview and the psycho-musical survey
Elizabeth Wong, MT-BC presents tools and information designed to arm the entry-level music therapist (or an experienced MT-BC new to rehabilitation settings) with basic knowledge and materials to develop or work in a music therapy program treating people with stroke, brain injury, and those who are ventilator dependent. Ms. Wong offers goals and…
McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy
Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…
Rickson, Daphne J.; McFerran, Katrina
Research is an essential aspect of the music therapy profession. Practice is grounded in theoretical frameworks based on research studies and the evaluation of clinical interventions. Early research drew heavily on behavioural principles, observing measurable change in response to musical interventions. As the profession gained stature, music…
Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise
A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.
Silverman, Michael J.
This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…
Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G
Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.
O'Callaghan, Clare C; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R
This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the deceased. Music was often still used to improve mood and sometimes used to confront grief. Specific music, however, was sometimes avoided to minimize sadness. Continuing bonds theory's focus on connecting with the deceased through memory and imagery engagement may expand to encompass musical memories, reworking the meaning of familiar music, and discovering new music related to the deceased. Preloss music involvement, including music therapy, between dying patients and families can help in bereavement.
In presenting the case of a 12-15 year old boy with severe learning difficulties and antisocial tendencies the author reflects upon the process of musical enculturation in music therapy. The deployment of symbolical meaning through the therapeutic use of sound and music is described - from music as a self object up to the point where music is fully acknowledged as a cultural object. It is shown, how this process goes with the unfolding and working through of the transference relationship.
Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele
Objective: Framed in the patients' engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed.
Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele
Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073
Silverman, Michael J
Approximately 21% of music therapists report working in the mental health field, more so than another other specific client population category (AMTA, 2005). The purpose of this study was to descriptively evaluate psychiatric music therapists and their institutions, philosophies, interventions, and clinical objectives. A survey was designed and posted online or mailed to music therapists who did not have email addresses in the 2005 Member Sourcebook (AMTA, 2005). A total of 176 psychiatric music therapists completed various parts of the survey for an overall response rate of 42.9%. Respondents reported working a mean of 11.3 years in the psychiatric setting, being Board-Certified Music Therapists for 13.3 years, and working at their institution for 8.4 years. Most respondents (90.6%) indicated they did not have a music therapist as a supervisor. Group music therapy was the dominant modality in psychiatric institutions for music therapists. Respondents indicated they read music therapy journals (80%) and other types of psychiatric periodicals (57.1%), presented educational sessions at conferences (44.6%), conducted in-services for hospital staff (64.8%), worked with an interdisciplinary treatment team (77.9%), and trained practica students (43.5%) and interns (37.4%). Respondents also indicated that although most were not bilingual (85.7%), they still worked with non-English speaking consumers (58.2%). Participants noted that they enjoyed working with the psychiatric population and felt they had a positive influence on treatment as indicated by Likert-type scales. Respondents reported using primarily behavioral or psychodynamic approaches but considered their primary psychological philosophy as eclectic. Participants predominantly indicated they addressed goal areas such as socialization, communication, self-esteem, coping skills, and stress reduction/management. Participants noted they employed a variety of music therapy techniques such as music assisted relaxation
Ozelie, Rebecca; Janow, Janet; Kreutz, Corinne; Mulry, Mary Kate; Penkala, Ashley
This study aimed to determine whether a difference in productivity exists between clinicians supervising and not supervising a Level II occupational therapy student and whether factors including clinician years of experience, practice setting, and clinician productivity without a student could predict clinician productivity while supervising a student. We used paired-sample t tests to examine clinician productivity with and without a student in 109 clinician-student encounters and regression analysis to determine factors predictive of clinician productivity with a student. Results indicated no difference in clinician productivity with or without a student. Clinician years of experience, practice area, and productivity without a student were significant predictors of clinician productivity while supervising a student. Study results contradict the belief that supervising Level II fieldwork students lowers clinicians' productivity. Findings suggest that practice area and productivity without a student are important factors influencing the productivity of clinicians supervising a fieldwork student.
Forbes, Bo; Volpe Horii, Cassandra; Earls, Bethany; Mashek, Stephanie; Akhtar, Fiona
Clinical supervision is an integral component of therapist training and professional development because of its capacity for fostering knowledge, self-awareness, and clinical acumen. Individual supervision is part of many yoga therapy training programs and is referenced in the IAYT Standards as "mentoring." Group supervision is not typically used in the training of yoga therapists. We propose that group supervision effectively supports the growth and development of yoga therapists-in-training. We present a model of group supervision for yoga therapist trainees developed by the New England School of Integrative Yoga Therapeutics™ (The NESIYT Model) that includes the background, structure, format, and development of our inaugural 18-month supervision group. Pre-and post-supervision surveys and analyzed case notes, which captured key didactic and process themes, are discussed. Clinical issues, such as boundaries, performance anxiety, sense of self efficacy, the therapeutic alliance, transference and counter transference, pacing of yoga therapy sessions, evaluation of client progress, and adjunct therapist interaction are reviewed. The timing and sequence of didactic and process themes and benefits for yoga therapist trainees' professional development, are discussed. The NESIYT group supervision model is offered as an effective blueprint for yoga therapy training programs.
Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina
This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs.
Burke, M; Walsh, J; Oehler, J; Gingras, J
This descriptive study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of music, presented both aurally and vibrotactilely, in reducing agitation and physiological instability following a stress-producing intervention (suctioning) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Heart rate, oxygen saturation levels, level of arousal, stressful facial expressions, and autonomic indicators were recorded for each of four preterm infants. All infants experienced a reduction in the level of arousal during the taped music intervention when compared with the control condition. Three infants spent an increased amount of time in a quiet alert state and had improved oxygen saturation levels during the vibrotactile intervention. All infants spent more time sleeping during the taped music condition than without music or with the vibrotactile intervention. Results suggest that music is effective in reducing stress-related behaviors for some infants.
This article reviews the evidence for using music therapy with young people who are supported by mechanical ventilation. The author argues that music therapy is essential for developing a holistic approach focusing on the developmental level of a child or young person, as well as being an inexpensive, non-pharmacological, non-invasive therapy, with significant physiological and psychological benefits. She argues that more research is needed in this area to develop a sound evidence base on which guidelines to inform practice could be based.
Yu, J Y; Huang, D F; Li, Y; Zhang, Y T
Hypertension is a common clinical disease and a major risk to human health. Many clinical findings indicate that certain types of music can reduce blood pressure (BP), and music therapy is considered as an important part of anti-hypertension treatment. We integrate our former related research achievement into the new MP3 player, which can also detect the current BP value with a cuffless measurement method. According to the current BP value, the MP3 player selects certain types of music for playing in order to alleviate the hypertension of patients.
In this article, I will discuss music therapy in Marsilio Ficino's Timaeus-commentary. Ficino's model of sound perception is reconstructed. It lays the foundation for the medical and mind-expanding function of music in his philosophy. Ficino's music therapy follows from his ideas about the harmony of the spheres, a concept that was used in Western culture well into the fifteenth century for rather static descriptions of the cosmos, mainly meant to praise God and his creation. The traditional view about celestial harmony provided hardly any possibility for active human involvement. Ficino changed this significantly when he united Platonic ideas about the music of the spheres with biblical ideas about the imprint of God's image on human beings. Thus, knowledge of the harmonic structure of the cosmos became possible. I will argue that Ficino's reconciliation of the Timaeus with the book of Genesis allowed for the connection of the ancient doctrines of cosmic harmony and the power of music. This resulted in new possibilities for music therapy.
Hasegawa, Y; Kubota, N; Inagaki, T; Shinagawa, N
The effects of music therapy on natural killer (NK) cell count and activity (NKCA) were studied in 19 persons. Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovessel disease and Parkinson's disease subjects were assigned to a music therapy. Blood samples were drawn at rest and after completion of music therapy. Music therapy did not change the number of circulating lymphocytes. The percentage of NK cells increased during music therapy, along with an increase in the NK cell activity. The proportion of T cells, CD4 and CD8 did not change significantly during music therapy. One hour after the music therapy session, plasma adrenaline increased but cortisol and noradrenalin did not change. The results indicate that music therapy can significantly increase NK cell count and activity. The change in NK cell and function were independent of neuro-degenerative diseases.
Raglio, A; Gianelli, M V
This contribution focuses on the definition of music therapy as a specific applicative context to be seen as distinct from the generic use of music in a variety of pathologies. Music therapy is presented as a discipline grounded both upon relationship and upon the theoretical-methodological principles peculiar to each applicative model. The therapeutic nature proper to music therapy is highlighted with specific reference to the domain of the dementias. Music therapy facilitates expression, communication and relationship in the non-verbal context. Such an opportunity allows persons with dementia to establish contact, to express, and even contrive an organisation/regulation of their emotions, through the sonorous-musical relationship with the music therapist. On the basis of a brief analysis of the relevant literature, attention is drawn to the importance of both evidence-based clinical practice and music therapy evaluations, aimed at proving the effectiveness of music therapy, while promoting its correct application.
O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.
This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…
Vanweelden, Kimberly; Whipple, Jennifer
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of field experiences on music therapy students' perceptions of choral music for geriatric wellness programs. Specifically, the study investigated music therapy students': a) personal comfort working with senior adult singers; b) perceptions of preparation in their educational training to work with senior adults in a choral music wellness program; c) perceptions of senior adults' functioning levels as singers in choral ensembles; d) perceptions of senior adults' functioning levels as learners; and e) willingness to seek additional opportunities to lead senior adults in choral music wellness programs. Comparative analysis using pretest and posttest scores for each grouping was completed. Significant mean score differences were found in the categories of student comfort, preparation, perceptions of singing, and willingness, with gains from pre- to posttest in all categories. The general demographics and perceptions of learning groupings increased and decreased, respectively, though not significantly, following the field experience. Analysis combining all groups, creating an overall pretest and posttest score, was also completed. Results revealed that students felt significantly more positive about choral music being used in wellness programs for senior adults after the field experience.
Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony
Background: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Method: Eleven studies were included for…
Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria
The question of competence in providing music therapy has rarely been the focus of interest in empirical research, as most music therapy research aims at measuring outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse and describe musicians' learning processes when they study music therapy as a caring intervention. An initial presumption is…
Keen, Alexander W
Children and adolescents with emotional disorders may often be characterized by having problems in peer and adult relations and in display of inappropriate behaviours. These include suicide attempts, anger, withdrawal from family, social isolation from peers, aggression, school failure, running away, and alcohol and/or drug abuse. A lack of self-concept and self-esteem is often central to these difficulties. Traditional treatment methods with young people usually includes cognitive- behavioural approaches with psychotherapy. Unfortunately these children often lack a solid communication base, creating a block to successful treatment. In my private clinical practice, I have endeavoured to break through these communication barriers by using music as a therapy tool. This paper describes and discusses my use of music as a therapy tool with troubled adolescents. Pre- and post-testing of the effectiveness of this intervention technique by using the Psychosocial Functioning Inventory for Primary School Children (PFI-PSC) has yielded positive initial results, lending support to its continued use. Music has often been successful in helping these adolescents engage in the therapeutic process with minimised resistance as they relate to the music and the therapist becomes a safe and trusted adult. Various techniques such as song discussion, listening, writing lyrics, composing music, and performing music.
Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico
Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson's Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients.
Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico
Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson’s Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients. PMID:25815256
Kong, Ha-Kyung; Karahalios, Karrie
Music therapy (MT) is a therapeutic practice where a therapist uses music to enhance the life quality for their patients. Children have an innate enjoyment of music, making music an effective medium for exploring their potential. In this study, we explore the parental perception of MT through an online survey. Contrary to the public perception that MT only addresses emotional needs, 47 out of 59 parents reported seeing improvements in other areas including behavioral, cognitive, linguistic, and social changes. All but one parent indicated that they would recommend MT to others. The survey results further revealed that even parents of children participating in MT had misconceptions regarding MT, which we describe in the paper. Parents reported inaccessibility and cost as other major limitations surrounding MT adoption. We conclude by discussing how technology solutions could mitigate issues with definition, distance, and cost, while maintaining the benefits of MT. PMID:28269946
Kong, Ha-Kyung; Karahalios, Karrie
Music therapy (MT) is a therapeutic practice where a therapist uses music to enhance the life quality for their patients. Children have an innate enjoyment of music, making music an effective medium for exploring their potential. In this study, we explore the parental perception of MT through an online survey. Contrary to the public perception that MT only addresses emotional needs, 47 out of 59 parents reported seeing improvements in other areas including behavioral, cognitive, linguistic, and social changes. All but one parent indicated that they would recommend MT to others. The survey results further revealed that even parents of children participating in MT had misconceptions regarding MT, which we describe in the paper. Parents reported inaccessibility and cost as other major limitations surrounding MT adoption. We conclude by discussing how technology solutions could mitigate issues with definition, distance, and cost, while maintaining the benefits of MT.
In 1749, the London physician Richard Brocklesby (1722-1797) published his Reflections on Antient [sic] and Modern Musick, an essay that not only sought to compare these practices in terms of their effects, but also to gather evidence supporting the use of music in treating mania and other mental diseases. As might be expected, Brocklesby's discussion of music therapy has already received attention by authors looking back to the origins of this practice, not least because he offers an account of a successful musical cure that took place in his own time (Rorke, 2001). My chapter, however, seeks to broaden the discussion of the Reflections, in order to show how Brocklesby's projected musical cures fit into his larger worldview, one that was influenced as much by Plato and other ancient philosophers as it was by modern thinkers such as Isaac Newton and his followers. Brocklesby's argument was essentially that music acted as a link between the mind and body and therefore could restore their intrinsic harmony, a connection that was mediated by the animal spirits, which also served as the vehicle of the passions. The movements and proportions of music could arouse or quell the passions by their effect on these (imaginary) spirits, which flowed through the nerves and brain and acted as the agent for the mind or soul. I show how his account of music in antiquity led him to reflect on the way that music was perceived and responded to in his own time, both as a stimulus to mental and bodily action, and as a source of esthetic pleasure through the cultivation of musical taste.
Jones, Jennifer D
The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.
Brotons, M; Koger, S M
Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, include a progressive deterioration of language functioning. While some researchers have reported an increase in patients' self-expression following music therapy, it is not clear whether these changes specifically reflect improved language skills or whether simple interpersonal interaction with a therapist could account for the improvement. In this study, the effects of music therapy were compared to conversational sessions on language functioning in dementia patients. Participants were selected according to the following criteria: (a) residing in a facility specializing in Alzheimer's and related disorders; (b) possessing sufficient verbal ability to answer simple questions and to comply with requests to speak, participate, or sit down; and (c) attaining the written consent of the patient's guardian or representative. All participants had been in music therapy twice per week for at least 3 months prior to the study onset. One week prior to the beginning of the study, subjects were assessed for cognitive functioning using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and language ability via the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). A within-subjects design was used, with order of condition (music or group conversation first) counter-balanced between participants. Subjects participated in groups of 2 to 4, twice per week for 20-30 minutes for a total of 8 sessions (4 music therapy and 4 conversation sessions or vice-versa), and were re-tested on the WAB at the end of each 2 week (4 session) interval. Results from 20 participants revealed that music therapy significantly improved performance on both speech content and fluency dimensions of the spontaneous speech subscale of the WAB (p =.01). While the difference in overall Aphasia Quotient (AQ) for music and conversation sessions (mean AQ = 76 vs. 70, respectively) did not reach statistical significance, data were only available for 10 participants (5 per condition). Hopefully, these
Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane
Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings.
Zoller, Mary B.
Music activities for use in public school speech-language therapy are described in theory and practice. Client, space and implementation considerations are discussed, as are uses of songs and more specific applications such as exercises for relaxation, body image, breathing, vocalization, articulation, and vocabulary/concept development.…
Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.
The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…
Crowe, Barbara, Ed.
Whether new to the profession or an experienced clinician, this text provides a wealth of state-of-the-art information for undergraduates, graduates and professionals. This volume covers the wide range of mental disorder diagnoses and addresses specific populations such as forensic and drug and alcohol rehabilitation. How music therapy is used…
Langan, Dianne; Athanasou, James A.
This paper outlines a method for professional assessment of music therapy students' learning and recall. The purpose of the assessment is to examine the Model of Domain Learning (P. Alexander, 1997) within an Australian context and to provide a professional assessment for application within music therapy education. Despite the music therapy…
Tomlinson, Jo, Ed.; Derrington, Philippa, Ed.; Oldfield, Amelia, Ed.
The majority of music therapy work with children takes place in schools. This book documents the wealth and diversity of work that music therapists are doing in educational settings across the UK. It shows how, in recent years, music therapy has changed and grown as a profession, and it provides an insight into the trends that are emerging in this…
Performative writing is an art form that seeks to enliven our discourse by including the senses as a primary source of information processing. Through performative writing, one is seduced into engaging with the aesthetic. My art is music. My craft is Music Therapy. My theme is performing theory. Listen to the sound and silence of words, phrases, punctuation, syllables, format. My muses? I thank D. Soyini Madison, Ron Pelias, Philip Glass, Elliot Eisner, and Tom Barone for inspiration, and my teachers/Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers who embraced the long tradition of oral transmission of knowledge and the healing power of sound. Stay, stay in the presence of the aesthetic.
This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy.
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10) employed a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions, and DVD analysis of sessions. Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of 'joy', 'emotional synchronicity' and 'initiation of engagement' behaviours in the children than toy play sessions. In response to the therapist's interpersonal demands, 'compliant (positive) responses' were observed more in music therapy than in toy play sessions, and 'no responses' were twice as frequent in toy play sessions as in music therapy. The results of this exploratory study found significant evidence supporting the value of music therapy in promoting social, emotional and motivational development in children with autism.
Fukamizu, Yuu; En, Junichiro; Kano, Tatsuo; Arikawa, Isao
Average age of residents living in National sanatorium Hoshizuka-Keiaien where people have past history of Hansen disease is around 80 years old at present, and many of them spend their whole days in watching TV or sleeping almost alone in their rooms. Therefore music therapy was introduced in order to improve their daily activities in our sanatorium. Singing, listening to music, playing the musical instruments, and dancing were performed, either in a group or individually. Reactivation of their brain function such as recollection, sense of unity and relaxation were expected. Improvement of cardiopulmonary function was also expected. Solidarity and relaxed state were observed by being with the other participants in the group therapy. For example, when using musical instruments, some participants with hesitation tried to use their instruments, and had good performance. They seemed to be satisfied and became confident with the musical instruments. Then their confidence and satisfaction activated the group. After the sessions, mutual conversation increased. These processes obtained a synergy effect, which means that a group affects of individuals at first and next alteration of individual behavior influences the group. We could observe a better effect in their motivation and activity in their daily life in the individual therapy. The music therapy was applied to the senior participants by the music therapist in this study. The participants could easily reinforce their mind and body through this therapy. Music therapy will be continued for the improvement of quality of life of residents in the sanatorium.
The adult oncology inpatient music therapy program at Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, which is Australia's only hospital solely dedicated to cancer treatment, research and care, is described. Patients' treatment requirements and often changing conditions compel music therapist to be flexible in their approach, offering both pre-planned treatment sessions and spontaneous sessions in open ward contexts. Patients and families who wish to engage im music therapy choose from various music therapy methods, including live song choice, music imagery and relaxation, therapeutic music lessons, and improvisation. Complex variables inevitable in such human relationship therapies necessitate that, alongside randomized controlled trials, research methods are grounded in the social sciences to meaningfully substantiate, and further advance, oncologic music therapy.
Steele, Stephanie J.
The topic of core competencies has been a central focus in the marriage and family therapy field since 2003. There are currently no published studies from the supervisees' perspective about the role of supervision in the acquisition of core competencies. This qualitative study used transcendental phenomenology to explore supervisees' perspectives…
Vas, P József
Effects both of hypnotherapy and music therapy are originated from an attunement as supposed by the author. Either to a hypnotherapist's suggestions or to a piece of music one is able to be tuned in them. On one hand, the hypnotherapist's prosody, which can be called as melodic declamation seen as a musical phenomenon transmitting emotions. On the other hand, music has got emotional and visceral impacts. As a meeting points of these two methods four possibilities are shown by the author: 1. musical analogies of vitality affects ; 2. paternal and maternal archetypes in music; 3. analogies of copings in music; 4. corrections of psychological deficits by virtue of hypno- and music therapy with parallel used energy healing method. Finally, the author suggests, that hypnosis is regarded as an inductive method expressing its effect from outside to inside; music, however is likely to be employed as a deductive therapeutic tool, effecting from inside to outside.
Jiménez-Palomares, María; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-López-Arza, María Victoria; Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Trinidad; Prieto-Tato, Marta
An in-depth review is presented the possible benefits of music therapy in relation to the cognitive and/or behavioural level of elderly patients with dementia. We have carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, case-control and pilot studies published from January 2000 to January 2012 using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Dialnet and CSIC. We focused on comparison of music therapy as non-pharmacological therapy, in patients over 65 years of age with moderate dementia, with regular therapeutic and occupational treatment. Ten articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the results suggest that music Therapy influences the elderly people with dementia in a positive way by improving levels of behavioural and cognitive functioning and social participation.
Reed, Penny; And Others
The manual serves as a model for school districts developing procedures for supervising and evaluating their therapy services. The narrative is addressed to therapists rather than supervisors so that school districts can photocopy or adapt sections of the manual and assemble customized manuals for therapists in their programs. The first chapter,…
The use of music as part of a stress reduction therapy has been applied both to premature infants and their parents in the Neonatal Reanimation Service. This aim of music therapy amounts to an attempt to help the premature infant regaining its physical and neurological balance, so important to its psychological and physical development, mainly by masking the sometimes excessive noise present in the intensive care unit and/or in the incubator. Studies have demonstrated the positive impact of music therapy on oxygen saturation, heartbeat, and on the general level of relaxation experienced by premature infants. In this project, the palliative technique used was that of live singing, directly to the infant, accompanied by a pentatonic harp. The aim was to improve the state of health, both physical and psychological, of a group of premature infants, whose gestation period varied between 23 and 36 weeks. The technique used was to apply what amounts to a protective cocoon of sounds to a premature infant in the neonatal unit, which measurably reduced the level of stress as indicated by the babies' increasingly relaxed demeanour and induced a measurable increase on the level of oxygen saturation and a reduction of heart rate.
Baker, Felicity A.; Grocke, Denise; Berlowitz, David J.
Background: People living with quadriplegia are at risk for social isolation and depression. Research with other marginalized groups has indicated that music therapy can have a positive effect on mood and social interaction. Objective: To gather descriptions of participants’ experience of 2 types of group music therapy – therapeutic singing or music appreciation and relaxation – and to determine commonalities and differences between participants’ experience of these 2 methods. Methods: We interviewed 20 people with quadriplegia about their experience of participating in 12 weeks of therapeutic singing (n = 10) or music appreciation and relaxation (n = 10). These methods of group music therapy were the interventions tested in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. The interview data were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were generated from the interview data. Four of these were shared themes and indicated that both types of group music therapy had a positive effect on mood/mental state and physical state, encouraged social engagement, and reconnected participants with their music identity or relationship with music. In addition, the participants who participated in the singing groups found singing to be challenging and confronting, but experienced a general increase in motivation. Conclusions: Group music therapy was experienced as an enjoyable and accessible activity that reconnected participants with their own music. Participants frequently described positive shifts in mood and energy levels, and social interaction was stimulated both within and beyond the music therapy groups. PMID:25484569
Schreibman, Rachel; Chilton, Gioia
This viewpoint presents aesthetic writing and reflection on the art therapy supervisor and supervisee dyad from a practice of appreciative inquiry. Through writing and exchanging poems, the authors sought to uncover the dynamics of the supervisory relationship that contributed to a positive learning experience. Poetry as inquiry provoked new…
Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester
The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?
Harrison, Scott D.
This paper examines my role as supervisor of research higher degree music students. Within this dyad, the pedagogical design has centred on conventional delivery, conceptualized in terms of the time-honoured top-down, supervisor-candidate interaction rather than exploration of a co-mentoring collaboration. Many doctoral candidates in music…
Feen-Calligan, Holly; Matthews, Wendy K.
This article describes a study of art therapy and music education students at a Midwestern university in the United States, who participated in single-semester service-learning assignments prior to their clinical internship or student teaching experience. Undergraduate music teacher-candidates taught music to homeschool students; art therapy…
Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Songhuai
[Purpose] This study examined the immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on Probe Reaction Time. [Subjects and Methods] Probe Reaction Time was determined in 10 subjects by self-evaluation before and after music therapy intervention. The Probe Reaction Time was separately measured 4 times. [Results] After completion of music therapy intervention, the Probe Reaction Time in the 10 subjects was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that keyboard-based music therapy is an effective and novel treatment, and should be applied in clinical practice. PMID:27512274
Fukui, H; Arai, A; Toyoshima, K
We report that music therapy is effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We found that the secretion of 17β-estradiol and testosterone, hormones that are supposed to have preventive effects on Alzheimer's disease, is significantly increased by music therapy. During the sessions, patients with Alzheimer's disease were allowed to listen to music and songs with verbal contact from the therapist. It was found that problematic behaviors such as poriomania (fugue) had decreased. Music therapy has the potential as an alternative treatment for adverse hormone replacement therapy.
Libamba, Edwin; Makombe, Simon; Mhango, Eustice; de Ascurra Teck, Olga; Limbambala, Eddie; Schouten, Erik J.; Harries, Anthony D.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the supervision, monitoring and evaluation strategies used to assess the delivery of antiretroviral therapy during nationwide scale-up of treatment in Malawi. METHODS: In the first quarter of 2005, the HIV Unit of the Ministry of Health and its partners (the Lighthouse Clinic; Médecins Sans Frontières-Belgium, Thyolo district; and WHO's Country Office) undertook structured supervision and monitoring of all public sector health facilities in Malawi delivering antiretroviral therapy. FINDINGS: Data monitoring showed that by the end of 2004, there were 13,183 patients (5274 (40%) male, 12 527 (95%) adults) who had ever started antiretroviral therapy. Of patients who had ever started, 82% (10 761/13,183) were alive and taking antiretrovirals; 8% (1026/13,183) were dead; 8% (1039/13,183) had been lost to follow up; <1% (106/13,183) had stopped treatment; and 2% (251/13,183) had transferred to another facility. Of those alive and on antiretrovirals, 98% (7098/7258) were ambulatory; 85% (6174/7258) were fit to work; 10% (456/4687) had significant side effects; and, based on pill counts, 96% (6824/7114) had taken their treatment correctly. Mistakes in the registration and monitoring of patients were identified and corrected. Drug stocks were checked, and one potential drug stock-out was averted. As a result of the supervisory visits, by the end of March 2005 recruitment of patients to facilities scheduled to start delivering antiretroviral therapy had increased. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates the importance of early supervision for sites that are starting to deliver antiretroviral therapy, and it shows the value of combining data collection with supervision. Making regular supervisory and monitoring visits to delivery sites are essential for tracking the national scale-up of delivery of antiretrovirals. PMID:16628306
Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Sahar; Sharifi, Shahla; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid
Introduction: Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT) and play therapy (PT). There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. Materials and Methods: In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. Conclusion: VT, MT, and PT enhance children’s communication and language skills from an early age. Each method has a meaningful impact on hearing loss, so by integrating them we have a comprehensive method in order to facilitate communication and language learning. To achieve this goal, the article offers methods and techniques to perform AVT and MT integrated with PT leading to an approach which offers all advantages of these three types of therapy. PMID:24303441
Riello, R; Frisoni, G B
The application of music therapy to Alzheimer's patients is relatively recent. The studies available in literature show that music therapy has a positive effect either on mood or cognition. However, the generalization of data is difficult because these researches have lacked methodological design rigour. Based on the application of this rehabilitative technique in our Alzheimer Unit in Brescia and on the recent researches of music neuroanatomy, this work tries to identify which processes are involved in the therapeutic effect of music therapy. Despite the perceived effect on mood and socialisation abilities, cultural and methodological problems hinder to demonstrate the efficacy of music therapy. Information about neurophysiological and neurochemical correlates of music therapy are so poor that the use of this technique is often based on the assumption that the supposed positive effect of music is enough to justify its application. The methodological problem is related to the evaluation of outcomes. The fact that those studies which investigated the effects of music therapy were characterized by less specific indicators (cognition, behavior) and by less standardized instruments made difficult to generalize and quantify the results. The aim of the study is to organize the present knowledge with a systematic approach so that further researches lead to base the application of music therapy on evidence instead of on singular clinical finding.
DeLoach Walworth, Darcy
This comparative analysis examined the cost-effectiveness of music therapy as a procedural support in the pediatric healthcare setting. Many healthcare organizations are actively attempting to reduce the amount of sedation for pediatric patients undergoing various procedures. Patients receiving music therapy-assisted computerized tomography scans ( n = 57), echocardiograms ( n = 92), and other procedures ( n = 17) were included in the analysis. Results of music therapy-assisted procedures indicate successful elimination of patient sedation, reduction in procedural times, and decrease in the number of staff members present for procedures. Implications for nurses and music therapists in the healthcare setting are discussed.
Matteelli, A; Casalini, C; Raviglione, M C; El-Hamad, I; Scolari, C; Bombana, E; Bugiani, M; Caputo, M; Scarcella, C; Carosi, G
In a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study of isoniazid-preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis infection, illegal immigrants from countries where tuberculosis is highly endemic were enrolled at two clinical sites in Northern Italy. Of 208 eligible subjects, 82 received supervised IPT at a dose of 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen A), 73 received unsupervised IPT 900 mg twice weekly for 6 mo (Regimen B), and 53 received unsupervised IPT 300 mg daily for 6 mo (Regimen C). Supervised IPT was delivered at either one tuberculosis clinic or one migrant clinic. The probability of completing a 26-wk regimen was 7, 26, and 41% in Regimens A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.005, Log- rank test calculated using Kaplan-Meier plots). The mean time to dropout was 3. 8, 6, and 6.2 wk in Regimens A, B, and C, respectively (p = 0.003 for regimen A versus either Regimens B or C). Treatment was stopped in five subjects (2.4%) because of adverse events. The rate of completion of preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection among illegal immigrants was low. Supervised, clinic-based administration of IPT significantly reduced adherence. Alternative strategies to implement preventive therapy in illegal immigrants are clearly required.
Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan
Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to
Silverman, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a "rockumentary" music therapy intervention on readiness to change and craving in patients on a detoxification unit utilizing psychometric instruments in a randomized three-group design. Participants (N = 141) were randomized by group to a rockumentary music therapy intervention, verbal therapy, or recreational music therapy condition. All interventions were scripted and manualized in a posttest only design. Concerning readiness to change, results indicated there were significant between-group differences in Contemplation and Action subscales, with participants in the rockumentary and recreational music therapy conditions having higher means than participants in the verbal therapy condition. There were no differences between the two music therapy conditions concerning readiness to change variables. Although not significant, participants in both music therapy conditions tended to have lower mean craving scores than participants in the verbal therapy condition. Concerning Likert-type ratings of motivation to change, perception of helpfulness, and perception of enjoyment, participants in both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean scores than participants in the verbal therapy conditions. Participants' posttest written comments were positive, regardless of condition. Limitations of the study, suggestions for the future inquiry, and implications for clinical practice are provided.
This article describes the impact of music therapy upon a group of nine people with advanced dementia in a hospital setting. It demonstrates how the impact of music therapy was measured using the case notes completed by nursing and care staff and how these notes suggested that music therapy had a positive effect on the mood and behaviour on eight of the nine people receiving music therapy.
This study illustrates the use of a new musicological method for analyzing music in music therapy. It examines two pieces of clinical music through the constructs of schema theory. It begins with an argument for enhanced musical analysis in music therapy as a means of elevating the status of explanation in music therapy. Schema theory is introduced as a means of integrating musical with clinical concerns. Some basic ideas in schema theory are explained and the schemas of VERTICALITY and CONTAINER are presented as central ones in the analysis of music. Two transcriptions-one of a composed song and one of an improvisation-are examined in detail to illustrate how decisions in the temporal, melodic, and harmonic dimensions of the music are linked to specific clinical goals. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of musicological analysis for explanatory theory in music therapy.
Reviews the literature on the use of music therapy with visually impaired and socially isolated children. Describes ways that music therapy can help the child explore his environment, modify blindisms (stereotypic, autistic-like behaviors), and encourage social awareness and interaction with other children. (DB)
This monograph evolved from the unique, innovative partnership between the Florida State University Music Therapy Program and Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare. Its purpose is to serve as a model for music therapy educators, students, clinicians, and the hospital administrators who might employ them. This book should prove a valuable resource for…
Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.
Waldon, E G
The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the efficacy of a music therapy protocol on mood states and levels of group cohesiveness in adult oncology patients. Eleven oncology patients in 2 groups (ages 30 to 84 years) took part in the study over a 10-week period of time (10 participants completed the study). During that period, participants took part in 8 music therapy sessions consisting of 2 types of interventions: (a) 4 "music making" sessions (where the mechanism for change included the process of making music) and (b) 4 "music responding" sessions (where the mechanism included the process of responding to music). The two types of music therapy sessions and their effectiveness on improving mood states and group cohesiveness were examined. The Profile of Mood States-Short Form (POMS-SF) was used to assess changes in participants' mood states. A content analysis, attendance records, and a questionnaire were used to assess levels of group cohesiveness. Results showed significant improvement in mood state scores (from presession levels to postsessions levels) after involvement in all music therapy sessions. Similar significant findings were found within each of the "music making" and "music responding" conditions but no differences were found when comparisons were made between those conditions. No statistically significant effects were found with respect to group cohesiveness measures. Study implications and future research directions are discussed.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Ben-Arye, Yotam; Barak, Yael
Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM) aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient’s involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients’ supportive care. PMID:26973967
Gallagher, L M; Steele, A L
The purpose of this paper is to describe the music therapy program at the Harry R. Horvitz Center for Palliative Medicine, to present different music therapy interventions that are used with individuals who have terminal illnesses, and to introduce initial findings from a pilot study of the effects of music therapy on an inpatient palliative medicine unit. For the first time, a computerized database has been designed to evaluate clinical practice by tracking music therapy intervention effectiveness on common symptoms. Measurement techniques included visual analogue scales and behavioural observation. Music therapy was shown to have a significant effect on common symptoms in advanced cancer patients, suggesting that it should be included in palliative medicine programs as an adjunct to symptom treatment.
Ben-Arye, Eran; Ben-Arye, Yotam; Barak, Yael
Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM) aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient's involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients' supportive care.
Potash, Jordan S; Chan, Faye; Ho, Andy H Y; Wang, Xiao Lu; Cheng, Carol
End-of-life care workers and volunteers are particularly prone to burnout given the intense emotional and existential nature of their work. Supervision is one important way to provide adequate support that focuses on both professional and personal competencies. The inclusion of art therapy principles and practices within supervision further creates a dynamic platform for sustained self-reflection. A 6-week art therapy-based supervision group provided opportunities for developing emotional awareness, recognizing professional strengths, securing collegial relationships, and reflecting on death-related memories. The structure, rationale, and feedback are discussed.
Standley, Jayne M
This meta-analysis on music research with premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) showed an overall large, significant, consistent effect size of almost a standard deviation (d =.83) (Cohen, 1998). Effects were not mediated by infants' gestational age at the time of study, birthweight, or type of music delivery nor by physiologic, behavioral, or developmental measures of benefit. The homogeneity of findings suggests that music has statistically significant and clinically important benefits for premature infants in the NICU. The unique acoustic properties that differentiate music from all other sounds are discussed and clinical implications for research-based music therapy procedures cited.
Hori, Miyako; Iizuka, Mieko; Nakamura, Michikazu; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Yufuko; Kubota, Masakazu; Urabe, Mie; Kinoshita, Ayae
There are various nonpharmacological therapies available for elderly people with dementia, and these can improve quality of life and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that appear throughout the progression of the disease. Since a substantial number of effects have been reported for music therapy, we focused on this nonpharmacological intervention. Generally, musical therapy is provided collectively in facilities. However, the music used in this context may not consider the preferences and music abilities of each person. Therefore, in this study we created made-to-order music CDs that accounted for each participant's musical preferences and abilities. Utilizing the CDs, we conducted an intervention study of music therapy using a video phone (Skype) that elderly people with dementia can use at home. An advantage of conducting music therapy for individuals with dementia using a video phone is that those who have difficulty going to the hospital or participating in dementia-related therapy groups can participate in therapy in a familiar place. The results of this intervention showed that participants demonstrated signs of improvement as measured by the smile degree(Smile scan)and Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) scale.
Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E
Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents.
Silverman, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to implement and measure the effectiveness of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients. Participants (N=133) were randomly assigned by group to one of three conditions: (a) Assertiveness Music Therapy, (b) No Music Assertiveness, or (c) Music No Assertiveness. Participants in both assertiveness conditions role played a number of different commonly occurring scenarios at an inpatient psychiatric facility and in the community. There were no significant between-group differences in posttest quality of life, locus of control, or other subscales. However, participants in both assertiveness conditions tended to have slightly higher internal locus of control and overall quality of life scores than participants in the music no assertiveness condition. Additionally, the assertiveness music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the other conditions. A higher percentage of participants from both the assertiveness music therapy and music no assertiveness conditions indicated they thought their session was the most helpful/therapeutic group therapy session in which they had participated; this was not the case for the assertiveness no music condition. Future research is warranted to measure the effects of protocols that can help psychiatric patients generalize skills learned in treatment.
Takahashi, Takiko; Matsushita, Hiroko
Over a period of 2 years we assessed the long-term effects of group music therapy carried out once weekly on the elderly (mean age: 83 years) suffering from moderate or severe dementia by observing changes in the cortisol level in saliva and in blood pressure and by an intelligence assessment. Systolic blood pressure determined 1 and 2 years after the start of therapy increased significantly in the nonmusic therapy group compared with that in music therapy group (p < .05). Systolic blood pressure increases with aging; the systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in participants who received music therapy. No significant differences in cortisol level in saliva or intelligence assessment score were observed, but the music therapy group maintained their physical and mental states during the 2-year period better than the nonmusic therapy group. This result indicates the lasting effect of once-a-week continuous music therapy. Even the elderly with moderate or severe dementia were able to participate in the group music therapy, and results suggest that enjoying singing and playing musical instruments in a concert was effective in preventing cardiac and cerebral diseases.
Walworth, Darcy D
The purpose of the current study was to identify the effects of live music therapy interventions compared with preferred recorded music for patients undergoing MRI scans. To date, there has not been a published study involving the use of live music therapy during MRI scans. The current study investigated the differences between teenage through adult patients receiving live music therapy intervention during outpatient MRI scans versus the standard protocol of care listening to recorded music (N = 88). Subjects ranged in age from 15 to 93 years old. Results indicated subjects who received the live music therapy protocol reported significantly better perception of the MRI procedure (p < 0.05). Additionally, subjects receiving the live music therapy protocol had fewer scans repeated due to movement. Of the repeated images, 26% occurred in the live music group and 73% occurred in the recorded music group. Subjects receiving live music therapy also requested less breaks from the scan. Two percent of the live music subjects requested a break and 17.6% of the control patients requested breaks. When comparing the same type of scan between groups, subjects receiving the live music protocol required less time to complete the scans. For lumbar scans without contrast (N = 14, n = 7, n = 7), live music subjects spent an average of 4.63 less min per scan for a total of 32 less min for 7 subjects. For brain scans (N = 8, n = 4, n = 4), live music subjects spent an average of 5.8 less min per scan for a total of 23 less min for 4 subjects. Results of the current study supports the use of live music therapy intervention for teenage and adult patients undergoing MRI scans to reduce patient anxiety and improve patient perception of the scan experience. Additionally, live music therapy has the potential to shorten the length of time required for patients to complete MRI scans due to decreased patient movements and fewer breaks requested during the scans. The cost savings impact of
Pavlov, Allison; Kameg, Kirstyn; Cline, Tom W; Chiapetta, Laurel; Stark, Stacy; Mitchell, Ann M
Music therapy has been identified as a non-pharmacological adjunct therapy to treat anxiety. This QI project aimed to assess the effects of music therapy on anxiety in a sample of patients hospitalized with a thought disorder. Participants were assessed pre- and post-group using a visual analog scale for anxiety. The intervention significantly reduced VAS scores from 3.1 pre-intervention to .897 immediately post-intervention (p = 0.008). This data suggests that music therapy may be beneficial in the short term for this population and is a low risk intervention that provides positive outcomes without the risks associated with medications, seclusion, and restraint.
Silverman, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to compare group-based psychoeducational music therapy to psychoeducation in measures of satisfaction with life, knowledge of illness, treatment perceptions, and response frequency and type in acute psychiatric inpatients during a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Participants (N=105) took part in a scripted single session controlled by a treatment manual and facilitated by a Board-Certified Music Therapist. No significant differences were found between groups in measures of helpfulness, enjoyment, satisfaction with life, or psychoeducational knowledge. However, although not significant, the music therapy group tended to have slightly higher mean scores in all aforementioned variables, suggesting music therapy can be as effective as psychoeducation in these measures. There were no significant differences between groups for the number of therapist questions and validations as measured by a trained behavioral observer, although during the music therapy condition the therapist was able to ask a mean of almost 11 additional questions than during the psychoeducational control condition. Although not significant, there were almost 20 more participant mean verbalizations per session during the music therapy conditions. Additionally, many of these verbalizations were categorized as self and cognitive insight statements, indicating participants in the music therapy condition were talking more about themselves and their unique situations. Congruent with this finding, during the music therapy condition, the ratios of participant self statements to therapist questions and participant cognitive insights to therapist questions were higher than in the control condition. There was a significant correlation between participant total verbal participation and perception of helpfulness, enjoyment, and comfort for the control condition. This correlation was not significant for the experimental condition, indicating that the music therapy group did
Clark, Michael; Isaacks-Downton, Gloria; Wells, Nancy; Redlin-Frazier, Sheryl; Eck, Carol; Hepworth, Joseph T; Chakravarthy, Bapsi
Music therapy has decreased anxiety levels in many medical settings. This randomized clinical trial examined the effectiveness of a music listening intervention, delivered by a board-certified music therapist, in patients undergoing curative radiation therapy (RT). Emotional distress (anxiety, depression, and treatment-related distress) and symptoms (fatigue and pain) were measured at baseline, mid-treatment, and end of treatment in 63 patients undergoing RT. Although patients who listened to self-selected music reported lower anxiety and treatment-related distress, there was a decline in these outcomes for patients in both groups over the course of RT. Depression, fatigue, and pain were not appreciably affected by music therapy. Within the music group, there was a significant correlation between number of times music was used/week and the change in treatment-related distress, suggesting that higher doses of music produced greater declines in distress. While these findings provided some support for the use of music in reducing distress during RT, further research demonstrating clear differences between intervention and control conditions is needed. Physical symptoms were not affected by the use of music over the course of RT.
Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer
Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.
Comincini, Valeria; Del Piccolo, Lidia
In this study, two groups are interviewed: the first study includes a sample of 60 physicians and health providers in the field of deafness, whose opinion on music therapy is collected by a specific questionnaire; the second involves 8 parents of deaf children attending music therapy lessons, who are asked to give an evaluation on the effect of music therapy, based on the experience of their children. Results show that health professionals know very little about the rehabilitative effectiveness of music therapy, whereas the parents of deaf children give a positive evaluation on the psychological, behavioral and linguistic benefits that music therapy gives to their deaf children.
Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi
Previous research studies regarding music therapy and severe mental illness have mainly adopted quantitative methodologies in order to study the effectiveness of music therapy interventions. Studies that have explored service users' experiences of participation in music therapy are small in number, and almost nonexistent in the field of psychosis. This study aimed to explore how mental health patients with a diagnosis of psychosis experienced participation in music therapy, in general, and more specifically how they experienced music therapy in relation to their current mental state and life situation. Nine inpatients with psychosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview focusing on the participants' experiences of music therapy in individual sessions, groups, and performances. Through the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis, four super-ordinate themes central to the participants' experiences were found: freedom, contact, well-being, and symptom reduction. Based on the findings, mental health recovery, positive mental health, and agency are proposed as constituting a better framework for music therapy in mental healthcare than a primary focus on symptom remission and functional improvement.
Leal, Nara Fernanda Braz da Silva; de Oliveira, Harley Francisco; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti
ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effect of physical therapy on the range of motion of the shoulders and perimetry of the upper limbs in women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: a total of 35 participants were randomized into two groups, with 18 in the control group (CG) and 17 in the study group (SG). Both of the groups underwent three evaluations to assess the range of motion of the shoulders and perimetry of the upper limbs, and the study group underwent supervised physical therapy for the upper limbs. Results: the CG had deficits in external rotation in evaluations 1, 2, and 3, whereas the SG had deficits in flexion, abduction, and external rotation in evaluation 1. The deficit in abduction was recovered in evaluation 2, whereas the deficits in all movements were recovered in evaluation 3. No significant differences in perimetry were observed between the groups. Conclusion: the applied supervised physical therapy was effective in recovering the deficit in abduction after radiotherapy, and the deficits in flexion and external rotation were recovered within two months after the end of radiotherapy. Registration number of the clinical trial: NCT02198118. PMID:27533265
Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Yuan
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood. We randomly assigned 71 nursing students from Taiwan with depressed mood to the music and control groups. The music group (n = 31) received Chinese five-element music therapy, whereas the participants in the control group (n = 40) maintained their routine lifestyles with no music therapy. All of the participants were assessed using the Depression Mood Self-Report Inventory for Adolescence, and their salivary cortisol levels were measured. The study found that there was a significant reduction in depression between the pre- and posttherapy test scores and in salivary cortisol levels over time in the music group. After receiving the music therapy, the nursing students' depression levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.038) compared with the control group (P < 0.001). These results indicate that the Chinese five-element music therapy has the potential to reduce the level of depression in nursing students with depressed mood.
Petrak, Russell M.; Skorodin, Nathan C.; Fliegelman, Robert M.; Hines, David W.; Chundi, Vishnu V.; Harting, Brian P.
Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered infectious disease (ID) private practice setting. Methods. Over a period of 32 months, 6120 patients were treated using 19 outpatient ID offices in 6 states. Analysis included patient demographics, indications of OPAT, diagnoses, therapeutic agent, duration of therapy, and site of therapy initiation. Outcomes were stratified by therapeutic success, clinical relapse, therapeutic complications, and hospitalizations after initiating therapy. Statistical analysis included an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results. Forty-three percent of patients initiated therapy in an outpatient office, and 57% began therapy in a hospital. Most common diagnoses treated were bone and joint (32.2%), abscesses (18.8%), cellulitis (18.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.8%). Ninety-four percent of patients were successfully treated, and only 3% were hospitalized after beginning therapy. Most common cause of treatment failure was a relapse of primary infection (60%), progression of primary infection (21%), and therapeutic complication (19%). Conclusions. An ID-supervised OPAT program is safe, efficient, and clinically effective. By maximizing the delivery of outpatient care, OPAT provides a tangible value to hospitals, payers, and patients. This program is a distinctive competency available to ID physicians who offer this service to patients. PMID:27807591
Chung, Jeehae; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl
The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the influence of dosage, type (active, receptive, or combined), and format (individual or group) of music therapy for individuals with schizophrenia. With the terms "music*" and "schizophreni*," six research databases were searched: CINAHL, EMBASE, Music Index, PsycInfo, Pubmed, and RILM. The search was limited to studies written in English, peer-reviewed, and published between 1991 and 2015. Seventeen articles met the stated criteria. Dosage of music therapy ranged from 20 to 9,720 minutes. Three types of music therapy were delivered: active, receptive, or combined, and therapy was implemented via individual or group format. Depending on the dosage, type, and format, music therapy improved psychotic symptom management, depression and anxiety management, social and cognitive functioning, behavior, and quality of life of the participants. Dosage had a greater impact on the effects of music therapy compared to type and format. Studies that implemented a combination of active and receptive music therapy were more likely to produce significant improvements in outcomes compared to the studies that implemented the other types of music therapy. However, studies using combined type provided higher dosage of the intervention (e.g., more minutes of intervention exposure). This systematic review can be used to guide future research on and clinical applications for music therapy in this population. Future studies might also investigate the interaction of demographic characteristics or severity of illness with dosage and type on effects of music therapy.
Tyson, Edgar H.
Presents an exploratory study of the therapeutic potential of "Hip-Hop" therapy, an "innovative synergy of rap music, bibliotherapy, and music therapy." Finds that the quantitative and qualitative results partially supported the hypothesis that under a specific set of conditions rap music would improve the therapeutic…
Chou, Lih-Lih; Wang, Ru-Hwa; Chen, Shu-Jen; Pai, Lu
The purpose of this study was to investigate how premature infants' oxygen saturation changed in response to music therapy while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning. A convenience sample of 30 premature infants was selected from three neonatal intensive care units. A one-group repeated measures design was adopted for this study. The oxygen saturation of all subjects was first measured while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning during a four-hour control period with regular care. Then, four hours after the control period was completed, an experimental period began in which the music " Transitions " was played. One minute before suctioning, the level of oxygen saturation was measured to provide the baseline data. During a period of 30 minutes after suctioning, the oxygen saturation was recorded every minute to analyze the clinical effects of music therapy. The results showed that premature infants receiving music therapy with endotracheal suctioning had a significantly higher SPO(2); than that when not receiving music therapy (p <.01), and the level of oxygen saturation returned to the baseline level faster than when they did not receive music therapy (p <.01). Accordingly, it is hoped that giving appropriate music therapy as developmental care to premature infants when performing any nursing intervention may enhance not only the quality of nursing care but also quality of the infant's life.
Mondanaro, John F; Homel, Peter; Lonner, Baron; Shepp, Jennifer; Lichtensztein, Marcela; Loewy, Joanne V
The treatment of pain continues to gain in saliency as a component of defining best practice in medical care. Music therapy is an integrative treatment modality that impacts patient outcomes in the treatment of spinal pain. At Mount Sinai Beth Israel, we conducted a mixed-methods study addressing the effects of music therapy interventions on the recovery of patients after spine surgery. The study combined standard medical approaches and integrative music therapy. Sixty patients (35 female, 25 male) ranging in age from 40 to 55 years underwent anterior, posterior, or anterior-posterior spinal fusion and were randomly assigned to either music therapy plus standard care (medical and nursing care with scheduled pharmacologic pain intervention) or standard care only. Measurements for both groups were completed before and after the intervention. Music therapy involved the use of patient-preferred live music that supported tension release/relaxation through incentive-based clinical improvisation, singing, and/or rhythmic drumming or through active visualization supported by live music that encompasses tension resolution. The control and music groups showed significant differences in degree and direction of change in the visual analog scale (VAS) pain ratings from before to after intervention (P = .01). VAS pain levels increased slightly in the control group (to 5.87 from 5.20) but decreased by more than 1 point in the music group (to 5.09 from 6.20). The control and music therapy groups did not differ in the rate of change in scores on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) Anxiety (P = .62), HADS Depression (P = .85), or Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (P = .93). Both groups had slight increases in HADS Anxiety, comparable decreases in HADS Depression, and minimal changes in fear-related movement (Tampa scale).
Weinand, Jamie D.; Safer, Joshua D.
Introduction Some providers report concern for the safety of transgender hormone therapy (HT). Methods This is a systematic literature review of HT safety for transgender adults. Results Current literature suggests HT is safe when followed carefully for certain risks. The greatest health concern for HT in transgender women is venous thromboembolism. HT among transgender men appears to cause polycythemia. Both groups experienced elevated fasting glucose. There is no increase in cancer prevalence or mortality due to transgender HT. Conclusion Although current data support the safety of transgender HT with physician supervision, larger, long-term studies are needed in transgender medicine. PMID:28090436
Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia
This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…
Gonzalez, Tiphanie; Hayes, B. Grant
In 2000, Don Elligan introduced Rap Therapy as a psychotherapeutic intervention for working with at-risk youths, primarily African American males whose identities were highly influenced by rap music. Rap music can engage a population of youth who often enter counseling apprehensively (Elligan 2000, 2004; Tillie-Allen, 2005). This article reviews…
Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N
The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research.
Vaidyanathan, M; Clarke, L P; Velthuizen, R P; Phuphanich, S; Bensaid, A M; Hall, L O; Bezdek, J C; Greenberg, H; Trotti, A; Silbiger, M
Two different multispectral pattern recognition methods are used to segment magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain for quantitative estimation of tumor volume and volume changes with therapy. A supervised k-nearest neighbor (kNN) rule and a semi-supervised fuzzy c-means (SFCM) method are used to segment MRI slice data. Tumor volumes as determined by the kNN and SFCM segmentation methods are compared with two reference methods, based on image grey scale, as a basis for an estimation of ground truth, namely: (a) a commonly used seed growing method that is applied to the contrast enhanced T1-weighted image, and (b) a manual segmentation method using a custom-designed graphical user interface applied to the same raw image (T1-weighted) dataset. Emphasis is placed on measurement of intra and inter observer reproducibility using the proposed methods. Intra- and interobserver variation for the kNN method was 9% and 5%, respectively. The results for the SFCM method was a little better at 6% and 4%, respectively. For the seed growing method, the intra-observer variation was 6% and the interobserver variation was 17%, significantly larger when compared with the multispectral methods. The absolute tumor volume determined by the multispectral segmentation methods was consistently smaller than that observed for the reference methods. The results of this study are found to be very patient case-dependent. The results for SFCM suggest that it should be useful for relative measurements of tumor volume during therapy, but further studies are required. This work demonstrates the need for minimally supervised or unsupervised methods for tumor volume measurements.
Ballantyne, Julie; Baker, Felicity A.
The health benefits of musical engagement extend across the lifespan, with research documenting developmental and quality of life outcomes in senior adulthood. Whilst the psychological functions of music include three broad domains: cognitive, emotional and social, the social factors of music consumption have been, for the most part, ignored. This…
The goals and activities of the Orff-Schulwerk Approach and the Kodaly Method of music therapy are described; and the usefulness of each approach to develop creativity, social development, and cognitive ability in normal, gifted, and handicapped elementary level students is discussed. (SBH)
Spiro, Neta; Farrant, Camilla L; Pavlicevic, Mercédès
Does current music therapy practice address the goals encapsulated in the UK Department of Health document, Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy (the Dementia Strategy) published in 2009? A survey elicited the views of clients, family members, music therapists, care home staff and care home managers, about this question by focusing on the relationship between music therapy and the 17 objectives outlined in the Dementia Strategy. The results showed that the objectives that are related to direct activity of the music therapists (such as care and understanding of the condition) were seen as most fulfilled by music therapy, while those regarding practicalities (such as living within the community) were seen as least fulfilled. Although the responses from the four groups of participants were similar, differences for some questions suggest that people's direct experience of music therapy influences their views. This study suggests that many aspects of the Dementia Strategy are already seen as being achieved. The findings suggest that developments of both music therapy practices and government strategies on dementia care may benefit from being mutually informed.
In a New York City community school, music therapy addresses the following social and emotional developmental goals: participation, interaction, relationships, communication, expression, space sharing, problem solving, self-esteem, respect, and awareness. (SK)
Romo, Rafael; Gifford, Lisa
Medicare's fixed daily rates create an absolute cost constraint on hospices; consequently, the growth in hospice brings financial pressures. The patient efficacy of music therapy has been demonstrated in the literature and includes improving pain, agitation, disruptive behaviors, communication, depression, and quality of life. Music therapy is well suited to hospice as it addresses the four domains of palliative care (physiological, emotional, social, and spiritual care). In this small study, the total cost of patients in music therapy was $10,659 and $13,643 for standard care patients, resulting in a cost savings of $2984. The music therapy program cost $3615, yielding a cost benefit ratio of 0.83. When using cost per patient day, the cost benefit ratio is 0.95.
Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Watanabe, Motoko; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kojima, Emi; Ooshiro, Hajime; Nakahara, Daiichirou
The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, "language", improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for "irritability" decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.
Walworth, Darcy DeLoach
The SCERTS model is a new, comprehensive curriculum designed to assess and identify treatment goals and objectives within a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and educators for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This model is an ongoing assessment tool with resulting goals and objectives derived there from. Because music therapy offers a unique interaction setting for children with ASD to elicit communication skills, music therapists will need to be an integral part of the multidisciplinary assessment team using the SCERTS model which is projected to become the primary nation wide curriculum for children with ASD. The purpose of this paper is to assist music therapists in transitioning to this model by providing an overview and explanation of the SCERTS model and by identifying how music therapists are currently providing clinical services incorporated in the SCERTS Model for children with ASD. In order to formulate comprehensive transitional suggestions, a national survey of music therapists working with clients at risk or diagnosed with ASD was conducted to: (a) identify the areas of SCERTS assessment model that music therapists are currently addressing within their written goals for clients with ASD, (b) identify current music therapy activities that address various SCERTS goals and objectives, and (c) provide demographic information about settings, length, and tools used in music therapy interventions for clients with ASD.
Powers, James S; Heim, Daniel; Grant, Brian; Rollins, John
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Operation Stand Down has done much to address homeless needs among veterans. Gaining client trust is central to the effectiveness of the program. Music therapy has been found beneficial in moving individuals from isolation to community. We report our experience with participatory music therapy in Operation Stand Down and offer this as a legitimate intervention to enhance client participation.
Boiko, E A; Ivanchuk, E V; Gunchenko, M M; Batysheva, T T
Currently music therapy plays an important role in the drug-free treatment and rehabilitation of children and adults with acute and chronic neurological and somatic diseases including demyelinating diseases. Existing studies show the effectiveness of music therapy in the improvement of social skills, cognitive function and sleep as well as in the reduction in the severity of depression, anxiety and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Loewy, Joanne; Hallan, Cathrine; Friedman, Eliezer; Martinez, Christine
This study included a total of 60 pediatric patients ranging from 1 month through 5 years of age. The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation in infants and toddlers undergoing EEG testing. The results of the study indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective, risk-free alternative to pharmacological sedation.
Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lee, Eun-Jeong
The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sounds used in music therapy, on the neural complexity of EEG signals obtained from patients undergoing chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to compare the EEG signal complexity values for monochords with those for progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), an alternative therapy for relaxation. Forty cancer patients were randomly allocated to one of the two relaxation groups, MC and PMR, over a period of six months; continuous EEG signals were recorded during the first and last sessions. EEG signals were analyzed by applying signal mode complexity, a measure of complexity of neuronal oscillations. Across sessions, both groups showed a modulation of complexity of beta-2 band (20-29Hz) at midfrontal regions, but only MC group showed a modulation of complexity of theta band (3.5-7.5Hz) at posterior regions. Therefore, the neuronal complexity patterns showed different changes in EEG frequency band specific complexity resulting in two different types of interventions. Moreover, the different neural responses to listening to monochords and PMR were observed after regular relaxation interventions over a short time span.
Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie
This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed.
Canga, Bernardo; Azoulay, Ronit; Raskin, Jonathan; Loewy, Joanne
The aim of this randomized control study is to examine the effect of a multimodal psycho-music therapy intervention on respiratory symptoms, psychological well-being and quality of life of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and other lung diseases as adjunct to Pulmonary Rehabilitation with a design of music therapy plus PR compared to Pulmonary Rehabilitation alone. Music therapy group treatment including music visualization, wind playing and singing was provided weekly. This was compared with standard care treatment. Adults ages 48 to 88 (mean 70.1) with moderate to severe GOLD stage II-IV lung disease as well as other diseases processes that lead to chronic airflow limitations were included (n = 98). Participants in both conditions were followed from baseline enrollment to six weeks post control/treatment. Outcome measures included the Beck Depression Inventory Scale 2nd edition-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire Self-Reported (CRQ-SR), and Dyspnea Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results showed improvement in symptoms of depression (LS mean -0.2) in the music therapy group with statistical divergence between groups (p = 0.007). The CRQ-SR demonstrated improvement in dyspnea (p = 0.01 LS mean 0.5) and mastery (p = 0.06 LS mean 0.5) in the music therapy group and fatigue (p = 0.01 LS mean 0.3). VAS demonstrated highly significant effect in the music therapy group between weeks 5 and 6 (p < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that music therapy combined with standard PR may prove to be an effective modality in the management of pulmonary disease.
Smeijsters; van Den Hurk J
This article describes a qualitative single-case study of the treatment of a woman having problems with grief and finding a personal identity. In this case the treatment has been supported by research techniques like categorizing, developing themes, writing memos, member checking, peer debriefing, and triangulation. During treatment, diagnostic themes were generated such as: problems of identity, low self-esteem, a lack of assertiveness, and problems expressing feelings and problems in relationships. These themes became important along with feelings of depression which she experienced since the death of her beloved husband. The study describes how the client was able to express, in an unconscious way, a part of her personality, which she had been suppressing since childhood, through playing the piano and vocalizing during the music therapy process. The music therapist used several techniques of improvisation to support the client's cautious steps into a new musical and a new personal world. Tables of music therapy improvisations show how the client became musically expressive, how she found a personal melody and how she developed a closer relationship with the music therapist through musical interaction. Guidelines for similar cases and generated hypotheses about the contribution of music are enclosed as results of research.
Taets, Gunnar Glauco de Cunto; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; de Figueiredo, Nébia Maria Almeida; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin
The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.
Jasemi, Madineh; Aazami, Sanaz; Zabihi, Roghaieh Esmaili
Background and Purpose: Cancer patients often suffer from anxiety and depression. Various methods are used to alleviate anxiety and depression, but most of them have side effects. Music therapy can be used as a noninvasive method to reduce anxiety and depression. This study aimed to examine the effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted attaching hospitals in Urmia city. A total number of sixty patients with depression and anxiety were recruited using random sampling method and divided into two groups of control and intervention. Patients in intervention group listened to light music at least 20 min per day for 3 days. The degree of patients’ anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and 3 days after music therapy. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using t-test, Pearson, and ANOVA tests. Results: The results showed no significant differences between demographic variable of intervention and control groups. Our findings indicated a significant decrease in the level of depression and anxiety among intervention group. There were significant relationships between anxiety, depression, and sex (P < 0.001, r = 0.42) as well as education (P = 0.003, r = 0.37). Conclusion: This study revealed positive effects of music therapy on decreasing level of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to include music therapy in the nursing care. PMID:27803568
Sin, Wai Man; Chow, Ka Ming
Unrelieved postoperative pain may have a negative impact on the physiological and psychological well-being of patients. Pharmacological methods are currently used to relieve such pain in gynecological patients; however, inadequate pain control is still reported, and the use of nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods is increasingly being advocated, one of which is music therapy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise current evidence on music therapy and postoperative pain management among gynecological patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and Allied and Complementary Medicine was conducted using the search terms music, gynecological, pain, surgery, operative, and post-operative to identify relevant articles in English from 1995 to the present. All identified articles were assessed independently for inclusion into review. A total of 7 articles were included after removal of duplicates and exclusion of irrelevant studies. All the included studies assessed the effects of music therapy on postoperative pain intensity, and three of them measured pain-related physiological symptoms. The findings indicated that music therapy, in general, was effective in reducing pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, and analgesic consumption in gynecological patients during the postoperative period. It is recommended as an adjunct to pharmacological pain-relieving methods in reducing postoperative pain. Future researches on music therapy to identify the most effective application and evaluate its effect by qualitative study are recommended.
Raglio, Alfredo; Zaliani, Alberto; Baiardi, Paola; Bossi, Daniela; Sguazzin, Cinzia; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Chiara; Gontero, Giulia; Imbriani, Marcello
Guidelines in stroke rehabilitation recommend the use of a multidisciplinary approach. Different approaches and techniques with music are used in the stroke rehabilitation to improve motor and cognitive functions but also psychological outcomes. In this randomized controlled pilot trial, relational active music therapy approaches were tested in the post-acute phase of disease. Thirty-eight hospitalized patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were recruited and allocated in two groups. The experimental group underwent the standard of care (physiotherapy and occupational therapy daily sessions) and relational active music therapy treatments. The control group underwent the standard of care only. Motor functions and psychological aspects were assessed before and after treatments. Music therapy process was also evaluated using a specific rating scale. All groups showed a positive trend in quality of life, functional and disability levels, and gross mobility. The experimental group showed a decrease of anxiety and, in particular, of depression (p = 0.016). In addition, the strength of non-dominant hand (grip) significantly increased in the experimental group (p = 0.041). Music therapy assessment showed a significant improvement over time of non-verbal and sonorous-music relationships. Future studies, including a greater number of patients and follow-up evaluations, are needed to confirm promising results of this study.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairments have been investigated recently. The role of music in cognitive rehabilitation is evolving, based on newer findings emerging from the fields of neuromusicology and music cognition. Research findings from these fields have contributed significantly to our understanding of music perception and cognition, and its neural underpinnings. From a neuroscientific perspective, indulging in music is considered as one of the best cognitive exercises. With “plasticity” as its veritable nature, brain engages in producing music indulging an array of cognitive functions and the product, the music, in turn permits restoration and alters brain functions. With scientific findings as its basis, “neurologic music therapy” (NMT) has been developed as a systematic treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language, and cognitive domains of functioning via music. A preliminary study examining the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation has reported promising results in improving executive functions along with improvement in emotional adjustment and decreasing depression and anxiety following TBI. The potential usage of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in various clinical conditions including TBI is yet to be fully explored. There is a need for systematic research studies to bridge the gap between increasing theoretical understanding of usage of music in cognitive rehabilitation and application of the same in a heterogeneous condition such as TBI. PMID:24715887
Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client–therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client–therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists
Spiro, Neta; Himberg, Tommi
Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client-therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client-therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists.
Raglio, A; Bellelli, G; Mazzola, P; Bellandi, D; Giovagnoli, A R; Farina, E; Stramba-Badiale, M; Gentile, S; Gianelli, M V; Ubezio, M C; Zanetti, O; Trabucchi, M
This study reviews the most recent (from 2000 to 2011) Clinical Controlled Trials (CCT) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) concerning the use of music and music-therapy (MT) in the context of dementia and related issues. Studies which explored the efficacy of music and MT on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent, while those aiming at assessing a potential effect of these approaches on cognitive and physiological aspects are scant. Although with some limitations, the results of these studies are consistent with the efficacy of MT approach on BPSD. In this context, the ability of the music therapist to directly interact with the patients appears to be crucial for the success of the intervention. This review was endorsed by the Italian Psychogeriatric Association (AIP) and represents its view about the criteria to select appropriate music and MT approaches in the field of dementia. Accordingly, we have developed a list of recommendations to facilitate the current use of these techniques in the context of non-pharmacological treatments for patients with dementia.
Im, Mi Lim; Lee, Jeong In
The purpose of this study was to examine effects of art and music therapy on depression and cognitive function of the elderly. This was one group pre-test, post-test design. Data were collected from January to March, 2013, from 94 elderly. The results were collected as followers: 1. Art therapy was revealed a statistical significant difference between before and after treatment on the depression of participants. 2. Music therapy was revealed a statistical significant at previous and after treatment on the depression of participants. 3. Treatment according to the severity of depression than the music therapy and art therapy were examined statistically significantly lower. This study will be provided basic information in order to develop program for success healthy life of elderly.
Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.
Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Cioncoloni, David; Mazzanti, Sandra; Bianchi, Maria Elena; Morrone, Ilenia; Becattelli, Rossana; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe
This research studied, 25 adult patients who underwent physical therapy to assess the analgesic effect of distraction with the use of music during physical therapy. Patients randomly underwent physical therapy once with music provided by an iPod and once without music. In both sessions patients underwent identical physical procedures. At end of both sessions patients filled in 5-item questionnaire where they scored pain and other parameters, such as stress, enjoyment, interaction, and satisfaction, on 10-cm visual analog scale. The mean scores (range, 0-10) of the two sessions were statistically compared. Mean pain scores were significantly lower (p = .031) during the session in which patients received music (4.8 ± 2.5) than during the session without music (5.8 ± 2.3). The other items of the questionnaire did not disclose any statistically significant difference when the sessions with versus without music were compared. Enjoyment (8.5 ± 1.6), interaction (8.3 ± 1.9), and satisfaction (8.6 ± 1.7) scores with music did not significantly differ in the sessions without music (8.5 ± 2.1, 8.5 ± 1.9, and, 8.5 ± 1.5, respectively); mean stress score was, 3.9 in both sessions. The conclusion of the study is that music provided through a portable media player has an analgesic effect. This can be an effective analgesic strategy during painful physical therapy.
Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica
Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…
Background Point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices simplify warfarin management by allowing selected patients to monitor their own therapy in their homes. Patient self-testing (PST) has been shown to improve the clinical outcomes of warfarin therapy compared to usual care. Objective To compare management of warfarin therapy using PST combined with online supervision by physicians via a custom system with usual warfarin management, which involved laboratory testing and physician dosing. Methods Interested patients were recruited via community pharmacies to participate in a warfarin PST training program. Participants were required to have a long-term indication for warfarin, have been taking warfarin for at least 6 months, and have Internet access in their home. The training involved two sessions covering theoretical aspects of warfarin therapy, use of the CoaguChek XS, and the study website. Following training, patients monitored their INR once weekly for up to 3 months. Patients and physicians utilized a secure website to communicate INR values, dosage recommendations, and clinical incidents. Physicians provided a 6-12 month history of INR results for comparison with study results. The percentage of time spent within the therapeutic INR range (TTR) was the primary outcome, with participants acting as their own historical controls. The percentage of INR tests in range and participant satisfaction were secondary outcomes. Results Sixteen patients completed training requirements. The mean age of participants was 69.8 (SD 10.1) years. TTR improved significantly from 66.4% to 78.4% during PST (P=.01), and the number of tests within the target range also improved significantly (from 66.0% at prior to the study to 75.9% during PST; P=.04). Patients and physicians expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the monitoring strategy and online system. Conclusions PST supported by an online system for supervision was associated with improved INR
Nelson, Kirsten; Adamek, Mary; Kleiber, Charmaine
Spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries experienced by adolescents. Music therapy, utilizing music-assisted relaxation with controlled breathing and imagery, is a promising intervention for reducing pain and anxiety for these patients. It can be challenging to teach new coping strategies to post-operative patients who are already in pain. This study evaluated the effects of introducing music-assisted relaxation training to adolescents before surgery. Outcome measures were self-reported pain and anxiety, recorded on 0-10 numeric rating scale, and observed behavioral indicators of pain and relaxation. The training intervention was a 12-minute video about music-assisted relaxation with opportunities to practice before surgery. Forty-four participants between the ages of 10 and 19 were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group that watched the video at the preoperative visit or to the control group that did not watch the video. All subjects received a music therapy session with a board certified music therapist on post-operative day 2 while out of bed for the first time. Pain and anxiety were significantly reduced from immediately pre-therapy to post-therapy (paired t-test; p).
Jinyi, Li; Yungui, Wang
Pain and anxiety engender major psychic problems during all phases of treatment for burn patients. Analgesic alone does not allay these problems satisfactorily in these patients. Music therapy, as an important complementary and alternative therapy, has been widely used in multiple medical fields. However, its positive effect on alleviation of pain and anxiety in burn patients is undefined. The objective of this review is to summarize the feasibility, application fields, methods, and the effectiveness of music therapy in allaying pain and anxiety of burn patients during the whole course of treatment.
Raglio, A; Traficante, D; Oasi, O
This study presents a coding system for observation and monitoring of changes in the interactive behaviour between patient and therapist during music therapy sessions. The coding scheme was developed from a psychodynamic framework and mainly consists of four behavioural classes: Verbal Communication, Nonverbal Communication, Countenance, and Sonorous Musical Communication. The 15 minutes in the middle of each videotape concerning the first active music therapy session--based on the sonorous musical improvisation--were coded. Subjects were children (4 boys; 3 girls) ages 3 to 10 years (M age = 6.3), diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and seven therapists. The method for data collection was continuous recording, applied through The Observer Video-Pro 5.0. For the reliability indexes there was a substantial agreement between assessments by video raters.
Formisano, R; Vinicola, V; Penta, F; Matteis, M; Brunelli, S; Weckel, J W
Active improvised music therapy may offer an adjuvant from of treatment in the early rehabilitation of severe brain-injured patients. Active music therapy consists of musical improvisation between patient and therapist by singing or by playing different musical instruments, according to the vital functions, the neurological conditions and the motor abilities of the patients. We studied 34 severe brain-injured patients with a mean coma duration of 52 days +/- 37.21 and a mean interval from coma onset to the beginning of rehabilitation of 154 days on average. Our preliminary results show a significant improvement of the collaboration of the severe brain-injured patients and a reduction of undesired behaviours such as inertia (reduced psychomotor initiative) or psychomotor agitation.
LaGasse, A Blythe
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately one in 68 children, substantially affecting the child's ability to acquire social skills. The application of effective interventions to facilitate and develop social skills is essential due to the lifelong impact that social skills may have on independence and functioning. Research indicates that music therapy can improve social outcomes in children with ASD. Outcome measures are primarily assessed using standardized nonmusical scales of social functioning from the parent or clinician perspective. Certified music therapists may also assess musical engagement and outcomes as a part of the individual's profile. These measures provide an assessment of the individual's social functioning within the music therapy session and generalizability to nonmusical settings.
LaGasse, A Blythe
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects approximately one in 68 children, substantially affecting the child’s ability to acquire social skills. The application of effective interventions to facilitate and develop social skills is essential due to the lifelong impact that social skills may have on independence and functioning. Research indicates that music therapy can improve social outcomes in children with ASD. Outcome measures are primarily assessed using standardized nonmusical scales of social functioning from the parent or clinician perspective. Certified music therapists may also assess musical engagement and outcomes as a part of the individual’s profile. These measures provide an assessment of the individual’s social functioning within the music therapy session and generalizability to nonmusical settings. PMID:28260959
Miller, E B; Redmond, P
There is a philosophical basis for the integration of treatment using music therapy and chiropractic. Perception is intimately linked to the nervous system. A relationship between spinal integrity and consciousness does exist. We can see that as spinal distortions diminish and awareness increases, there is a natural attraction toward the higher or more loving state of consciousness. Rhythms of healing and suffering are a key concept in combining music therapy with chiropractic manipulation. Donald Epstein's conceptualization of the rhythmic stages of consciousness corresponding to prescribed physiological patterns serves as a starting point for the use of rhythm in the healing process. Using interactive music, the music therapist can help facilitate a change in the patient's physical or emotional state. This occurs when the practitioner establishes an initial connection or musical validation of the patient's emotional state and assists the healing process by improvising supportive music while suggesting possibilities for resolution. We believe that the power of music can be used as a significant tool in chiropractic work to aid individuals in their healing process.
Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Hense, Cherry; McFerran, Katrina
Research into the value of music therapy in pediatric palliative care (PPC) has identified quality of life as one area of improvement for families caring for a child in the terminal stages of a life-threatening illness. This small-scale investigation collected data in a multisite, international study including Minnesota, USA, and Melbourne, Australia. An exploratory mixed method design used the qualitative data collected through interviews with parents to interpret results from the PedsQL Family Impact Module of overall parental quality of life. Parents described music therapy as resulting in physical improvements of their child by providing comfort and stimulation. They also valued the positive experiences shared by the family in music therapy sessions that were strength oriented and family centered. This highlighted the physical and communication scales within the PedsQL Family Impact Module, where minimal improvements were achieved in contrast to some strong results suggesting diminished quality of life in cognitive and daily activity domains. Despite the significant challenges faced by parents during this difficult time, parents described many positive experiences in music therapy, and the overall score for half of the parents in the study did not diminish. The value of music therapy as a service that addresses the family-centered agenda of PPC is endorsed by this study.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a music therapy procedure (music listening paired with progressive muscle relaxation) on the reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep patterns in abused women in shelters. Twenty-eight women residing in 2 domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on 5 consecutive days for half-hour sessions. A pretest-posttest design with control and experimental groups was used. The dependent variables included: stait anxiety measured by the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983) before and after each music stimulus, sleep quality as measured by the PSQI (Buysse et al., 1989) on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale (Lee, 1992) at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. Results indicated that music therapy constituted an effective method for reducing anxiety levels. Results also indicated a significant effect on sleep quality for the experimental group, but not for the control group. No significant relationships were found between anxiety levels and sleep quality, nor fatigue levels and sleep quality. These results seem promising in the light of domestic violence research, which has found that a greater amount of personal resources is a crucial aspect of abused women's recovery process. Reduction of anxiety and improvement of sleep quality can be considered as increased personal resources, and seem feasible through the use of music therapy.
Weck, Florian; Jakob, Marion; Neng, Julia M B; Höfling, Volkmar; Grikscheit, Florian; Bohus, Martin
Live supervision enables a supervisor to have direct insight into the psychotherapeutic process and allows him or her to provide immediate feedback to the trainee. Therefore, live supervision might be superior to traditional supervisory formats that only allow for the provision of delayed feedback. When considering the different live supervision formats, bug-in-the-eye (BITE) supervision is particularly promising because of its improved and less invasive procedure. The current study compared the efficacy of BITE supervision with that of delayed video-based (DVB) supervision. In the present study, 23 therapists were randomly assigned to either the BITE supervision or DVB supervision groups. The participants were psychotherapy trainees who treated 42 patients (19 under BITE supervision and 23 under DVB supervision) over 25 sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Two independent raters blind to the treatment conditions evaluated therapeutic alliance and therapist competence based on 195 videotapes. Therapeutic alliance was significantly stronger among the treatments conducted under BITE supervision than those conducted under DVB supervision. Moreover, a higher level of therapeutic competence was found in the BITE condition than in the DVB condition. However, no differences between supervision conditions were found when the results were controlled for the level of therapeutic alliance and therapist competence demonstrated in the first session. No differences were observed between the supervision conditions with respect to patient outcomes. There is evidence that BITE supervision is able to improve therapeutic alliance and therapist competence. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because possible pre-treatment differences between therapists might explain the superiority of BITE supervision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sidorenko, V N
Music is an ancient method for healing. In the year 550 B.C., Pythagoras from Greece developed a concept for the use of music in medicine, esteeming music higher than many other medical treatments. The Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) of the German classical composer and musicologist Peter Huebner is built on this concept of Pythagorean music medicine. Its therapeutic effect may be best explained by the natural phenomenon of resonance between the harmony laws of the microcosm of music and the biological laws of the body. Results received after application of MRT-Music indicate multiple positive effects on the organism of pregnant women both with a healthy pregnancy as with a pathologic one, reducing the rate of premature births very effectively. Furthermore, MRT-Music came out to be an effective method in the complex therapy of late gestoses and a nearly irreplaceable method for preoperative preparation of pregnant woman for caesarean section. It demonstrated a powerful anti-stress effect and allowed to reduce the amount of administered pain-killers to pregnant women by the factor 1.5 to 2.0, thus reducing the negative pharmacological load to the foetus. It furthermore reduced labour time and shortened hospital stay. It helped to create optimal conditions for the course of pregnancy and heightened pain sensitivity threshold by means of improving the functional, hormonal, and psycho-emotional conditions of pregnant and lying-in women. Thus, the labour process became more natural, the delivery non-traumatic, and motherhood more happy and safe.
O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.
Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy
Cheong, Chin Yee; Tan, Jane An Qi; Foong, Yi-Lin; Koh, Hui Mien; Chen, Denise Zhen Yue; Tan, Jessie Joon Chen; Ng, Chong Jin; Yap, Philip
Background/Aims The acute hospital ward can be unfamiliar and stressful for older patients with impaired cognition, rendering them prone to agitation and resistive to care. Extant literature shows that music therapy can enhance engagement and mood, thereby ameliorating agitated behaviours. This pilot study evaluates the impact of a creative music therapy (CMT) programme on mood and engagement in older patients with delirium and/or dementia (PtDD) in an acute care setting. We hypothesize that CMT improves engagement and pleasure in these patients. Methods Twenty-five PtDD (age 86.5 ± 5.7 years, MMSE 6/30 ± 5.4) were observed for 90 min (30 min before, 30 min during, and 30 min after music therapy) on 3 consecutive days: day 1 (control condition without music) and days 2 and 3 (with CMT). Music interventions included music improvisation such as spontaneous music making and playing familiar songs of patient's choice. The main outcome measures were mood and engagement assessed with the Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES) and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). Results Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a statistically significant positive change in constructive and passive engagement (Z = 3.383, p = 0.01) in MPES and pleasure and general alertness (Z = 3.188,p = 0.01) in OERS during CMT. The average pleasure ratings of days 2 and 3 were higher than those of day 1 (Z = 2.466, p = 0.014). Negative engagement (Z = 2.582, p = 0.01) and affect (Z = 2.004, p = 0.045) were both lower during CMT compared to no music. Conclusion These results suggest that CMT holds much promise to improve mood and engagement of PtDD in an acute hospital setting. CMT can also be scheduled into the patients' daily routines or incorporated into other areas of care to increase patient compliance and cooperation. PMID:27489560
The purpose of this case study is to illustrate how music therapy can be used to help the elderly successfully adjust to living in a long-term care (LTC) facility. LTC residents, particularly those with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia, may exhibit behaviors such as depression, withdrawal, anxiety, emotional liability, confusion, and memory difficulties, frequently related to the disorder, but often exacerbated by difficulty in adjustment to the change in lifestyle. The subject of this case study demonstrated these symptoms. Music therapy helped him adjust to life in a LTC setting by improving his quality of life and enhancing his relationships with those around him. As chronicled in this study, music therapy may facilitate a resident's adjustment to life in a LTC facility. N.B. Names and identifying information have been changed to protect privacy.
To elucidate the role of music therapy in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures following the conflicting outcomes reported in two recent studies. The findings of our recent meta-analysis that examined this matter were discussed in the context of later studies. Our meta-analysis illustrated the beneficial effects of music therapy on patient anxiety levels when used as a single measure of relaxation and analgesia. Beneficial effects were also shown on analgesia and sedation requirements and procedure duration times when used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. These findings are in agreement with those of both studies excluded from analysis and those that followed it. Music therapy is an effective tool for stress relief and analgesia in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…
Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn
This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one…
Deljanin Ilic, Marina; Pavlovic, Radmila F; Kocic, Gordana; Simonovic, Dejan; Lazarevic, Gordana
Context • Pleasant music that evokes a positive emotional response may activate brain pathways of the insular cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus, which are involved in the integration of emotional and ambient sensory input, with corresponding autonomic responses. Exercise training can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, both in epicardial coronary vessels and in resistance vessels, for patients with coronary heart disease. Objective • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on endothelial function when patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) listened to their favorite music. Design • The study was a randomized controlled trial. Setting • The study occurred at the Institute of Cardiology, Niska Banja, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis (Nis, Serbia). Participants • Participants were 74 patients with stable CAD. Intervention • Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) exercise training only (T) group (n = 33), (2) listening to music and exercise training (MT) group (n = 31), and listening to music only (M) group (n = 10). Participants in the T and MT groups received usual medical care and underwent 3 wk of supervised aerobic exercise training. In addition to the exercise training, participants in the MT group listened to their favorite music for 1.5 h every day. Participants in the M group received the usual medical care and listened to their favorite music for 1.5 h every day. Outcome Measures • At baseline and postintervention, outcomes were assessed through measurement of the changes in circulating blood markers of endothelial function-the stable end product of nitric oxide (NOx), asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, and xanthine oxidase-and through the results of submaximal or symptom-limited exercise test. Results • After 3 wk, the NOx significantly increased in both in MT and T groups, with P < .001 and P < .01, respectively. The level of
Hageman, David; van den Houten, Marijn M; Spruijt, Steffie; Gommans, Lindy N; Scheltinga, Marc R; Teijink, Joep A
Intermittent claudication (IC) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. IC has a high prevalence in the older population, is closely associated with other expressions of atherosclerotic disease and often co-exists in multimorbid patients. Treatment of IC should address reduction of cardiovascular risk and improvement of functional capacity and health-related quality of life (QoL). As recommended by contemporary international guidelines, the first-line treatment includes supervised exercise therapy (SET). In several randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews, SET is compared with usual care, placebo, walking advice and endovascular revascularization. The evidence supporting the efficacy of SET programs to alleviate claudication symptoms is robust. SET improves walking distance and health-related QoL and appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for IC. Nevertheless, only few of all newly diagnosed IC patients worldwide receive this safe, efficient and structured treatment. Worldwide implementation of structured SET programs is seriously impeded by outdated arguments favoring an invasive intervention, absence of a network of specialized physical therapists providing standardized SET and lack of awareness and/or knowledge of the importance of SET by referring physicians. Besides, misguiding financial incentives and lack of reimbursement hamper actual use of SET programs. In the Netherlands, a national integrated care network (ClaudicatioNet) was launched in 2011 to combat treatment shortcomings and stimulate cohesion and collaboration between stakeholders. This care intervention has resulted in optimized quality of care for all patients with IC.
Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Richardson, Michael; Baynham-Fletcher, Laura; Cohen, Marlene Z.; de Lima, Marcos; Cohen, Lorenzo
Objectives. This study examines the short- and long-term QOL benefits of a music therapy intervention for patients recovering from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. Ninety allogeneic HSCT patients, after transplant, were randomized to receive ISO-principle (i.e., mood matching) based music therapy (MT; n = 29), unstructured music (UM; n = 30), or usual care (UC; n = 31) for four weeks. The ISO principle posits that patients may shift their mood from one state to another by listening to music that is “equal to” the individual's initial mood state and subsequently listening to music selections that gradually shift in tempo and mood to match the patient's desired disposition. Participants in MT and UM groups developed two audio CDs to help them feel more relaxed and energized and were instructed to use the CDs to improve their mood as needed. Short-term effects on mood and long-term effects on QOL were examined. Results. MT and UM participants reported improved mood immediately after listening to CDs; the within-group effect was greater for UM participants compared to MT participants. Participant group was not associated with long-term QOL outcomes. Conclusions. Music listening improves mood acutely but was not associated with long-term benefits in this study. PMID:24527052
Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri
Introduction The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Objective To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Materials and Methods Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother’s saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Results Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn’t. Conclusion Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in
O'Callaghan, C; Sexton, M; Wheeler, G
Outpatient radiotherapy treatment in the paediatric cancer patient can be a traumatic and an anxiety-provoking experience for both the patient and the family. Music therapy has been widely reported to have psychosocial, educational and physical benefits for the paediatric cancer patient. Using individual case reports, this paper shows the successful use of music therapy as a non-pharmacological anxiolytic in the paediatric radiotherapy, outpatient waiting room setting, by providing the patient and the family with a means of communication, self-expression and creativity.
Bianco, Mariela C
This paper aims to describe the vision of mental health from the standpoint of music therapy, framed by the National Law 26.567. First, basic notions about the origins of this discipline are introduced, as well as the criteria that inform its practice and the tools used by this approach, listening, analysis and the intervention in the mental health field. Later, the concepts of music therapy intervention and creative process are highlighted, providing some characteristics of the relationships that may arise between each of them and the mental health.
This article describes an art-based approach to supervision that combines clinical insights with archetypal awareness arising from painting on a single canvas throughout the internship semester. Supervision is comprised of three main components: (a) spontaneous painting, (b) complex reflective processing, and (c) aesthetically focused attention to…
Chou, Mei-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng
The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the listening experiences of outpatient depression sufferers who underwent guided imagery and music therapy (GIM). A purposive sampling method was performed at the psychiatric outpatient clinic of a medical center in southern Taiwan from April 2003 to June 2004. The five subjects in this study all underwent a total of eight sessions of individual GIM therapy. The researcher invited a therapist to implement the GIM therapy sessions. Researchers conducted a semi-structured, in-depth telephone interview with each subject within 24 to 48 hours after each therapy session. Eight interviews were accomplished and transcribed for each case, and then subject to content analysis. The results showed a total of 55 important listening episodes, which could be categorized into the following 5 themes: (1) leisurely wandering in very natural sceneries; (2) creation of surreal virtual surroundings; (3) recollection of past life experiences; (4) submersion in thematic music melodies; and (5) experiencing various physical relaxation events. The triggering effect represented a combination of multiple factors, including music, the individual, the therapist and environment. The theme of each patient's imagery episode was a result of the effect of the four factors, with music having the greatest impact. This study hopes to present the listening experiences of depression sufferers in GIM therapy; to make suggestions for future investigations into subsequent impacts and changes that GIM has on patients; and to, perhaps, serve as references for future clinical practice or studies.
Music goes back a very long way in human experience. Music therapy is now used in many disparate areas-from coronary care units to rehabilitation after a stroke. But its widespread adoption has a poor scientific evidence base, founded more on enthusiasm than on proper evaluation in any controlled way. This has led to a lack of clarity about whether any particular type of music is superior, or whether different types of music should be tailored to differing individuals. We therefore conducted a series of controlled studies in which we examined the effects of different styles of music-from raga to jazz-presented in random order to normal young subjects (both musically trained or not). We found that contrary to many beliefs the effect of a style of music was similar in all subjects, whatever their individual music taste. We also found that this effect appeared to operate at a sub-conscious level through the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, musical or verbal phrases of a 10 s duration (which coincided with the normal circulatory 'Mayer' waves) induced bigger excursions in blood pressure and heart rate (reciprocal of pulse interval) and so triggered more vagal slowing and feelings of calm. These findings need to now be tested in the clinical setting since, if confirmed, this would greatly simplify the practical use of this promising tool.
This paper explores how music therapy can assist patients and relatives in the processes of making friendship and love audible in a child cancer ward. Four short patient histories are presented to illustrate a health-oriented, ecological music therapy practice. Two histories describe how texts, made by patients, become songs, and how the songs are performed and used. Another two histories deal with musical communication with dying children and their parents. The paper indicates that these interventions may involve more than palliation (making a disease less severe and unpleasant without removing its cause). Not least, such activities can make it possible for the sick child to expand from being "just a patient" into playing, if only for a moment, a more active social role. The processes of artistic interplay, in- and outside the sickroom, influence various relationships in the child's social environment.
Van Vugt, Floris T.; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart
Background: Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. Aim: The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Method: Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Conclusions: Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation. PMID
Wu, Shiau-Jiun; Chou, Fan-Hao
Anxiety, a common reaction in patients receiving ventilation therapy, often impacts negatively on patient recovery. Music therapy, a non-invasion intervention, is readily accepted by patients and has been used to relieve patient anxiety with encouraging results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of music therapy on reducing anxiety in patients on mechanical ventilators. An experimental design was used and all cases were collected from a medical center in southern Taiwan. While the experimental group patients took a 30-minute music therapy session, control group patients were asked to rest. Both facility anxiety and anxiety visual scales were used as research tools, with other non-invasive medical instruments employed to measure heartbeat and breathing, blood pressure and blood oxygen saturation in both patient groups. When compared with the control group, patients in the experimental group showed significant improvement in sense of anxiety (Brief Anxiety Scale, BAS, t(29) = -4.80, p < .001; Visual Analogue Anxiety Scales, VAAS, t(29) = -3.38, p = .002), diastolic pressure (t(29) = -2.74, p = .002), mean arterial pressure(t(29) = -2.26, p = .031) and breathing rate (t(29) = -4.84, p < .001). In analyzing data from the two groups, we found that the sense of anxiety (BAS, t(58) = -3.21, p = .002; VAAS, t(58) = -2.90, p = .005) and breathing rate (t(58) = -3.20, p = .002) in the experimental group decreased significantly following music therapy. Study results are hoped to serve as an important reference for clinical nursing staff. Also, it is hoped that the music therapy method may help facilitate achievement of broader humanized nursing goals.
Erkkilä, Jaakko; Gold, Christian; Fachner, Jörg; Ala-Ruona, Esa; Punkanen, Marko; Vanhala, Mauno
Background Music therapy is frequently offered to individuals suffering from depression. Despite the lack of research into the effects of music therapy on this population, anecdotal evidence suggests that the results are rather promising. The aim of this study is to examine whether improvisational, psychodynamically orientated music therapy in an individual setting helps reduce symptoms of depression and improve other health-related outcomes. In particular, attention will be given to mediator agents, such as musical expression and interaction in the sessions, as well as to the explanatory potential of EEG recordings in investigating emotion related music perception of individuals with depression. Methods 85 adults (18–50 years of age) with depression (ICD-10: F 32 or F33) will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. All participants will receive standard care, but the experimental group will be offered biweekly sessions of improvisational music therapy over a period of 3 months. A blind assessor will measure outcomes before testing, after 3 months, and after 6 months. Discussion This study aims to fill a gap in knowledge as to whether active (improvisational) music therapy applied to people with depression improves their condition. For the first time in this context, the mediating processes, such as changes in musical expression and interaction during the course of therapy, will be objectively investigated, and it is expected that the results will provide new insights into these processes. Furthermore, the findings are expected to reveal whether music related emotional experiences, as measured by EEG, can be utilized in assessing a depressive client's improvement in the therapy. The size and the comprehensiveness of the study are sufficient for generalizing its findings to clinical practice as well as to further music therapy research. Trial registration ISRCTN84185937 PMID:18588701
Raglio, Alfredo; Giovanazzi, Elena; Pain, Debora; Baiardi, Paola; Imbriani, Chiara; Imbriani, Marcello; Mora, Gabriele
This randomized controlled study assessed the efficacy of active music therapy (AMT) on anxiety, depression, and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Communication and relationship during AMT treatment were also evaluated. Thirty patients were assigned randomly to experimental [AMT plus standard of care (SC)] or control (SC) groups. AMT consisted of 12 sessions (three times a week), whereas the SC treatment was based on physical and speech rehabilitation sessions, occupational therapy, and psychological support. ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Music Therapy Rating Scale were administered to assess functional, psychological, and music therapy outcomes. The AMT group improved significantly in McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire global scores (P=0.035) and showed a positive trend in nonverbal and sonorous-music relationship during the treatment. Further studies involving larger samples in a longer AMT intervention are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this approach in ALS.
There is a growing body of literature that investigates the value of music therapy for people with emotional and behavioural disorders such as attention deficit disorder. These studies often focus on overt behavioural change as the indication of successful outcomes. The instrumental case study reported here challenges this focus and provides a…
Gadberry, Anita L.; Harrison, Angela
Self-determination leads to a higher quality of life, yet many individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with the component skills necessary for self-determination. Music therapy is one method of treatment for persons with autism spectrum disorder and has the ability to improve or develop skills in communication, self-awareness,…
Kenny, Carolyn, Ed.
Reported are the findings of a project to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy with disturbed or otherwise handicapped individuals in a number of different clinical settings. Following an introduction which outlines the project's objectives, a brief section discusses research methodology. The remainder of the document includes a larger…
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder resulting from chromosome 21 having three copies (trisomy 21). Cognitive functioning and anatomical features cause speech and language development delay (Kumin, 2003). Children with DS generally enjoy communication (Schoenbrodt, 2004), and respond well to interaction and social scripts. Music therapy has…
McCarthy, Robert E.; Bakaitis, Patricia
Evaluated were the effects of music therapy sessions on the behavior of approximately 300 moderately retarded, physically handicapped and multiply handicapped students. Data on attentive behavior and disruptive behavior were recorded by 37 special education teachers, 25 instructional aides and one principal who were trained to observe and record…
Music therapy can improve neonatal function and reduce anxiety in parents during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. Live music entrained to an infant's observed vital signs, provided by a certified music therapist with First Sounds RBL (rhythm, breath, and lullaby) training, enhanced bonding for infant-parent dyads and triads. The author's song of kin intervention, which employs parent-selected songs, is compared to the presentation of a well-known folk theme ("Twinkle") in 272 neonates. Culturally based, parent-selected, personalized musical tunes provided in song, as a noninvasive intervention, foster optimal, continuous quality of care. Music psychotherapy sessions for parents before working with their infants can instill a potent means of nonconfrontational support, allowing for expression of fear or anxiety related to the premature birth. Although most attention is typically directed to their infant, using music can support the parents' grief and assist in the expression of hope that can instill a sense of security and containment. From the NICU to home, a familiar thread-line theme can be resourced directly from the family and/or parent and applied effortlessly throughout the growing baby's transitional moments.
Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi
Previous research studies regarding music therapy and severe mental illness have mainly adopted quantitative methodologies in order to study the effectiveness of music therapy interventions. Studies that have explored service users’ experiences of participation in music therapy are small in number, and almost nonexistent in the field of psychosis. This study aimed to explore how mental health patients with a diagnosis of psychosis experienced participation in music therapy, in general, and more specifically how they experienced music therapy in relation to their current mental state and life situation. Nine inpatients with psychosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview focusing on the participants’ experiences of music therapy in individual sessions, groups, and performances. Through the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis, four super-ordinate themes central to the participants’ experiences were found: freedom, contact, well-being, and symptom reduction. Based on the findings, mental health recovery, positive mental health, and agency are proposed as constituting a better framework for music therapy in mental healthcare than a primary focus on symptom remission and functional improvement. PMID:26157200
Lazaroff, I; Shimshoni, R
Stress medicine has shown that emotional disharmony can be a substantial factor for skin diseases. The harmonisation of the emotional status and a corresponding reduction of stress hormones by the Medical Resonance Therapy Music (MRT-Music) as shown in other studies (1,2,3,4) inspired us to investigate its benefits for patients with psoriasis vulgaris and neurodermatitis (neurodermatitis constitutionalis atopica). Over a period of 14 days we measured the parameters of blood pressure, heart rate, stimulus to scratch and the degree of sickness in two, respectively four groups of 68 patients in total: two experimental groups (psoriasis/neurodermatitis) and two control groups. All patients received the normal treatment of our hospital, the experimental groups were additionally treated with 3 x 30 minutes of MRT-Music per day, while the controls were asked to somehow relax during this time. In the experimental groups the measurements showed a reduction of blood pressure and heart rate and revealed an enhanced reduction of the stimulus to scratch and an enhanced reduction in the degree of sickness. Interestingly the effects of MRT-Music were stronger with the psoriasis patients than with the neurodermatitis patients. The results of this pilot study convinced us to offer the treatment with the Medical Resonance Therapy Music to all our patients.
Although the literature examining the effects of music medicine or music therapy interventions in medical settings is both large and growing, this literature is difficult to summarize because of of its diversity. The current article reports the results of a recent meta-analysis of 183 studies across 11 medical specialty areas with 40 categories of outcome variables. Emphasized are results for patients with cancer, those who are terminally ill, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Meta-analysis results revealed significantly greater effect sizes for outcomes of music therapy versus music medicine interventions, and significant and homogeneous size effects for several outcome variables, including pain, well-being, mood, and nausea/vomiting. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin
Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.
Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia
The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.
Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.
The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962
Hilliard, Russell E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of music therapy on quality of life, length of life in care, physical status, and relationship of death occurrence to the final music therapy interventions of hospice patients diagnosed with terminal cancer. Subjects were adults who were living in their homes, receiving hospice care, and were diagnosed with terminal cancer. A total of 80 subjects participated in the study and were randomly assigned to one of two groups: experimental (routine hospice services and clinical music therapy) and control (routine hospice services only). Groups were matched on the basis of gender and age. Quality of life was measured by the Hospice Quality of Life Index-Revised (HQOLI-R), a self-report measure given every visit. Functional status of the subjects was assessed by the hospice nurse during every visit using the Palliative Performance Scale. All subjects received at least two visits and quality of life and physical status assessments. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant difference between groups on self-report quality of life scores for visits one and two. Quality of life was higher for those subjects receiving music therapy, and their quality of life increased over time as they received more music therapy sessions. Subjects in the control group, however, experienced a lower quality of life than those in the experimental group, and without music, their quality of life decreased over time. There were no significant differences in results by age or gender of subjects in either condition. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between groups on physical functioning, length of life, or time of death in relation to the last scheduled visit by the music therapist or counselor. This study provides an overview of hospice/palliative care, explains the role of music therapy in providing care, and establishes clinical guidelines grounded in research for the use of music therapy in improving the quality of life
Silverman, Michael J
Self-efficacy is a component of Bandura's social cognitive theory and can lead to abstinence and a reduction of relapse potential for people who have substance abuse disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has utilized this theoretical model to address abstinence and reduce the likelihood of relapse in people who have addictions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in a randomized three-group wait-list control design with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 131) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: music therapy, verbal therapy, or wait-list control. Music therapy participants received a group lyric analysis intervention, verbal therapy participants received a group talk therapy session, and wait-list control participants eventually received a group recreational music therapy intervention. Although there was no significant between-group difference in drug avoidance self-efficacy, participants in the music therapy condition tended to have the highest mean drug avoidance self-efficacy scores. Posttest written comments supported the use of both music therapy and verbal therapy sessions. Two music therapy participants specifically noted that their initial skepticism had dissipated after receiving music therapy. Despite a lack of significant differences, the theoretical support of self-efficacy for substance abuse rehabilitation suggests that this may be an area of continued clinical focus and empirical investigation. Clinical anecdotes, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba
Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] – of 4 to 10). Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who
Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate behavioral changes in children with autism. The overall results indicated that improvisational music therapy was more effective at facilitating joint attention behaviors and non-verbal social communication skills in children than play. Session analysis showed significantly more and lengthier events of eye contact and turn-taking in improvisational music therapy than play sessions. The implications of these findings are discussed further.
Ledger, Alison J; Baker, Felicity A
This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation manifested by nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. A non-randomised experimental design was employed with one group receiving weekly music therapy (n = 26) and another group receiving standard nursing home care (n = 19). Agitation levels were measured five times over one year using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1989). Agitation in the elderly. In N. Billig & P. V. Rabins (Eds.), Issues in geriatric psychiatry (pp. 101-113). Basel, Switzerland: Karger). Although music therapy participants showed short-term reductions in agitation, there were no significant differences between the groups in the range, frequency, and severity of agitated behaviours manifested over time. Multiple measures of treatment efficacy are necessary to better understand the long-term effects music therapy programs have on this population.
Kogutek, Demian Leandro; Holmes, Jeffrey David; Grahn, Jessica Adrienne; Lutz, Sara G; Ready, Emily
Context • A variety of rehabilitation-based interventions are currently available for individuals with physical impairments resulting from neurological conditions, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech language pathology. Many individuals find participation in those therapies to be challenging. Alternative therapies have emerged as beneficial adjunctive treatments for individuals undergoing neurological rehabilitation, including music therapy (MT). Objective • The study intended to identify and collate systematically the evidence on MT interventions that address physical improvements in a rehabilitative setting. Design • The research team performed a literature review, searching electronic databases from their inception to April 2014, including Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest. The review included original studies that examined the use of active MT as an intervention that promotes physical improvements for adults >18 y of age. Articles were excluded if the studies focused primarily on psychosocial, emotional, or spiritual therapeutic goals. The review identified the studies' outcome measures for different populations and the MT approaches and interventions and obtained a general description of the clinical sessions, such as the frequency and duration of the therapy, interventions performed, sessions designs, populations, equipment used, and credentials of the therapists. Results • Eleven studies identified 2 major categories for the delivery of MT sessions: individual and group. One study included group sessions, and 10 studies included individual sessions. The studies included a total of 290 participants, 32 in the group MT, and 258 in the individual MT. The one study that used group therapy was based on active MT improvisation. For the individual therapy, 2 studies had investigated therapeutic instrument music performance and 8 used music-supported therapy. Conclusions • The findings of the review suggested that active MT
Blackburn, R; Bradshaw, T
Dementia is an organic mental health problem that has been estimated to affect over 23 million people worldwide. With increasing life expectancy in most countries, it has been estimated that the prevalence of dementia will continue to significantly increase in the next two decades. Dementia leads to cognitive impairments most notably short-term memory loss and impairments in functioning and quality of life (QOL). National policy in the UK advocates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and social inclusion in maintaining a good QOL. First-line treatment options often involve drug therapies aimed at slowing down the progression of the illness and antipsychotic medication to address challenging behaviours. To date, research into non-pharmacological interventions has been limited. In this manuscript, we review the literature that has reported evaluations of the effects of music therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention. The results of six studies reviewed suggest that music therapy may have potential benefits in reducing anxiety, depression and agitated behaviour displayed by elderly people with dementia as well as improving cognitive functioning and QOL. Furthermore, music therapy is a safe and low-cost intervention that could potentially be offered by mental health nurses and other carers working in residential settings.
Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.
Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl–Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970
Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus
The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes.
Goodison, L; Schafer, H
Dance therapy can play a useful role in the treatment and rehabilitation of women with drug addiction. It works by raising self-esteem through an improved relationship with the body, giving women the strength to help combat their habit. The benefits of dance therapy for women at the detox unit of Holloway Prison have been confirmed by prison staff.
Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M.; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard
A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses. PMID:26300720
Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)
Ledger, Alison; McCaffrey, Tríona
Arts-based research (ABR) has emerged in music therapy in diverse ways, employing a range of interpretive paradigms and artistic media. It is notable that no consensus exists as to when and where the arts are included in the research process, or which music therapy topics are most suited to arts-based study. This diversity may pose challenges for music therapists who are developing, reading, and evaluating arts-based research. This paper provides an updated review of arts-based research literature in music therapy, along with four questions for researchers who are developing arts-based research. These questions are 1) When should the arts be introduced? 2) Which artistic medium is appropriate? 3) How should the art be understood? and 4) What is the role of the audience? We argue that these questions are key to understanding arts-based research, justifying methods, and evaluating claims arising from arts-based research. Rather than defining arts-based research in music therapy, we suggest that arts-based research should be understood as a flexible research strategy appropriate for exploring the complexities of music therapy practice.
Silverman, Michael J
While the music therapy profession is relatively young and small in size, it can treat a variety of clinical populations and has established a diverse research base. However, although the profession originated working with persons diagnosed with mental illnesses, there is a considerable lack of quantitative research concerning the effects of music therapy with this population. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have reported on this lack of evidence and the difficulty in conducting psychosocial research on their interventions (Choi, 1997; Silverman, 2003a). While published studies have provided suggestions for future research, no studies have provided detailed propositions for the methodology and design of meticulous high quality randomized controlled psychiatric music therapy research. How do other psychotherapies accomplish their databases and could the music therapy field borrow from their rigorous "methodological best practices" to strengthen its own literature base? Therefore, as the National Institutes of Mental Health state the treatment of choice for evidence-based psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), aspects of this psychotherapy's literature base were analyzed. The purpose of this literature analysis was to (a) analyze and identify components of high-quality quantitative CBT research for adult psychiatric consumers, (b) analyze and identify the variables and other elements of existing quantitative psychiatric music therapy research for adult consumers, and (c) compare the two data sets to identify the best methodological designs and variables for future quantitative music therapy research with the mental health population. A table analyzing randomized and thoroughly controlled studies involving the use of CBT for persons with severe mental illnesses is included to determine chief components of high-quality experimental research designs and implementation of quantitative clinical research. The table also shows the same analyzed
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a survey of music in Australian schools. The survey included all types of schools, and includes facilities and equipment for musical education, and the use made of them. The courses of study, organization of musical activities, finance, supervision, teacher training, and…
Shabanloei, Reza; Golchin, Mehri; Esfahani, Ali; Dolatkhah, Roya; Rasoulian, Marzieh
Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration are commonly used for diagnosing, treating, and following up after treatment for blood disorders and solid tumors. For adults, the infiltration of local anesthesia at the biopsy site has been used as the principal form of analgesia for bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. Pain relief during these procedures is often incomplete, especially during aspiration of the bone marrow, and pain is likely to contribute to patient anxiety. Researchers at the Tabriz Hematology and Oncology Center in Iran conducted a study to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy interventions on pain and anxiety control for 100 patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. Participants in the study were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one group listened to music during the procedure, and the other did not. Patients completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory both before and after the procedure and reported pain severity by using a visual analog scale. Results showed that participants who listened to music had lower state anxiety and pain levels than those who did not listen to music.
Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Kudo, Takashi; Koga, Mikitoshi; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Sotetsu; Hiramatsu, Kozaburo; Mori, Shunsuke; Takamura, Noboru
Severely and multiply disabled children (SMDC) are frequently affected in more than one area of development, resulting in multiple disabilities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy in SMDC using monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous system, by the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability. We studied six patients with SMDC (3 patients with cerebral palsy, 1 patient with posttraumatic syndrome after head injury, 1 patient with herpes encephalitis sequelae, and 1 patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome characterized by frequent seizures, developmental delay and psychological and behavioral problems), aged 18-26 (mean 22.5 ± 3.5). By frequency domain method using electrocardiography, we measured the high frequency (HF; with a frequency ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), which represents parasympathetic activity, the low frequency/high frequency ratio, which represents sympathetic activity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, and heart rate. A music therapist performed therapy to all patients through the piano playing for 50 min. We monitored each study participant for 150 min before therapy, 50 min during therapy, and 10 min after therapy. Interestingly, four of 6 patients showed significantly lower HF components during music therapy than before therapy, suggesting that these four patients might react to music therapy through the suppression of parasympathetic nervous activities. Thus, music therapy can suppress parasympathetic nervous activities in some patients with SMDC. The monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous activities could be a powerful tool for the objective evaluation of music therapy in patients with SMDC.
Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian
This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level.
Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for
Kahloul, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Salah; Nakhli, Mohamed Said; Sfeyhi, Ahmed Nadhir; Azzaza, Mohamed; Chaouch, Ajmi; Naija, Walid
ABSTRACT Background: Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients aged more than 18 undergoing a scheduled surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients undergoing urgent surgery or presenting hearing or cognitive disorders were excluded. Before induction, patients wore headphones linked to an MP3 player. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group M (with music during surgery) and group C (without music). Hemodynamic parameters, quality of arousal, pain experienced, patient’s satisfaction, and awareness incidence during anesthesia were recorded. Results: One hundred and forty patients were included and allocated into 2 groups that were comparable in demographic characteristics, surgical intervention type and anesthesia duration. Comparison of these two groups regarding the hemodynamic profile found more stability in group M for systolic arterial blood pressure. A calm recovery was more often noted in group M (77.1% versus 44%, p < 10–3). The average Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score was lower in the intervention group (33.8 ± 13.63 versus 45.1 ± 16.2; p < 10–3). The satisfaction rate was significantly higher among the experimental group (81.4% versus 51.4%; p < 10–3). The incidence of intraoperative awareness was higher in group C (8 cases versus 3 cases) but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy is a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, and non-invasive technique that can significantly enhance patient satisfaction and decrease patients’ embarrassing experiences related
Magee, Wendy L.; Stewart, Lauren
Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialog between an experienced professional from each discipline explores the potential for collaboration, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing. PMID:25983683
Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD.
Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu
Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829
Gold, Christian; Solli, Hans Petter; Krüger, Viggo; Lie, Stein Atle
Serious mental disorders have considerable individual and societal impact, and traditional treatments may show limited effects. Music therapy may be beneficial in psychosis and depression, including treatment-resistant cases. The aim of this review was to examine the benefits of music therapy for people with serious mental disorders. All existing prospective studies were combined using mixed-effects meta-analysis models, allowing to examine the influence of study design (RCT vs. CCT vs. pre-post study), type of disorder (psychotic vs. non-psychotic), and number of sessions. Results showed that music therapy, when added to standard care, has strong and significant effects on global state, general symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, functioning, and musical engagement. Significant dose-effect relationships were identified for general, negative, and depressive symptoms, as well as functioning, with explained variance ranging from 73% to 78%. Small effect sizes for these outcomes are achieved after 3 to 10, large effects after 16 to 51 sessions. The findings suggest that music therapy is an effective treatment which helps people with psychotic and non-psychotic severe mental disorders to improve global state, symptoms, and functioning. Slight improvements can be seen with a few therapy sessions, but longer courses or more frequent sessions are needed to achieve more substantial benefits.
Kaplan, Ronna S; Steele, Anita Louise
The researchers analyzed data related to goals and outcomes over 2 program years for 40 music therapy clients, ranging in age from 2-49 years, with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. They investigated music therapy interventions, session types, and formats most frequently used; goals most frequently addressed; assessed level of difficulty of clients and their situations; and generalization of skills attained in music therapy to other settings. The most common session type was individual, followed by partner, small or large groups, peer model, or a combination. Primary goal areas were ranked from language/communication (41%), behavioral/psychosocial (39%), cognitive (8%), and musical (7%), to perceptual/motor (5%). One hundred percent of subjects reached their initial objectives in these goal areas within one year or less, regardless of session type, level of difficulty, or goal area. Seventy-seven percent of intermediate objectives were reached within that time. The most frequently utilized interventions were interactive instrument playing, musical instrument instruction, interactive singing, instrument choices, and song choices. Specific interventions chosen did not affect accomplishment of initial objectives. However, there was more variation among interventions in terms of achievement of intermediate objectives. Session formats were ranked from activity-based as most frequent to lesson-based, client-led/"shadow," and ensemble format. All formats were successful when addressing initial objectives, with lesson-based format being most effective in reaching intermediate objectives. Lastly, 100% of parents and caregivers surveyed indicated subjects generalized skills/responses acquired in music therapy to non-music therapy environments.
Walworth, Darcy D; Register, Dena; Engel, Judy Nguyen
The purposes of this paper were to identify and compare goals and objectives addressed by music therapists that are contained in the SCERTS Model, for use with children at risk or diagnosed with a communication impartment including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A video analysis of music therapists working with clients at risk or diagnosed with ASD (N = 33) was conducted to: (a) identify the areas of the SCERTS assessment model that music therapists are currently addressing within their sessions for clients with ASD, and (b) compare the frequency of SCERTS domains and goals addressed by music therapists within sessions. Results of the analysis revealed that all three domains of social communication, emotional regulation, and transactional support were addressed within music therapy sessions. Within each domain both broad goals were all addressed including joint attention and symbol use for social communication, self-regulation and mutual regulation for emotional regulation, and interpersonal support and learning support for transactional support. Overall, music therapists addressed transactional support goals and subgoals more often than social communication and emotional regulation goals and subgoals. The highest frequency goal area addressed was interpersonal support (73.96%) and the lowest goal area addressed was joint attention (35.96%). For the social partner and language partner language stages, 58 of the 320 possible subgoals were addressed with 90% frequency or higher, while 13 of the same subgoals were never addressed. The SCERTS Model is designed for use by a multidisciplinary team of professionals and family members throughout a client's treatment and contains an ongoing assessment tool with resulting goals and objectives. This analysis indicates that many SCERTS goals and objectives can be addressed in music therapy interventions. Additionally, goals and subgoals not previously recognized in music therapy treatment can be generated by the use of the
White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer
Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs. PMID:27999683
Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine
Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.
Solli, Hans Petter
Mental health difficulties are connected with major interpersonal and social challenges. Recent qualitative research indicates that music therapy can facilitate many of the core elements found to promote social recovery and social inclusion, findings also reflected in results from a growing body of effect studies. The objective of this study was to explore how music therapy might afford possibilities for social recovery to one man with psychosis admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit. This was achieved by means of a qualitative case study featuring a description of the music therapeutic process alongside first-hand accounts of the participant’s subjective experiences. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings are presented in a narrative form reflecting processes and activities considered particularly important for the process of social recovery. Theoretical perspectives from the recovery literature and current perspectives in music therapy are discussed with a view to the possible use of music therapy for strengthening agency, (re)building identity, developing positive relationships, and expanding social networks. PMID:26246669
Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.
Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko
Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction.
Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni
Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.
Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian
This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise
Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna
Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698
Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna
Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.
Walser, Robyn D.; Westrup, Darrah
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) is a behaviorally based intervention designed to target and reduce experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion (holding the thoughts in one's mind to be literally true) while at the same time helping clients to make powerful life enhancing behavioral changes that are in line…
Lee, Robert E.; Nichols, David P.; Nichols, William C.; Odom, Temple
This investigation repeats a survey of American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Approved Supervisors done in 1976 and 1986. Despite negative contemporary contextual influences, the AAMFT Approved Supervisor credential is still attractive to the same percentage of the AAMFT clinical membership as formerly and reflects in general…
Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki
The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (p<0.05) after the intervention. 3. In the 25th session, mean saliva Cg A was significantly decreased after MT (p<0.05). IgA was slightly increased prior to intervention. Our results suggest that a combination of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods were valuable for assessing changes that occurred during MT for elderly patients with dementia.
If one understands the physical manifestation of minor depressions or multiple functional disorders in the elderly as being indirectly expressed dissatisfaction because of unfulfilled aims in life, a practical recovery process is necessary in order to confront the underlying psychic process. The aging person has to come to terms with his eventual demise. If he faces this, he will have a chance at renewed energy to accomplish incomplete aims. Many people need help in order to continue the recovery process. Even if speech or reflexive possibilities are inhibited, it is possible accomplish therapy by the medium of sound, which is a preverbal language. Music therapy is able to work at a psychotherapeutic level in persons seemingly unable to be influenced by conventional psychotherapeutic-methods. Two case studies with different techniques (singing of well known songs and free improvisation) illustrate this theses.
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided.
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966
Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing" found on pages 25-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the worldwide shortage of nurses specializing in
Zhang, Yingshi; Cai, Jiayi; An, Li; Hui, Fuhai; Ren, Tianshu; Ma, Hongda; Zhao, Qingchun
Demographic aging is a worldwide phenomenon, cognitive and behavioral impairment is becoming global burden of nerve damage. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment is not satisfying. Therefore, we analyzed the efficacy of music therapy in elderly dementia patients, and if so, whether music therapy can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, EMbase and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2016. A total of 34 studies (42 analyses, 1757 subjects) were included; all of them had an acceptable quality based on the PEDro and CASP scale scores. Studies based on any type of dementia patient were combined and analyzed by subgroup. The standardized mean difference was -0.42 (-0.74 to -0.11) for disruptive behavior and 0.20 (-0.09 to 0.49) for cognitive function as primary outcomes in random effect models using controls as the comparator; the secondary outcomes were depressive score, anxiety and quality of life. No evidence of publication bias was found based on Begg's and Egger's test. The meta-analysis confirmed that the baseline differences between the two groups were balanced. Subgroup analyses showed that disease sub-type, intervention method, comparator, subject location, trial design, trial period and outcome measure instrument made little difference in outcomes. The meta-regression may have identified the causes of heterogeneity as the intervention method, comparator and trial design. Music therapy was effective when patients received interactive therapy with a compared group. There was positive evidence to support the use of music therapy to treat disruptive behavior and anxiety; there were positive trends supporting the use of music therapy for the treatment of cognitive function, depression and quality of life. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016036153.
Ray, Kendra D; Mittelman, Mary S
Depression, agitation, and wandering are common behaviors associated with dementia and frequently observed among nursing home residents. Even with pharmacological treatment, behaviors often persist, hindering quality of life for elders, their family, and paid caregivers. This study examined the use of music therapy for treatment of these symptoms among 132 people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. Participants were evaluated for depressive symptoms, agitation, and wandering to determine their predominate behavior. There were two assessments, two weeks apart, prior to intervention, followed by a two-week intervention, and two follow-up assessments, also two weeks apart. A repeated measures ANOVA determined that after two weeks of music therapy, symptoms of depression and agitation were significantly reduced; there was no change for wandering. Multivariate analyses confirmed a relationship between music therapy and change in neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia. Results suggest widespread use of music therapy in long-term care settings may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and agitation.
Comeaux, Tressa; Comeaux, Tressa
Postoperative pain is difficult to manage with analgesia alone. Complementary interventions such as music therapy provide a level of distraction, thus promoting comfort. In this study, decreased pain and environmental noise were demonstrated, without diminishing state anxiety, in a group of postoperative patients.
Hageman, David; Gommans, Lindy Nm; Scheltinga, Marc Rm; Teijink, Joep Aw
Some believe that certain patients with intermittent claudication may be unsuitable for supervised exercise therapy (SET), based on the presence of comorbidities and the possibly increased risks. We conducted a systematic review (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL) to summarize evidence on the potential influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the response to SET. Randomized and nonrandomized studies that investigated the effect of DM on walking distance after SET in patients with IC were included. Considered outcome measures were maximal, pain-free and functional walking distance (MWD, PFWD and FWD). Three articles met the inclusion criteria ( n = 845). In one study, MWD was 111 meters (128%) longer in the non-DM group compared to the DM group after 3 months of follow-up ( p = 0.056). In a second study, the non-DM group demonstrated a significant increase in PFWD (114 meters, p ⩽ 0.05) after 3 months of follow-up, whereas there was no statistically significant increase for the DM group (54 meters). On the contrary, the largest study of this review did not demonstrate any adverse effect of DM on MWD and FWD after SET. In conclusion, the data evaluating the effects of DM on SET were inadequate to determine if DM impairs the exercise response. While trends in the data do not suggest an impairment, they are not conclusive. Practitioners should consider this limitation when making clinical decisions.
Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King
Background Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. Results The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (−2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05), as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (−3.35±5.76 vs −0.81±4.59, P<0.05), the severity of adverse reactions score (−1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05), and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS) score (−6.00±4.68 vs −0.877±7.08, P<0.05). The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05), and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05) and negatively with finger temperature (r=−0.235, P<0.05) in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, P<0.05). Conclusion Providing music during HD is an effective complementary therapy to relieve the frequency and severity of adverse reactions, as well as to lower salivary cortisol levels. Differences in salivary cortisol after music therapy may predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD. PMID:28260913
Silverman, Michael J
Stigma is a major social barrier that can restrict access to and willingness to seek psychiatric care. Psychiatric consumers may use secrecy and withdrawal in an attempt to cope with stigma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in acute care psychiatric inpatients using a randomized design with wait-list control. Participants (N=83) were randomly assigned by cluster to one of three single-session group-based conditions: music therapy, education, or wait-list control. Participants in the music therapy and education conditions completed only posttests while participants in the wait-list control condition completed only pretests. The music therapy condition was a group songwriting intervention wherein participants composed lyrics for "the stigma blues." Results indicated significant differences in measures of discrimination (experienced stigma), disclosure (self-stigma), and total stigma between participants in the music therapy condition and participants in the wait-list control condition. From the results of this randomized controlled investigation, music therapy may be an engaging and effective psychosocial technique to treat stigma. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice and psychiatric music therapy research are provided.
Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James
This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…
Thaut, Michael H.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker
Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy. PMID:25774137
Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello
The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.
Background Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by providing home-based music therapy (HBMT) programs. This article reviews and summarizes the settings and conditions of HBMT for the first time. Methods The following databases were used to find articles on home-based music therapy: AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX. The search terms were "home-based music therapy" and "mobile music therapy". Included articles were analyzed with respect to participants as well as conditions and settings of HBMT. Furthermore, the date of publication, main outcomes, and the design and quality of the studies were investigated. Results A total of 20 international publications, 11 clinical studies and nine reports from practice, mainly from the United States (n = 8), were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Six studies had a randomized controlled design and included a total of 507 patients. The vast majority of clients of HBMT are elderly patients living at home and people who need hospice and palliative care. Although settings were heterogeneous, music listening programs played a predominant role with the aim to reduce symptoms like depression and pain, or to improve quality of life and the relationship between patients and caregivers as primary endpoints. Conclusions We were able to show that HBMT is an innovative service for future healthcare delivery. It fits with the changing healthcare system and its conditions but also meets the therapeutic needs of the increasing number of elderly and severely impaired people. Apart from
Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Yamada, Minoru; Park, Hyuntae; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuruoka, Koki; Honda, Takuya; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Handa, Shuichi; Oshio, Takuya; Mutoh, Yoshiteru
Objective The objective of this review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness of music therapy (MT) and to assess the quality of systematic reviews (SRs) based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study design An SR of SRs based on RCTs. Methods Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included were those with at least one treatment group in which MT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1995 to October 1, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Web of Science, Global Health Library, and Ichushi-Web. We also searched all Cochrane Database and Campbell Systematic Reviews up to October 1, 2012. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, we identified a disease targeted for each article. Results Twenty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. This study included 16 Cochrane reviews. As a whole, the quality of the articles was very good. Eight studies were about “Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-99)”; there were two studies on “Diseases of the nervous system (G00-99)” and “Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-99)”; and there was one study each for “Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-90)”, “Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-99)”, and “Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O60)”. MT treatment improved the following: global and social functioning in schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, gait and related activities in Parkinson’s disease, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. Conclusion This comprehensive summary of SRs demonstrated that MT treatment improved the following: global and social functioning in schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, gait and related activities in Parkinson’s disease, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. MT may have the potential for improving other diseases, but there is not enough evidence at present. Most importantly, no specific adverse effect or
Mantovan, Franco; Rauter, Elisabeth; Müller, Irene
In palliative care between 13.9 and 25 percent of all patients suffering from cancer show signs of anxiety disorders. Up to 75 percent of these patients suffer from non-pathologic anxiety, which has a negative impact on the patients' quality of life. Therefore it is important to provide interventions that are able to reduce anxiety of cancer patients. Massage and music therapy are effective interventions for minimizing anxiety of cancer patients in palliative care. An empathic attitude of the nurse increases the effect of the mentioned interventions. While there is evidence of the interventions mentioned it is yet necessary to further explore these in additional clinical trials to consolidate the already existing results.
Magill, Lucanne; Berenson, Susan
Advanced stage cancer patients experience debilitating physical symptoms as well as profound emotional and spiritual struggles. Advanced disease is accompanied by multiple changes and losses for the patient and the family. Palliative care focuses on the relief of overall suffering of patients and families, including symptom control, psychosocial support, and the meeting of spiritual needs. Music therapy and reflexology are complementary therapies that can soothe and provide comfort. When used conjointly, they provide a multifaceted experience that can aid in the reduction of anxiety, pain, and isolation; facilitate communication between patients, family members, and staff; and provide the potential for a more peaceful dying experience for all involved. This article addresses the benefits of the combined use of music therapy and reflexology. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the application and benefits of this dual approach for patients and their families regarding adjustment to the end of life in the presence of anxiety and cognitive impairment.
Melhuish, Ruth; Beuzeboc, Catherine; Guzmán, Azucena
Background There is an increasing focus on providing effective psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life in dementia care. This study aims to explore the attitudes and perceptions of staff who participated regularly in Music Therapy (MT) and Dance Movement Therapy (DMT) groups for residents with dementia in a nursing home. Method In-depth interviews were conducted with seven members of care home staff. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results A representation modelling the impact of MT and DMT in a nursing care home. Three main themes were identified. 1) Discovering residents' skills and feelings; 2) Learning from the therapists to change approaches to care practice with subthemes: time, space and pace, choice, following the residents' lead; 3) Connection between staff and residents. Conclusion The model indicated that both interventions performed in parallel helped staff to discover residents' skills and feelings. Although it is a small sample size, this study strongly suggests that MT and DMT can have a positive influence in helping care staff to provide a meaningful care environment.
Colwell, Cynthia M; Edwards, Robin; Hernandez, Emily; Brees, Kristine
The purpose of this study was to compare three music therapy strategies (music listening, music composition, and Orff-based active engagement) on physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and pain) and psychosocial (anxiety) behaviors of hospitalized children (N=32, 17 females,15 males, ranging in age from 6 to 17). This study was designed and facilitated cooperatively by pediatric nurses and music therapists. Results indicated no clinically significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation (p>.05). Pain and anxiety both decreased significantly (p=.01) but not differentiated among conditions. Videotape analysis determined level of engagement in coping-related behaviors.
Tse, Mimi M Y; Chan, M F; Benzie, Iris F F
The prevalence of unrelieved postoperative pain is high and may lead to adverse effects including prolonged hospitalization and delayed recovery. Distraction may be an effective pain-relieving strategy, and can be implemented by several means including affective imaging, games, and possibly music. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of music therapy on postoperative pain. Fifty-seven patients (24 females, 33 males; mean +/- SD age 39.9 +/- 14.35 years [range 15 to 69 years] were matched for age and sex and then nonselectively assigned to either an experimental (n = 27) or a control (n = 30) group. Music was played intermittently to members of the experimental group during the first 24 hour postoperative period. Pain intensity was measured using the Pain Verbal Rating Scales (VRS). Significant decreases in pain intensity over time were found in the experimental group compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). In addition, the experimental group had a lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and took fewer oral analgesics for pain. These findings suggest that music therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic approach for postoperative pain management.
Sexton, Patrick; Levy, Linda S.; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Gardner, Greg; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise
Objective: The primary objective of this paper is to present the evolution, purpose, and definition of direct supervision in the athletic training clinical education. The secondary objective is to briefly present the factors that may negatively affect the quality of direct supervision to allow remediation and provide higher quality clinical…
Bringas, Maria L.; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A.; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M.; Ortega, Maria A.; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E.; Morales, Lilia M.; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.
This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT “Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol” just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974
Silverman, Michael J.
Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084
Silverman, Michael J
Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Sundar, Sumathy; Ramesh, Bhuvaneswari; Dixit, Priyanka B; Venkatesh, Soma; Das, Prarthana; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany
A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P < .05) in the experiment group. Pain and distress levels also showed statistically nonsignificant improvement in experiment group. Blood pressure and heart rate of parents showed no difference. Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization.
Grocke, Denise; Bloch, Sidney; Castle, David
A 10-week group music therapy project was designed to determine whether music therapy influenced quality of life and social anxiety for people with a severe and enduring mental illness living in the community. Ten one-hour weekly sessions including song singing, song writing and improvisation, culminated in each group recording original song/s in a professional studio. The principal outcome measure was the WHOQOLBREF Quality of Life (QoL) Scale; other instruments used were the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Qualitative data were gathered through focus group interviews and an analysis of lyric themes. Statistically significant improvement was found on five items of the QoL Scale. There were no changes on the BSI indicating that QoL improvement was not mediated by symptomatic change. Themes from the focus groups were: music therapy gave joy and pleasure, working as a team was beneficial, participants were pleasantly surprised at their creativity, and they took pride in their song. An analysis of song lyrics resulted in 6 themes: a concern for the world, peace and the environment; living with mental illness is difficult; coping with mental illness requires strength; religion and spirituality are sources of support; living in the present is healing; and working as a team is enjoyable.
Forooghy, Masoumeh; Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Pishgoo, Bahram
Background: A cardiac catheterization laboratory can be a frightening environment and music can be a supportive source of environmental sound that stimulates and maintains relaxation. However, the results of studies are conflicting in this regard. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music therapy on patients’ anxiety and hemodynamic parameters during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial, conducted in the Catheterization Laboratory Unit of Baqiyatallah Hospital, in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 64 patients, who were planned to undergo coronary angioplasty, was recruited. Patients were randomly allocated to either the control or the experimental groups. In the experimental group, patients received a 20 to 40-minute music therapy intervention, consisting of light instrumental music albums by Johann Sebastian Bach and Mariko Makino. Patients in the control group received the routine care of the study setting, which consisted of no music therapy intervention. Study data were collected by a demographic questionnaire, the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory, and a data sheet for documenting hemodynamic parameters. Chi-square, independent-samples t tests, paired-samples t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Before the intervention, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of anxiety level and hemodynamic parameters. Moreover, the differences between the two groups, regarding hemodynamic parameters, were not significant after the intervention (P > 0.05). However, the level of post-intervention anxiety in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (32.06 ± 8.57 and 38.97 ± 12.77, respectively; P = 0.014). Compared with the baseline readings, the level of anxiety in the control group did not change significantly after the study (41.91 ± 9.88 vs. 38.97 ± 12.77; P = 0
Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare
Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.
Background It is thought that therapy should be functional, be highly repetitive, and promote afferent input to best stimulate hand motor recovery after stroke, yet patients struggle to access such therapy. We developed the MusicGlove, an instrumented glove that requires the user to practice gripping-like movements and thumb-finger opposition to play a highly engaging, music-based, video game. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare the effect of training with MusicGlove to conventional hand therapy 2) determine if MusicGlove training was more effective than a matched form of isometric hand movement training; and 3) determine if MusicGlove game scores predict clinical outcomes. Methods 12 chronic stroke survivors with moderate hemiparesis were randomly assigned to receive MusicGlove, isometric, and conventional hand therapy in a within-subjects design. Each subject participated in six one-hour treatment sessions three times per week for two weeks, for each training type, for a total of 18 treatment sessions. A blinded rater assessed hand impairment before and after each training type and at one-month follow-up including the Box and Blocks (B & B) test as the primary outcome measure. Subjects also completed the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Results Subjects improved hand function related to grasping small objects more after MusicGlove compared to conventional training, as measured by the B & B score (improvement of 3.21±3.82 vs. -0.29±2.27 blocks; P=0.010) and the 9 Hole Peg test (improvement of 2.14±2.98 vs. -0.85±1.29 pegs/minute; P=0.005). There was no significant difference between training types in the broader assessment batteries of hand function. Subjects benefited less from isometric therapy than MusicGlove training, but the difference was not significant (P>0.09). Subjects sustained improvements in hand function at a one month follow-up, and found the MusicGlove more motivating than the other two therapies, as measured by the IMI. Music
Grasso, M C; Button, B M; Allison, D J; Sawyer, S M
Routine chest physiotherapy (CPT) is an important component of prophylactic therapy in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and requires a significant commitment of time and energy. It is important, therefore, to establish CPT as a positive experience. In this study, we evaluated the effect of recorded music as an adjunct to CPT. Specifically, we compared the use of newly composed music, familiar music, and the family's usual routine on children's and parents' enjoyment of CPT and the parents' perception of time taken to complete CPT. Enjoyment and perception of time were evaluated via questionnaires designed specifically for this study. Participants were caregivers of one or more children with CF who were aged between 4(1/2) months and 24 months at the commencement of the clinical trial and required CPT on a daily basis. Participants were randomly allocated into control and treatment groups. Control group participants experienced two conditions consecutively: no audiotape (NT; control) and familiar music tape (FT; placebo control). Treatment group participants were given the treatment music tape (TT), which was composed and compiled by a music therapist. After baseline assessment, evaluation occurred at two 6-weekly intervals. Children's enjoyment increased significantly after use of the TT (+1. 25 units) compared to NT (-0.5 units; P = 0.03), as did parents' enjoyment (+1.0 vs. 0.0 units, P = 0.02). Children's enjoyment did not change significantly after use of the FT (+0.75 units) compared to NT (n.s.). Likewise, parents' enjoyment did not change significantly after use of the FT (+1.0 units, n.s.). There was no change in perception of time after use of the TT (-4.5 vs. +0.2 min, n.s.) or the FT (+3.3 min, n.s.). These results indicate that children's and parents' enjoyment of CPT significantly increased after the use of specifically composed and recorded music as an adjunct. We therefore recommend that recorded music, such as that provided in this study, be given
Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad
Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323
Boulay, Mélodie; Benveniste, Samuel; Boespflug, Sandra; Jouvelot, Pierre; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie
MINWii is a music therapy game for the renarcissization of demented patients. It lets players improvise or play songs of their choice by pointing at a virtual keyboard with a Wiimote Pistol. We present the results of a three-month usability study we conducted with 7 institutionalized patients suffering from mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease at the LUSAGE Living Lab in Paris. We demonstrate that MINWii is indeed usable by AD patients despite their motor and cognitive impairments: our results, which were largely computed automatically thanks to MINWii's extensive logging capabilities, show either an instant mastery or a clear learning effect depending on patients' cognitive abilities. Moreover, patients were overall very satisfied with the game and expressed a desire to repeat the experience: MINWii fosters positive interaction with the caregivers and elicits powerful reminiscence with even the most severely impaired patients. This study justifies future research to assess the lasting effects of playing MINWii on both quality of life and cognitive impairment in demented patients.
Reuer, Barbara Louise; Crowe, Barbara; Bernstein, Barry
Written by a team of creative and highly qualified music therapists, this publication provides content training for the use of group percussion strategies with mature adults. In fact, the book promotes senior peers as group facilitators and/or coleaders. The grace of this approach is that no previous musical training is necessary in order to…
Baker, Felicity; Krout, Robert
This article reports on a study of 21 Australian and United States (US) tertiary/university students involved in training to become professional music therapists. The study aimed to identify the learning outcomes--musical, professional, and personal--that occurred when students participated in collaborative peer songwriting experiences. Student…
Hanser, Suzanne B; Bauer-Wu, Susan; Kubicek, Lorrie; Healey, Martha; Manola, Judith; Hernandez, Maria; Bunnell, Craig
This study examined the effects of music therapy (MT), immediate and over time, on patients' psychological functioning, quality of life, and physiologic stress arousal. This intervention, whereby patients use music strategies to cope with cancer-related stressors, is based on a transactional stress-coping framework. Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled design, 70 women with metastatic breast cancer received either MT or usual care. The MT consisted of three individual sessions led by a music therapist. Psychological symptoms were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and quality of life with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General plus a a Spirituality subscale at baseline approximately 6 weeks and 3 months later. Visual analog scales, heart rate, and blood pressure were assessed in the MT group immediately before and after individual session. Significant immediate effects of MT were observed: relaxation, p = < .00001; comfort, p = < . 00001; happiness, p = < .00001; heart rate, p = .0003; although no significant differences between conditions were found over time. A high attrition rate underscored the complexities inherent in conducting intervention research with advanced cancer patients.
Bruer, Robert A; Spitznagel, Edward; Cloninger, C Robert
This study explored the temporal limits of cognitive change from an intention-to-treat with group music therapy. Elderly cognitively-impaired psychiatric inpatients (N = 28) participated in an 8-week randomized control trial using a crossover design. Once a week, subjects were assigned either to music therapy or a control treatment (age-appropriate movie). The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) assessed cognition 3 times every week: prior to the intervention, immediately after the mid-afternoon intervention, and the morning following the intervention. Comparisons between conditions included weekly changes in individual subject's MMSE scores from weekly baseline to both the 2 follow-ups and the following week's baseline. Significant next morning improvements in MMSE scores were found within intent-to-treat music therapy cases as compared to control cases. While all the subjects in this study were cognitively impaired, only 17 had been formally diagnosed with dementia. Based on a Cochrane Collaboration suggestion that music therapy studies within geriatric populations look specifically at the treatment of dementia, a final generalized estimating equation model considered only the change within the 17 dementia-diagnosed subjects. Immediately after the intervention, MMSE scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy improved 2.00 points compared to the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to the control group (Z = 1.99, p < .05). Next-day MMSE test scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy showed average improvements of 3.69 points compared to the control subjects (Z = 3.38, p < .001). By the following week, no significant cognitive differences remained between the two groups. It was concluded that a reasonable music therapy intervention facilitated by a trained and accredited music therapist significantly improved next-morning cognitive functioning among dementia patients. With many music therapists working in geriatric
McGuire, Michael G.
Discusses the importance of both the music and the counselor to the success of music therapy. Describes three stages of practice involving music therapy, and skills need by the therapist. Presents two examples of successful music therapy in clinical practice. (JAC)
Murphy, Timothy P.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Mohler, Emile R.; Cohen, David J.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Lewis, Beth A.; Cerezo, Joselyn; Oldenburg, Niki C.; Thum, Claudia C.; Jaff, Michael R.; Comerota, Anthony J.; Steffes, Michael W.; Abrahamsen, Ingrid H.; Goldberg, Suzanne; Hirsch, Alan T.
Background Treatment for claudication due to aortoiliac peripheral artery disease (PAD) often relies on stent revascularization. However, supervised exercise is known to provide comparable short-term (6-month) improvements in functional status and quality of life. Longer-term outcomes are not known. Objectives The goal of this study was to report the longer-term (18-month) efficacy of supervised exercise compared with stenting and optimal medical care. Methods Of 111 patients with aortoiliac PAD randomly assigned to receive optimal medical care (OMC), OMC plus supervised exercise (SE), or OMC plus stent revascularization (ST), 79 completed the 18-month clinical and treadmill follow-up assessment. SE consisted of 6 months of supervised exercise and an additional year of telephone-based exercise counseling. Primary clinical outcomes included objective treadmill-based walking performance and subjective quality of life. Results Peak walking time improved from baseline to 18 months for both SE (5.0 ± 5.4 min) and ST (3.2 ± 4.7 min; p < 0.001) compared with OMC (0.2 ± 2.1 min, p = 0.04). The difference between SE and ST was not significant (p = 0.16). Improvement in claudication onset time (COT) was greater for SE compared with OMC, but not for ST compared with OMC. Many disease-specific quality-of-life scales demonstrated durable improvements that were greater for ST compared with SE or OMC. Conclusions Both SE and ST had better 18-month outcomes than OMC. SE and ST provided comparable durable improvement in functional status and in quality of life up to 18 months. The durability of claudication exercise interventions merits its consideration as a primary PAD claudication treatment. Claudication: Exercise Versus Endoluminal Revascularization [CLEVER]: NCT00132743 PMID:25766947
Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H
We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.
Ghasemtabar, Seyyed Nabiollah; Hosseini, Mahbubeh; Fayyaz, Irandokht; Arab, Saeid; Naghashian, Hamed; Poudineh, Zahra
Background: The existing methodological weakness in conducted researches concerning music therapy (MT) for children with autism led to ambiguity and confusion in this scope of studies. The aim of the present research is to identify the effectiveness of MT method in improving social skills of children with autism and its stability, as well. Materials and Methods: In the form of a clinical trial study with design of pretest/posttest/follow-up with control group, among the children with autism in community of Tehran city, on the basis of childhood autism rating scale, 27 children with mild to moderate autism were chosen and were divided into two groups of experiment (n = 13), and control (n = 14). Social skills’ level of both groups was measured and recorded with the help of social skills rating system scale. The children of the experiment group participated in MT programs of Orff–Schulwerk for 45 days in 12 sessions (two sessions of 1-h/week), whereas the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed with Statistic Package For Social Science (SPSS) software t-test and analysis of covariance was used to compare groups. Results: In posttest, the results of covariance analysis showed a significant increase in social skills’ scores of the experiment group (P < 0.001). Also, results of the paired-sample t-test showed that the effectiveness of MT has been persistent up to the follow-up phase. Conclusions: The study showed that MT is an effective method with deep and consistent effects on improving social skills of children with autism. PMID:26380242
Brotons, Melissa; Marti, Patricia
The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot project sponsored by a private foundation in Spain ("Fundació la Caixa"), in order to demonstrate some of the applications of music therapy, and to measure more systematically some of its effects on people with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD) in early-moderate stages of the disease, and their family caregivers. Subjects for this project were 14 patients (5 women and 9 men) with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, and 14 family caregivers (9 women and 5 men) from a rural area outside of Barcelona. Their age range was 70 to 80 years. Prior to the beginning of the project, a neuropsychologist specialized in gerontology administered a series of standardized tests to the participants. These same tests were administered again 2 days before the end of the project and 2 months later for follow-up purposes. The results of the satisfaction questionnaire showed that the caregivers perceived an improvement in the social and emotional areas of their patients, and statistical tests showed significant differences between pre and posttest scores in the following tests: (a) Dementia Scale (X2 = 12.29, p = .002), (b) NPI (X2 = 17.72, p = .001), (c) the Cohen-Mansfield agitation scale (X2 = 11.45, p = .003), (d) Burden Interview (X2 = 9.19, p = .01), (e) Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (frequency subscale) (X2 = 11.09, p = .004), (f) STAI-S (X2 = 14.72, p = .001), and (g) Beck's Depression Inventory (X2 = 9.38, p = .009). These results and their implications are discussed extensively.
Mandel, Susan E; Davis, Beth A; Secic, Michelle
The matched-case control study investigated the effect of inpatient music therapy (MT), including the gift of a compact disc, on patient satisfaction and quality of life. Overall rating of the hospital and likelihood to recommend it (n = 210), and SF-12 quality of life scores (n = 160) were compared between groups. Although no significant difference in overall hospital rating was found, MT patients' recommendation scores were higher (p =.02). The MT patients had marginally better quality of life pain scores (p =.06). Integration of MT with inpatient care can improve the likelihood that patients will recommend the hospital and may impact their perception of pain.
Raglio, Alfredo; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Manzoni, Veronica; Bolis, Silvia; Ubezio, Maria C; Gentile, Simona; Villani, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco
We assessed the effects of music therapy (MT) on behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) in dementia associated with changes in physiological parameters, as heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to MT treatment or standard care; all patients underwent neuropsychological assessment and ECG Holter recordings before and after the 15-week treatment. The treatment included 30 MT sessions. Depression significantly decreased (p=0.021) in the MT group. PNN50 improved in 50% patients of the MT group, but in none of the control group (p=0.013). MT may improve symptoms of depression and increase HRV in demented patients.
Bukowska, Anna A.; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna
Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes
Hunter, Bryan C; Oliva, Rosemary; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Gaisser, D'Arcy; Salipante, Diane M; Arezina, Clare H
This project investigated music therapy (MT) in managing anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. The use of sedation to treat anxiety during weaning is problematic because side effects (e.g., respiratory depression) are precisely the symptoms that cause the weaning process to be interrupted and consequently prolonged. Study goals were to determine the feasibility of incorporating MT into the weaning process and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, based on levels of anxiety, Days to Wean (DTW), and patient/nurse satisfaction. Adult patients received multiple MT sessions per week while undergoing weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Feasibility was determined by successful enrollment in the study and nurse survey. Efficacy was evaluated through anxiety, as measured by heart rate, respiratory rate, and patient/nurse survey; DTW; and patient/nurse satisfaction. Nurse surveys reported that MT was successfully incorporated into the milieu and 61 subjects were enrolled. Significant differences in heart rate and respiratory rate were found from the beginning to the end of MT sessions (p < .05 and p < .0001, respectively), indicating a more relaxed state. No significant difference in mean DTW was found between study and control subjects. Patient/nurse satisfaction was high. Music therapy can be used successfully to treat anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. Limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Russell-Chapin, Lori A.; Ivey, Allen E.
This article introduces a new integrated model of counselling supervision entitled the Microcounselling Supervision Model (MSM). This type of supervision is designed for supervisors and supervisees who favor eclecticism and work from multiple theoretical orientations. MSM successfully combines skills from various theories and supervision models by…
O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa
Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology.
Brookins, L M
The music therapy curriculum consists of two distinct parts: the academic phase and the internship. The music therapy student must apply for a clinical internship during the last year of the academic phase, and the student is expected to evolve from student to professional music therapist during the internship phase. The present study sought to determine the skills, knowledge, and qualities clinical training directors considered most important for a prospective intern to possess. The sample population of the survey consisted of 25 clinical training directors from the Great Lakes Region. Results of the survey indicated that piano skills, knowledge of psychology, emotional maturity, and the ability to express needs and feelings were considered most important for the prospective intern to possess.
Gooding, Lori F
Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.
Shoemark, Helen; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Stewart, Lauren
Music-based intervention for hospitalized newborn infants has traditionally been based in a biomedical model, with physiological stability as the prime objective. More recent applications are grounded in other theories, including attachment, trauma and neurological models in which infant, parent and the dyadic interaction may be viewed as a dynamic system bound by the common context of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The immature state of the preterm infant's auditory processing system requires a careful and individualized approach for the introduction of purposeful auditory experience intended to support development. The infant's experience of an unpredictable auditory environment is further compromised by a potential lack of meaningful auditory stimulation. Parents often feel disconnected from their own capacities to nurture their infant with potentially life-long implications for the infant's neurobehavioral and psychological well-being. This perspectives paper will outline some neurological considerations for auditory processing in the premature infant to frame a premise for music-based interventions. A hypothetical clinical case will illustrate the application of music by a music therapist with an infant and family in NICU.
Shoemark, Helen; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Stewart, Lauren
Music-based intervention for hospitalized newborn infants has traditionally been based in a biomedical model, with physiological stability as the prime objective. More recent applications are grounded in other theories, including attachment, trauma and neurological models in which infant, parent and the dyadic interaction may be viewed as a dynamic system bound by the common context of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The immature state of the preterm infant’s auditory processing system requires a careful and individualized approach for the introduction of purposeful auditory experience intended to support development. The infant’s experience of an unpredictable auditory environment is further compromised by a potential lack of meaningful auditory stimulation. Parents often feel disconnected from their own capacities to nurture their infant with potentially life-long implications for the infant’s neurobehavioral and psychological well-being. This perspectives paper will outline some neurological considerations for auditory processing in the premature infant to frame a premise for music-based interventions. A hypothetical clinical case will illustrate the application of music by a music therapist with an infant and family in NICU. PMID:26388762
Humpal, Marcia Earl, Ed.; Colwell, Cynthia, Ed.
Educators, families, and media in increasing numbers are recognizing the unique role music plays in young children's development. More and more daycare, preschool, and early intervention centers offer employment opportunities that reflect the needs and attitudes of our ever-changing society. Furthermore, Federal and state regulations, a changing…
Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott
Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…
Gadberry, Anita L
Research indicates that as many as 50% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will not develop adequate speech to meet their communication needs (Noens & van Berckelaer-Onnes, 2004). Thus, alternate means of communication such as Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) are necessary. Though many music therapists work with clients with ASD, there is a lack of research regarding music therapists' use of aided AAC. This study sought to obtain information from music therapists who work with persons with ASD via a survey to answer the following questions: (a) how many music therapists are using aided AAC in their sessions, (b) how they are using aided AAC, and (c) what type of training they have had regarding AAC systems. To assess the research questions, the author created an electronic survey. Upon distribution, the survey response rate was 49.6%. Results indicated that only 14.6% of respondents utilize aided AAC with all of their clients who use aided AAC outside of music therapy. The most common form of aided input used by music therapists in their sessions with clients with ASD is a picture schedule. Only 40% of respondents have additional training in aided AAC. Chi square tests revealed significant relationships among many of the variables: use of aided AAC and additional training, use and treatment setting, literacy promotion and additional training, modeling and additional training, referral for AAC systems and length of work with clients with ASD, referral and additional training. Results are discussed in relation to current communication literature.
Kwak, Min Young; An, Yong-Hwi; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Hyo Jung
Background and Objectives A recent study demonstrated that tinnitus could be eliminated by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with notched sounds in a rat tinnitus model. The aims of this clinical study were to investigate the effects and safety of transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) by patch-type electrode paired with notched music for treating chronic tinnitus. Subjects and Methods Thirty patients with refractory chronic tinnitus for >12 months were included in this study. A patch-type electrode was attached to the auricular concha of the patient's left ear and tVNS was performed for 30 min (pulse rate 25 Hz, pulse width 200 µs, and amplitude 1-10 mA) using a transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation eco2. During tVNS, the patients listened to notched music cleared of the frequency spectrum corresponding to the tinnitus with a 0.5 octave notch width. Results After 10 treatment sessions, 15/30 patients (50%) reported symptom relief in terms of a global improvement questionnaire. The mean tinnitus loudness (10-point scale) and the mean tinnitus awareness score (%) improved significantly from 6.32±2.06 to 5.16±1.52 and from 82.40±24.37% to 65.60±28.15%, respectively (both p<0.05). None of the patients had any specific side effects, such as changes in heart rate or blood pressure. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the feasibility and safety of tVNS paired with notched music therapy in patients with chronic tinnitus, with the use of a pad-type electrode attached to the auricular concha. PMID:26771015
Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard
The global cerebral network allows music " to do to us what it does." While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research.
Dain, Aleksandra S.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Hurzeler, Rosemary; Aldridge, Melissa D.
Context Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provides clinical benefits to hospice patients, including decreased pain and improved quality of life. Yet little is known about the extent to which U.S. hospices employ CAM therapists. Objectives To report the most recent national data regarding the inclusion of art, massage, and music therapists on hospice interdisciplinary teams and how CAM therapist staffing varies by hospice characteristics. Methods A national cross-sectional survey of a random sample of hospices (n=591; 84% response rate) from September 2008 to November 2009. Results Twenty-nine percent of hospices (169 of 591) reported employing an art, massage, or music therapist. Of those hospices, 74% employed a massage therapist, 53% a music therapist, and 22% an art therapist, and 42% expected the therapist to attend interdisciplinary staff meetings, indicating a significant role for these therapists on the patient’s care team. In adjusted analyses, larger hospices compared with smaller hospices had significantly higher odds of employing a CAM therapist (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.38, 95% CI 3.40, 11.99) and forprofit hospices had lower odds of employing a CAM therapist compared with nonprofit hospices (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.85). Forty-four percent of hospices in the Mountain/Pacific region reported employing a CAM therapist versus 17% in the South Central region. Conclusion Less than one-third of U.S. hospices employ art, massage, or music therapists despite the benefits these services may provide to patients and families. A higher proportion of large hospices, nonprofit hospices and hospices in the Mountain/Pacific region employ CAM therapists, indicating differential access to these important services. PMID:25555445
Chlan, L; Evans, D; Greenleaf, M; Walker, J
Screening flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is an effective tool for the detection of colon cancer. Nonetheless, persons are reluctant to undergo FS for a variety of reasons such as anxiety, discomfort, and the possibility of abnormal findings. Nurses caring for FS patients can implement interventions to allay anxiety and promote comfort in an effort to enhance satisfaction and future compliance. Music therapy is one nonpharmacologic intervention that has been shown to be effective in allaying anxiety, reducing discomfort, and promoting satisfaction in other patient populations. A two-group pretest, posttest experimental design with repeated measures study recruited 64 subjects undergoing FS from one Midwestern tertiary care center. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control condition of usual procedural care or to an experimental condition of music therapy during the examination. State and trait anxieties were measured at pretest. State anxiety, discomfort, satisfaction, and perceived compliance with future screening were measured after the procedure. Subjects in the music group reported less anxiety and discomfort than subjects in the control group. There were no differences on satisfaction ratings or perceived compliance with screening guidelines. Nurses caring for patients undergoing screening FS can offer music therapy as one nonpharmacologic intervention to ameliorate anxiety and reduce discomfort.
Zhang, Yingshi; Cai, Jiayi; Zhang, Yaqiong; Ren, Tianshu; Zhao, Mingyi; Zhao, Qingchun
To conduct a meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effect of music-supported therapy on stroke-induced motor dysfunction, comprehensive literature searches of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2016 were performed. A total of 10 studies (13 analyses, 358 subjects) were included; all had acceptable quality according to PEDro scale score. The baseline differences between the two groups were confirmed to be comparable. Compared with the control group, the standardized mean difference of 9-Hole Peg Test was 0.28 (−0.01, 0.57), 0.64 (0.31, 0.97) in Box and Block Test, 0.47 (0.08, 0.87) in Arm Paresis Score and 0.35 (−0.04, 0.75) in Action Research Arm Test for upper-limb motor function, 0.11 (−0.24, 0.46) in Berg Balance Scale score, 0.09 (−0.36, 0.54) in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, 0.30 (−0.15, 0.74) in Wolf Motor Function Test, 0.30 (−0.15, 0.74) in Wolf Motor Function time, 0.65 (0.14, 1.16) in Stride length and 0.62 (0.01, 1.24) in Gait Velocity for total motor function, and 1.75 (0.94, 2.56) in Frontal Assessment Battery score for executive function. There was evidence of a positive effect of music-supported therapy, supporting its use for the treatment of stroke-induced motor dysfunction. This study was registered at PRESPERO (CRD42016037106). PMID:27917945
Gooding, Lori F.; Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gregory, Dianne
The purpose of the study was to investigate music education and music therapy majors' use of Twitter and their perceptions and knowledge related to policies and practices. Music majors (N = 238) from five universities in the Southeastern and Midwestern United States participated in a 16-question researcher-designed survey. Results indicated that…
Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…
Palmer-Olsen, Lisa; Gold, Lisa L; Woolley, Scott R
Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is an empirically validated relational therapy that recognizes the complexity of couple's therapy and supports the need for specialized training of therapists. Until now, there has been little research on effective methods for EFT supervision and no systematic model for conducting EFT supervision. The findings of a qualitative study of certified EFT therapists' experiences with EFT supervision and training are presented in this study, along with a systematic model of EFT supervision. The model of EFT supervision is based on the findings of this study, relevant research regarding effective clinical supervision, and the authors' experiences with EFT supervision. This model of EFT supervision is isomorphic to the clinical practice of EFT, in that it is theoretically grounded in attachment theory and emphasizes experiential and emotionally based processes.
Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Dolly, Steven; Kavanaugh, James; Harold Li, H.; Altman, Michael; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade L.; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua; Anastasio, Mark A.; Low, Daniel A.
Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets
music in both the pitch and rhythmic domains. The supervision uses a measure adapted from Normalized Compression Distances ( NCD ) to estimate the...the music in both the pitch and rhythmic domains. The supervision uses a measure adapted from Normalized Compression Distances ( NCD ) to estimate the...divergence measures have been proposed often in the purpose of genre classifications; amongst these, Normalized Com- pression Distances ( NCDs ) have been
Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M
Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia.
Leners, J C
Since more than 3 decades now, music with seniors (or younger persons), either as an educational or recreational activity, but also as a therapeutically approach has progressed. Even nowadays, in the medical field, more and more studies prove its efficiency as complementary therapy with no known side-effects. The areas where music therapy has a positive outcome, reach from pulmonary disorders to a lot of neurological chronic diseases, including aphasia, dementia or Parkinson. And at the end of life, music therapy has found a remarkable place for expressing or supporting strong emotional feelings. Evidence-based results on physiological and hormonal changes will also be reviewed.
Bradley Palmer, Jaclyn; Lane, Deforia; Mayo, Diane; Schluchter, Mark; Leeming, Rosemary
Purpose To investigate the effect of live and recorded perioperative music therapy on anesthesia requirements, anxiety levels, recovery time, and patient satisfaction in women experiencing surgery for diagnosis or treatment of breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between 2012 and 2014, 207 female patients undergoing surgery for potential or known breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive either patient-selected live music (LM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 69), patient-selected recorded music (RM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 70), or usual care (UC) preoperatively with noise-blocking earmuffs intraoperatively (n = 68). Results The LM and the RM groups did not differ significantly from the UC group in the amount of propofol required to reach moderate sedation. Compared with the UC group, both the LM and the RM groups had greater reductions (P < .001) in anxiety scores preoperatively (mean changes [and standard deviation: −30.9 [36.3], −26.8 [29.3], and 0.0 [22.7]), respectively. The LM and RM groups did not differ from the UC group with respect to recovery time; however, the LM group had a shorter recovery time compared with the RM group (a difference of 12.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.2 to 22.5; P = .018). Satisfaction scores for the LM and RM groups did not differ from those of the UC group. Conclusion Including music therapy as a complementary modality with cancer surgery may help manage preoperative anxiety in a way that is safe, effective, time-efficient, and enjoyable. PMID:26282640
Carmichael, Karla D.
This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…
This paper describes how sixth form girls in England provided music experiences to young children (ages 3-9) with severe learning difficulties. The weekly sessions involve individual sessions and use of various instruments. The relationship of the music therapy program to the National Curriculum is noted. (DB)
Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J
The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.
[Vibration-assisted music therapy reduces pain and promotes relaxation of para- and tetraplegic patients. A pilot study of psychiatric and physical effects of simultaneous acoustic and somatosensory music stimulation as pain management].
Mariauzouls, C; Michel, D; Schiftan, Y
Pain is a well known phenomenon in posttraumatic spinal cord injuries. Nearly 10% of the patients develop most severe, invalidizing, as a rule neurogenic pain conditions that are hardly accessible to conventional therapies. A pilot study was therefore conducted with 10 paraplegics and tetraplegics suffering chronic pain, investigating how vibration supported music therapy with the Musica Medica method affected pain experience, tension/relaxation and well-being. In addition to subjective experience, we measured physiological parameters (finger tip skin temperature, electrodermal activity, heart rate, respiration frequency) during the therapy sessions. All patients had a high acceptance of the method which throughout the group had brought about an increase in relaxation and well-being as well as a decrease of pain experience. The autonomic nervous system variables correlated with relaxation and in addition pointed to an activating impact of the therapy chosen.
Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron
There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…
Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Wu, Yu-Zu; Chen, Tung-Wei; Huang, Chien-Hui
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of Phase II cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and changes in coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Subjects] Thirty male subjects with AMI were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Another 30 age-matched subjects with patent coronary arteries served as a normal-control group (NCG). [Methods] Subjects in EG (n=20) trained using a stationary bicycle for 30 min at their target heart rate twice a week for 8 weeks. Exercise capacity was defined as the maximal metabolic equivalents (METs) that subjects reached during the symptom-limited maximal exercise test. HR, BP and RPP were recorded. Subjects in EG and CG received exercise tests and screening for CRFs at the beginning of, end of, and 3 months after Phase II CET, while subjects in NCG participated only in the 1st test. [Results] METs of CG did not improve until the 3rd test, while RPP at the 2nd test showed a significant increase. However, EG showed increased METs at the 2nd test without increase of RPP, and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during the follow-up period between the 2nd and 3rd tests. [Conclusion] Phase II CET shortens the recovery time of exercise capacity, helps to maintain the gained exercise capacity and increases HDL-C in phase III. PMID:25276046
Silverthorn, Brandon C.; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Meyer, Kevin; Toviessi, Paula
While the benefit of live supervision on clinical training is largely unquestioned, research that examines how live supervision affects the therapeutic process is lacking. Although marriage and family therapy has embraced this method of supervision, there is little empirical evidence suggesting it "works." This study uses hierarchical linear…
... brain-altering chemicals called endorphins that revive lost memories and emotions. Dr. Sacks states that Parkinson’s and stroke patients respond to music therapy because the human brain is uniquely programmed to respond to rhythmic ...
Scherl, Charles R.; Haley, Jay
Presents communication procedures for supervisors and therapy trainees that have been developed as a result of the use of computer technology. Using the computer as a supervision tool, therapy can be influenced by the supervisor while minimizing disruption. Successes and pitfalls in a master's level practicum course in family therapy are…
Vas, József Pál
Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma.
Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )
This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.
This study was designed to develop a method for collecting music therapy majors' hypothesized self-attributions of comfort and skill in diverse clinical scenarios and relating their attributions to recall and perceptions of similar personal and clinical experience. Fifty eight music therapy majors, from freshmen to graduate (board-certified) students, watched 10 brief video excerpts. After each excerpt participants moved 2 Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dials, one labeled "comfort" and the other labeled "skill," to indicate their feelings about themselves as therapist with the client(s) in the excerpt. At the end of viewing all excerpts, participants completed an open-ended total recall paper/pencil form requesting estimation of personal and clinical experience with any population represented in the excerpts. Participants recalled more personal experience compared to clinical experience. A strong positive correlation was found between personal and clinical experience estimates. A strong positive correlation was also found between comfort and skill scores. Personal experience estimates were not related to self-attributions of comfort or skill. Clinical excerpts prompted neutral self-attributions of comfort and skill with comfort being slightly higher than skill self-attributions. Clinical experience estimates, although not related to self-attributions of comfort; were positively related to self-attributions of skill. Exploratory comparisons with small groups within the total sample suggest a highly positive impact of specific music therapy clinical experience, particularly the post-coursework internship, on skill self-attributions. Results are discussed within the context of using the assessment to investigate the predictive value of self-attributes as clinical indicators of persistence for recruitment and retention of potentially successful music therapy students and young professionals.
Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yin, Yu; Zhou, Changzheng; Yao, Dezhong
This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.
Bradt, J; Teague, A
Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered.
Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness.
Lim, Hayoung A; Draper, Ellary
This study compared a common form of Applied Behavior Analysis Verbal Behavior (ABA VB) approach and music incorporated with ABA VB method as part of developmental speech-language training in the speech production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study explored how the perception of musical patterns incorporated in ABA VB operants impacted the production of speech in children with ASD. Participants were 22 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who were verbal or pre verbal with presence of immediate echolalia. They were randomly assigned a set of target words for each of the 3 training conditions: (a) music incorporated ABA VB, (b) speech (ABA VB) and (c) no-training. Results showed both music and speech trainings were effective for production of the four ABA verbal operants; however, the difference between music and speech training was not statistically different. Results also indicated that music incorporated ABA VB training was most effective in echoic production, and speech training was most effective in tact production. Music can be incorporated into the ABA VB training method, and musical stimuli can be used as successfully as ABA VB speech training to enhance the functional verbal production in children with ASD.
This article illustrates an approach to therapeutic supervision informed by a philosophy of solidarity and social justice activism. Called a "Supervision of Solidarity", this approach addresses the particular challenges in the supervision of therapists who work alongside clients who are subjected to social injustice and extreme marginalization. It…
Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Silverthorn, Brandon C; Meyer, Kevin; Toviessi, Paula
While the benefit of live supervision on clinical training is largely unquestioned, research that examines how live supervision affects the therapeutic process is lacking. Although marriage and family therapy has embraced this method of supervision, there is little empirical evidence suggesting it "works." This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine how therapy cases utilizing live supervision affect perceptions of progress on the problem. Findings indicated that live supervision does appear to make a difference for therapists' ratings of progress on the problem over the course of therapy; however, clients did not rate their progress as improving to the same degree. Implications for the use of live supervision as well as limitations of the study are discussed.
This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.
Boyde, Constance; Linden, Ulrike; Boehm, Katja; Ostermann, Thomas
背景：音乐疗法是最古老的创意艺 术疗法形式之一，且已证实其在不 同的临床和治疗情境中有疗效，比 如对精神分裂症、疼痛、心血管参 数和痴呆症。本文将概述该领域近 期的一些发现，并报告两个单独的 案例片段，提出对临床音乐疗法日 常应用的见解。材料和方法：为收集音乐疗法在肿 瘤科的临床研究，已在数据库 AME D、CAIRSS、EMBASE、MEDLINE、Ps ychINFO 和 PSYNDEX 中用术 语“Study OR Trial（研究或试 验）”、“Music Therapy（音乐 疗法）”和“Cancer OR Oncology（癌症或肿瘤学）”进行 搜索。已对研究的设计、设置和干 预、适应症、患者和结果进行了分 析。此外，两个案例片段展示了音 乐疗法对一名儿童白血病患者和一 名成人乳腺癌患者的应用。效果：我们发现在 2001 年至 2011 年期间，共有 12 项临床研 究，涉及到对 922 名患者。八项 研究为随机对照设计，四项研究 针对小儿肿瘤科展开。研究报告 了对患者情绪和放松方面的短期 改善、疲惫和焦虑的缓解以及应 对疾病和癌症相关疼痛的各种效 果。案例描述显示，对表达情 绪、开创新目标，及心理转向健 康过程并将注意力转离疾病而关 注其它事项上具有类似效果。 结论：音乐疗法运用于癌症患者 的综合治疗，其健康导向潜力已 在许多案例研究，比如本文所展 示的研究中证实，是一种可取治 疗方案。但研究结果未能总结音 乐疗法的整体效果。除进一步临 床试验外，应以定性研究、个案 描述和基准研究补充零散证据。.
Music processing occurs via a complex network of activity far beyond the auditory cortices. This network may become sensitised to music or may be recruited as part of a temporal lobe seizure, manifesting as either musicogenic epilepsy or ictal musical phenomena. The idea that sound waves may directly affect brain waves has led researchers to explore music as therapy for epilepsy. There is limited and low quality evidence of an antiepileptic effect with the Mozart Sonata K.448. We do not have a pathophysiological explanation for the apparent dichotomous effect of music on seizures. However, clinicians should consider musicality when treating patients with antiepileptic medication or preparing patients for epilepsy surgery. Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine each may cause a reversible altered appreciation of pitch. Surgical cohort studies suggest that musical memory and perception may be affected, particularly following right temporal lobe surgery, and discussion of this risk should form part of presurgical counselling.
Kern, Petra; Aldridge, David
For young children with autism enrolled in community-based inclusive child care programs, outdoor play can be a major challenge. The aim of this music therapy intervention was to improve peer interactions and meaningful play on the playground for four boys with autism by adding an outdoor music center and using original songs composed for each participant. A collaborative approach was used to support the implementation of the intervention by the children's teachers, engaging classroom peers as formal and informal helpers. The effects of the interventions were examined using a multiple baseline design with four conditions replicated across the four children. The results indicate that the musical adaptation of the playground itself did not improve social interactions of children with autism significantly, but it facilitated their play and involvement with peers by attraction to the sound and opportunity to use the instruments. The song interventions produced desirable peer interaction outcomes, and the collaborative consultative approach enabled teachers to implement interventions successfully in ongoing playground routines. In addition, peer-mediated strategies increased peer interactions and meaningful play on the playground.
Gasenzer, E R; Leischik, R
Music, with its various elements, such as rhythm, sound and melody had the unique ability even in prehistoric, ancient and medieval times to have a special fascination for humans. Nowadays, it is impossible to eliminate music from our daily lives. We are accompanied by music in shopping arcades, on the radio, during sport or leisure time activities and in wellness therapy. Ritualized drumming was used in the medical sense to drive away evil spirits or to undergo holy enlightenment. Today we experience the varied effects of music on all sensory organs and we utilize its impact on cardiovascular and neurological rehabilitation, during invasive cardiovascular procedures or during physical activities, such as training or work. The results of recent studies showed positive effects of music on heart rate and in therapeutic treatment (e. g. music therapy). This article pursues the impact of music on the body and the heart and takes sports medical aspects from the past and the present into consideration; however, not all forms of music and not all types of musical activity are equally suitable and are dependent on the type of intervention, the sports activity or form of movement and also on the underlying disease. This article discusses the influence of music on the body, pulse, on the heart and soul in the past and the present day.
In this article, the author discusses the importance of music education in a child's development, and how music experiences affect the development of students' intellect. Music education has long been anecdotally linked to increased intellectual ability. Research suggests, though, that music education is far more than an entertaining diversion.…
Boyer, Horace Clarence
Discusses the origins of gospel music the contributions of Thomas A. Dorsey, a blues musician who devoted his life to the composition and singing of gospel music, some modern gospel musicians, the forms and structures of gospel music, and the influence of gospel music. (Author/RK)
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo
Reviews the renewed alliance between music educators and medical researchers in researching the learning process. Focuses on how music is used as therapy for disabled children and the research that enables teachers to provide effective instruction to special education students. Emphasizes the interdisciplinary courses that relate music and…
Cook, Perry R.
This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).
Bearman, Sarah Kate; Weisz, John R.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Ward, Alyssa; Ugueto, Ana M.; Bernstein, Adam
Identifying predictors of evidence-based practice (EBP) use, such as supervision processes and therapist characteristics, may support dissemination. Therapists (N = 57) received training and supervision in EBPs to treat community-based youth (N = 136). Supervision involving modeling and role-play predicted higher overall practice use than supervision involving discussion, and modeling predicted practice use in the next therapy session. No therapist characteristics predicted practice use, but therapist sex and age moderated the supervision and practice use relation. Supervision involving discussion predicted practice use for male therapists only, and modeling and role-play in supervision predicted practice use for older, not younger, therapists. PMID:23525895
Choi, Carolyn Mi Hwan
The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological themes found during the modified CARING at Columbia-Music Therapy (CAC-MT) program with refugee adolescents from North Korea. Nine students attending an alternative school participated in this study. Academically, students belong to an equivalent middle school level. Students participated in a music therapy program comprised of 25 sessions. A multiple case analysis was conducted to gather qualitative results. Students were found to be exposed to various psychosocially stressful life situations such as lack of social support system, family separation, academic difficulty, and economic hardship throughout their adaptation process to their new country. There were 5 common psychological themes--avoidance, distrust, loneliness, feelings of loss, and fear--found among the refugee students over the course of the CAC-MT treatment. For future research, studies with a larger sample size and differing types of session structure should be conducted to closely examine the effects of this program on refugee adolescents.
Khan, Ajmal; Biddiss, Elaine
Stair-climbing is a key component of rehabilitation therapies for children with physical disabilities. This paper reports on the design of a system, Musical Stairs, to provide auditory feedback during stair-climbing therapies. Musical Stairs is composed of two foot-mounted inertial sensors, a step detection algorithm, and an auditory feedback response. In Phase 1, we establish its clinical feasibility via a Wizard-of-Oz AB/BA cross-over design with 17 children, aged 4-6 years, having diverse diagnoses and gait abilities. Self-, therapist- and blinded-observer reports indicated increased motivation with auditory feedback. Phase 2 describes the construction of a database comprised of synchronized video and inertial data associated with 1568 steps up and down stairs completed by 26 children aged 4-6 years with diverse diagnoses and gait. Lastly, in Phase 3, data from 18 children in the database were used to train a rule-based step detection algorithm based on local minima in the acceleration profile and the foot's swing angle. A step detection rate of 96% [SD=3%] and false positive rate of 6% [SD=5%] were achieved with an independent test set (n=8). Recommendations for future development and evaluation are discussed.
Music therapy is an area that is oftentimes not widely accepted in the highly technological environment of the critical care unit. This is...physiological and psychological benefits to music therapy . These benefits include reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate...intervention is dependent upon how well the individual can relate to the music selection. Music therapy promotes a holistic approach to patient care that
Cox, David E.; And Others
Includes "It's Time to Stop Quibbling over the Acronym" (Cox); "Information Rich--Experience Poor" (Elliot et al.); "Supervised Agricultural Experience Selection Process" (Yokum, Boggs); "Point System" (Fraze, Vaughn); "Urban Diversity Rural Style" (Morgan, Henry); "Nonoccupational Supervised Experience" (Croom); "Reflecting Industry" (Miller);…
Annan, Jean; Ryba, Ken
An ecological analysis of the supervisory activity of 31 New Zealand school psychologists examined simultaneously the theories of school psychology, supervision practices, and the contextual qualities that mediated participants' supervisory actions. The findings indicated that the school psychologists worked to achieve the supervision goals of…
Nguyen, Thanh Nhan; Nilsson, Stefan; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Bengtson, Ann
A nonpharmacological method can be an alternative or complement to analgesics.The aim of this study was to evaluate if music medicine influences pain and anxiety in children undergoing lumbar punctures. A randomized clinical trial was used in 40 children (aged 7-12 years) with leukemia, followed by interviews in 20 of these participants. The participants were randomly assigned to a music group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary was heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation measured before, during, and after the procedure. Anxiety scores were measured before and after the procedure. Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted in conjunction with the completed procedures. The results showed lower pain scores and heart and respiratory rates in the music group during and after the lumbar puncture. The anxiety scores were lower in the music group both before and after the procedure. The findings from the interviews confirmed the quantity results through descriptions of a positive experience by the children, including less pain and fear.
Morris, John E.; And Others
Presented is an effective, nonthreatening way to provide feedback to supervising teachers. It involves an exercise called "Butterflies (ways supervising teachers helped) and Bugs (behaviors of supervising teachers which were detrimental or unprofessional)." (KC)
Aponte, Harry J.; Carlsen, J. Carol
This article introduces a tool that serves as a guide for building an effective bridge between the personal and technical aspects of therapy in supervision. The instrument is based on a model of clinical supervision that emphasizes the purposeful utilization of self--in the moment, with both flaws and strengths--in the therapeutic relationship in…
Ponton, Richard F.; Sauerheber, Jill Duba
Countertransference (CT) has been recognized as a significant variable in the process and outcome of therapy and counseling for over 100 years. A review of the literature suggests that little attention has been devoted to strategies that supervisors can use to address CT in supervision with novice counselors. Informed by models of CT proposed by…
Sze, Susan; Yu, Sanna
The purpose of this study is to highlight literature concerning the effects of music therapy on children with disabilities. The paper is organized in the following sections: (1) background of music and children with disabilities, (2) the aims of music therapy, (3) main contributions to cognitive, biopsychosocial development of children with…
Music-based interventions with children are an effective method in health and sickness treatment and in education systems. The engagement with music enables positive transfer effects on extra-musical developmental domains. Music therapy was applied primarily as a practically-oriented scientific discipline both within the framework of a multi-modal therapy approach as one treatment component and focused specifically on children with emotional disorders within a somatic therapy concept and in rehabilitation. The following narrative overview will present music therapy's working basis, treatment goals, and select outcome research in children from 2005-2010. There currently exists a substantial lack, even within empirical research, in relation to the application of music therapy to children. This is an opportunity to initiate a broad range of study for the future. Current challenges and opportunities in scientific, music-based intervention in the paediatric population lie in the concretization of differential indications (both in intervention approach and duration), replicable comparative therapy (alternated treatment-design), the application of a music-therapeutic placebo requirement, as well as in the verification and analysis of specific music therapeutic mechanisms.
Helfer, Jason A.
Historically, music programs in K-12 schools have emphasized performance opportunities for children and young people. Until the release of the 1994 National Standards in Music, targeted instruction in composition was frequently overlooked due to the emphasis on performance as well as the expectations of what a school music program ought to produce…
This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.
The repetitious nature of music is thought to be very similar to the repetitious nature of computer algorithms. Subroutines are seen to be very effectively applied to music notation, through reducing repetitious entry and the amount of memory required to represent a musical score. Examples of subroutine use are provided. (MP)
McCarty, Theodore M.
Chicago's First Annual Summer Youth Music Competition (1970) was sponsored by the Chicago Park District and the American Music Conference. Termed highly successful, the summer-long festival involved 350 teenagers in a band contest. Music types were jazz, rock, folk, soul, and blues. (AN)
Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria
The aim of this study is to analyze and describe how musicians who are also music therapy students separate music as artistic performance from music as a therapeutic tool. The data consist of 18 written reflections from music therapy students that were analyzed according to a phenomenographic method. The findings are presented as four…
Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena
According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress.
A study examined the response of two adults who attended a music activity therapy program in which music activities encouraged peer interaction. Music activity therapy was compared with a control condition (i.e., ball and target games). Both conditions increased the level of positive interaction, however, music therapy was least effective.…
Dimensionality reduction is commonly used as a preprocessing step before training a supervised learner. However, coupled training of dimensionality reduction and supervised learning steps may improve the prediction performance. In this paper, we introduce a simple and novel Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction method that combines linear dimensionality reduction and linear supervised learning in a principled way. We present both Gibbs sampling and variational approximation approaches to learn the proposed probabilistic model for multiclass classification. We also extend our formulation toward model selection using automatic relevance determination in order to find the intrinsic dimensionality. Classification experiments on three benchmark data sets show that the new model significantly outperforms seven baseline linear dimensionality reduction algorithms on very low dimensions in terms of generalization performance on test data. The proposed model also obtains the best results on an image recognition task in terms of classification and retrieval performances.
White, J M
Music therapy is an easy to administer, relatively inexpensive, noninvasive intervention that can reduce anxiety and pain in critical care and perioperative patients. Libraries of relaxing music selections need to be compiled, reflecting diverse musical tastes. Providing patients with the opportunity to partake in music therapy sessions, selecting their own music, and providing them with quiet, uninterrupted time to listen to the music provides patients with a sense of control and separation from the multiple environmental stressors they are experiencing. Although there is now an extensive empirical base for the therapeutic usefulness of music therapy, particularly with the myocardial infarction population, few hospitals have adopted music therapy programs. Patient satisfaction and outcomes clearly have improved after music therapy sessions have been implemented. Further study with more diverse samples with a wider variety of medical conditions is indicated. Most of these studies used only one or two music sessions. It is not known whether effectiveness of music therapy sessions improves with repeated exposures. Further, there are little data with respect to optimal time for implementation of music therapy, length of music therapy sessions, or types of music to use. The effects of cultural diversity have not been addressed. Music therapy can improve the quality of care that critical care and perioperative nurses deliver to their patients.
Anderson, Eugene M.
Criteria are established for a definition of "clinical supervision" and the effectiveness of such supervisory programs in a student teaching context are considered. Two differing genres of clinical supervision are constructed: "supervision by pattern analysis" is contrasted with "supervision by performance objectives." An outline of procedural…
Relaxation 15 Music Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Explanations for Relaxation... Therapy Music therapy is another technique that is gaining wider notice as a useful method for stress management treatment. In an extensive review of...times, with the use of incantations to heal the sick. Modem uses of music therapy include: (1) music listening for anesthesia, analgesia, and/or
Boso, Marianna; Politi, Pierluigi; Barale, Francesco; Enzo, Emanuele
Music, a universal art form that exists in every culture around the world, is integral to a number of social and courtship activities, and is closely associated with other creative behaviours such as dancing. Recently, neuroimaging studies have allowed researchers to investigate the neural correlates of music processing and perception in the brain. Notably, musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviours, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson?s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of rigorous scientific data supporting the clinical application of music therapy, and there is thus a need to confirm and expand the preliminary findings regarding the potential and actual effectiveness of music therapy. This need should be addressed through prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded investigations of the short- and long-term effects of music therapy in diverse clinical conditions.
Hanson, Debra J; DeIuliis, Elizabeth D
Historically, occupational therapists have used a traditional one-to-one approach to supervision on fieldwork. Due to the impact of managed care on health-care delivery systems, a dramatic increase in the number of students needing fieldwork placement, and the advantages of group learning, the collaborative supervision model has evolved as a strong alternative to an apprenticeship supervision approach. This article builds on the available research to address barriers to model use, applying theoretical foundations of collaborative supervision to practical considerations for academic fieldwork coordinators and fieldwork educators as they prepare for participation in group supervision of occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant students on level II fieldwork.
Correa, Debora C.; Saito, Jose H.; Costa, Luciano da F.
Online music databases have increased significantly as a consequence of the rapid growth of the Internet and digital audio, requiring the development of faster and more efficient tools for music content analysis. Musical genres are widely used to organize music collections. In this paper, the problem of automatic single and multi-label music genre classification is addressed by exploring rhythm-based features obtained from a respective complex network representation. A Markov model is built in order to analyse the temporal sequence of rhythmic notation events. Feature analysis is performed by using two multivariate statistical approaches: principal components analysis (unsupervised) and linear discriminant analysis (supervised). Similarly, two classifiers are applied in order to identify the category of rhythms: parametric Bayesian classifier under the Gaussian hypothesis (supervised) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (unsupervised). Qualitative results obtained by using the kappa coefficient and the obtained clusters corroborated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo, Ed.
Eighteen author-contributed papers are presented from a 1983 Ebeltoft, Denmark conference on clinical uses of music for disabled and chronically ill persons. The following authors and titles are represented: "Music Perception" (J. Davies); "Central Auditory Dysfunction: Implications for Music and the Handicapped" (C. DeFosse and R. Price);…
This article aims to make explicit the evolving ecology of ideas in the field of community music and higher education that are particular to a context yet transferable across respective fields of enquiry--music education, community music, music therapy and community music therapy. This is contextualized in two ways: (1) through a consideration of…
Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.
Cevasco, Andrea M
In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed.
Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.
Stoltenberg, Cal D.; McNeill, Brian; Delworth, Ursula
Understanding change over time in one's ability to function as a professional is fundamental in the practice of clinical supervision. Drawing on developmental models of human behavior, a model of the development over time of therapy practice is presented. Specific domains of clinical practice and overriding structures that provide markers in…
Street, Alexander J.; Magee, Wendy L.; Odell-Miller, Helen; Bateman, Andrew; Fachner, Jorg C.
Background: Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements. Methods: For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3–60 months post stroke) has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n = 7) or wait list control (n = 7) group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies. Discussion: Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes. PMID:26441586
Stouffer, Janice W; Shirk, Beverly J; Polomano, Rosemary C
Music therapy is an effective complementary approach that can achieve specific therapeutic outcomes in the clinical management of pediatric patients. Growing research on music interventions has generated scientific knowledge about how this modality benefits patients and has formed the basis for effective protocols that can be used in practice. Although it can be challenging to translate research-based protocols into routine clinical care at the bedside, it is essential that music therapy interventions be aligned with evidence-based information and that accepted standards be established by the music therapy discipline to achieve the greatest benefit. The importance of partnerships between nurses and music therapists is emphasized to enhance the success of music-based treatments. This discussion synthesizes research findings that can be used to design pediatric practice guidelines in the application of music therapy.
Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate
This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlear implants. This article consolidates research studies from various disciplines (audiology, hearing science, speech-language pathology, cochlear implants, and music therapy) to provide practical recommendations for educators in fostering the musical growth of children with cochlear implants.
Holland, Patricia E.
Clinical supervision remained grounded in empirical inquiry as late as Morris Cogan's writings on the subject in 1973. With the acknowledgment of Thomas Kuhn's (1962) paradigm shift, educational theory and practice developed interpretive methodologies. An interpretive reflection on Cogan's rationale offers insights into the current, matured…
Flinders, David J.
Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…
Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen
A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…
White, Jessica; Nonnamaker, John
Discussions of personnel management in student affairs literature and at national conferences often focus on supervising new or midlevel professionals and the myriad challenges and possibilities these relationships entail (Carpenter, 2001; Winston and Creamer, 1997). Graduate students as employees and the often-complicated and ill-structured…
that the use of noninvasive pain relief methods such as relaxation and music therapy , may be useful for reducing the affective component of pain...techniques and decreased pain and discomfort. The participants took part in six individual, predelivery music therapy sessions and listened to preselected...of the questionnaire responses. A multiple correlation matrix was constructed to determine the value of music therapy home practice. Hanser, Larsen
Eckhardt, Kristen J.; Dinsmore, Julie A.
Depression is one of the most common mental health issues. Although drug therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy remain popular and effective treatments, alternative interventions such as the use of music listening and mindfulness practice as interventions during therapy have gained ground. Research on the use of music listening and mindfulness…
Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…
Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M
Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians.
Ortega, Rafael A; Andreoli, Michael T; Chima, Ranjit S
Music permeates the medical literature regarding disease therapy. However, there are only few articles concerning music as a tool for development of cultural competency and interpersonal relations. We share our experience of forming a musical act of students and faculty at a medical school. We believe that this group has encouraged medical humanism and enhanced communication in the learning environment.
Medina, Maria del Consuelo
Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.
It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…
Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny
In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…
Musical hallucinations have been described in numerous neurologic and psychiatric patients, but their pathophysiologic background is not understood. Analyzing the published cases, five subgroups can be separated according to their etiology: hypacusis, psychiatric disorders, focal brain lesions, epilepsy, and intoxication. There is a female preponderance of about 70%. Musical hallucinations most often occur in patients over age 60 years, although patients whose hallucinations are caused by focal brain lesions are significantly younger. Hemispheric dominance seems to play no major role in the pathogenesis of musical hallucinations, but hypacusis is present in the majority of all patients. Anticonvulsant and antidepressive agents have been effective in the treatment of some musical hallucinations. The discussion on the pathophysiology of musical hallucinations comprises theories of deafferentation (including auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome), of sensory auditory deprivation, of parasitic memory, and of spontaneous activity in a cognitive network module.
Gallant, Wilfred; Siegel, Sammi; Holosko, Michael
Explores a broad range of music interventions appropriate for addictive clients so as to fill a void in the music therapy and addictions counseling literature. Presents a rationale for the use of music intervention and presents case examples. Describes a social work intervention approach tested over a 10-year period. (RJM)
Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia
In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…
Morrison, Charles D.
One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…
Gilboa, Avi; Bodner, Ehud; Amir, Dorit
Musical improvisation is considered an efficient way to express emotions in music therapy. We examined the ability of music therapists (MTs) to convey emotions and their ability to accurately decode the emotional content of musical improvisations. Twenty-one MTs improvised on emotions they found difficult or easy to express in life, using or not using an emotional imagery technique. Fifty-five judges, some being MTs others nontherapists, evaluated the emotional content of the improvisations. Results showed that neither experience in therapy, nor musicianship or gender of the improviser were connected to emotional communicability (EC). Emotions that were reported as easy to express in life were communicated more accurately than those difficult to express in life. Emotional imagery did not facilitate and, to some extent, hindered emotional communicability. Some emotions were found to be difficult to express (e.g., anger) in comparison to others (e.g., happiness). MTs decoded the emotional content of the improvisations more accurately than nontherapists. Implications for the practical musical and emotional training of music therapists are discussed.
The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday "musicking" performed by people outside the institutional practice.
The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday "musicking" performed by people outside the institutional practice.
Vas József, P.
The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants’ spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness. PMID:26973966
Vas József, P
The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants' spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness.
Geist, Kamile; Geist, Eugene A.; Kuznik, Kathleen
Research on music and music therapy suggests that math and music are related in the brain from very early in life. Musical elements such as steady beat, rhythm, melody, and tempo possess inherent mathematical principles such as spatial properties, sequencing, counting, patterning, and one-to-one correspondence. With new understanding about the…
Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie
Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.
Kwok, Carolyn; Harris, R. Carl
The article describes several young Chinese musical prodigies as well as principles of the Shanghai Music Conservatory's middle and primary schools which provide intensive musical training to musically gifted students. (DB)
Zabalza-Estévez, Ramón J
Introduccion. Las alucinaciones musicales son un tipo de alucinacion auditiva prevalente en la poblacion no psiquiatrica, pero escasamente comunicada en la bibliografia neurologica. Ocurren con mayor frecuencia en la poblacion anciana, del sexo femenino y con perdida de audicion, pero su fisiopatologia esta por desentrañar. Casos clinicos. Se presentan seis casos (cinco mujeres y un hombre) de alucinaciones musicales diagnosticados en una consulta de neurologia general en un lapso de tiempo de cinco años. En cinco de ellos concurria la hipoacusia en mayor o menor grado y uno estaba desencadenado por la pentoxifilina. En su mayoria, el contenido musical de las alucinaciones provenia de experiencias musicales vividas en la infancia y juventud. En los casos sometidos a tratamiento farmacologico la respuesta fue pobre; sin embargo, una vez explicada a los pacientes la benignidad del cuadro y su desvinculacion con patologia psicotica, el grado de aceptacion del sintoma fue bueno. Conclusiones. Las alucinaciones musicales son una patologia fronteriza entre la neurologia, la otorrinolaringologia y la psiquiatria poco conocida, que, con frecuencia, se vincula erroneamente a la enfermedad mental. Es fundamental explicar a pacientes y familiares el caracter no necesariamente psiquiatrico de este sintoma, asi como conocer la potencialidad que tienen algunos farmacos de uso comun para generarlo.
Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise: a parallel-group randomized clinical trial evaluating relative effectiveness and harms
Background Back and neck disability are frequent in older adults resulting in loss of function and independence. Exercise therapy and manual therapy, like spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), have evidence of short and intermediate term effectiveness for spinal disability in the general population and growing evidence in older adults. For older populations experiencing chronic spinal conditions, long term management may be more appropriate to maintain improvement and minimize the impact of future exacerbations. Research is limited comparing short courses of treatment to long term management of spinal disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. Methods/Design Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. Participants Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). Interventions 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. Randomization Blocked 1:1 allocation; computer generated scheme, concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding Functional outcome examiners are blinded to treatment allocation; physical nature of the treatments prevents blinding of participants and providers to treatment assignment. Primary endpoint 36 weeks post-randomization. Data collection Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary outcomes include pain, general health status, improvement, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, satisfaction, and medication use. Functional outcome assessment occurs
Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth
Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)
Powell, Suzanne K
Music therapy has been around since the 1940s when physicians notice a positive effect that music had on the soldiers with "shell shock" (now more commonly known as posttraumatic stress disorder). For decades, veterans were the primary patients worked with by music therapists. In the 1970s, the hospice movement started to enter the health care continuum, largely due to Dr Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, who advocated for home care and patient choice for the terminally ill. Two decades later, it became apparent that hospice patients could benefit from music. And currently, there are not enough people certified to work with music in hospice patients, veterans, or patients with dementia/Alzheimer's disease. No, music does not prolong life, but it does add life to the time left.
Novembre, Giacomo; Varlet, Manuel; Muawiyath, Shujau; Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.
Humans are assumed to have a natural—universal—predisposition for making music and for musical interaction. Research in this domain is, however, typically conducted with musically trained individuals, and therefore confounded with expertise. Here, we present a rediscovered and updated invention—the E-music box—that we establish as an empirical method to investigate musical production and interaction in everyone. The E-music box transforms rotatory cyclical movements into pre-programmable digital musical output, with tempo varying according to rotation speed. The user’s movements are coded as continuous oscillatory data, which can be analysed using linear or nonlinear analytical tools. We conducted a proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate that, using this method, pairs of non-musically trained individuals can interact according to conventional musical practices (leader/follower roles and lower-pitch dominance). The results suggest that the E-music box brings ‘active’ and ‘interactive’ musical capacities within everyone’s reach. We discuss the potential of this method for exploring the universal predisposition for music making and interaction in developmental and cross-cultural contexts, and for neurologic musical therapy and rehabilitation. PMID:26715993
Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, incidence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease and dementia.
Okada, Kaoru; Kurita, Akira; Takase, Bonpei; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kodani, Eitaro; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Mizuno, Kyoichi
Music therapy (MT) has been used in geriatric nursing hospitals, but there has been no extensive research into whether it actually has beneficial effects on elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and dementia. We investigated the effects of MT on the autonomic nervous system and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with CVD and dementia, since these are related to aging and chronic geriatric disease. We also investigated the effects of MT on congestive heart failure (CHF) events.Eighty-seven patients with pre-existing CVD were enrolled in the study. We assigned patients into an MT group (n = 55) and non-MT group (n = 32). The MT group received MT at least once per week for 45 minutes over 10 times. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). We measured plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in both the MT group and non-MT group. We compared the incidence of CHF events between these two groups. In the MT group, rMSSD, pNN50, and HF were significantly increased by MT, whereas LF/HF was slightly decreased. In the non-MT group, there were no significant changes in any HRV parameters. Among cytokines, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MT group was significantly lower than those in the non-MT group. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower in the MT group than in the non-MT group. CHF events were less frequent in the MT group than in the non-MT group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that MT enhanced parasympathetic activities and decreased CHF by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels.
Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco
Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound–music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic–rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic–rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia. PMID:25336931
Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco
Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia.
Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.
A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)
Baker, Thomas E.
This paper describes the 5-year Austin Teacher Program (ATP) at Austin College with emphasis on the collaboratively supervised internship in the graduate year. Some results of a comprehensive survey of over 400 ATP graduates are discussed, as well as issues and needs in the supervision of interns, and implications for the future in the supervision…
Ibara, E. C.
This paper examines clinical supervision approaches that have the potential to promote and implement effective teacher supervision in Nigeria. The various approaches have been analysed based on the conceptual framework of instructional supervisory behavior. The findings suggest that a clear distinction can be made between the prescriptive and…
This article presumes that supervision is a category of teaching, and that we all "learn" how to teach better. So it enquires into what novice supervisors need to learn. An anonymised digital questionnaire sought data from supervisors [n226] on their experiences of supervision to find out what was difficult, and supervisor interviews…
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164526.html Music May Soothe the 'Savage Beast' of Post-Op ... pain and anxiety, but new research shows that music therapy may help ease their discomfort. Medication is ...
Madsen, Clifford K; Goins, Wayne E
This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and chosen field of music specialization. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale was designed to assess the construct of locus of control and reinforcement, which is defined as the perception of a connection between one's action and its consequences; the version of the scale used in this study was specifically developed and validated for use with college-aged students by Nowicki (2000). This scale was administered to four separate college-aged groups: music therapy majors, music education majors, applied music majors, and nonmusic majors who also had previous music background and were currently enrolled in a formal college music performance organization. Results indicated that there were indeed, differences among these populations with music therapy majors evidencing a significantly lower internal locus of control. Music education majors and nonmajors evidenced a greater internal level and were not significantly different from each other, yet both were significantly different from the music therapy majors. Music performance majors were also significantly lower in internal control compared to the music education and nonmusic majors, but they were not significantly different from the music therapy majors. This entire line of research has a long history and seems advisable to continue with all music populations, especially potential music therapists in order to investigate those aspects of self-perception that may help or hinder therapeutic effectiveness.
The association between music and epileptic seizures is complex and intriguing. Musical processing within the human brain recruits a network which involves many cortical areas that could activate as part of a temporal lobe seizure or become hyperexcitable on musical exposure as in the case of musicogenic epilepsy. The dichotomous effect of music on seizures may be explained by modification of dopaminergic circuitry or counteractive cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis. Research has explored the utility of music as a therapy in epilepsy and while limited studies show some evidence of an effect on seizure activity; further work is required to ascertain its clinical potential. Sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs, e.g., carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, appear to effect pitch perception particularly in native-born Japanese, a rare but important adverse effect, particularly if a professional musician. Temporal lobe surgery for right lateralizing epilepsy has the capacity to effect all facets of musical processing, although risk and correlation to resection area need further research. There is a need for the development of investigative tools of musical processing that could be utilized along the surgical pathway. Similarly, work is also required in devising a musical paradigm as part of electroencephalography to improve surveillance of musicogenic seizures. These clinical applications could aid the management of epilepsy and preservation of musical ability.
Pavlicevic, M; Trevarthen, C
In music therapy, joint musical improvisation of therapist and subject provides the framework for a spontaneous and intimate, non-verbal interaction. This study shows that such an interaction can be used to reveal the subject's capacity for emotional contact with another person, the nature of this contact and how well it is sustained. We examine the musical interaction in first music therapy sessions using a model of analysis specially developed for this study. A comparison between 15 schizophrenics, 15 depressed patients and 15 clinically normal controls revealed significant differences. The findings, which take into account subjects' musical background and perceptual functioning, have implications for the diagnostic use of music therapy in adult psychiatry.
This article builds on a previous one which discussed the use of de Bono's thinking tool, 'six thinking hats' in the clinical, managerial, educational and research areas of nursing (Lewis 1995). This article explores clinical supervision and describes how the six thinking hats may be used as a reflective tool in the supervision of nurse lecturers who teach counselling skills.
Dannenberg, Roger B.
Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.
Miller, L K
A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.
Managing the teaching-research-creative practice nexus is a concern for everyone working in higher music education, particularly those involved with the supervision and mentorship of graduate students and early career academics. This paper takes as its subject the new Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), drawing examples from research…
Maguire, Melissa Jane
The effect of music on patients with epileptic seizures is complex and at present poorly understood. Clinical studies suggest that the processing of music within the human brain involves numerous cortical areas, extending beyond Heschl's gyrus and working within connected networks. These networks could be recruited during a seizure manifesting as musical phenomena. Similarly, if certain areas within the network are hyperexcitable, then there is a potential that particular sounds or certain music could act as epileptogenic triggers. This occurs in the case of musicogenic epilepsy, whereby seizures are triggered by music. Although it appears that this condition is rare, the exact prevalence is unknown, as often patients do not implicate music as an epileptogenic trigger and routine electroencephalography does not use sound in seizure provocation. Music therapy for refractory epilepsy remains controversial, and further research is needed to explore the potential anticonvulsant role of music. Dopaminergic system modulation and the ambivalent action of cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis may provide possible theories for the dichotomous proconvulsant and anticonvulsant role of music in epilepsy. The effect of antiepileptic drugs and surgery on musicality should not be underestimated. Altered pitch perception in relation to carbamazepine is rare, but health care professionals should discuss this risk or consider alternative medication particularly if the patient is a professional musician or native-born Japanese. Studies observing the effect of epilepsy surgery on musicality suggest a risk with right temporal lobectomy, although the extent of this risk and correlation to size and area of resection need further delineation. This potential risk may bring into question whether tests on musical perception and memory should form part of the preoperative neuropsychological workup for patients embarking on surgery, particularly that of the right temporal lobe.
HICK, BASIL L.; SAETVEIT, JOSEPH G.
A PUBLICATION DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE PLANNING OF MUSIC SUITES IN SCHOOLS. THE INFORMATION CAN BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF PLANS FOR NEW BUILDINGS AND IMPROVING FACILITIES FOR MUSIC EDUCATION IN EXISTING BUILDINGS. SECTIONS INCLUDED DEAL WITH--(1) THE MUSIC PROGRAM AND SPECIAL NEEDS OF THE MUSIC DEPARTMENT, (2) LOCATION OF MUSIC ROOMS, (3) TYPES…
Adams, Mark C.
To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…
Discusses the importance of music for brain development, pleasure, retention and motivation, and problem solving and critical thinking. Describes methods for including music in education that are related to music acquisition. Suggests classroom music activities and notes the importance of making instruments available, displaying written music, and…
Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.
Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…
The purpose of the present study was to: (a) examine music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of full inclusion, (b) conduct a descriptive analysis of their perceptions, and (c) compare and contrast choral, instrumental, and general music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of inclusion. The data collection technique used in the study was personal interviewing. Participants were instrumental, choral, and general music educators (N = 35) in a midwestern school district that supports the practice of full inclusion. Written transcripts of the 35 interviews were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Music educators identified 13 critical issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities. The need for collaboration or consultation with special educators, music therapists, or others knowledgeable about students with disabilities was identified as a critical issue by nearly all of the participants. Many participants also identified as critical issues: the need for more information about the students included in their music classroom, the amount of time required to successfully include students with disabilities, and the range of abilities often found in the inclusive classroom. Most music educators felt that inclusion has had a positive impact on students both with and without disabilities, though reservations were also expressed by some of the music educators. Subject responses were also analyzed for frequency of: disabilities mentioned, positive and negative statements made regarding inclusion, personal anecdotes, and references to music therapy. Suggestions are given for the role music therapists can play in facilitating the inclusion of students with disabilities.
Miner, Carol; della Villa, Paula
Describes an activity in which students reverse-translate proteins from their amino acid sequences back to their DNA sequences then assign musical notes to represent the adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine bases. Data is obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the Internet. (DDR)
The author explains to the classroom teacher how to make music listening a daily part of early childhood education. She suggests a number of specific musical works--from the classics through rock music-- that young children will enjoy. (SJL)
Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S
Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.
Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S
Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical
Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H
The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment.
Bensimon, Moshe; Amir, Dorit
Musical presentation (MP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic music therapy tool which focuses on the participant's emotional exploration and awareness-insight development. Using this tool people present themselves through music of their choice and subsequently receive feedback from their peers. This study investigates MP as a tool for enhancing…
Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane
Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…
Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko
Experience has shown that therapy using music for therapeutic purposes has certain effects on neuropsychiatric disorders (both functional and organic disorders). However, the mechanisms of action underlying music therapy remain unknown, and scientific clarification has not advanced. While that study disproved the Mozart effect, the effects of music on the human body and mind were not disproved. In fact, more scientific studies on music have been conducted in recent years, mainly in the field of neuroscience, and the level of interest among researchers is increasing. The results of past studies have clarified that music influences and affects cranial nerves in humans from fetus to adult. The effects of music at a cellular level have not been clarified, and the mechanisms of action for the effects of music on the brain have not been elucidated. We propose that listening to music facilitates the neurogenesis, the regeneration and repair of cerebral nerves by adjusting the secretion of steroid hormones, ultimately leading to cerebral plasticity. Music affects levels of such steroids as cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and estrogen (E), and we believe that music also affects the receptor genes related to these substances, and related proteins. In the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, hormone replacement therapy has been shown to be effective, but at the same time, side effects have been documented, and the clinical application of hormone replacement therapy is facing a serious challenge. Conversely, music is noninvasive, and its existence is universal and mundane. Thus, if music can be used in medical care, the application of such a safe and inexpensive therapeutic option is limitless.
Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61-67% in valence classification and from around 58-67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling.
Lin, Yuan-Pin; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
Electroencephalography (EEG)-based emotion classification during music listening has gained increasing attention nowadays due to its promise of potential applications such as musical affective brain-computer interface (ABCI), neuromarketing, music therapy, and implicit multimedia tagging and triggering. However, music is an ecologically valid and complex stimulus that conveys certain emotions to listeners through compositions of musical elements. Using solely EEG signals to distinguish emotions remained challenging. This study aimed to assess the applicability of a multimodal approach by leveraging the EEG dynamics and acoustic characteristics of musical contents for the classification of emotional valence and arousal. To this end, this study adopted machine-learning methods to systematically elucidate the roles of the EEG and music modalities in the emotion modeling. The empirical results suggested that when whole-head EEG signals were available, the inclusion of musical contents did not improve the classification performance. The obtained performance of 74~76% using solely EEG modality was statistically comparable to that using the multimodality approach. However, if EEG dynamics were only available from a small set of electrodes (likely the case in real-life applications), the music modality would play a complementary role and augment the EEG results from around 61–67% in valence classification and from around 58–67% in arousal classification. The musical timber appeared to replace less-discriminative EEG features and led to improvements in both valence and arousal classification, whereas musical loudness was contributed specifically to the arousal classification. The present study not only provided principles for constructing an EEG-based multimodal approach, but also revealed the fundamental insights into the interplay of the brain activity and musical contents in emotion modeling. PMID:24822035
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed.
The study of music contributes to transmitting cultural heritage, learning self-discipline and teamwork, developing creativity and self-expression, developing multiple intelligences, engaging in problem solving and abstract thinking, and influencing academic achievement. Whether a performance has "musical meaning" at the core of music education…
Beegle, Amy C.
Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…
Jaye, Mary Tinnin; And Others
"Making Music Your Own" is the eighth component of the Bridge-to-Reading series, a comprehensive year-long reading readiness curriculum for use with 2 1/2 -- 6-year old children. This book offers the teacher a wide variety of materials to help children enjoy music, discover music concepts, and integrate music with everyday experiences. Included…
After reading the book "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), this author states she finds it difficult to separate "identities in music" from "music in identities." In fact, she cannot conceive of music apart from identity.…
Stephens, Shannon Sweny
Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)
Although there have been great changes in the musical scene in the past 15 years, such as development of creative music-making and instrumental playing and new ways of testing musical experience and knowledge, it is only very recently that specific accomodation for music has begun to be included in the design of school buildings. This set of…
Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…
Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2005
The collected 2004-2005 issues of General Music Today, the online journal of MENC's Society for General Music includes articles, research, reviews and resources of interest to general music teachers of all levels. Topics covered include working with special-needs students; emphasizing early childhood environment to enhance musical growth;…
Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz
Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings.
Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia
Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…
Zaffini, Erin Dineen
While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…
Kenney, Susan Hobson
This article explores ways for music teachers to influence music making in the home. Often preschool music programs include parents in the music education process, but when children enter school, the parent connection is not usually continued with the same intensity. This article will serve as a catalyst for further conversations on ways to…
Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill
The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…
Article discusses the music of the Orient and an insight on the development of musical instruments and the theory of music. As well, it notes the influence the music of the Orient has had on the rest of the world. (RK)
Okafor, Richard C.
Presents a brief history of music education in Nigerian educational institutions along with the goals and objectives. States music educators are traditional master musicians or Western educated professionals. Claims the focus of music education is on Western music. Makes recommendations for a radical revision of the curriculum and changes in…
Tohidian, Nilou B; Quek, Karen Mui-Teng
As the fields of counseling and psychotherapy have become more cognizant that individuals, couples, and families bring with them a myriad of diversity factors into therapy, multicultural competency has also become a crucial component in the development of clinicians during clinical supervision and training. We employed a qualitative meta-analysis to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of similar themes identified in primary qualitative studies that have investigated supervisory practices with an emphasis on diversity. Findings revealed six meta-categories, namely: (a) Supervisor's Multicultural Stances; (b) Supervisee's Multicultural Encounters; (c) Competency-Based Content in Supervision; (d) Processes Surrounding Multicultural Supervision; (e) Culturally Attuned Interventions; and (f) Multicultural Supervisory Alliance. Implications for practice are discussed.
Price, Harry E.
The research enterprise in the United States is a vast one, with at least 15 music education and two music therapy research journals. This is in addition to the multitude of papers presented at a myriad of state, regional and national conferences, including the hundreds of papers presented at the biannual meetings of the Music Educators National…
Washington, David M.; Beecher, Devin G.
The social power of music can effect stable and positive changes in individual health and communities that have significant health risks. Two observers, a medical student and a music student, discuss respectively the ideals and challenges of this principle put into practice. Their reflections about the role of music as social therapy and space for…
Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf
In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.
Snowdon, Charles T; Zimmermann, Elke; Altenmüller, Eckart
There have been many attempts to discuss the evolutionary origins of music. We review theories of music origins and take the perspective that music is originally derived from emotional signals. We show that music has adaptive value through emotional contagion, social cohesion, and improved well-being. We trace the roots of music through the emotional signals of other species suggesting that the emotional aspects of music have a long evolutionary history. We show how music and speech are closely interlinked with the musical aspects of speech conveying emotional information. We describe acoustic structures that communicate emotion in music and present evidence that these emotional features are widespread among humans and also function to induce emotions in animals. Similar acoustic structures are present in the emotional signals of nonhuman animals. We conclude with a discussion of music designed specifically to induce emotional states in animals.
Simpson, Kate; Keen, Deb
Anderson, Dylan Zachary
This thesis develops the supervised gamma process Poisson factorization (S- GPPF) framework, a novel supervised topic model for joint modeling of count matrices and document labels. S-GPPF is fully generative and nonparametric: document labels and count matrices are modeled under a uni ed probabilistic framework and the number of latent topics is controlled automatically via a gamma process prior. The framework provides for multi-class classification of documents using a generative max-margin classifier. Several recent data augmentation techniques are leveraged to provide for exact inference using a Gibbs sampling scheme. The first portion of this thesis reviews supervised topic modeling and several key mathematical devices used in the formulation of S-GPPF. The thesis then introduces the S-GPPF generative model and derives the conditional posterior distributions of the latent variables for posterior inference via Gibbs sampling. The S-GPPF is shown to exhibit state-of-the-art performance for joint topic modeling and document classification on a dataset of conference abstracts, beating out competing supervised topic models. The unique properties of S-GPPF along with its competitive performance make it a novel contribution to supervised topic modeling.
Kim, Soo Ji; Koh, Iljoo
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on pain perception of stroke patients during upper extremity joint exercises. Ten stroke patients (1 male and 9 females) ranging in age from 61 to 73 participated in the study. Music conditions used in the study consisted of: (a) song, (b) karaoke accompaniment (same music to condition A except singers' voices), and (c) no music. Exercise movements in this study included hand, wrist, and shoulder joints. During the 8-week period music therapy sessions, subjects repeated 3 conditions according to the randomized orders and subjects rated their perceived pain on a scale immediately after each condition. The General Linear Model (GLM) Repeated Measures ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in pain rating across the three music conditions. However, positive affects and verbal responses, while performing upper extremity exercises with both music and karaoke accompaniment music, were observed using video observations.
The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday “musicking” performed by people outside the institutional practice. PMID:23930988
Yamasaki, Alisa; Booker, Abigail; Kapur, Varun; Tilt, Alexandra; Niess, Hanno; Lillemoe, Keith D; Warshaw, Andrew L; Conrad, Claudius
The study of music and medicine is a rapidly growing field that in the past, has been largely focused on the use of music as a complementary therapy. Increasing interest has been centered on understanding the physiologic mechanisms underlying the effects of music and, more recently, the suggested role of music in modulating metabolic responses. Research has established a role for music in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the sympathetic nervous system, and the immune system, which have key functions in the regulation of metabolism and energy balance. More recent findings have shown a role for music in the metabolic recovery from stress, the regulation of gastric and intestinal motility, the moderation of cancer-related gastrointestinal symptoms, and the increase of lipid metabolism and lactic acid clearance during exercise and postexercise recovery. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most current understanding of the mechanisms by which music affects the metabolic responses in the context of potential applications.
Saunders, J. A.
Music teachers may feel most comfortable teaching the music they know, in the way that they were taught and in the way that they were taught to teach it. Music and the teaching of music is a strong part of their professional musical identity. Adolescents have a passionate attachment to music but insist that this must be on their terms, which may…
Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.
Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…
Kaiser, K A; Johnson, K E
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an interactive experience on music majors' perceptions of music experiences for deaf students. Twenty-three members of a pre-existing college brass ensemble served as subjects, and a 1-hour interactive concert/presentation for 10 deaf elementary children served as the independent variable. The interactive experience was designed to provide social, musical, and educational interactions between the college musicians and the deaf children. A pretest-posttest design was utilized, and the dependent variable was a questionnaire designed to examine the subjects' perceptions regarding music for deaf students, including how prepared, comfortable, and willing they felt to provide music experiences for deaf students. Results reveal that this single interactive experience had a significant effect on the subjects' perceptions of the value of music in the education of deaf children (p <.05). Although the pretest and posttest scores indicate that the subjects felt apprehensive about their preparedness to work with deaf students, the subjects felt significantly more positive about their preparedness following the interaction (p <.001). An analysis of open comments indicates that the subjects perceived the experience as (a) very positive, (b) increasing their knowledge and perception of music for deaf students, (c) helping them better relate to the deaf population, (d) promoting interest in similar experiences and in gaining more information, and (e) eliciting a feeling that future teachers should have similar experiences. Quotes from the subjects are given, and implications for teacher training/music therapy programs are discussed.
Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira
Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875