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Sample records for music therapy supervision

  1. What Is Music Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is the ...

  2. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, ... grateful I chose a career as rewarding as music therapy. I love what I do each day!” Where ...

  3. Music therapy.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M; Chlan, L

    1999-01-01

    Nurses have used music as an intervention for many years. A sizeable number of investigations to determine the efficacy of music in managing pain, in decreasing anxiety and aggressive behaviors, and in improving performance and well-being have been conducted by nurses and other health professionals. Nursing and non-nursing research reports published between the years 1980-1997 were reviewed. Great variation existed in the type of musical selection used, the dose of the intervention (number of sessions and length exposure), the populations studied, and the methodologies used. Overall, music was found to be effective in producing positive outcomes.

  4. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  5. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  6. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed. PMID:27024999

  7. An Overview of Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael G.

    Music therapy is the unique use of music in the accomplishment of therapeutic aims: the restoration, maintenance, and improvement of mental and physical health. A music therapist can help clients increase understanding of themselves and their environment through systematic involvement with music. The process of music therapy gives clients a…

  8. American Music Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Swedish Cancer Institute (SCI) and the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Center (MS Center). Continue Reading Monday, October 17, 2016 New AMTA-pro Podcast:Generalizing Music Therapy to Home Life In this AMTA-Pro podcast, ...

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music therapists ...

  10. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  11. Music therapy career aptitude test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Music Therapy Career Aptitude Test (MTCAT) was to measure the affective domain of music therapy students including their self-awareness as it relates to the music therapy career, value in human development, interest in general therapy, and aptitude for being a professional music therapist. The MTCAT was administered to 113 music therapy students who are currently freshman or sophomores in an undergraduate music therapy program or in the first year of a music therapy master's equivalency program. The results of analysis indicated that the MTCAT is normally distributed and that all 20 questions are significantly correlated with the total test score of the MTCAT. The reliability of the MTCAT was considerably high (Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha=0.8). The criterion-related validity was examined by comparing the MTCAT scores of music therapy students with the scores of 43 professional music therapists. The correlation between the scores of students and professionals was found to be statistically significant. The results suggests that normal distribution, internal consistency, homogeneity of construct, item discrimination, correlation analysis, content validity, and criterion-related validity in the MTCAT may be helpful in predicting music therapy career aptitude and may aid in the career decision making process of college music therapy students.

  12. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  13. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research.

  14. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. PMID:24975624

  15. Music Therapy in Pediatric Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Sheri, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Music therapy is an established health care and human services profession that is dedicated to the implementation of controlled research studies to determine the underlying mechanisms in music that are responsible for therapeutic change, as well as clinical research to direct and guide the work of the music therapist. This growing body of research…

  16. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy. PMID:24908841

  17. [Music therapy and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Tromeur, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy and Alzheimer's dementia. Dementia such as Alzheimer's leads to the deterioration of the patient's global capacities. The cognitive disorders associated with it are disabling and affect every area of the patient's life. Every therapy's session undertaken with and by patients can act as a mirror of the progress of their disease and help to feel better, as described in this article on music therapy.

  18. Music therapy in palliative care.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, S.; Mount, B.

    1978-01-01

    Initial observations regarding the use of music therapy at one hospital in the palliative care of patients with advanced malignant disease are presented. In the hands of a trained music therapist, music has proven to be a potent tool for improving the quality of life. The diversity of its potential is particularly suited to the deversity of the challenges - physical, psychosocial and spiritual - that these patients present. Images FIG. 1 PMID:84704

  19. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around. PMID:20069199

  20. Dementia and the Power of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Dementia is now a leading cause of both mortality and morbidity, particularly in western nations, and current projections for rates of dementia suggest this will worsen. More than ever, cost effective and creative non-pharmacological therapies are needed to ensure we have an adequate system of care and supervision. Music therapy is one such measure, yet to date statements of what music therapy is supposed to bring about in ethical terms have been limited to fairly vague and under-developed claims about an improvement in well-being. This article identifies the relevant sense of wellbeing at stake in the question of dementia therapies of this type. In broad terms the idea is that this kind of therapy has a restorative effect on social agency. To the extent that music arouses a person through its rhythms and memory-inducing effects, particularly in communal settings, it may give rise to the recovery of one's narrative agency, and in turn allow for both carer and patient to participate in a more meaningful and mutually engaging social connection. PMID:25655812

  1. Dementia and the Power of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Dementia is now a leading cause of both mortality and morbidity, particularly in western nations, and current projections for rates of dementia suggest this will worsen. More than ever, cost effective and creative non-pharmacological therapies are needed to ensure we have an adequate system of care and supervision. Music therapy is one such measure, yet to date statements of what music therapy is supposed to bring about in ethical terms have been limited to fairly vague and under-developed claims about an improvement in well-being. This article identifies the relevant sense of wellbeing at stake in the question of dementia therapies of this type. In broad terms the idea is that this kind of therapy has a restorative effect on social agency. To the extent that music arouses a person through its rhythms and memory-inducing effects, particularly in communal settings, it may give rise to the recovery of one's narrative agency, and in turn allow for both carer and patient to participate in a more meaningful and mutually engaging social connection.

  2. [Pain management and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Sophie Gwenaelle; De Diego, Emmanuelle; Guétin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of music in the treatment of pain is now recognised. The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for this purpose. It improves the overall management of pain and facilitates patient support. Its standardised use by caregivers has been made possible thanks to the development of a digital application.

  3. [Pain management and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Hoareau, Sophie Gwenaelle; De Diego, Emmanuelle; Guétin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The benefit of music in the treatment of pain is now recognised. The U sequence is a music therapy technique specifically developed for this purpose. It improves the overall management of pain and facilitates patient support. Its standardised use by caregivers has been made possible thanks to the development of a digital application. PMID:26743370

  4. Music, Pedagogy, Therapy: Suggestopaedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel L.

    Suggestopaedia seems to be the only pedagogical approach using music as an integral part or essential component of the teaching process, in spite of the fact that the contribution of music to pedagogy and successful learning has been recognized for some time. In a suggestopaedic course, music plays a large part in creating a pleasant suggestive…

  5. The Impact of Supervised Mentorship on Music Education Master's Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joshua A.; Haston, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of supervised mentorship in an authentic-context learning setting on music education graduate students' graduate school experiences. Participants were six current and former graduate music education majors who acted as supervised mentors to undergraduate students teaching instrumental…

  6. Historical Research in Music Therapy. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Alan L., Ed.; Davis, William B., Ed.; Heller, George N., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography, produced by the American Music Therapy Association, represents a collection of research articles and publications over the past 50 years of music therapy's history. It is organized by author.

  7. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  8. Musical and Verbal Interventions in Music Therapy: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Amir

    1999-01-01

    In clinical work, our main task as music therapists is to make interventions: we give our clients guidance, encouragement, and support; we offer interpretations; we play with and for them. Most of the interventions are either musical or verbal. As a music therapy clinician, supervisor, and educator, I wanted to explore the following questions: (a) How do music therapists define musical and verbal interventions? (b) When does a music therapist intervene musically and when does the therapist intervene verbally? (c) When and why do music therapists suggest to their clients exploring an issue musically or verbally? (d) Do musical and verbal interventions serve the same purpose or different purposes? (d) How is the decision about the type of intervention made? and, (e) is there a difference between the power and meaning of musical interventions versus verbal interventions for both the therapist and the client?

  9. Feminist music therapy pedagogy: a survey of music therapy educators.

    PubMed

    Hahna, Nicole D; Schwantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between the use of feminist pedagogy and academic rank of the participants. Seventy-two participants responded to this study, with 69 participants included for data analysis. Stake and Hoffman's (2000) feminist pedagogy survey was adapted for this study, examining four subscales of feminist pedagogy: (a) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/ social activism, and (d) critical thinking/open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n=32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n=46) of participants identified as using feminist pedagogy. Results of a mixed analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant difference within the four survey subscales (p<.0001), no significant difference (p=.32) for academic rank, and no significant interaction (p=.08) of academic rank and the four survey subscales. Tukey's post hoc analysis of the data indicated that the survey subscale measuring political activism (p<.0001) was significantly lower than the other three survey subscales. In addition, a qualitative analysis on open-ended responses is also included. Discussion of the results, limitations, and areas for future research are addressed.

  10. Willem van de Wall: Organizer and Innovator in Music Education and Music Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Heller, George N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Willem van de Wall's historically significant contributions to seminal literature on music therapy and the influence of music on behavior. Reviews van de Wall's early writings, at his work on music for children, and on music in institutions. Cites his "Music in Hospitals" as the culmination of his work in music therapy, music education,…

  11. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    PubMed

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders. PMID:11351476

  12. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    PubMed

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders.

  13. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century. PMID:15458755

  14. Conversations from the Classroom: Reflections on Feminist Music Therapy Pedagogy in Teaching Music Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahna, Nicole D.

    2011-01-01

    Four music therapy educators participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews as part of a qualitative study. The purpose of this study was to explore the phenomena of feminist pedagogy as experienced by music therapy educators using phenomenological inquiry. The study examined the following research questions: (a) do music therapy educators…

  15. Concepts of context in music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199

  16. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings.

    PubMed

    Galińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music. PMID:26488358

  17. Music therapy in neurological rehabilitation settings.

    PubMed

    Galińska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The neurologic music therapy is a new scope of music therapy. Its techniques deal with dysfunctions resulting from diseases of the human nervous system. Music can be used as an alternative modality to access functions unavailable through non-musical stimulus. Processes in the brain activated by the influence of music can be generalized and transferred to non-musical functions. Therefore, in clinical practice, the translation of non-musical therapeutic exercises into analogous, isomorphic musical exercises is performed. They make use of the executive peculiarity of musical instruments and musical structures to prime, cue and coordinate movements. Among musical components, a repetitive rhythm plays a significant role. It regulates physiologic and behavioural functions through the mechanism of entrainment (synchronization of biological rhythms with musical rhythm based on acoustic resonance). It is especially relevant for patients with a deficient internal timing system in the brain. Additionally, regular rhythmic patterns facilitate memory encoding and decoding of non-musical information hence music is an efficient mnemonic tool. The music as a hierarchical, compound language of time, with its unique ability to access affective/motivational systems in the brain, provides time structures enhancing perception processes, mainly in the range of cognition, language and motor learning. It allows for emotional expression and improvement of the motivation for rehabilitation activities. The new technologies of rhythmic sensory stimulation (i.e. Binaural Beat Stimulation) or rhythmic music in combination with rhythmic light therapy appear. This multimodal forms of stimulation are used in the treatment of stroke, brain injury, dementia and other cognitive deficits. Clinical outcome studies provide evidence of the significant superiority of rehabilitation with music over the one without music.

  18. Music Therapy: How It Helps The Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Bruce

    1975-01-01

    Following a brief review of the role of music in the history of education, the author examines the expanding application of music to child therapy. Also included are some suggestions for a broader employment of music in the total school scene. (Author/HMV)

  19. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated.

  20. Music as therapy in early history.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. PMID:25725914

  1. Music therapy in the age of enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Rorke, M A

    2001-01-01

    As music therapists continue to discover more about the therapeutic powers of music, it is interesting now and then to look to the past in order to seek the roots of our contemporary practices. In this regard, the writings of eighteenth-century physicians are pivotal in the development of music therapy, for it was these individuals who first began to depend greatly upon scientific experimentation and observation to formulate their procedures. Representative of this stage in the history of music therapy are the findings of the renowned London physician Richard Brocklesby, the only doctor to write a treatise on music therapy in eighteenth-century England. The subjects treated by Brocklesby in his Reflections on the Power of Music (1749) include his musical remedies for the excesses of various emotions-particularly fear, excessive joy, and excessive sadness. He also discusses his musical remedies for diseases of the mind recognized in the eighteenth century-delirium, frenzy, melancholia, and maniacal cases. He considers music as well an aid to the elderly and to pregnant women. In short, Brocklesby provides a lively account of the curative powers of music as viewed in the mid-eighteenth century by an excellent medical mind. PMID:11407966

  2. Music therapy in the age of enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Rorke, M A

    2001-01-01

    As music therapists continue to discover more about the therapeutic powers of music, it is interesting now and then to look to the past in order to seek the roots of our contemporary practices. In this regard, the writings of eighteenth-century physicians are pivotal in the development of music therapy, for it was these individuals who first began to depend greatly upon scientific experimentation and observation to formulate their procedures. Representative of this stage in the history of music therapy are the findings of the renowned London physician Richard Brocklesby, the only doctor to write a treatise on music therapy in eighteenth-century England. The subjects treated by Brocklesby in his Reflections on the Power of Music (1749) include his musical remedies for the excesses of various emotions-particularly fear, excessive joy, and excessive sadness. He also discusses his musical remedies for diseases of the mind recognized in the eighteenth century-delirium, frenzy, melancholia, and maniacal cases. He considers music as well an aid to the elderly and to pregnant women. In short, Brocklesby provides a lively account of the curative powers of music as viewed in the mid-eighteenth century by an excellent medical mind.

  3. Experiences and concerns of students during music therapy practica.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Barbara L

    2002-01-01

    This phenomenological research study investigated experiences and concerns that music therapy students have during their preclinical or practicum experiences. Interviews with students were intended to lead to an understanding of these experiences as the students perceived them. Eight students enrolled in undergraduate music therapy practica participated in open-ended interviews over the period of a year, with most students being interviewed 3 times. Six areas of interest emerged from the analysis: challenges encountered by students, means of dealing with challenges, involvement with clients, areas of learning, supervision issues, and structure of practicum. These areas and subcategories under them are presented along with transcriptions from the interviews to illustrate the points. Implications of the research for education and clinical training are discussed.

  4. A Creative Therapies Model for the Group Supervision of Counsellors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Sets forth a model of group supervision, drawing on a creative therapies approach which provides an effective way of delivering process issues, conceptualization issues, and personalization issues. The model makes particular use of techniques drawn from art therapy and from psychodrama, and should be applicable to therapists of many orientations.…

  5. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Radchenko, G S

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated.

  6. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Radchenko, G S

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated. PMID:25438561

  7. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated. PMID:25508092

  8. Music Therapy for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Anita Louise; Crawford, Celeste

    1982-01-01

    The development and implementation of a music therapy program to achieve behavioral change in visually impaired children and adolescents are described. Goals targeted by the music therapist at the Cleveland Society for the Blind include altering unusual body movements, poor posture, and other mannerisms often associated with blindness. (SEW)

  9. [Music therapy, a partner in patient care].

    PubMed

    Métayer, Sabine

    2012-10-01

    Long time the preserve of psychiatry, music therapy is today used in general care. At Necker University Children's Hospital in Paris, it forms part of the treatment of multifactorial pain, with the collaboration of nursing teams. PMID:23092083

  10. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  11. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  12. Music Techniques in Therapy, Counseling, and Special Education, Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne M.; Jones, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    "Music Techniques in Therapy, Counseling, and Special Education" is the culmination of the first author's research in the skill development of prospective music therapists and music educators during graduate and undergraduate preparation. Standley studied the abilities and progress of students across multiple clinical music therapy and music…

  13. [The efficacy of music and music therapy in the neuromotor rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    This article review includes the controlled and randomized controlled trials about the use of music and music therapy techniques in the neuromotor rehabilitation. The paper defines the music therapy and delineates the neuroscientific bases and rehabilitative potential of music and music therapy interventions. Significant results are present in the stroke and Parkinson's disease rehabilitation. The Author's conclusions suggest the need of more rigorous studies based on clear procedures and strong methodological research criteria. PMID:22697039

  14. Music therapy in grief resolution.

    PubMed

    Bright, R

    1999-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of grief and the enormous variation in individual clients' responses to losses make it necessary for therapists to have wide background knowledge and well-developed skills in counseling and/or psychotherapy. The author describes an innovative method of facilitating grief resolution using precomposed music that is significant to the patient after a major loss. In this method, music is of equal importance with verbal processing as part of the overall therapeutic approach. Musical improvization is also used as a primary tool to reflect back to, and affirm for, the patient the affective content of his or her life story. This approach requires the therapist to have particular musical skills and a wide repertoire of genres and specific musical pieces, as well as intuition. Several clinical vignettes illustrate the application of this approach.

  15. A Role for Music Therapy in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daveson, Barbara; Edwards, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the role and application of music therapy in special education in an Australian context. Notes that music therapy in Australia is practiced in medical contexts, education contexts, and in private practice and community programs. (DB)

  16. "Soothing the Savage Breast": Music Therapy as a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, C. Ricardo

    1975-01-01

    A career in music therapy is discussed--career description, educational training, and employment and earnings. Colleges and universities offering National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) curriculums for bachelor's and master's programs are listed. (EA)

  17. Music in the family: music making and music therapy with young children and their families.

    PubMed

    Wetherick, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Songs and singing games are a healthy part of young children's social, emotional and cognitive development. Such shared music making can facilitate and strengthen relationships between parents and children. Family health workers can encourage carers' informal uses of music with their children. In cases of developmental delay, disability, severe illness or family stress, music can continue to have a significant role in supporting children and parents. In some cases referral to specialist music therapy services may be appropriate for assessment and/or treatment.

  18. Music therapy in cardiac health care: current issues in research.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Suzanne B

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy is a service that has become more prevalent as an adjunct to medical practice-as its evidence base expands and music therapists begin to join the cardiology team in every phase of care, from the most serious cases to those maintaining good heart health. Although applications of music medicine, primarily listening to short segments of music, are capable of stabilizing vital signs and managing symptoms in the short-term, music therapy interventions by a qualified practitioner are showing promise in establishing deeper and more lasting impact. On the basis of mind-body approaches, stress/coping models, the neuromatrix theory of pain, and entrainment, music therapy capitalizes on the ability of music to affect the autonomic nervous system. Although only a limited number of randomized controlled trials pinpoint the efficacy of specific music therapy interventions, qualitative research reveals some profound outcomes in certain individuals. A depth of understanding related to the experience of living with a cardiovascular disease can be gained through music therapy approaches such as nonverbal music psychotherapy and guided imagery and music. The multifaceted nature of musical responsiveness contributes to strong individual variability and must be taken into account in the development of research protocols for future music therapy and music medicine interventions. The extant research provides a foundation for exploring the many potential psychosocial, physiological, and spiritual outcomes of a music therapy service for cardiology patients.

  19. Music Therapy in the Interdisciplinary Care of Children with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Valerie Kalsbeck

    Music therapy, the systematic application of music and musical activities to elicit specific changes in emotional, physical, or social behavior, can help pediatric cancer patients to decrease their anxiety and cope with hospitalization. Because music is a nonverbal means of expression, it is an especially effective medium for young children who…

  20. The music therapy assessment tool in Alzheimer's patients.

    PubMed

    Glynn, N J

    1992-01-01

    1. Empirical research is needed to evaluate immediate and sustained physiological, psychological, and psychosocial therapeutic effects, if any, of music therapy on behavioral patterns of elderly institutionalized Alzheimer's patients. 2. The Music Therapy Assessment Tool (MTAT) was specifically designed and developed to assess the effects of music therapy on behavioral patterns of Alzheimer's disease patients. 3. Preliminary testing of the MTAT suggests that it has fairly high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability and warrants consideration as a research tool. 4. Musical intervention included familiar music to facilitate communication and socialization, ethnic and nostalgic music to stimulate reminiscence, and melodies with distinctive rhythmic patterns to enhance movement and behavioral repatterning.

  1. Music therapy in critical care: indications and guidelines for intervention.

    PubMed

    Chlan, L; Tracy, M F

    1999-06-01

    Music therapy is an effective intervention for critically ill patients for such purposes as anxiety reduction and stress management. The therapy is readily accepted by patients and is an intervention patients thoroughly enjoy. The MAIT is one resource that nurses caring for critically ill patients can use to implement music therapy in clinical practice. Patients can be given the opportunity to select a musical tape they prefer and to negotiate with the nurse for uninterrupted music-listening periods. Allowing patients control over music selection and providing uninterrupted time for music listening gives the patients an enhanced sense of control in an environment that often controls them.

  2. Music Therapy with Bereaved Youth: Expressing Grief and Feeling Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerran, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Music therapy is a promising intervention with bereaved youth. In comparison to other programs, it appears particularly effective for promoting the resolution of grief-related feelings; providing opportunities to express and release feelings through musical participation. Descriptions from music therapy participants are supported by research…

  3. Music therapy for depression: it seems to work, but how?

    PubMed

    Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike J; Procter, Simon

    2011-08-01

    Evidence is beginning to emerge that music therapy can improve the mental health of people with depression. We examine possible mechanisms of action of this complex intervention and suggest that music therapy partly is effective because active music-making within the therapeutic frame offers the patient opportunities for new aesthetic, physical and relational experiences.

  4. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  5. Music therapy in an integrated pediatric palliative care program.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Wang, Hua; Curtis, Charlotte; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    National experts have recommended that children with life-limiting illnesses receive integrated palliative and medical care. These programs offer a variety of services, including music therapy. Using survey data from parents whose were enrolled in Florida's Partners in Care: Together for Kids (PIC:TFK) program, this study investigates parents' experiences with music therapy. About 44% of children with life-limiting illnesses and 17% of their siblings used music therapy. For children who used music therapy, multivariate results suggest that their parents were 23 times as likely to report satisfaction with the overall PIC:TFK program (P < .05) versus parents whose children did not use music therapy. Pediatric palliative care programs should include music therapy, although recruiting licensed music therapists may be challenging.

  6. History of music therapy treatment interventions for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.

  7. The effects of supervised learning on event-related potential correlates of music-syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-11-11

    Humans process music even without conscious effort according to implicit knowledge about syntactic regularities. Whether such automatic and implicit processing is modulated by veridical knowledge has remained unknown in previous neurophysiological studies. This study investigates this issue by testing whether the acquisition of veridical knowledge of a music-syntactic irregularity (acquired through supervised learning) modulates early, partly automatic, music-syntactic processes (as reflected in the early right anterior negativity, ERAN), and/or late controlled processes (as reflected in the late positive component, LPC). Excerpts of piano sonatas with syntactically regular and less regular chords were presented repeatedly (10 times) to non-musicians and amateur musicians. Participants were informed by a cue as to whether the following excerpt contained a regular or less regular chord. Results showed that the repeated exposure to several presentations of regular and less regular excerpts did not influence the ERAN elicited by less regular chords. By contrast, amplitudes of the LPC (as well as of the P3a evoked by less regular chords) decreased systematically across learning trials. These results reveal that late controlled, but not early (partly automatic), neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing are modulated by repeated exposure to a musical piece. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  8. Creativity and improvisation as therapeutic tools within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Tomaino, Concetta M

    2013-11-01

    The neuroscience of creativity and music improvisation is a fascinating topic and one with strong implications for clinical music therapy. Music therapists are trained to use musical improvisation as a means to bring their clients into deeper therapeutic relationship as well as free up any inhibitions or limitations that may block recovery. Could recent fMRI studies of jazz musicians showing areas of brain activation during music improvisation provide a new framework to understand underlying mechanisms at work with neurologically impaired individuals?

  9. [Music therapy for dementia and higher cognitive dysfunction: a review].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Music is known to affect the human mind and body. Music therapy utilizes the effects of music for medical purposes. The history of music therapy is quite long, but only limited evidence supports its usefulness in the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction. As for dementia, some studies conclude that music therapy is effective for preventing cognitive deterioration and the occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In patients receiving music therapy for the treatment of higher cognitive dysfunction, aphasia was reported as the most common symptom. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether singing can improve aphasic symptoms: singing familiar and/or unfamiliar songs did not show any positive effect on aphasia. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) is a method that utilizes melody and rhythm to improve speech output. MIT is a method that is known to have positive effects on aphasic patients. Some studies of music therapy for patients with unilateral spatial neglect; apraxia; hemiparesis; and walking disturbances, including parkinsonian gait, are available in the literature. Studies showed that the symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect and hemiparesis significantly improved when musical instruments were played for several months as a part of the music therapy. Here, I describe my study in which mental singing showed a positive effect on parkinsonian gait. Music is interesting, and every patient can go through training without any pain. Future studies need to be conducted to establish evidence of the positive effects of music therapy on neurological and neuropsychological symptoms.

  10. Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Barbara J; Rio, Robin

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the use of technology in music therapy practice and research for the purpose of providing music therapy educators and clinicians with specific and accurate accounts of the types and benefits of technology being used in various settings. Additionally, this knowledge will help universities comply with National Association of Schools of Music requirements and help to standardize the education and training of music therapists in this rapidly changing area. Information was gathered through a literature review of music therapy and related professional journals and a wide variety of books and personal communications. More data were gathered in a survey requesting information on current use of technology in education and practice. This solicitation was sent to all American Music Therapy Association approved universities and clinical training directors. Technology applications in music therapy are organized according to the following categories: (a) adapted musical instruments, (b) recording technology, (c) electric/electronic musical instruments, (d) computer applications, (e) medical technology, (f) assistive technology for the disabled, and (g) technology-based music/sound healing practices. The literature reviewed covers 177 books and articles from a span of almost 40 years. Recommendations are made for incorporating technology into music therapy course work and for review and revision of AMTA competencies. The need for an all-encompassing clinical survey of the use of technology in current music therapy practice is also identified.

  11. An audit about music therapy assessments and recommendations for adult patients suspected to be in a low awareness state.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In neuro-rehabilitation, the role of music therapy is expanding to include assessment of patients with severely-altered states of consciousness. Diagnosis of these conditions is a complex task for all, and cases of misdiagnosis have been reported. Aggregated findings from 33 music therapy assessments of patients suspected of being in a low awareness state are described and discussed here. The Music Therapy Assessment Tool for Low Awareness States (MATLAS) was used during these assessments. All assessments were offered as part of a specialist multidisciplinary assessment package. A brief description of the patient group is supplied, along with details regarding the assessment tool and the recommendations that followed. In summary, a difference in the time it took to assess patients in vegetative state (VS) as compared to those in minimally conscious state (MCS) was found and, on average, the assessment of those in VS took less time to complete than for those in MCS. A greater range in session length was found for patients in VS, as compared to those in MCS. Generally after the assessments, patients in VS were likely to be admitted to a sensory regulation group administered by a music therapy assistant, supervised by a qualified music therapist, to enable the continued collection of behavioral responses to stimuli. Patients in MCS were admitted to a music therapy treatment program offered by a qualified music therapist. Ongoing work is recommended to advance the assessment and treatment of this patient population, and to consolidate the role of music therapy with this population.

  12. Music-therapy analyzed through conceptual mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Rodolfo; de la Fuente, Rebeca

    2002-11-01

    Conceptual maps have been employed lately as a learning tool, as a modern study technique, and as a new way to understand intelligence, which allows for the development of a strong theoretical reference, in order to prove the research hypothesis. This paper presents a music-therapy analysis based on this tool to produce a conceptual mapping network, which ranges from magic through the rigor of the hard sciences.

  13. Formative Evaluation Research of Art-Based Supervision in Art Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Image making is a common component of art therapy supervision but its use has not yet been formally evaluated. This article describes formative evaluation research used to investigate student responses to art-based supervision in which response art was used as a primary method to contain, explore, or express clinical work. Art-based supervision,…

  14. [Aspects of psychotherapies. Music therapy and its specificity].

    PubMed

    Verdeau-Pailles, J

    1991-01-01

    Musicotherapy, associating art and science, concerns a sensorial approach, in a therapeutic aim, through sound and music, to psychological difficulties, of numerous somatic and psychosomatic troubles, as well as neurotic and psychotic disease. Music therapy is one of the art-therapy methods, all of them dealing with mediation in reference to Winnicott, leading the patients to active and creative participation and being most of the time shorter than classical verbal therapies. It may be considered as being related to the main theories of modern psychotherapies, and refers either to Psychoanalysis or to behaviour therapies, or to cognitive therapies, or to humanistic therapies ... but, whatever its main basic theory, musicotherapy shows its specificity. Its specific features are: the variety and complexity of its techniques; the specificity of the therapeutic relation; patient, music, and therapist are united through a triangular relationship; transference is of a special quality; the way the therapist answers the patient and helps him may be either verbal or musical. Practising music and listening to music must not be considered as a therapy. Music is not therapeutic in itself. It becomes so when music is used in techniques organised in a therapeutic aim. Musicotherapy may be necessary for a patient who suffers, who asks to be helped and who finds through music a way of expression and communication. The therapeutic aim has nothing to do with musical training. Musicotherapy concerns children as well as adults and elderly people, but requires different techniques adapted to the category of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  16. Music Therapy and the Education of Students with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Music therapists regard music therapy as a valuable intervention for students with moderate to severe intellectual disability or multiple disabilities, but many special educators would regard it as a controversial practice, unsupported by empirical research. This paper reviews the goals and strategies used by music therapists working with students…

  17. Making Music, Making Friends: Long-Term Music Therapy with Young Adults with Severe Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-01-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic…

  18. Music Therapy in School Settings: Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Smith; Hairston

    1999-01-01

    The practice of music therapy in school settings was the focus of this study. Survey forms were mailed to 244 NAMT members who indicated school setting as their place of employment. A total of 190 forms were received, 138 of which fit the qualifications for inclusion and were included in the data summaries. Greater numbers of respondents lived in Texas (21), New York (17), and Michigan (11), and were employed full-time (60&percent;). Employers were more typically school systems (53&percent;) for the highest percentage of full-time respondents (80&percent;), and self-employers (25&percent;) for the highest percentage of part-time respondents (80&percent;). A considerably higher percentage of time was spent each week in direct service delivery (62&percent;) than in consultation (13&percent;), travel (18&percent;), documentation (11&percent;), or preparation (14&percent;). Over 40&percent; of the respondents had been music therapists for more than 8 years, but not necessarily in their current positions. Almost 40&percent; needed a valid teaching certificate for employment, while over 50&percent; currently held one. Respondents most frequently worked with persons who were developmentally disabled (80&percent;). The impact of employer and the inclusion movement on professional practice issues was discussed, as were possible trends in the practice of music therapy in school settings.

  19. Effects of Music Therapy on Mood in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field. PMID:22028163

  20. Models of Music Therapy Intervention in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brian L., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This completely revised 2nd edition edited by Brian L. Wilson, addresses both theoretical issues and practical applications of music therapy in educational settings. 17 chapters written by a variety of authors, each dealing with a different setting or issue. A valuable resource for demonstrating the efficacy of music therapy to school…

  1. Using Music Therapy Techniques To Treat Teacher Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, James R.; Bradley, Loretta J.; Parr, Gerald; Lan, William

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of music therapy techniques as an intervention for teacher burnout. Results of the study indicated that teachers who participated in school-based counseling groups, using music therapy techniques in conjunction with cognitive behavioral interventions, reported lower levels of burnout symptoms…

  2. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    "An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…

  3. Caring for the Caregiver: The Use of Music and Music Therapy in Grief and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewy, Joanne V., Ed.; Hara, Andrea Frisch, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    A collection of reflections on music therapy interventions provided as a part of the New York City Music Therapy Relief Project, sponsored by AMTA and the Recording Academy after September 11th, 2001. Edited by Joanne V. Loewy and Andrea Frisch Hara. Each chapter is written by a different therapist involved in the project.

  4. Descriptive analysis of YouTube music therapy videos.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Gregory, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of music therapy-related videos on YouTube. Preliminary searches using the keywords music therapy, music therapy session, and "music therapy session" resulted in listings of 5000, 767, and 59 videos respectively. The narrowed down listing of 59 videos was divided between two investigators and reviewed in order to determine their relationship to actual music therapy practice. A total of 32 videos were determined to be depictions of music therapy sessions. These videos were analyzed using a 16-item investigator-created rubric that examined both video specific information and therapy specific information. Results of the analysis indicated that audio and visual quality was adequate, while narrative descriptions and identification information were ineffective in the majority of the videos. The top 5 videos (based on the highest number of viewings in the sample) were selected for further analysis in order to investigate demonstration of the Professional Level of Practice Competencies set forth in the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) Professional Competencies (AMTA, 2008). Four of the five videos met basic competency criteria, with the quality of the fifth video precluding evaluation of content. Of particular interest is the fact that none of the videos included credentialing information. Results of this study suggest the need to consider ways to ensure accurate dissemination of music therapy-related information in the YouTube environment, ethical standards when posting music therapy session videos, and the possibility of creating AMTA standards for posting music therapy related video.

  5. [Healing of harmony: music therapy as a historical cultural phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, U L

    1999-05-20

    The interaction of music and psyche constitutes a phenomenon, which is known to man since antiquity, and, for this reason, was ever since used for healing purposes. The pythagoreans developed a system of musical theory that declared consonance to be a musical interval with the frequencies in a ratio of integer numbers. The cosmical music of the spheres, the played instrumental music and the inner music of man, these all they conceived as a unity. Varied in a manyfold way, this great theme was handed down over the centuries to the present day, being a source of inspiration to music and the sciences. Modern musical therapy is, in the last analysis, based on these intuitive findings. PMID:10412284

  6. [Healing of harmony: music therapy as a historical cultural phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, U L

    1999-05-20

    The interaction of music and psyche constitutes a phenomenon, which is known to man since antiquity, and, for this reason, was ever since used for healing purposes. The pythagoreans developed a system of musical theory that declared consonance to be a musical interval with the frequencies in a ratio of integer numbers. The cosmical music of the spheres, the played instrumental music and the inner music of man, these all they conceived as a unity. Varied in a manyfold way, this great theme was handed down over the centuries to the present day, being a source of inspiration to music and the sciences. Modern musical therapy is, in the last analysis, based on these intuitive findings.

  7. Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25725918

  8. Apollo's gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music's ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms.

  9. Music therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huan; Jiang, Guohui; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases. Currently, the primary methods of treatment include pharmacological and surgical treatment. However, approximately one-third of patients exhibit refractory epilepsy. Therefore, a novel approach to epilepsy treatment is necessary. Several studies have confirmed that music therapy can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges, thus providing a new option for clinicians in the treatment of epilepsy. Although the underlying mechanism of music therapy is unknown, it may be related to resonance, mirror neurons, dopamine pathways and parasympathetic activation. Large sample, multicenter, randomized double-blind and more effectively designed studies are needed for future music therapy studies. PMID:26196169

  10. Apollo’s gift: new aspects of neurologic music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Music listening and music making activities are powerful tools to engage multisensory and motor networks, induce changes within these networks, and foster links between distant, but functionally related brain regions with continued and life-long musical practice. These multimodal effects of music together with music’s ability to tap into the emotion and reward system in the brain can be used to facilitate and enhance therapeutic approaches geared toward rehabilitating and restoring neurological dysfunctions and impairments of an acquired or congenital brain disorder. In this article, we review plastic changes in functional networks and structural components of the brain in response to short- and long-term music listening and music making activities. The specific influence of music on the developing brain is emphasized and possible transfer effects on emotional and cognitive processes are discussed. Furthermore, we present data on the potential of using musical tools and activities to support and facilitate neurorehabilitation. We will focus on interventions such as melodic intonation therapy and music-supported motor rehabilitation to showcase the effects of neurologic music therapies and discuss their underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25725918

  11. The influence of music and music therapy on pain-induced neuronal oscillations measured by magnetencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Michael; Metzner, Susanne; Rohlffs, Fiona; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2013-04-01

    Modern forms of music therapy are clinically established for various therapeutic or rehabilitative goals, especially in the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that underlie pain modulation by music. Therefore, we attempted to characterize the effects of music therapy on pain perception by comparing the effects of 2 different therapeutic concepts, referred to as receptive and entrainment methods, on cortical activity recorded by magnetencephalography in combination with laser heat pain. Listening to preferred music within the receptive method yielded a significant reduction of pain ratings associated with a significant power reduction of delta-band activity in the cingulate gyrus, which suggests that participants displaced their focus of attention away from the pain stimulus. On the other hand, listening to self-composed "pain music" and "healing music" within the entrainment method exerted major effects on gamma-band activity in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Pain music, in contrast to healing music, increased pain ratings in parallel with an increase in gamma-band activity in somatosensory brain structures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the 2 music therapy approaches operationalized in this study seem to modulate pain perception through at least 2 different mechanisms, involving changes of activity in the delta and gamma bands at different stages of the pain processing system. PMID:23414577

  12. The influence of music and music therapy on pain-induced neuronal oscillations measured by magnetencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Michael; Metzner, Susanne; Rohlffs, Fiona; Lorenz, Jürgen; Engel, Andreas K

    2013-04-01

    Modern forms of music therapy are clinically established for various therapeutic or rehabilitative goals, especially in the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms that underlie pain modulation by music. Therefore, we attempted to characterize the effects of music therapy on pain perception by comparing the effects of 2 different therapeutic concepts, referred to as receptive and entrainment methods, on cortical activity recorded by magnetencephalography in combination with laser heat pain. Listening to preferred music within the receptive method yielded a significant reduction of pain ratings associated with a significant power reduction of delta-band activity in the cingulate gyrus, which suggests that participants displaced their focus of attention away from the pain stimulus. On the other hand, listening to self-composed "pain music" and "healing music" within the entrainment method exerted major effects on gamma-band activity in primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Pain music, in contrast to healing music, increased pain ratings in parallel with an increase in gamma-band activity in somatosensory brain structures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the 2 music therapy approaches operationalized in this study seem to modulate pain perception through at least 2 different mechanisms, involving changes of activity in the delta and gamma bands at different stages of the pain processing system.

  13. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  14. Clinical Guide to Music Therapy in Physical Rehabilitation Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Wong, MT-BC presents tools and information designed to arm the entry-level music therapist (or an experienced MT-BC new to rehabilitation settings) with basic knowledge and materials to develop or work in a music therapy program treating people with stroke, brain injury, and those who are ventilator dependent. Ms. Wong offers goals and…

  15. Music Therapy in Special Education: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickson, Daphne J.; McFerran, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Research is an essential aspect of the music therapy profession. Practice is grounded in theoretical frameworks based on research studies and the evaluation of clinical interventions. Early research drew heavily on behavioural principles, observing measurable change in response to musical interventions. As the profession gained stature, music…

  16. [Receptive music therapy with persons suffering from a physical handicap].

    PubMed

    Scholer, M

    2010-01-01

    Music therapy, as a part of arts therapies, is used as a therapeutical tool for restoring, maintaining and improving the mental, physical and emotional health of human beings. The main mission of receptive music therapy is not found on the performance level, but on the level of attentive and intimate music listening that is not passive at all, contributing to musical pleasure and to wellbeing. At first we introduce the basic vocabulary used in receptive music therapy, flow experience and the main dimensions (bio-psycho-social) influenced by stimulating music listening. We also present the aims of this psycho-pedagogical project: The focus lies on determining the sensitivity of physically handicapped persons to different music stimuli (music styles). In this case, we can talk of the degree of music reception. We worked in an institution for persons suffering from a physical handicap. The applied methodology is based on the psycho-musical survey by Verdeau-Paillès (1). This psychological record consists in a basic interview and a test of music listening performances leading to the construction of a summary graph and the final receptivity psychogram. An observational frame conceived by Schiltz (2) and adapted to the actual situation offers the possibility of making exact observations as to non-verbal and verbal variables during the therapeutical sessions. Thus, we can present the results of descriptive and non-parametric statistical procedures, but also the results of case studies. The statistical tests used were Wilcoxon's sign-rank test for a pre-post comparison of variables related to non-verbal and verbal behaviour (two different sessions of music therapy with similar contents) and Spearman's Rho which permitted us to compute the correlations between non-verbal expression and verbal communication (N=14). Finally we conclude that our patients considered their musical experience as very positive. The results of the personal interview and the psycho-musical survey

  17. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment. PMID:21275334

  18. In Visible Hands: The Matter and Making of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the topics of matter and making in music therapy through embodied reflexive retrospection with six music therapists. The participants were asked to re-enact a hand position from their memory of a significant moment in therapy. In individual research meetings, they shared their thoughts about this moment while the researcher made a body cast of their chosen hand pose. A thematic analysis of the participant narratives, the hand casts, and existing literature was used to generate the following themes: The biographic hand, The body, space, place, and time, The plural hand, Matter of the hand, and The method in hand. The research procedure facilitated an exploration of epistemological, ontological, and phenomenological perspectives in understanding music therapy practitioner experiences. The study highlights the inseparability and multiplicity of matter, making, and narrating music therapy that transcends context or therapeutic approach. PMID:26681798

  19. In Visible Hands: The Matter and Making of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the topics of matter and making in music therapy through embodied reflexive retrospection with six music therapists. The participants were asked to re-enact a hand position from their memory of a significant moment in therapy. In individual research meetings, they shared their thoughts about this moment while the researcher made a body cast of their chosen hand pose. A thematic analysis of the participant narratives, the hand casts, and existing literature was used to generate the following themes: The biographic hand, The body, space, place, and time, The plural hand, Matter of the hand, and The method in hand. The research procedure facilitated an exploration of epistemological, ontological, and phenomenological perspectives in understanding music therapy practitioner experiences. The study highlights the inseparability and multiplicity of matter, making, and narrating music therapy that transcends context or therapeutic approach.

  20. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  1. Documentation of Family Therapy Supervision: A Rationale and a Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Ed; Serovich, Julianne M.

    1994-01-01

    Supervisors have legal liability for the therapists' handling of cases under their supervision, and documentation is the only way to demonstrate appropriate supervisory behavior. Presents the Case Review Form, a standardized review form, along with examples of its usage. (JPS)

  2. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    PubMed

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients. PMID:9584875

  3. [Can music therapy for patients with neurological disorders?].

    PubMed

    Myskja, Audun

    2004-12-16

    Recent developments in brain research and in the field of music therapy have led to the development of music-based methods specifically aimed at relieving symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other neurologic disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation uses external rhythmic auditory cues from song, music or metronome to aid patients improving their walking functioning and has been shown to be effective both within sessions and as a result of training over time. Melodic intonation therapy and related vocal techniques can improve expressive dysphasia and aid rehabilitation of neurologic disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease, stroke and developmental disorders. PMID:15608775

  4. Sound continuing bonds with the deceased: the relevance of music, including preloss music therapy, for eight bereaved caregivers.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the deceased. Music was often still used to improve mood and sometimes used to confront grief. Specific music, however, was sometimes avoided to minimize sadness. Continuing bonds theory's focus on connecting with the deceased through memory and imagery engagement may expand to encompass musical memories, reworking the meaning of familiar music, and discovering new music related to the deceased. Preloss music involvement, including music therapy, between dying patients and families can help in bereavement. PMID:24520844

  5. Sound continuing bonds with the deceased: the relevance of music, including preloss music therapy, for eight bereaved caregivers.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R

    2013-02-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the deceased. Music was often still used to improve mood and sometimes used to confront grief. Specific music, however, was sometimes avoided to minimize sadness. Continuing bonds theory's focus on connecting with the deceased through memory and imagery engagement may expand to encompass musical memories, reworking the meaning of familiar music, and discovering new music related to the deceased. Preloss music involvement, including music therapy, between dying patients and families can help in bereavement.

  6. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  7. A history of music therapy journal articles published in the English language.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Darlene

    2003-01-01

    Music therapists have had an interest in bibliographic research for over 20 years, beginning with Jellison's 1973 analysis of the frequency and types of articles appearing in the existing music therapy literature. Since then, several other researchers have continued in this line of inquiry. The purpose of this study was to (a) identify historical trends in the types of articles that have been published in major music therapy periodicals in the English language, (b) identify historical trends for each type of article within each music therapy journal, (c) to compare percentages of article types within each music therapy journal and (d) to compare percentages of article types across journals. Specifically, how many quantitative, qualitative, historical, philosophical/theoretical, clinical and professional articles have been published throughout the history of the following journals: Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy: Journal of the American Association for Music Therapy, Music Therapy Perspectives, The Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of the Association for Music & Imagery, The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, The Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, The British Journal of Music Therapy, and The New Zealand Society for Music Therapy Journal.

  8. Evaluating current trends in psychiatric music therapy: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 21% of music therapists report working in the mental health field, more so than another other specific client population category (AMTA, 2005). The purpose of this study was to descriptively evaluate psychiatric music therapists and their institutions, philosophies, interventions, and clinical objectives. A survey was designed and posted online or mailed to music therapists who did not have email addresses in the 2005 Member Sourcebook (AMTA, 2005). A total of 176 psychiatric music therapists completed various parts of the survey for an overall response rate of 42.9%. Respondents reported working a mean of 11.3 years in the psychiatric setting, being Board-Certified Music Therapists for 13.3 years, and working at their institution for 8.4 years. Most respondents (90.6%) indicated they did not have a music therapist as a supervisor. Group music therapy was the dominant modality in psychiatric institutions for music therapists. Respondents indicated they read music therapy journals (80%) and other types of psychiatric periodicals (57.1%), presented educational sessions at conferences (44.6%), conducted in-services for hospital staff (64.8%), worked with an interdisciplinary treatment team (77.9%), and trained practica students (43.5%) and interns (37.4%). Respondents also indicated that although most were not bilingual (85.7%), they still worked with non-English speaking consumers (58.2%). Participants noted that they enjoyed working with the psychiatric population and felt they had a positive influence on treatment as indicated by Likert-type scales. Respondents reported using primarily behavioral or psychodynamic approaches but considered their primary psychological philosophy as eclectic. Participants predominantly indicated they addressed goal areas such as socialization, communication, self-esteem, coping skills, and stress reduction/management. Participants noted they employed a variety of music therapy techniques such as music assisted relaxation

  9. [Within the boundaries of music. Case report: Music therapy with a pre-psychotic adolescent. Importance of music in psychotherapeutic processes].

    PubMed

    Niedecken, D

    1991-02-01

    In presenting the case of a 12-15 year old boy with severe learning difficulties and antisocial tendencies the author reflects upon the process of musical enculturation in music therapy. The deployment of symbolical meaning through the therapeutic use of sound and music is described - from music as a self object up to the point where music is fully acknowledged as a cultural object. It is shown, how this process goes with the unfolding and working through of the transference relationship.

  10. Personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students: a survey of AMTA program coordinators.

    PubMed

    Gardstrom, Susan C; Jackson, Nancy A

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to gather information in order to understand if and how various modalities of personal therapy are employed with undergraduate music therapy students in the United States. AMTA degree program coordinators were asked about 3 therapy modalities, in particular: verbal therapy, music therapy, and expressive arts therapy (excluding music therapy). It was predicted that less than a quarter of the respondents would indicate that personal therapy of any modality was required in their undergraduate curricula, but that a larger percentage would indicate that it was encouraged. Both hypotheses were supported, with just over 14% of the respondents indicating that they require some form of personal therapy and 32% indicating that they encourage it, with 73% of this latter subgroup encouraging verbal therapy and 46% encouraging music therapy. It was further predicted that, when therapy was required or encouraged, it was most often provided by an individual who was associated with the college/university and that therapy was usually provided in a group format. Respondent comments related to these 2 questions revealed considerable confusion between experiential exercises and personal therapy, leading to dubious validity of some of the numerical data. Qualitative treatment of narrative responses illuminated 4 salient issues regarding personal therapy for undergraduate music therapy students, as follows: (a) the legal and ethical feasibility of making personal therapy a requirement; (b) the cost and availability of qualified professionals; (c) the benefits of personal therapy as an integral facet of undergraduate music therapy training and education; and (d) the appropriateness of personal therapy at the undergraduate level of training.

  11. Making music, making friends: Long-term music therapy with young adults with severe learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; O'Neil, Nicky; Powell, Harriet; Jones, Oonagh; Sampathianaki, Ergina

    2014-03-01

    This collaborative practitioner research study emerged from music therapists' concerns about the value of improvisational, music-centred music therapy for young adults with severe learning disabilities (SLDs), given the long-term nature of such work. Concerns included the relevance, in this context, of formulating, and reporting on, therapeutic aims, development, change; and working in 'goal-oriented' way. Focus groups with the young adults' families and a range of professionals suggest that, rather than leading to developmental change, long-term shared therapeutic musicking provides young adults with ongoing opportunities for experiencing confidence and self-esteem, with feelings of shared acceptance and success, and also provides young adults and their families with opportunities for developing and sustaining friendships. In addition, families experienced meeting other parents and carers in the communal reception area as supportive and countering their isolation. Focus groups assigned intrapersonal, relational and social values to long-term music therapy for young adults with SLDs.

  12. Music therapy assessment in school settings: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B L; Smith, D S

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in response to music therapists working in school settings for information relating to the availability of music therapy assessments and the feasibility of standardizing an assessment instrument for music therapists to use in school settings. Five research questions were identified, and the music therapy literature was surveyed to compile responses to those questions. Three different online data bases (ERIC, PsycINFO, and Article 1st) were used, covering articles published between 1980 and 1997. Individual hand searches were done of the Arts in Psychotherapy, Journal of Music Therapy, Journal of Research in Music Education, Journal of the International Association of Music for the Handicapped, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. The questions and responses were as follows: 1. Which music-based assessment tools are being used with children with disabilities? Little commonality in assessment tools being used by music therapists and researchers was discovered. Of the total 41 studies, 20 (49%) reported using a "named" or "titled" assessment tool, and in the remaining 51% of studies, the authors reported using an untitled, and usually experimenter-designed, original assessment tool. 2. Have certain assessments been used in more than one study? Very limited replication of existing assessments was found. Of the 16 "named" assessments, only 3 were found to be used in more than one research study. 3. Are the actual assessments published along with the articles describing their use? Only 3 of the 20 studies using named assessments were published along with the journal article. Of the remaining 21 studies using original, experimenter-designed assessment tools, only 6 (28%) had the assessment instrument published with the article. 4. What is the primary purpose for using the assessment? Six primary purposes emerged from the review of the literature: to compare with data obtained from other assessment measures or from other

  13. Bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Grocke, Denise; McFerran, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child. In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 bereaved parents who were recruited through a community-based palliative care program. The parent participants' experiences varied as their children who received music therapy ranged in ages from 5 months to 12 years old. The interview transcripts were analyzed using phenomenological strategies. Five global themes emerged from the analysis. These included (a) music therapy was valued as a means of altering the child's and family's perception of their situation in the midst of adversity, (b) music therapy was a significant component of remembrance, (c) music therapy was a multifaceted experience for the child and family, (d) music therapy enhanced communication and expression, and (e) parents shared perceptions of and recommendations for improving music therapy services. These emergent themes yield knowledge into the relevance of music therapy within pediatric palliative care.

  14. [Music therapy induced alternations in natural killer cell count and function].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Kubota, N; Inagaki, T; Shinagawa, N

    2001-03-01

    The effects of music therapy on natural killer (NK) cell count and activity (NKCA) were studied in 19 persons. Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovessel disease and Parkinson's disease subjects were assigned to a music therapy. Blood samples were drawn at rest and after completion of music therapy. Music therapy did not change the number of circulating lymphocytes. The percentage of NK cells increased during music therapy, along with an increase in the NK cell activity. The proportion of T cells, CD4 and CD8 did not change significantly during music therapy. One hour after the music therapy session, plasma adrenaline increased but cortisol and noradrenalin did not change. The results indicate that music therapy can significantly increase NK cell count and activity. The change in NK cell and function were independent of neuro-degenerative diseases.

  15. Alzheimer's disease: rhythm, timing and music as therapy.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, D

    1994-01-01

    Active music-making provides a form of therapy for the Alzheimer's patient which may stimulate cognitive activities such that areas subject to progressive failure are maintained. Anecdotal evidence suggests that quality of life of Alzheimer's patients is significantly improved with music therapy, accompanied by the overall social benefits of acceptance and sense of belonging gained by communicating with others. Music therapy, when based on clear treatment objectives can reduce the individual prescription of tranquilizing medication, reduce the use of hypnotics and help overall goals of rehabilitation. Mood improvement and self-expression, the stimulation of speech and organisation of mental processes; and sensory stimulation and motor integration are promoted. Given that the rate of deterioration in Alzheimer's disease is not predictable, a series of single case experimental designs would generate valuable empirical data concerning treatment outcome and promote basic research into the timing functions required for the co-ordination of cognition, physiology, motor ability and the integrity of behaviour.

  16. [Psychofonia--a neurophysiologic music therapy in migraine].

    PubMed

    Meister, M; Einsle, R; Brunner, J; Rhyner, K

    1999-05-20

    Migraine and other functional disorders are common and often difficult to treat. Alternative treatment modalities are clearly warranted and gain more widespread acceptance. Psychofonia is a new form of music therapy for treating migraine patients. For each patient an individualized sound pattern is created based on his individual EEG by using computer technology. In a cohort study we investigated prospectively 55 migraine patients treated with this EEG-based music therapy. 56% of the patients showed an improvement of at least 50% of their symptoms after a twelve months treatment period. Our results suggest that this form of music therapy is effective in treating migraine patients and should be studied in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

  17. Treating addiction with tunes: a systematic review of music therapy for the treatment of patients with addictions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Kara L; Clark, David L; Gordon, Adam J

    2008-01-01

    Music therapy is the use of musical interventions in a therapeutic setting to accomplish health-related goals. Descriptions of music therapy exist in the peer-reviewed literature and indicate potential use of music therapy in treatment of patients with addiction disorders. This systematic review describes and compares the types of music therapy demonstrated in the literature and evaluates the evidence that music therapy improves outcomes of patients with addictions. A search and critical review of all the existing published literature on music therapy for the treatment of addictions was conducted using online databases and secondary search strategies. Few studies quantitatively assess the use of music therapy in the treatment of patients with addictions. Music listening provided by music therapists is commonly studied. Music therapy sessions reported were additive, not independent, treatment modalities. In the literature, no consensus exists regarding of the efficacy of music therapy as treatment for patients with addictions. PMID:19042198

  18. Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Preloss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…

  19. Effects of Music Therapy for Children and Adolescents with Psychopathology: A Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Christian; Voracek, Martin; Wigram, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this review were to examine the overall efficacy of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology, and to examine how the size of the effect of music therapy is influenced by the type of pathology, client's age, music therapy approach, and type of outcome. Method: Eleven studies were included for…

  20. Music Therapy as a Caring Intervention: Swedish Musicians Learning a New Professional Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The question of competence in providing music therapy has rarely been the focus of interest in empirical research, as most music therapy research aims at measuring outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse and describe musicians' learning processes when they study music therapy as a caring intervention. An initial presumption is…

  1. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: the role of therapeutic techniques.

    PubMed

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N=75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed.

  2. Predictors of change in music therapy with children and adolescents: the role of therapeutic techniques.

    PubMed

    Gold, Christian; Wigram, Tony; Voracek, Martin

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy has been shown to be efficacious in experimental studies. However, there is little empirical research knowledge about what elements of music therapy influence its effectiveness in clinical practice. Children and adolescents with psychopathology (N=75) were assessed before and after participating in individual music therapy with 1 out of 15 music therapists in the Vienna region. Relationships between outcomes (as evaluated by parents) and therapy contents (as reported by therapists) were examined using general linear modelling. Results indicated that clients' symptoms and burdens on their social environment showed greater improvement when music therapy was limited to discipline-specific music therapy techniques and did not include other media such as play therapy elements. The findings indicate the importance of being aware of a therapy method's specific strengths and limitations. More research on the indicated specific ingredients of music therapy intervention is needed. PMID:17535546

  3. Songs composed for use in music therapy: a survey of original songwriting practices of music therapists.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    While researchers have documented the efficacy of clinical songwriting in music therapy, limited research has been conducted on songs composed by music therapists that address clinical goals. The purpose of this research was to examine the original songwriting practices of music therapists. Professional music therapists (N = 1,364) received a 14-question survey via email asking each to identify client populations and clinical goals addressed by original songs, their length of time in clinical practice, and specifics about their acquisition of songwriting skills. The data collected from 302 completed surveys revealed that respondents who used original songs were most likely to work with children and adolescents in schools or the developmental disability field and wrote songs in order to individualize treatment. Music therapists working with persons over 65 years of age in long term care or assisted living programs were the least likely to use original songs in clinical practice, opting for interventions utilizing the client's familiar music. Most music therapists found songwriting generally easy, but only 37% indicated that they acquired this skill during their undergraduate degree. Additional research on the clinical efficacy of original songs and therapist's compositional processes is needed to identify best practices models for strategic songwriting.

  4. Music therapy in the 19th century America.

    PubMed

    Davis, W B

    1987-01-01

    The history of music therapy in the United States has not been thoroughly investigated and documented. The few sources containing information on the historical uses of music in medicine concentrate primarily on 20th century practices, while virtually omitting 19th century contributions to the field. The purpose of this study was to analyze elected music therapy literature that appeared in 19th century medical journals and dissertations. The articles found in these publications indicated interest during this time in advocating the use of music to provide the patient an alternate, more holistic approach to treatment. The dissemination of music therapy ideas occurred almost exclusively through these publications, which unfortunately resulted in very limited proliferation of the topic because of the nature of the audience (i.e.,primarily physicians). Nine articles were analyzed; the study was based on primary evidence located in medical journals and dissertations written between 1804 and 1899. The sources were located in a variety of bibliographies found in books, journals, dissertations, and theses.

  5. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico

    2015-03-22

    Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson's Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients. PMID:25815256

  6. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients

    PubMed Central

    Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson’s Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients. PMID:25815256

  7. Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Attardo, Lapo; Gontero, Giulia; Rollino, Silvia; Groppo, Elisabetta; Granieri, Enrico

    2015-03-22

    Mood disorder and depressive syndromes represent a common comorbid condition in neurological disorders with a prevalence rate that ranges between 20% and 50% of patients with stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Notwithstanding, these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in the clinical practice and negatively affect the functional recovery, the adherence to treatment, the quality of life, and even the mortality risk. In addition, a bidirectional association between depression and neurological disorders may be possible being that depressive syndromes may be considered as a risk factor for certain neurological diseases. Despite the large amount of evidence regarding the effects of music therapy (MT) and other musical interventions on different aspects of neurological disorders, no updated article reviewing outcomes such as mood, emotions, depression, activity of daily living and so on is actually available; for this reason, little is known about the effectiveness of music and MT on these important outcomes in neurological patients. The aim of this article is to provide a narrative review of the current literature on musical interventions and their effects on mood and depression in patients with neurological disorders. Searching on PubMed and PsycInfo databases, 25 studies corresponding to the inclusion criteria have been selected; 11 of them assess the effects of music or MT in Dementia, 9 explore the efficacy on patients with Stroke, and 5 regard other neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/motor neuron disease, Chronic quadriplegia, Parkinson's Disease, and Acquired Brain dysfunctions. Selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative music therapy approaches or concern music listening interventions. Most of the studies support the efficacy of MT and other musical interventions on mood, depressive syndromes, and quality of life on neurological patients.

  8. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  9. An Enlightenment proposal for music therapy: Richard Brocklesby on music, spirit, and the passions.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In 1749, the London physician Richard Brocklesby (1722-1797) published his Reflections on Antient [sic] and Modern Musick, an essay that not only sought to compare these practices in terms of their effects, but also to gather evidence supporting the use of music in treating mania and other mental diseases. As might be expected, Brocklesby's discussion of music therapy has already received attention by authors looking back to the origins of this practice, not least because he offers an account of a successful musical cure that took place in his own time (Rorke, 2001). My chapter, however, seeks to broaden the discussion of the Reflections, in order to show how Brocklesby's projected musical cures fit into his larger worldview, one that was influenced as much by Plato and other ancient philosophers as it was by modern thinkers such as Isaac Newton and his followers. Brocklesby's argument was essentially that music acted as a link between the mind and body and therefore could restore their intrinsic harmony, a connection that was mediated by the animal spirits, which also served as the vehicle of the passions. The movements and proportions of music could arouse or quell the passions by their effect on these (imaginary) spirits, which flowed through the nerves and brain and acted as the agent for the mind or soul. I show how his account of music in antiquity led him to reflect on the way that music was perceived and responded to in his own time, both as a stimulus to mental and bodily action, and as a source of esthetic pleasure through the cultivation of musical taste.

  10. An Enlightenment proposal for music therapy: Richard Brocklesby on music, spirit, and the passions.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    In 1749, the London physician Richard Brocklesby (1722-1797) published his Reflections on Antient [sic] and Modern Musick, an essay that not only sought to compare these practices in terms of their effects, but also to gather evidence supporting the use of music in treating mania and other mental diseases. As might be expected, Brocklesby's discussion of music therapy has already received attention by authors looking back to the origins of this practice, not least because he offers an account of a successful musical cure that took place in his own time (Rorke, 2001). My chapter, however, seeks to broaden the discussion of the Reflections, in order to show how Brocklesby's projected musical cures fit into his larger worldview, one that was influenced as much by Plato and other ancient philosophers as it was by modern thinkers such as Isaac Newton and his followers. Brocklesby's argument was essentially that music acted as a link between the mind and body and therefore could restore their intrinsic harmony, a connection that was mediated by the animal spirits, which also served as the vehicle of the passions. The movements and proportions of music could arouse or quell the passions by their effect on these (imaginary) spirits, which flowed through the nerves and brain and acted as the agent for the mind or soul. I show how his account of music in antiquity led him to reflect on the way that music was perceived and responded to in his own time, both as a stimulus to mental and bodily action, and as a source of esthetic pleasure through the cultivation of musical taste. PMID:25725915

  11. The impact of music therapy on language functioning in dementia.

    PubMed

    Brotons, M; Koger, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease, include a progressive deterioration of language functioning. While some researchers have reported an increase in patients' self-expression following music therapy, it is not clear whether these changes specifically reflect improved language skills or whether simple interpersonal interaction with a therapist could account for the improvement. In this study, the effects of music therapy were compared to conversational sessions on language functioning in dementia patients. Participants were selected according to the following criteria: (a) residing in a facility specializing in Alzheimer's and related disorders; (b) possessing sufficient verbal ability to answer simple questions and to comply with requests to speak, participate, or sit down; and (c) attaining the written consent of the patient's guardian or representative. All participants had been in music therapy twice per week for at least 3 months prior to the study onset. One week prior to the beginning of the study, subjects were assessed for cognitive functioning using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and language ability via the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). A within-subjects design was used, with order of condition (music or group conversation first) counter-balanced between participants. Subjects participated in groups of 2 to 4, twice per week for 20-30 minutes for a total of 8 sessions (4 music therapy and 4 conversation sessions or vice-versa), and were re-tested on the WAB at the end of each 2 week (4 session) interval. Results from 20 participants revealed that music therapy significantly improved performance on both speech content and fluency dimensions of the spontaneous speech subscale of the WAB (p =.01). While the difference in overall Aphasia Quotient (AQ) for music and conversation sessions (mean AQ = 76 vs. 70, respectively) did not reach statistical significance, data were only available for 10 participants (5 per condition). Hopefully, these

  12. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    PubMed

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings.

  13. The 'ripple effect': Towards researching improvisational music therapy in dementia care homes.

    PubMed

    Pavlicevic, Mercédès; Tsiris, Giorgos; Wood, Stuart; Powell, Harriet; Graham, Janet; Sanderson, Richard; Millman, Rachel; Gibson, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Increased interest in, and demand for, music therapy provision for persons with dementia prompted this study's exploration of music therapists' strategies for creating musical communities in dementia care settings, considering the needs and resources of people affected by dementia. Focus group discussions and detailed iterative study of improvisational music therapy work by six experienced practitioners clarify the contextual immediacy and socio-musical complexities of music therapy in dementia care homes. Music therapy's 'ripple effect', with resonances from micro (person-to-person musicking), to meso (musicking beyond 'session time') and macro level (within the care home and beyond), implies that all who are part of the dementia care ecology need opportunities for flourishing, shared participation, and for expanded self-identities; beyond 'staff', 'residents', or 'being in distress'. On such basis, managers and funders might consider an extended brief for music therapists' roles, to include generating and maintaining musical wellbeing throughout residential care settings. PMID:24381215

  14. Exploring Marriage and Family Therapy Supervisees' Perspectives about Postgraduate Supervision and the Acquisition of Core Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    The topic of core competencies has been a central focus in the marriage and family therapy field since 2003. There are currently no published studies from the supervisees' perspective about the role of supervision in the acquisition of core competencies. This qualitative study used transcendental phenomenology to explore supervisees' perspectives…

  15. Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice Ann, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of "Introduction to Approaches in Music Therapy" includes a new introductory chapter that addresses historical perspectives on the approaches, a rationale for the categorization of approaches, and discussion on professional issues related to the use of these approaches. Each of the chapters addressing approaches includes updated…

  16. Use of Music Activities in Speech-Language Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Mary B.

    1991-01-01

    Music activities for use in public school speech-language therapy are described in theory and practice. Client, space and implementation considerations are discussed, as are uses of songs and more specific applications such as exercises for relaxation, body image, breathing, vocalization, articulation, and vocabulary/concept development.…

  17. A Model Plan for the Supervision and Evaluation of Therapy Services in Educational Settings. TIES: Therapy in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Penny; And Others

    The manual serves as a model for school districts developing procedures for supervising and evaluating their therapy services. The narrative is addressed to therapists rather than supervisors so that school districts can photocopy or adapt sections of the manual and assemble customized manuals for therapists in their programs. The first chapter,…

  18. The development of an innovative music therapy treatment method: trial competency through music.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Competence to stand trial is necessary for a defendant in criminal adjudication. Recent estimates indicate that between 50,000 and 60,000 defendants in the United States raise the question of competence each year, with approximately 20 percent found incompetent to stand trial (IST). Most of these defendants are committed to an inpatient facility for competence restoration. Although psychopharmacological intervention is a critical component of restoration, as most defendants are found incompetent because of a psychotic disorder, many other modalities of treatment are used. Traditional treatment methods include the use of standardized testing and psychoeducational group sessions. This article discusses the development of an innovative intervention using music therapy. Music as the catalyst provides a forum in which psychiatric patients are engaged and observed within a structured environment designed to address both their factual and rational knowledge and abilities to assist their attorneys in their defense. Trial competency training through a specific music therapy method called Competency Through Music (CTM) is presented, including examples of how music can be used to educate patients and assess trial competence.

  19. The development of an innovative music therapy treatment method: trial competency through music.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Competence to stand trial is necessary for a defendant in criminal adjudication. Recent estimates indicate that between 50,000 and 60,000 defendants in the United States raise the question of competence each year, with approximately 20 percent found incompetent to stand trial (IST). Most of these defendants are committed to an inpatient facility for competence restoration. Although psychopharmacological intervention is a critical component of restoration, as most defendants are found incompetent because of a psychotic disorder, many other modalities of treatment are used. Traditional treatment methods include the use of standardized testing and psychoeducational group sessions. This article discusses the development of an innovative intervention using music therapy. Music as the catalyst provides a forum in which psychiatric patients are engaged and observed within a structured environment designed to address both their factual and rational knowledge and abilities to assist their attorneys in their defense. Trial competency training through a specific music therapy method called Competency Through Music (CTM) is presented, including examples of how music can be used to educate patients and assess trial competence. PMID:25187289

  20. AMTA Monograph Series. Effective Clinical Practice in Music Therapy: Music Therapy for Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Barbara, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Whether new to the profession or an experienced clinician, this text provides a wealth of state-of-the-art information for undergraduates, graduates and professionals. This volume covers the wide range of mental disorder diagnoses and addresses specific populations such as forensic and drug and alcohol rehabilitation. How music therapy is used…

  1. A Standardised Method for Investigating Learning in Music Therapy. Occasional Paper Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Dianne; Athanasou, James A.

    This paper outlines a method for professional assessment of music therapy students' learning and recall. The purpose of the assessment is to examine the Model of Domain Learning (P. Alexander, 1997) within an Australian context and to provide a professional assessment for application within music therapy education. Despite the music therapy…

  2. Music Therapy in Schools: Working with Children of All Ages in Mainstream and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Jo, Ed.; Derrington, Philippa, Ed.; Oldfield, Amelia, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of music therapy work with children takes place in schools. This book documents the wealth and diversity of work that music therapists are doing in educational settings across the UK. It shows how, in recent years, music therapy has changed and grown as a profession, and it provides an insight into the trends that are emerging in this…

  3. Small Waterfalls in Art Therapy Supervision: A Poetic Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Rachel; Chilton, Gioia

    2012-01-01

    This viewpoint presents aesthetic writing and reflection on the art therapy supervisor and supervisee dyad from a practice of appreciative inquiry. Through writing and exchanging poems, the authors sought to uncover the dynamics of the supervisory relationship that contributed to a positive learning experience. Poetry as inquiry provoked new…

  4. Performing Theory: Playing in the Music Therapy Discourse.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Performative writing is an art form that seeks to enliven our discourse by including the senses as a primary source of information processing. Through performative writing, one is seduced into engaging with the aesthetic. My art is music. My craft is Music Therapy. My theme is performing theory. Listen to the sound and silence of words, phrases, punctuation, syllables, format. My muses? I thank D. Soyini Madison, Ron Pelias, Philip Glass, Elliot Eisner, and Tom Barone for inspiration, and my teachers/Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers who embraced the long tradition of oral transmission of knowledge and the healing power of sound. Stay, stay in the presence of the aesthetic. PMID:26681799

  5. Performing Theory: Playing in the Music Therapy Discourse.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Performative writing is an art form that seeks to enliven our discourse by including the senses as a primary source of information processing. Through performative writing, one is seduced into engaging with the aesthetic. My art is music. My craft is Music Therapy. My theme is performing theory. Listen to the sound and silence of words, phrases, punctuation, syllables, format. My muses? I thank D. Soyini Madison, Ron Pelias, Philip Glass, Elliot Eisner, and Tom Barone for inspiration, and my teachers/Indigenous Elders and knowledge keepers who embraced the long tradition of oral transmission of knowledge and the healing power of sound. Stay, stay in the presence of the aesthetic.

  6. Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10) employed a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions, and DVD analysis of sessions. Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of 'joy', 'emotional synchronicity' and 'initiation of engagement' behaviours in the children than toy play sessions. In response to the therapist's interpersonal demands, 'compliant (positive) responses' were observed more in music therapy than in toy play sessions, and 'no responses' were twice as frequent in toy play sessions as in music therapy. The results of this exploratory study found significant evidence supporting the value of music therapy in promoting social, emotional and motivational development in children with autism. PMID:19535468

  7. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy.

  8. Effects of Active Versus Passive Group Music Therapy on Preadolescents with Emotional, Learning, and Behavioral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Montello; Coons

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to compare the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs. those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. It was hypothesized that preadolescents who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among subjects in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Twelve music therapy sessions were conducted over a 4-month period with three different groups of subjects (n = 16), with two groups participating in active music therapy and the other receiving passive music therapy. Results indicate that subjects improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in subjects was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of serf-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Discussion of results also includes recommendations for chousing one music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of subjects.

  9. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group. PMID:25730407

  10. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group.

  11. [Benefits of music therapy as therapy no pharmacology and rehabilitation moderate dementia].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Palomares, María; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-López-Arza, María Victoria; Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Trinidad; Prieto-Tato, Marta

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth review is presented the possible benefits of music therapy in relation to the cognitive and/or behavioural level of elderly patients with dementia. We have carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, case-control and pilot studies published from January 2000 to January 2012 using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Dialnet and CSIC. We focused on comparison of music therapy as non-pharmacological therapy, in patients over 65 years of age with moderate dementia, with regular therapeutic and occupational treatment. Ten articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the results suggest that music Therapy influences the elderly people with dementia in a positive way by improving levels of behavioural and cognitive functioning and social participation. PMID:24053988

  12. [Benefits of music therapy as therapy no pharmacology and rehabilitation moderate dementia].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Palomares, María; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-López-Arza, María Victoria; Rodríguez-Domínguez, María Trinidad; Prieto-Tato, Marta

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth review is presented the possible benefits of music therapy in relation to the cognitive and/or behavioural level of elderly patients with dementia. We have carried out a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, case-control and pilot studies published from January 2000 to January 2012 using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Dialnet and CSIC. We focused on comparison of music therapy as non-pharmacological therapy, in patients over 65 years of age with moderate dementia, with regular therapeutic and occupational treatment. Ten articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The analysis of the results suggest that music Therapy influences the elderly people with dementia in a positive way by improving levels of behavioural and cognitive functioning and social participation.

  13. Supervision, monitoring and evaluation of nationwide scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Libamba, Edwin; Makombe, Simon; Mhango, Eustice; de Ascurra Teck, Olga; Limbambala, Eddie; Schouten, Erik J.; Harries, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the supervision, monitoring and evaluation strategies used to assess the delivery of antiretroviral therapy during nationwide scale-up of treatment in Malawi. METHODS: In the first quarter of 2005, the HIV Unit of the Ministry of Health and its partners (the Lighthouse Clinic; Médecins Sans Frontières-Belgium, Thyolo district; and WHO's Country Office) undertook structured supervision and monitoring of all public sector health facilities in Malawi delivering antiretroviral therapy. FINDINGS: Data monitoring showed that by the end of 2004, there were 13,183 patients (5274 (40%) male, 12 527 (95%) adults) who had ever started antiretroviral therapy. Of patients who had ever started, 82% (10 761/13,183) were alive and taking antiretrovirals; 8% (1026/13,183) were dead; 8% (1039/13,183) had been lost to follow up; <1% (106/13,183) had stopped treatment; and 2% (251/13,183) had transferred to another facility. Of those alive and on antiretrovirals, 98% (7098/7258) were ambulatory; 85% (6174/7258) were fit to work; 10% (456/4687) had significant side effects; and, based on pill counts, 96% (6824/7114) had taken their treatment correctly. Mistakes in the registration and monitoring of patients were identified and corrected. Drug stocks were checked, and one potential drug stock-out was averted. As a result of the supervisory visits, by the end of March 2005 recruitment of patients to facilities scheduled to start delivering antiretroviral therapy had increased. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates the importance of early supervision for sites that are starting to deliver antiretroviral therapy, and it shows the value of combining data collection with supervision. Making regular supervisory and monitoring visits to delivery sites are essential for tracking the national scale-up of delivery of antiretrovirals. PMID:16628306

  14. [Life paths and motifs. Meeting points of hypnotherapy and music therapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, P József

    2013-01-01

    Effects both of hypnotherapy and music therapy are originated from an attunement as supposed by the author. Either to a hypnotherapist's suggestions or to a piece of music one is able to be tuned in them. On one hand, the hypnotherapist's prosody, which can be called as melodic declamation seen as a musical phenomenon transmitting emotions. On the other hand, music has got emotional and visceral impacts. As a meeting points of these two methods four possibilities are shown by the author: 1. musical analogies of vitality affects ; 2. paternal and maternal archetypes in music; 3. analogies of copings in music; 4. corrections of psychological deficits by virtue of hypno- and music therapy with parallel used energy healing method. Finally, the author suggests, that hypnosis is regarded as an inductive method expressing its effect from outside to inside; music, however is likely to be employed as a deductive therapeutic tool, effecting from inside to outside. PMID:24142295

  15. Thematic Analysis of the Experience of Group Music Therapy for People with Chronic Quadriplegia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Felicity A.; Grocke, Denise; Berlowitz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People living with quadriplegia are at risk for social isolation and depression. Research with other marginalized groups has indicated that music therapy can have a positive effect on mood and social interaction. Objective: To gather descriptions of participants’ experience of 2 types of group music therapy – therapeutic singing or music appreciation and relaxation – and to determine commonalities and differences between participants’ experience of these 2 methods. Methods: We interviewed 20 people with quadriplegia about their experience of participating in 12 weeks of therapeutic singing (n = 10) or music appreciation and relaxation (n = 10). These methods of group music therapy were the interventions tested in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. The interview data were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were generated from the interview data. Four of these were shared themes and indicated that both types of group music therapy had a positive effect on mood/mental state and physical state, encouraged social engagement, and reconnected participants with their music identity or relationship with music. In addition, the participants who participated in the singing groups found singing to be challenging and confronting, but experienced a general increase in motivation. Conclusions: Group music therapy was experienced as an enjoyable and accessible activity that reconnected participants with their own music. Participants frequently described positive shifts in mood and energy levels, and social interaction was stimulated both within and beyond the music therapy groups. PMID:25484569

  16. "Letting Go": An Auto-Ethnography of Higher Degree Supervision in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines my role as supervisor of research higher degree music students. Within this dyad, the pedagogical design has centred on conventional delivery, conceptualized in terms of the time-honoured top-down, supervisor-candidate interaction rather than exploration of a co-mentoring collaboration. Many doctoral candidates in music…

  17. The immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on probe reaction time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Songhuai

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on Probe Reaction Time. [Subjects and Methods] Probe Reaction Time was determined in 10 subjects by self-evaluation before and after music therapy intervention. The Probe Reaction Time was separately measured 4 times. [Results] After completion of music therapy intervention, the Probe Reaction Time in the 10 subjects was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that keyboard-based music therapy is an effective and novel treatment, and should be applied in clinical practice.

  18. The immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on probe reaction time.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Songhuai

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on Probe Reaction Time. [Subjects and Methods] Probe Reaction Time was determined in 10 subjects by self-evaluation before and after music therapy intervention. The Probe Reaction Time was separately measured 4 times. [Results] After completion of music therapy intervention, the Probe Reaction Time in the 10 subjects was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that keyboard-based music therapy is an effective and novel treatment, and should be applied in clinical practice. PMID:27512274

  19. Efficacy of Music Therapy in Treatment for the Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, H.; Arai, A.; Toyoshima, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report that music therapy is effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We found that the secretion of 17β-estradiol and testosterone, hormones that are supposed to have preventive effects on Alzheimer's disease, is significantly increased by music therapy. During the sessions, patients with Alzheimer's disease were allowed to listen to music and songs with verbal contact from the therapist. It was found that problematic behaviors such as poriomania (fugue) had decreased. Music therapy has the potential as an alternative treatment for adverse hormone replacement therapy. PMID:23056992

  20. Efficacy of music therapy in treatment for the patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fukui, H; Arai, A; Toyoshima, K

    2012-01-01

    We report that music therapy is effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We found that the secretion of 17β-estradiol and testosterone, hormones that are supposed to have preventive effects on Alzheimer's disease, is significantly increased by music therapy. During the sessions, patients with Alzheimer's disease were allowed to listen to music and songs with verbal contact from the therapist. It was found that problematic behaviors such as poriomania (fugue) had decreased. Music therapy has the potential as an alternative treatment for adverse hormone replacement therapy. PMID:23056992

  1. The immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on probe reaction time

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Songhuai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the immediate effects of keyboard-based music therapy on Probe Reaction Time. [Subjects and Methods] Probe Reaction Time was determined in 10 subjects by self-evaluation before and after music therapy intervention. The Probe Reaction Time was separately measured 4 times. [Results] After completion of music therapy intervention, the Probe Reaction Time in the 10 subjects was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that keyboard-based music therapy is an effective and novel treatment, and should be applied in clinical practice. PMID:27512274

  2. Pre-Professional Arts Based Service-Learning in Music Education and Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feen-Calligan, Holly; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study of art therapy and music education students at a Midwestern university in the United States, who participated in single-semester service-learning assignments prior to their clinical internship or student teaching experience. Undergraduate music teacher-candidates taught music to homeschool students; art therapy…

  3. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    PubMed

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?

  4. Auditory-Verbal Music Play Therapy: An Integrated Approach (AVMPT)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, Sahar; Sharifi, Shahla; Tayarani Niknezhad, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with one or more parts of the ear or ears and causes children to have a delay in the language-learning process. Hearing loss affects children's lives and their development. Several approaches have been developed over recent decades to help hearing-impaired children develop language skills. Auditory-verbal therapy (AVT) is one such approach. Recently, researchers have found that music and play have a considerable effect on the communication skills of children, leading to the development of music therapy (MT) and play therapy (PT). There have been several studies which focus on the impact of music on hearing-impaired children. The aim of this article is to review studies conducted in AVT, MT, and PT and their efficacy in hearing-impaired children. Furthermore, the authors aim to introduce an integrated approach of AVT, MT, and PT which facilitates language and communication skills in hearing-impaired children. Materials and Methods: In this article we review studies of AVT, MT, and PT and their impact on hearing-impaired children. To achieve this goal, we searched databases and journals including Elsevier, Chor Teach, and Military Psychology, for example. We also used reliable websites such as American Choral Directors Association and Joint Committee on Infant Hearing websites. The websites were reviewed and key words in this article used to find appropriate references. Those articles which are related to ours in content were selected. Conclusion: VT, MT, and PT enhance children’s communication and language skills from an early age. Each method has a meaningful impact on hearing loss, so by integrating them we have a comprehensive method in order to facilitate communication and language learning. To achieve this goal, the article offers methods and techniques to perform AVT and MT integrated with PT leading to an approach which offers all advantages of these three types of therapy. PMID:24303441

  5. Pre-internship Fears of Music Therapists.

    PubMed

    Madsen; Kaiser

    1999-01-01

    This study examined pre-internship fears of music therapy majors. Additional analysis included comparison of pre-internship fears of music therapy majors with pre-internship fears of music education majors. Subjects for this study were music therapy/music education majors at a large southeastern university (N = 61; N = 32) who were surveyed during the year prior to their internship. Utilizing identical procedures, each subject was asked to list the 3 greatest fears that they had concerning their internship. Two independent evaluators then classified the perceived fears based on a taxonomic structure developed during the initial study on pre-internship fears of music education majors. Reliability for the classification of pre-internship music therapy fears was.97. Ranking reported fears revealed a hierarchy of pre-internship fears and provided comparisons between the two populations. Analysis of data indicated that the music therapy interns listed "general preparation/being prepared" as their primary fear followed by issues relating to "failure/not cut out for therapy." The next most frequently noted fears related to concerns about "internship placement" and concerns about the "physical environment" (money, moving, housing, etc.). Music therapy subject responses were also examined in relationship to the responses of music education subjects. Subject responses revealed a very low fear concerning "discipline" for the music therapy majors, yet this category was the highest listed by the music education seniors. "Failure/not being cut out for teaching/therapy" was expressed as a concern with the next highest frequency by the education majors and was rated quite high by the therapy majors. Fears about the "physical environment including money, moving, etc." were quite high for the music therapy majors, yet these fears received very low ratings by the music education students. In addition, fears related to the "supervising teacher/placement" and "students not learning

  6. Ideas, initiative, and implementations: music therapy in America, 1789-1848.

    PubMed

    Heller, G N

    1987-01-01

    This study is a history of early principles and practices of music therapy in the United States. The evidence suggests that the public press introduced the idea of using music as an adjunct to medicine in the late 18th century. This was followed by scholarly tracts written by medical students at the University of Pennsylvania in support of music therapy. The era concluded with implementation of organized musical activities in institutions for visually-handicapped and hearing-impaired students and renewed advocacy of music therapy. Primary sources for the study include articles and dissertations from the era and contemporaneous accounts and reports. The study concludes that music therapy grew at a slow but steady pace and that the profession developed on an apparently secure foundation. PMID:10301541

  7. Effects of music therapy on change readiness and craving in patients on a detoxification unit.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a "rockumentary" music therapy intervention on readiness to change and craving in patients on a detoxification unit utilizing psychometric instruments in a randomized three-group design. Participants (N = 141) were randomized by group to a rockumentary music therapy intervention, verbal therapy, or recreational music therapy condition. All interventions were scripted and manualized in a posttest only design. Concerning readiness to change, results indicated there were significant between-group differences in Contemplation and Action subscales, with participants in the rockumentary and recreational music therapy conditions having higher means than participants in the verbal therapy condition. There were no differences between the two music therapy conditions concerning readiness to change variables. Although not significant, participants in both music therapy conditions tended to have lower mean craving scores than participants in the verbal therapy condition. Concerning Likert-type ratings of motivation to change, perception of helpfulness, and perception of enjoyment, participants in both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean scores than participants in the verbal therapy conditions. Participants' posttest written comments were positive, regardless of condition. Limitations of the study, suggestions for the future inquiry, and implications for clinical practice are provided.

  8. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to

  9. Value and Clinical Impact of an Infectious Disease-Supervised Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Program

    PubMed Central

    Petrak, Russell M.; Skorodin, Nathan C.; Fliegelman, Robert M.; Hines, David W.; Chundi, Vishnu V.; Harting, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective modality for treating serious infections. This study was undertaken to define the value of OPAT in a multicentered infectious disease (ID) private practice setting. Methods. Over a period of 32 months, 6120 patients were treated using 19 outpatient ID offices in 6 states. Analysis included patient demographics, indications of OPAT, diagnoses, therapeutic agent, duration of therapy, and site of therapy initiation. Outcomes were stratified by therapeutic success, clinical relapse, therapeutic complications, and hospitalizations after initiating therapy. Statistical analysis included an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results. Forty-three percent of patients initiated therapy in an outpatient office, and 57% began therapy in a hospital. Most common diagnoses treated were bone and joint (32.2%), abscesses (18.8%), cellulitis (18.5%), and urinary tract infection (10.8%). Ninety-four percent of patients were successfully treated, and only 3% were hospitalized after beginning therapy. Most common cause of treatment failure was a relapse of primary infection (60%), progression of primary infection (21%), and therapeutic complication (19%). Conclusions. An ID-supervised OPAT program is safe, efficient, and clinically effective. By maximizing the delivery of outpatient care, OPAT provides a tangible value to hospitals, payers, and patients. This program is a distinctive competency available to ID physicians who offer this service to patients. PMID:27807591

  10. Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, N A; Field, T

    1999-01-01

    EEG asymmetry, specifically greater relative right frontal activation, is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy (n = 14) or music therapy (n = 16). EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions.

  11. Supervised physical therapy in women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer 1

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Nara Fernanda Braz da Silva; de Oliveira, Harley Francisco; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effect of physical therapy on the range of motion of the shoulders and perimetry of the upper limbs in women treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: a total of 35 participants were randomized into two groups, with 18 in the control group (CG) and 17 in the study group (SG). Both of the groups underwent three evaluations to assess the range of motion of the shoulders and perimetry of the upper limbs, and the study group underwent supervised physical therapy for the upper limbs. Results: the CG had deficits in external rotation in evaluations 1, 2, and 3, whereas the SG had deficits in flexion, abduction, and external rotation in evaluation 1. The deficit in abduction was recovered in evaluation 2, whereas the deficits in all movements were recovered in evaluation 3. No significant differences in perimetry were observed between the groups. Conclusion: the applied supervised physical therapy was effective in recovering the deficit in abduction after radiotherapy, and the deficits in flexion and external rotation were recovered within two months after the end of radiotherapy. Registration number of the clinical trial: NCT02198118. PMID:27533265

  12. But does it do any good? Measuring the impact of music therapy on people with advanced dementia: (Innovative practice).

    PubMed

    Gold, Karen

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the impact of music therapy upon a group of nine people with advanced dementia in a hospital setting. It demonstrates how the impact of music therapy was measured using the case notes completed by nursing and care staff and how these notes suggested that music therapy had a positive effect on the mood and behaviour on eight of the nine people receiving music therapy.

  13. But does it do any good? Measuring the impact of music therapy on people with advanced dementia: (Innovative practice).

    PubMed

    Gold, Karen

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the impact of music therapy upon a group of nine people with advanced dementia in a hospital setting. It demonstrates how the impact of music therapy was measured using the case notes completed by nursing and care staff and how these notes suggested that music therapy had a positive effect on the mood and behaviour on eight of the nine people receiving music therapy. PMID:24339096

  14. Medical Music Therapy: A Model Program for Clinical Practice, Education, Training and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph evolved from the unique, innovative partnership between the Florida State University Music Therapy Program and Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare. Its purpose is to serve as a model for music therapy educators, students, clinicians, and the hospital administrators who might employ them. This book should prove a valuable resource for…

  15. Music Therapy in the Treatment of Social Isolation in Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourgey, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the use of music therapy with visually impaired and socially isolated children. Describes ways that music therapy can help the child explore his environment, modify blindisms (stereotypic, autistic-like behaviors), and encourage social awareness and interaction with other children. (DB)

  16. Verticality and containment in song and improvisation: an application of schema theory to Nordoff-Robbins music therapy.

    PubMed

    Aigen, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of a new musicological method for analyzing music in music therapy. It examines two pieces of clinical music through the constructs of schema theory. It begins with an argument for enhanced musical analysis in music therapy as a means of elevating the status of explanation in music therapy. Schema theory is introduced as a means of integrating musical with clinical concerns. Some basic ideas in schema theory are explained and the schemas of VERTICALITY and CONTAINER are presented as central ones in the analysis of music. Two transcriptions-one of a composed song and one of an improvisation-are examined in detail to illustrate how decisions in the temporal, melodic, and harmonic dimensions of the music are linked to specific clinical goals. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of musicological analysis for explanatory theory in music therapy.

  17. Eva Between Anxiety and Hope: Integrating Anthroposophic Music Therapy in Supportive Oncology Care.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Ben-Arye, Yotam; Barak, Yael

    2015-11-30

    Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM) aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient's involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients' supportive care. PMID:26973967

  18. Eva Between Anxiety and Hope: Integrating Anthroposophic Music Therapy in Supportive Oncology Care

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Ben-Arye, Yotam; Barak, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a significant modality in the treatment of patients with cancer, who suffer emotional and spiritual distress as well as chemotherapy side effects that impair their quality of life. In this article, we present a case study of a patient challenged with recurrent ovarian cancer who received, concomitant with chemotherapy, a special form of music therapy based on anthroposophic medicine (AM) aimed at alleviating anxiety and improving her general well-being. AM-centered music therapy goals are discussed in regard to two modes of treatment: receptive listening and clinical composition. Next, these two treatment modes are discussed in a broader context by reviewing conventional music therapy interventions during chemotherapy on two axes: a. standardized vs. individualized treatment; b. patient’s involvement on a passive to active continuum. In conclusion, psycho-oncology care can be enriched by adding anthroposophic medicine-oriented music therapy integrated within patients’ supportive care. PMID:26973967

  19. Is Music Therapy an Effective Intervention for Dementia?A Meta-Analytic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Koger; Chapin; Brotons

    1999-01-01

    A recent qualitative review of literature in the area of music/ music therapy and dementias published since 1985 suggested that music/music therapy is an effective intervention for maintaining and improving active involvement, social, emotional and cognitive skills, and for decreasing behavioral problems of individuals with dementias (Brotons, Koger, & Pickett-Cooper, 1997). The present analysis sought to update and quantify this relationship, and investigate the extent to which methodological variables influenced treatment effectiveness. Twenty-one empirical studies, with a total of 336 subjects suffering from symptoms of dementia, were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the effect of music/music therapy was found to be highly significant. A homogeneity analysis determined that the effect sizes were not consistent across studies; thus, a series of moderating variable analyses were conducted. We were unable to determine the source of variability between studies by analyzing type of therapeutic intervention (active or passive), music (live or taped), therapist's training (trained music therapist vs. other professional), dependent variable (behavioral, cognitive, or social), or length of treatment. Although the published literature demonstrates that music/music therapy is an effective method overall for treating symptoms of dementia, systematic variation of treatment protocols is necessary to identify the underlying mechanisms and delineate the most effective techniques.

  20. The use of art and music therapy in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents. PMID:25514689

  1. The use of art and music therapy in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents.

  2. The Use of Art and Music Therapy in Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    PubMed Central

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M.; Bride, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    While the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs’ use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) was positively related to offering art therapy, while use of Contingency Management (CM) was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings, and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents. PMID:25514689

  3. [At-home music therapy intervention using video phone (Skype) for elderly people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Hori, Miyako; Iizuka, Mieko; Nakamura, Michikazu; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Yufuko; Kubota, Masakazu; Urabe, Mie; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2014-12-01

    There are various nonpharmacological therapies available for elderly people with dementia, and these can improve quality of life and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that appear throughout the progression of the disease. Since a substantial number of effects have been reported for music therapy, we focused on this nonpharmacological intervention. Generally, musical therapy is provided collectively in facilities. However, the music used in this context may not consider the preferences and music abilities of each person. Therefore, in this study we created made-to-order music CDs that accounted for each participant's musical preferences and abilities. Utilizing the CDs, we conducted an intervention study of music therapy using a video phone (Skype) that elderly people with dementia can use at home. An advantage of conducting music therapy for individuals with dementia using a video phone is that those who have difficulty going to the hospital or participating in dementia-related therapy groups can participate in therapy in a familiar place. The results of this intervention showed that participants demonstrated signs of improvement as measured by the smile degree(Smile scan)and Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) scale. PMID:25595076

  4. [At-home music therapy intervention using video phone (Skype) for elderly people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Hori, Miyako; Iizuka, Mieko; Nakamura, Michikazu; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Yufuko; Kubota, Masakazu; Urabe, Mie; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2014-12-01

    There are various nonpharmacological therapies available for elderly people with dementia, and these can improve quality of life and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that appear throughout the progression of the disease. Since a substantial number of effects have been reported for music therapy, we focused on this nonpharmacological intervention. Generally, musical therapy is provided collectively in facilities. However, the music used in this context may not consider the preferences and music abilities of each person. Therefore, in this study we created made-to-order music CDs that accounted for each participant's musical preferences and abilities. Utilizing the CDs, we conducted an intervention study of music therapy using a video phone (Skype) that elderly people with dementia can use at home. An advantage of conducting music therapy for individuals with dementia using a video phone is that those who have difficulty going to the hospital or participating in dementia-related therapy groups can participate in therapy in a familiar place. The results of this intervention showed that participants demonstrated signs of improvement as measured by the smile degree(Smile scan)and Behavior Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) scale.

  5. The effect of music video exposure on students' perceived clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.

  6. Long-term effects of music therapy on elderly with moderate/severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takiko; Matsushita, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Over a period of 2 years we assessed the long-term effects of group music therapy carried out once weekly on the elderly (mean age: 83 years) suffering from moderate or severe dementia by observing changes in the cortisol level in saliva and in blood pressure and by an intelligence assessment. Systolic blood pressure determined 1 and 2 years after the start of therapy increased significantly in the nonmusic therapy group compared with that in music therapy group (p < .05). Systolic blood pressure increases with aging; the systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in participants who received music therapy. No significant differences in cortisol level in saliva or intelligence assessment score were observed, but the music therapy group maintained their physical and mental states during the 2-year period better than the nonmusic therapy group. This result indicates the lasting effect of once-a-week continuous music therapy. Even the elderly with moderate or severe dementia were able to participate in the group music therapy, and results suggest that enjoying singing and playing musical instruments in a concert was effective in preventing cardiac and cerebral diseases.

  7. Effects of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement and measure the effectiveness of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients. Participants (N=133) were randomly assigned by group to one of three conditions: (a) Assertiveness Music Therapy, (b) No Music Assertiveness, or (c) Music No Assertiveness. Participants in both assertiveness conditions role played a number of different commonly occurring scenarios at an inpatient psychiatric facility and in the community. There were no significant between-group differences in posttest quality of life, locus of control, or other subscales. However, participants in both assertiveness conditions tended to have slightly higher internal locus of control and overall quality of life scores than participants in the music no assertiveness condition. Additionally, the assertiveness music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the other conditions. A higher percentage of participants from both the assertiveness music therapy and music no assertiveness conditions indicated they thought their session was the most helpful/therapeutic group therapy session in which they had participated; this was not the case for the assertiveness no music condition. Future research is warranted to measure the effects of protocols that can help psychiatric patients generalize skills learned in treatment.

  8. The effect of single-session psychoeducational music therapy on verbalizations and perceptions in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare group-based psychoeducational music therapy to psychoeducation in measures of satisfaction with life, knowledge of illness, treatment perceptions, and response frequency and type in acute psychiatric inpatients during a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Participants (N=105) took part in a scripted single session controlled by a treatment manual and facilitated by a Board-Certified Music Therapist. No significant differences were found between groups in measures of helpfulness, enjoyment, satisfaction with life, or psychoeducational knowledge. However, although not significant, the music therapy group tended to have slightly higher mean scores in all aforementioned variables, suggesting music therapy can be as effective as psychoeducation in these measures. There were no significant differences between groups for the number of therapist questions and validations as measured by a trained behavioral observer, although during the music therapy condition the therapist was able to ask a mean of almost 11 additional questions than during the psychoeducational control condition. Although not significant, there were almost 20 more participant mean verbalizations per session during the music therapy conditions. Additionally, many of these verbalizations were categorized as self and cognitive insight statements, indicating participants in the music therapy condition were talking more about themselves and their unique situations. Congruent with this finding, during the music therapy condition, the ratios of participant self statements to therapist questions and participant cognitive insights to therapist questions were higher than in the control condition. There was a significant correlation between participant total verbal participation and perception of helpfulness, enjoyment, and comfort for the control condition. This correlation was not significant for the experimental condition, indicating that the music therapy group did

  9. Balancing the focus: art and music therapy for pain control and symptom management in hospice care.

    PubMed

    Trauger-Querry, B; Haghighi, K R

    1999-01-01

    Pain and symptom management are a major part of hospice care. Literature and direct experience suggest that pain can be resistant if psychological, emotional, or spiritual issues are not addressed. This article explains how art and music therapies can work in conjunction with traditional medical treatment of pain control in the hospice setting. The process of pain modulation through the use of art and music interventions is diagrammed and described. Brief clinical examples demonstrate the use of art and music therapies for pain reduction with a variety of hospice patients. Information regarding appropriate education and training necessary for art and music therapists to practice in their field is presented.

  10. [Application of music therapy for managing agitated behavior in older people with dementia].

    PubMed

    Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chang, Anne M; Abbey, Jennifer

    2006-10-01

    Older people with dementia may display negative emotions, memory problems, sleep disturbance, and agitated behavior. Among these symptoms, agitated behavior has been identified by families and nursing staff as the care problem that presents the greatest challenge. Several studies have found that music therapy reduced agitated behaviors in those with dementia and recommended use of music as an effective strategy in managing this behavioral problem. Music therapy represents a lower cost, effective care approach that nursing staff can easily learn and apply to those with dementia. Furthermore, reductions in agitated behavior in dementia patients that result from music therapy can also alleviate caregiver stress and burden of care, leading to improvements in the health and quality of life of both dementia patients and their caregivers. This paper aims to introduce the principles and application of music therapy in the management of agitated behavior in those with dementia.

  11. The Contributions of Wayne Ruppenthal to the Field of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Miller

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the career of Wayne Ruppenthal, considered one of the early pioneers in the field of music therapy. He began his practice in the late 1940s and his clinical accomplishments at Topeka State Hospital, spanned nearly two decades during the height of Freudian psychoanalysis and "milieu" therapy prescribed by The Menninger Foundation. Ruppenthal received his education at The University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, and was the first graduate of the Master's of Music Education in Functional Music program in 1948. His contributions to the profession were significant and enduring and included establishing formal clinical practice and training standards, assisting with development of the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT), and promoting the credibility of music therapy through published research. He retired from Topeka State Hospital in 1968. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Wayne Ruppenthal, who died on August 31, 1997.

  12. [The role of music therapy in impaired hearing recovery. A survey among professionals working with deaf children and between users].

    PubMed

    Comincini, Valeria; Del Piccolo, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    In this study, two groups are interviewed: the first study includes a sample of 60 physicians and health providers in the field of deafness, whose opinion on music therapy is collected by a specific questionnaire; the second involves 8 parents of deaf children attending music therapy lessons, who are asked to give an evaluation on the effect of music therapy, based on the experience of their children. Results show that health professionals know very little about the rehabilitative effectiveness of music therapy, whereas the parents of deaf children give a positive evaluation on the psychological, behavioral and linguistic benefits that music therapy gives to their deaf children.

  13. [The role of music therapy in impaired hearing recovery. A survey among professionals working with deaf children and between users].

    PubMed

    Comincini, Valeria; Del Piccolo, Lidia

    2013-02-01

    In this study, two groups are interviewed: the first study includes a sample of 60 physicians and health providers in the field of deafness, whose opinion on music therapy is collected by a specific questionnaire; the second involves 8 parents of deaf children attending music therapy lessons, who are asked to give an evaluation on the effect of music therapy, based on the experience of their children. Results show that health professionals know very little about the rehabilitative effectiveness of music therapy, whereas the parents of deaf children give a positive evaluation on the psychological, behavioral and linguistic benefits that music therapy gives to their deaf children. PMID:23535958

  14. The effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chinese five-element music therapy on nursing students with depressed mood. We randomly assigned 71 nursing students from Taiwan with depressed mood to the music and control groups. The music group (n = 31) received Chinese five-element music therapy, whereas the participants in the control group (n = 40) maintained their routine lifestyles with no music therapy. All of the participants were assessed using the Depression Mood Self-Report Inventory for Adolescence, and their salivary cortisol levels were measured. The study found that there was a significant reduction in depression between the pre- and posttherapy test scores and in salivary cortisol levels over time in the music group. After receiving the music therapy, the nursing students' depression levels were significantly reduced (P = 0.038) compared with the control group (P < 0.001). These results indicate that the Chinese five-element music therapy has the potential to reduce the level of depression in nursing students with depressed mood.

  15. Hip Hop Therapy: An Exploratory Study of a Rap Music Intervention with At-Risk and Delinquent Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study of the therapeutic potential of "Hip-Hop" therapy, an "innovative synergy of rap music, bibliotherapy, and music therapy." Finds that the quantitative and qualitative results partially supported the hypothesis that under a specific set of conditions rap music would improve the therapeutic experience and outcomes for…

  16. A survey of clinical training in music therapy: degree of compliance with NAMT guidelines.

    PubMed

    Braswell, C; Decuir, A; Brooks, D M

    1985-01-01

    This study compared the experiences and responsibilities of music therapy interns with requirements outlined in the Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Music Therapy Clinical Training Programs (National Association for Music Therapy, Inc., 1983). Subjects were 134 music therapy clinical training directors and 75 music therapy interns. Results from the intern survey indicated that over 80% of the interns were more than satisfied with their clinical training experiences. However, the data revealed several areas of concern. First, 75% of the directors and 92% of the responding interns were female; this response suggests that music therapy is not recognized as a viable career choice among male music majors. In addition, 22% of the responding clinical training facilities were not affiliated with the closest NAMT-approved college or university; reported range between these facilities and the nearest university was 5 to 1,500 miles, with a mean of 392 miles. The authors concluded that the affiliate process is often meaningless. While the Guidelines require training in "Administrative skills, i.e., budgeting, program proposals, organizational structures," nearly 63% of intern respondents had not received such training. The authors recommend that the Guidelines be rewritten and professionally printed, that interns and clinical training directors be required to complete annual questionnaires, and that the affiliation between clinical training facility and academic institution be strengthened. PMID:10271938

  17. Emotional, Motivational and Interpersonal Responsiveness of Children with Autism in Improvisational Music Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Through behavioural analysis, this study investigated the social-motivational aspects of musical interaction between the child and the therapist in improvisational music therapy by measuring emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness in children with autism during joint engagement episodes. The randomized controlled study (n = 10)…

  18. Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Barbara L.; Stultz, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates some ways in which observations of typically-developing infants can inform music therapy and other work with children with disabilities. The research project that is described examines typical infant development with special attention to musical relatedness and communication. Videotapes of sessions centering on musical…

  19. Rap Music in School Counseling Based on Don Elligan's Rap Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Tiphanie; Hayes, B. Grant

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Don Elligan introduced Rap Therapy as a psychotherapeutic intervention for working with at-risk youths, primarily African American males whose identities were highly influenced by rap music. Rap music can engage a population of youth who often enter counseling apprehensively (Elligan 2000, 2004; Tillie-Allen, 2005). This article reviews…

  20. Supervised Patient Self-Testing of Warfarin Therapy Using an Online System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Point-of-care international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices simplify warfarin management by allowing selected patients to monitor their own therapy in their homes. Patient self-testing (PST) has been shown to improve the clinical outcomes of warfarin therapy compared to usual care. Objective To compare management of warfarin therapy using PST combined with online supervision by physicians via a custom system with usual warfarin management, which involved laboratory testing and physician dosing. Methods Interested patients were recruited via community pharmacies to participate in a warfarin PST training program. Participants were required to have a long-term indication for warfarin, have been taking warfarin for at least 6 months, and have Internet access in their home. The training involved two sessions covering theoretical aspects of warfarin therapy, use of the CoaguChek XS, and the study website. Following training, patients monitored their INR once weekly for up to 3 months. Patients and physicians utilized a secure website to communicate INR values, dosage recommendations, and clinical incidents. Physicians provided a 6-12 month history of INR results for comparison with study results. The percentage of time spent within the therapeutic INR range (TTR) was the primary outcome, with participants acting as their own historical controls. The percentage of INR tests in range and participant satisfaction were secondary outcomes. Results Sixteen patients completed training requirements. The mean age of participants was 69.8 (SD 10.1) years. TTR improved significantly from 66.4% to 78.4% during PST (P=.01), and the number of tests within the target range also improved significantly (from 66.0% at prior to the study to 75.9% during PST; P=.04). Patients and physicians expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the monitoring strategy and online system. Conclusions PST supported by an online system for supervision was associated with improved INR

  1. Music Therapy Groups: A Path to Social-Emotional Growth and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Vanessa

    2000-01-01

    In a New York City community school, music therapy addresses the following social and emotional developmental goals: participation, interaction, relationships, communication, expression, space sharing, problem solving, self-esteem, respect, and awareness. (SK)

  2. Behavioral and endocrinological evaluation of music therapy for elderly patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Watanabe, Motoko; Nagasawa, Shingo; Kojima, Emi; Ooshiro, Hajime; Nakahara, Daiichirou

    2004-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of music therapy for dementia patients using endocrinological and behavioral evaluations. The study comprised 10 patients with senile dementia who received music therapy; six had Alzheimer's dementia and four had vascular dementia. Music therapy was performed twice a week for 8 consecutive weeks (16 sessions). As a result, total scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) did not significantly change, but the scores of a subscale, "language", improved significantly. According to the Multidimensional Observation Scale For Elderly Subjects (MOSES), scores for "irritability" decreased significantly. Regarding changes in salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels, the average was significantly decreased before session 16 compared to after this. These results suggest that the combination of endocrinological measurements, behavioral evaluations and functional assessment methods are useful in evaluating the effects of music therapy in persons with senile dementia.

  3. Leading Together, Learning Together: Music Education and Music Therapy Students' Perceptions of a Shared Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Julie; Baker, Felicity A.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of musical engagement extend across the lifespan, with research documenting developmental and quality of life outcomes in senior adulthood. Whilst the psychological functions of music include three broad domains: cognitive, emotional and social, the social factors of music consumption have been, for the most part, ignored. This…

  4. Music therapy to promote movement from isolation to community in homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Powers, James S; Heim, Daniel; Grant, Brian; Rollins, John

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Operation Stand Down has done much to address homeless needs among veterans. Gaining client trust is central to the effectiveness of the program. Music therapy has been found beneficial in moving individuals from isolation to community. We report our experience with participatory music therapy in Operation Stand Down and offer this as a legitimate intervention to enhance client participation.

  5. [The possibility of using music therapy in neurology on the example of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Boiko, E A; Ivanchuk, E V; Gunchenko, M M; Batysheva, T T

    2016-01-01

    Currently music therapy plays an important role in the drug-free treatment and rehabilitation of children and adults with acute and chronic neurological and somatic diseases including demyelinating diseases. Existing studies show the effectiveness of music therapy in the improvement of social skills, cognitive function and sleep as well as in the reduction in the severity of depression, anxiety and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:27070365

  6. [The possibility of using music therapy in neurology on the example of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Boiko, E A; Ivanchuk, E V; Gunchenko, M M; Batysheva, T T

    2016-01-01

    Currently music therapy plays an important role in the drug-free treatment and rehabilitation of children and adults with acute and chronic neurological and somatic diseases including demyelinating diseases. Existing studies show the effectiveness of music therapy in the improvement of social skills, cognitive function and sleep as well as in the reduction in the severity of depression, anxiety and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  7. Modulation of EEG Theta Band Signal Complexity by Music Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lee, Eun-Jeong

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sounds used in music therapy, on the neural complexity of EEG signals obtained from patients undergoing chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to compare the EEG signal complexity values for monochords with those for progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), an alternative therapy for relaxation. Forty cancer patients were randomly allocated to one of the two relaxation groups, MC and PMR, over a period of six months; continuous EEG signals were recorded during the first and last sessions. EEG signals were analyzed by applying signal mode complexity, a measure of complexity of neuronal oscillations. Across sessions, both groups showed a modulation of complexity of beta-2 band (20-29Hz) at midfrontal regions, but only MC group showed a modulation of complexity of theta band (3.5-7.5Hz) at posterior regions. Therefore, the neuronal complexity patterns showed different changes in EEG frequency band specific complexity resulting in two different types of interventions. Moreover, the different neural responses to listening to monochords and PMR were observed after regular relaxation interventions over a short time span.

  8. Music-based cognitive remediation therapy for patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairments have been investigated recently. The role of music in cognitive rehabilitation is evolving, based on newer findings emerging from the fields of neuromusicology and music cognition. Research findings from these fields have contributed significantly to our understanding of music perception and cognition, and its neural underpinnings. From a neuroscientific perspective, indulging in music is considered as one of the best cognitive exercises. With "plasticity" as its veritable nature, brain engages in producing music indulging an array of cognitive functions and the product, the music, in turn permits restoration and alters brain functions. With scientific findings as its basis, "neurologic music therapy" (NMT) has been developed as a systematic treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language, and cognitive domains of functioning via music. A preliminary study examining the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation has reported promising results in improving executive functions along with improvement in emotional adjustment and decreasing depression and anxiety following TBI. The potential usage of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in various clinical conditions including TBI is yet to be fully explored. There is a need for systematic research studies to bridge the gap between increasing theoretical understanding of usage of music in cognitive rehabilitation and application of the same in a heterogeneous condition such as TBI.

  9. Individual music therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild; Gold, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. Method: In a crossover trial, 42 participants with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Results: Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at −6.77 (95% CI (confidence interval): −12.71, −0.83) was significant (p = 0.027), with a medium effect size (0.50). The prescription of psychotropic medication increased significantly more often during standard care than during music therapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: This study shows that six weeks of music therapy reduces agitation disruptiveness and prevents medication increases in people with dementia. The positive trends in relation to agitation frequency and quality of life call for further research with a larger sample. PMID:23621805

  10. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review.

    PubMed

    Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed.

  11. Impact of music therapy to promote positive parenting and child development.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Abad, Vicky; Williams, Kate; Bradley, Julie

    2008-03-01

    The effectiveness of a 10-week group music therapy program for marginalized parents and their children aged 0-5 years was examined. Musical activities were used to promote positive parent-child relationships and children's behavioral, communicative and social development. Participants were 358 parents and children from families facing social disadvantage, young parents or parents of a child with a disability. Significant improvements were found for therapist-observed parent and child behaviors, and parent-reported irritable parenting, educational activities in the home, parent mental health and child communication and social play skills. This study provides evidence of the potential effectiveness of music therapy for early intervention.

  12. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    PubMed

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school? PMID:18447572

  13. AIR: Advances in Respiration - Music therapy in the treatment of chronic pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Canga, Bernardo; Azoulay, Ronit; Raskin, Jonathan; Loewy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized control study is to examine the effect of a multimodal psycho-music therapy intervention on respiratory symptoms, psychological well-being and quality of life of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and other lung diseases as adjunct to Pulmonary Rehabilitation with a design of music therapy plus PR compared to Pulmonary Rehabilitation alone. Music therapy group treatment including music visualization, wind playing and singing was provided weekly. This was compared with standard care treatment. Adults ages 48 to 88 (mean 70.1) with moderate to severe GOLD stage II-IV lung disease as well as other diseases processes that lead to chronic airflow limitations were included (n = 98). Participants in both conditions were followed from baseline enrollment to six weeks post control/treatment. Outcome measures included the Beck Depression Inventory Scale 2nd edition-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire Self-Reported (CRQ-SR), and Dyspnea Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results showed improvement in symptoms of depression (LS mean -0.2) in the music therapy group with statistical divergence between groups (p = 0.007). The CRQ-SR demonstrated improvement in dyspnea (p = 0.01 LS mean 0.5) and mastery (p = 0.06 LS mean 0.5) in the music therapy group and fatigue (p = 0.01 LS mean 0.3). VAS demonstrated highly significant effect in the music therapy group between weeks 5 and 6 (p < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that music therapy combined with standard PR may prove to be an effective modality in the management of pulmonary disease.

  14. The use of music on Barney & Friends: implications for music therapy practice and research.

    PubMed

    McGuire, K M

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the music content of 88 episodes from the PBS television show Barney & Friends, which aired from September 1992 to September 1998, in an attempt to quantify musical examples and presentations that may be considered introductory music experiences for preschoolers. Using many of the procedures identified by Wolfe and Stambaugh (1993) in their study on the music of Sesame Street, 25% of Barney & Friends' 88 episodes were analyzed by using the computer observation program SCRIBE in determining: (a) the temporal use of music; (b) performance medium; and (c) intention of music use. Furthermore, each structural prompt presentation (n = 749) from all 88 episodes was examined for: (a) tempo; (b) vocal range; (c) music style; (d) word clarity; (e) repetition; (f) vocal modeling; and (g) movement. Results revealed that the show contained more music (92.2%) than nonmusic (7.8%), with the majority of this music containing instrumental sounds (61%). The function of this music was distributed equally between structural prompt music (48%) and background music (48%). The majority of the structural prompt music contained newly composed material (52%), while 33% consisted of previously composed material. Fifteen percent contained a combination of newly composed and previously composed material. The most common tempo range for presentations on the show was 80-100 bpm, while vocal ranges of a 9th, 8th, 6th, and 7th were predominant and most often sung by children's voices. The adult male voice was also common, with 84% of all adult vocals being male. The tessitura category with the greatest number of appearances was middle C to C above (n = 133), with the majority of the presentations (n = 435, 73%) extending singers' voices over the register lift of B above middle C. Children's music and music of the American heritage were the most common style categories observed, and these two categories combined on 260 (35%) presentations. The use of choreographed

  15. [Impact of a music therapy program on the stress level of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taets, Gunnar Glauco de Cunto; Borba-Pinheiro, Claudio Joaquim; de Figueiredo, Nébia Maria Almeida; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the effects of a music therapy program on the level of stress for female professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. Thirty four female volunteers with 33.3 ± 8.5 years of age from different levels of professional participated in the study. We used the Lipp's inventory of symptoms of stress for adults (ISSL) to evaluate the level of stress of participants before and after music therapy. The program consisted of twelve sessions using the techniques of music therapy Improvisation and Musical Re-creation held once a week with 50 minutes / session in a period of three months. The Wilcoxon test for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. The study showed a statistically significant decrease (Δ = - 60%, p <0.001) in the level of stress professionals studied after the music therapy program. In conclusion, the present study that the music therapy program was effective in decrease the level of stress of women health professionals working in a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

  16. The Effects of Music Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jasemi, Madineh; Aazami, Sanaz; Zabihi, Roghaieh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cancer patients often suffer from anxiety and depression. Various methods are used to alleviate anxiety and depression, but most of them have side effects. Music therapy can be used as a noninvasive method to reduce anxiety and depression. This study aimed to examine the effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted attaching hospitals in Urmia city. A total number of sixty patients with depression and anxiety were recruited using random sampling method and divided into two groups of control and intervention. Patients in intervention group listened to light music at least 20 min per day for 3 days. The degree of patients’ anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and 3 days after music therapy. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using t-test, Pearson, and ANOVA tests. Results: The results showed no significant differences between demographic variable of intervention and control groups. Our findings indicated a significant decrease in the level of depression and anxiety among intervention group. There were significant relationships between anxiety, depression, and sex (P < 0.001, r = 0.42) as well as education (P = 0.003, r = 0.37). Conclusion: This study revealed positive effects of music therapy on decreasing level of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to include music therapy in the nursing care. PMID:27803568

  17. Integrating Music Therapy Services and Speech-Language Therapy Services for Children with Severe Communication Impairments: A Co-Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…

  18. Effects of art and music therapy on depression and cognitive function of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Im, Mi Lim; Lee, Jeong In

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of art and music therapy on depression and cognitive function of the elderly. This was one group pre-test, post-test design. Data were collected from January to March, 2013, from 94 elderly. The results were collected as followers: 1. Art therapy was revealed a statistical significant difference between before and after treatment on the depression of participants. 2. Music therapy was revealed a statistical significant at previous and after treatment on the depression of participants. 3. Treatment according to the severity of depression than the music therapy and art therapy were examined statistically significantly lower. This study will be provided basic information in order to develop program for success healthy life of elderly.

  19. Music Therapy Helping to Work Through Grief and Finding a Personal Identity.

    PubMed

    Smeijsters; van Den Hurk J

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative single-case study of the treatment of a woman having problems with grief and finding a personal identity. In this case the treatment has been supported by research techniques like categorizing, developing themes, writing memos, member checking, peer debriefing, and triangulation. During treatment, diagnostic themes were generated such as: problems of identity, low self-esteem, a lack of assertiveness, and problems expressing feelings and problems in relationships. These themes became important along with feelings of depression which she experienced since the death of her beloved husband. The study describes how the client was able to express, in an unconscious way, a part of her personality, which she had been suppressing since childhood, through playing the piano and vocalizing during the music therapy process. The music therapist used several techniques of improvisation to support the client's cautious steps into a new musical and a new personal world. Tables of music therapy improvisations show how the client became musically expressive, how she found a personal melody and how she developed a closer relationship with the music therapist through musical interaction. Guidelines for similar cases and generated hypotheses about the contribution of music are enclosed as results of research.

  20. Analysing change in music therapy interactions of children with communication difficulties.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Neta; Himberg, Tommi

    2016-05-01

    Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client-therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client-therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists

  1. Analysing change in music therapy interactions of children with communication difficulties.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Neta; Himberg, Tommi

    2016-05-01

    Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client-therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client-therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists.

  2. Analysing change in music therapy interactions of children with communication difficulties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy has been found to improve communicative behaviours and joint attention in children with autism, but it is unclear what in the music therapy sessions drives those changes. We developed an annotation protocol and tools to accumulate large datasets of music therapy, for analysis of interaction dynamics. Analysis of video recordings of improvisational music therapy sessions focused on simple, unambiguous individual and shared behaviours: movement and facing behaviours, rhythmic activity and musical structures and the relationships between them. To test the feasibility of the protocol, early and late sessions of five client–therapist pairs were annotated and analysed to track changes in behaviours. To assess the reliability and validity of the protocol, inter-rater reliability of the annotation tiers was calculated, and the therapists provided feedback about the relevance of the analyses and results. This small-scale study suggests that there are both similarities and differences in the profiles of client–therapist sessions. For example, all therapists faced the clients most of the time, while the clients did not face back so often. Conversely, only two pairs had an increase in regular pulse from early to late sessions. More broadly, similarity across pairs at a general level is complemented by variation in the details. This perhaps goes some way to reconciling client- and context-specificity on one hand and generalizability on the other. Behavioural characteristics seem to influence each other. For instance, shared rhythmic pulse alternated with mutual facing and the occurrence of shared pulse was found to relate to the musical structure. These observations point towards a framework for looking at change in music therapy that focuses on networks of variables or broader categories. The results suggest that even when starting with simple behaviours, we can trace aspects of interaction and change in music therapy, which are seen as relevant by therapists

  3. Music-Based Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common causes of disability in physical, psychological, and social domains of functioning leading to poor quality of life. TBI leads to impairment in sensory, motor, language, and emotional processing, and also in cognitive functions such as attention, information processing, executive functions, and memory. Cognitive impairment plays a central role in functional recovery in TBI. Innovative methods such as music therapy to alleviate cognitive impairments have been investigated recently. The role of music in cognitive rehabilitation is evolving, based on newer findings emerging from the fields of neuromusicology and music cognition. Research findings from these fields have contributed significantly to our understanding of music perception and cognition, and its neural underpinnings. From a neuroscientific perspective, indulging in music is considered as one of the best cognitive exercises. With “plasticity” as its veritable nature, brain engages in producing music indulging an array of cognitive functions and the product, the music, in turn permits restoration and alters brain functions. With scientific findings as its basis, “neurologic music therapy” (NMT) has been developed as a systematic treatment method to improve sensorimotor, language, and cognitive domains of functioning via music. A preliminary study examining the effect of NMT in cognitive rehabilitation has reported promising results in improving executive functions along with improvement in emotional adjustment and decreasing depression and anxiety following TBI. The potential usage of music-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy in various clinical conditions including TBI is yet to be fully explored. There is a need for systematic research studies to bridge the gap between increasing theoretical understanding of usage of music in cognitive rehabilitation and application of the same in a heterogeneous condition such as TBI. PMID:24715887

  4. A Description of the Use of Music Therapy in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining increasing recognition for its benefit in medical settings both for its salutary effects on physiological parameters and on psychological states associated with medical illness. This article discusses the role of a music therapist in consultation-liaison psychiatry, a specialty that provides intervention for medical and surgical patients with concomitant mental health issues. We describe the ways in which music therapy has been integrated into the consultation-liaison psychiatry service at Hahnemann University Hospital, a tertiary care facility and major trauma center in Philadelphia. The referral process and some of the techniques used in music therapy are explained. Anecdotal observations illustrate how a music therapist incorporates the various elements of music as well as the experiences of engaging in music-making to bring about changes in mood and facilitate expression of feelings and social interactions in patients who are having difficulty coping with the effects of illness and hospitalization. These methods have also been observed to have positive effects on the hospital staff by making available a means with which staff can express pressures inherent in direct patient care. PMID:20805929

  5. A pilot study: the effects of music therapy interventions on middle school students' ESL skills.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.

  6. The Use of Music Therapy During the Treatment of Cancer Patients: A Collection of Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Boyde, Constance; Linden, Ulrike; Boehm, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Background: Music therapy is one of the oldest forms of creative art therapy and has been shown to have effects in different clinical and therapeutic settings, such as schizophrenia, pain, cardiovascular parameters, and dementia. This article provides an overview of some of the recent findings in this field and also reports two single case vignettes that offer insight into day-to-day applications of clinical music therapy. Material and Methods: For the collection of clinical studies of music therapy in oncology, the databases AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX were searched with the terms “Study OR Trial” AND “Music Therapy” AND “Cancer OR Oncolog$.” Studies were analyzed with respect to their design, setting and interventions, indications, patients, and outcomes. In addition, two case vignettes present the application of music therapy for a child with leukemia and an adult patient with breast cancer. Results: We found a total of 12 clinical studies conducted between 2001 and 2011 comprised of a total of 922 patients. Eight studies had a randomized controlled design, and four studies were conducted in the field of pediatric oncology. Studies reported heterogeneous results on short-term improvements in patients' mood and relaxation and reduced exhaustion and anxiety as well as in coping with the disease and cancer-related pain. Case descriptions showed similar effects in expressing emotions, opening up new goals, and turning the mind toward a healthy process and away form a disease-centered focus. Conclusion: The use of music therapy in the integrative treatment of cancer patients is a therapeutic option whose salutogenetic potential is shown in many case studies such as those presented here. Study results, however, did not draw a conclusive picture of the overall effect of music therapy. In addition to further clinical trials, the evidence mosaic should be complemented with qualitative studies, single case descriptions, and basic

  7. Inspired by "El Duende": One-Canvas Process Painting in Art Therapy Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Abbe

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an art-based approach to supervision that combines clinical insights with archetypal awareness arising from painting on a single canvas throughout the internship semester. Supervision is comprised of three main components: (a) spontaneous painting, (b) complex reflective processing, and (c) aesthetically focused attention to…

  8. [Advances in the research of effects of music therapy on pain and anxiety in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Jinyi, Li; Yungui, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Pain and anxiety engender major psychic problems during all phases of treatment for burn patients. Analgesic alone does not allay these problems satisfactorily in these patients. Music therapy, as an important complementary and alternative therapy, has been widely used in multiple medical fields. However, its positive effect on alleviation of pain and anxiety in burn patients is undefined. The objective of this review is to summarize the feasibility, application fields, methods, and the effectiveness of music therapy in allaying pain and anxiety of burn patients during the whole course of treatment.

  9. [Advances in the research of effects of music therapy on pain and anxiety in burn patients].

    PubMed

    Jinyi, Li; Yungui, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Pain and anxiety engender major psychic problems during all phases of treatment for burn patients. Analgesic alone does not allay these problems satisfactorily in these patients. Music therapy, as an important complementary and alternative therapy, has been widely used in multiple medical fields. However, its positive effect on alleviation of pain and anxiety in burn patients is undefined. The objective of this review is to summarize the feasibility, application fields, methods, and the effectiveness of music therapy in allaying pain and anxiety of burn patients during the whole course of treatment. PMID:26564564

  10. A coding scheme for the evaluation of the relationship in music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Raglio, A; Traficante, D; Oasi, O

    2006-08-01

    This study presents a coding system for observation and monitoring of changes in the interactive behaviour between patient and therapist during music therapy sessions. The coding scheme was developed from a psychodynamic framework and mainly consists of four behavioural classes: Verbal Communication, Nonverbal Communication, Countenance, and Sonorous Musical Communication. The 15 minutes in the middle of each videotape concerning the first active music therapy session--based on the sonorous musical improvisation--were coded. Subjects were children (4 boys; 3 girls) ages 3 to 10 years (M age = 6.3), diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and seven therapists. The method for data collection was continuous recording, applied through The Observer Video-Pro 5.0. For the reliability indexes there was a substantial agreement between assessments by video raters. PMID:17037452

  11. A coding scheme for the evaluation of the relationship in music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Raglio, A; Traficante, D; Oasi, O

    2006-08-01

    This study presents a coding system for observation and monitoring of changes in the interactive behaviour between patient and therapist during music therapy sessions. The coding scheme was developed from a psychodynamic framework and mainly consists of four behavioural classes: Verbal Communication, Nonverbal Communication, Countenance, and Sonorous Musical Communication. The 15 minutes in the middle of each videotape concerning the first active music therapy session--based on the sonorous musical improvisation--were coded. Subjects were children (4 boys; 3 girls) ages 3 to 10 years (M age = 6.3), diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and seven therapists. The method for data collection was continuous recording, applied through The Observer Video-Pro 5.0. For the reliability indexes there was a substantial agreement between assessments by video raters.

  12. Music therapy and chiropractic: an integrative model of tonal and rhythmic spinal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Miller, E B; Redmond, P

    1999-03-01

    There is a philosophical basis for the integration of treatment using music therapy and chiropractic. Perception is intimately linked to the nervous system. A relationship between spinal integrity and consciousness does exist. We can see that as spinal distortions diminish and awareness increases, there is a natural attraction toward the higher or more loving state of consciousness. Rhythms of healing and suffering are a key concept in combining music therapy with chiropractic manipulation. Donald Epstein's conceptualization of the rhythmic stages of consciousness corresponding to prescribed physiological patterns serves as a starting point for the use of rhythm in the healing process. Using interactive music, the music therapist can help facilitate a change in the patient's physical or emotional state. This occurs when the practitioner establishes an initial connection or musical validation of the patient's emotional state and assists the healing process by improvising supportive music while suggesting possibilities for resolution. We believe that the power of music can be used as a significant tool in chiropractic work to aid individuals in their healing process.

  13. The Effect of Music Therapy Services on Classroom Behaviours of Newly Arrived Refugee Students in Australia--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one or two…

  14. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  15. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious States.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Julian; James, L; Palaniappan, R; Taborin, J; Fachner, J; Magee, W L

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05-0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05-0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  16. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses to Music Therapy in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States

    PubMed Central

    O’Kelly, Julian; James, L.; Palaniappan, R.; Taborin, J.; Fachner, J.; Magee, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population. Debate surrounds whether behavioral assessments provide greatest accuracy in diagnosis compared to neuro-imaging methods, and despite developments in both, misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention, and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits. However, an evidence base is lacking as to which procedures are most effective. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioral study was undertaken comparing electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate variability, respiration, and behavioral responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS). Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (procedures typically used in music therapy), recordings of disliked music, white noise, and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses (p = 0.05–0.0001) across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patient cohorts, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in six VS and four MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in three VS and four MCS subjects (p = 0.05–0.0001). Furthermore, behavioral data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029) within the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05) across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy

  17. Using music therapy to help a client with Alzheimer's disease adapt to long-term care.

    PubMed

    Kydd, P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to illustrate how music therapy can be used to help the elderly successfully adjust to living in a long-term care (LTC) facility. LTC residents, particularly those with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia, may exhibit behaviors such as depression, withdrawal, anxiety, emotional liability, confusion, and memory difficulties, frequently related to the disorder, but often exacerbated by difficulty in adjustment to the change in lifestyle. The subject of this case study demonstrated these symptoms. Music therapy helped him adjust to life in a LTC setting by improving his quality of life and enhancing his relationships with those around him. As chronicled in this study, music therapy may facilitate a resident's adjustment to life in a LTC facility. N.B. Names and identifying information have been changed to protect privacy.

  18. Creative Music Therapy in an Acute Care Setting for Older Patients with Delirium and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Chin Yee; Tan, Jane An Qi; Foong, Yi-Lin; Koh, Hui Mien; Chen, Denise Zhen Yue; Tan, Jessie Joon Chen; Ng, Chong Jin; Yap, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The acute hospital ward can be unfamiliar and stressful for older patients with impaired cognition, rendering them prone to agitation and resistive to care. Extant literature shows that music therapy can enhance engagement and mood, thereby ameliorating agitated behaviours. This pilot study evaluates the impact of a creative music therapy (CMT) programme on mood and engagement in older patients with delirium and/or dementia (PtDD) in an acute care setting. We hypothesize that CMT improves engagement and pleasure in these patients. Methods Twenty-five PtDD (age 86.5 ± 5.7 years, MMSE 6/30 ± 5.4) were observed for 90 min (30 min before, 30 min during, and 30 min after music therapy) on 3 consecutive days: day 1 (control condition without music) and days 2 and 3 (with CMT). Music interventions included music improvisation such as spontaneous music making and playing familiar songs of patient's choice. The main outcome measures were mood and engagement assessed with the Menorah Park Engagement Scale (MPES) and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS). Results Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a statistically significant positive change in constructive and passive engagement (Z = 3.383, p = 0.01) in MPES and pleasure and general alertness (Z = 3.188,p = 0.01) in OERS during CMT. The average pleasure ratings of days 2 and 3 were higher than those of day 1 (Z = 2.466, p = 0.014). Negative engagement (Z = 2.582, p = 0.01) and affect (Z = 2.004, p = 0.045) were both lower during CMT compared to no music. Conclusion These results suggest that CMT holds much promise to improve mood and engagement of PtDD in an acute hospital setting. CMT can also be scheduled into the patients' daily routines or incorporated into other areas of care to increase patient compliance and cooperation. PMID:27489560

  19. [New paradigms in mental health and the vision from music therapy].

    PubMed

    Bianco, Mariela C

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the vision of mental health from the standpoint of music therapy, framed by the National Law 26.567. First, basic notions about the origins of this discipline are introduced, as well as the criteria that inform its practice and the tools used by this approach, listening, analysis and the intervention in the mental health field. Later, the concepts of music therapy intervention and creative process are highlighted, providing some characteristics of the relationships that may arise between each of them and the mental health.

  20. Impact of Music Therapy on Breast Milk Secretion in Mothers of Premature Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanagowda, Preethi Bangalore; G C M, Pradeep; Goturu, Jaisri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The promotion of breastfeeding is a simple and efficient strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. Milk from the mother of a Preterm New Born (PTNB) infant contains a higher concentration of nutrients and energy than that produced by mothers of a full-term infant. Studies have shown that music therapy can reduce maternal anxiety, helping mothers cope with the hospitalization of their newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Objective To evaluate the impact of music therapy on amount of breast milk secretion among mothers of premature newborns by reducing maternal stress. Materials and Methods Mothers of premature babies who were admitted to NICU at a tertiary health care centre were included as subjects. Mothers of premature infants were enrolled in the study once they came to NICU to express breast milk from Dec 2012 to May 2013. Each subject was assessed for 4 sessions on MT (Music Therapy) and 4 sessions on NMT (No Music Therapy) over 4 days. Breast milk was expressed using breast milk pump and quantity was measured for two sessions each day once at 11.00am and other at 4.00pm. Raga malkauns and yaman by flute was used for music therapy. MT was administered for 4 sessions in a randomized manner during the study period of 30mins (15mins prior to and 15mins during Breast milk amount). To assess the psychological stress, PSS questionnaire was administered on day 1 and day 4 of MT. Mother’s saliva was collected to estimate salivary cortisol level on the last day of study during the sessions with MT and NMT. Results Music therapy was associated with a significant reduction in stress level as shown by improved PSS score and reduced salivary cortisol. Subjects who received music therapy had significant increase (p-value- 0.033) in breast milk expression when compared to mothers who didn’t. Conclusion Music therapy can be easily used in the breast milk expression room as a method to increase breast milk secretion in

  1. Music Therapy for Patients Who Have Undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Richardson, Michael; Baynham-Fletcher, Laura; Cohen, Marlene Z.; de Lima, Marcos; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the short- and long-term QOL benefits of a music therapy intervention for patients recovering from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. Ninety allogeneic HSCT patients, after transplant, were randomized to receive ISO-principle (i.e., mood matching) based music therapy (MT; n = 29), unstructured music (UM; n = 30), or usual care (UC; n = 31) for four weeks. The ISO principle posits that patients may shift their mood from one state to another by listening to music that is “equal to” the individual's initial mood state and subsequently listening to music selections that gradually shift in tempo and mood to match the patient's desired disposition. Participants in MT and UM groups developed two audio CDs to help them feel more relaxed and energized and were instructed to use the CDs to improve their mood as needed. Short-term effects on mood and long-term effects on QOL were examined. Results. MT and UM participants reported improved mood immediately after listening to CDs; the within-group effect was greater for UM participants compared to MT participants. Participant group was not associated with long-term QOL outcomes. Conclusions. Music listening improves mood acutely but was not associated with long-term benefits in this study. PMID:24527052

  2. Music therapy for patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Prinsloo, Sarah; Richardson, Michael; Baynham-Fletcher, Laura; Lee, Richard; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Marlene Z; de Lima, Marcos; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines the short- and long-term QOL benefits of a music therapy intervention for patients recovering from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods. Ninety allogeneic HSCT patients, after transplant, were randomized to receive ISO-principle (i.e., mood matching) based music therapy (MT; n = 29), unstructured music (UM; n = 30), or usual care (UC; n = 31) for four weeks. The ISO principle posits that patients may shift their mood from one state to another by listening to music that is "equal to" the individual's initial mood state and subsequently listening to music selections that gradually shift in tempo and mood to match the patient's desired disposition. Participants in MT and UM groups developed two audio CDs to help them feel more relaxed and energized and were instructed to use the CDs to improve their mood as needed. Short-term effects on mood and long-term effects on QOL were examined. Results. MT and UM participants reported improved mood immediately after listening to CDs; the within-group effect was greater for UM participants compared to MT participants. Participant group was not associated with long-term QOL outcomes. Conclusions. Music listening improves mood acutely but was not associated with long-term benefits in this study.

  3. Music-supported motor training after stroke reveals no superiority of synchronization in group therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Vugt, Floris T.; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. Aim: The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Method: Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Conclusions: Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation. PMID

  4. Quenching a Desire for Power: The Role of Music Therapy for Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerran, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that investigates the value of music therapy for people with emotional and behavioural disorders such as attention deficit disorder. These studies often focus on overt behavioural change as the indication of successful outcomes. The instrumental case study reported here challenges this focus and provides a…

  5. Music Therapy Evaluation Study for Department of Health and Welfare Demonstration Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Carolyn, Ed.

    Reported are the findings of a project to evaluate the effectiveness of music therapy with disturbed or otherwise handicapped individuals in a number of different clinical settings. Following an introduction which outlines the project's objectives, a brief section discusses research methodology. The remainder of the document includes a larger…

  6. Music Therapy for Children with Down Syndrome: Perceptions of Caregivers in a Special School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder resulting from chromosome 21 having three copies (trisomy 21). Cognitive functioning and anatomical features cause speech and language development delay (Kumin, 2003). Children with DS generally enjoy communication (Schoenbrodt, 2004), and respond well to interaction and social scripts. Music therapy has…

  7. Music Therapy Promotes Self-Determination in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadberry, Anita L.; Harrison, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Self-determination leads to a higher quality of life, yet many individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with the component skills necessary for self-determination. Music therapy is one method of treatment for persons with autism spectrum disorder and has the ability to improve or develop skills in communication, self-awareness,…

  8. “The Opposite of Treatment”: A qualitative study of how patients diagnosed with psychosis experience music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies regarding music therapy and severe mental illness have mainly adopted quantitative methodologies in order to study the effectiveness of music therapy interventions. Studies that have explored service users’ experiences of participation in music therapy are small in number, and almost nonexistent in the field of psychosis. This study aimed to explore how mental health patients with a diagnosis of psychosis experienced participation in music therapy, in general, and more specifically how they experienced music therapy in relation to their current mental state and life situation. Nine inpatients with psychosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview focusing on the participants’ experiences of music therapy in individual sessions, groups, and performances. Through the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis, four super-ordinate themes central to the participants’ experiences were found: freedom, contact, well-being, and symptom reduction. Based on the findings, mental health recovery, positive mental health, and agency are proposed as constituting a better framework for music therapy in mental healthcare than a primary focus on symptom remission and functional improvement. PMID:26157200

  9. NICU music therapy: song of kin as critical lullaby in research and practice.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne

    2015-03-01

    Music therapy can improve neonatal function and reduce anxiety in parents during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. Live music entrained to an infant's observed vital signs, provided by a certified music therapist with First Sounds RBL (rhythm, breath, and lullaby) training, enhanced bonding for infant-parent dyads and triads. The author's song of kin intervention, which employs parent-selected songs, is compared to the presentation of a well-known folk theme ("Twinkle") in 272 neonates. Culturally based, parent-selected, personalized musical tunes provided in song, as a noninvasive intervention, foster optimal, continuous quality of care. Music psychotherapy sessions for parents before working with their infants can instill a potent means of nonconfrontational support, allowing for expression of fear or anxiety related to the premature birth. Although most attention is typically directed to their infant, using music can support the parents' grief and assist in the expression of hope that can instill a sense of security and containment. From the NICU to home, a familiar thread-line theme can be resourced directly from the family and/or parent and applied effortlessly throughout the growing baby's transitional moments.

  10. The effects of music therapy on pain in patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Korhan, Esra Akın; Uyar, Meltem; Eyigör, Can; Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Çelik, Serkan; Khorshıd, Leyla

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relaxing music on pain intensity in patients with neuropathic pain. A quasi-experimental study, repeated measures design was used. Thirty patients, aged 18-70 years, with neuropathic pain and hospitalized in an Algology clinic were identified as a convenience sample. Participants received 60 minutes of music therapy. Classical Turkish music was played to patients using a media player (MP3) and headphones. Participants had pain scores taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention. Data were collected over a 6-month period in 2012. The patients' mean pain intensity scores were reduced by music, and that decrease was progressive over the 30th and 60th minutes of the intervention, indicating a cumulative dose effect. The results of this study implied that the inclusion of music therapy in the routine care of patients with neuropathic pain could provide nurses with an effective practice for reducing patients' pain intensity.

  11. The effect of music therapy on relaxation, anxiety, pain perception, and nausea in adult solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Madson, Amy T; Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients characteristically experience low levels of relaxation and high levels of anxiety, pain, and nausea. Although music therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in ameliorating these types of conditions with patients in other areas of medical hospitals, no studies have evaluated the effects of music therapy on solid organ transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of music therapy on anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea levels in recovering patients on the adult transplant unit of the hospital utilizing a pre-posttest design. Participants (N = 58) received an individual 15-35 minute music therapy session consisting of live patient-preferred music and therapeutic social interaction. To remain consistent with the hospital's evaluative instruments during this pilot study, participants' self-reported levels of anxiety, relaxation, pain, and nausea, were based on separate 10-point Likert-type scales. The principal investigator observed affect and verbalizations at pre and posttest. Results indicated there were significant improvements in self-reported levels of relaxation, anxiety (both p < .001), pain (p < .01), and nausea (p < .05). Although there was no reliability measure, there were significant increases in positive verbalizations and positive affect (p < .001). All participants reported that they would desire music therapy again during a future long-term hospital stay. From the results of this exploratory study, it seems that music therapy can be a viable psychosocial intervention for hospitalized postoperative solid transplant patients. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  13. [MusicPlayTherapy--a parent-child psychotherapy for children 0-4 years old].

    PubMed

    Stumptner, Katrin; Thomsen, Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    The early stage of building up the parent-child relationship is especially important. It is the basis for the child's development of the ability to relate to others and his or her further emotional, social and cognitive development. In this important early phase various risk factors may alienate parents from their intuitive parental competence towards their children. Such interaction problems indicate an intervention in the form of parent-children psychotherapy. This constitutes an entry point for the concept of MusicPlayTherapy (MPT): The early relationship is characterized mainly by complex communication sequences that address the senses at all levels. Therefore, the MPT concept integrates music as medium to communicate and opens up a playing space for play that allows emotions and experiences to be expressed. The components of music such as rhythm, sound, and melody stimulate babies and toddlers to express, play, and communicate preverbally. We work with the child and a parent in the MusicPlayTherapy sessions. Parents learn again to play and thereby learn to reach their children emotionally and to communicate with them. We complement the therapy sessions by counselling sessions with both parents.

  14. A review of “music and movement” therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2013-01-01

    The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

  15. Effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in patients on a detoxification unit: a three-group randomized effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a component of Bandura's social cognitive theory and can lead to abstinence and a reduction of relapse potential for people who have substance abuse disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has utilized this theoretical model to address abstinence and reduce the likelihood of relapse in people who have addictions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in a randomized three-group wait-list control design with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 131) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: music therapy, verbal therapy, or wait-list control. Music therapy participants received a group lyric analysis intervention, verbal therapy participants received a group talk therapy session, and wait-list control participants eventually received a group recreational music therapy intervention. Although there was no significant between-group difference in drug avoidance self-efficacy, participants in the music therapy condition tended to have the highest mean drug avoidance self-efficacy scores. Posttest written comments supported the use of both music therapy and verbal therapy sessions. Two music therapy participants specifically noted that their initial skepticism had dissipated after receiving music therapy. Despite a lack of significant differences, the theoretical support of self-efficacy for substance abuse rehabilitation suggests that this may be an area of continued clinical focus and empirical investigation. Clinical anecdotes, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:25514686

  16. Effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in patients on a detoxification unit: a three-group randomized effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a component of Bandura's social cognitive theory and can lead to abstinence and a reduction of relapse potential for people who have substance abuse disorders. To date, no music therapy researcher has utilized this theoretical model to address abstinence and reduce the likelihood of relapse in people who have addictions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on drug avoidance self-efficacy in a randomized three-group wait-list control design with patients on a detoxification unit. Participants (N = 131) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: music therapy, verbal therapy, or wait-list control. Music therapy participants received a group lyric analysis intervention, verbal therapy participants received a group talk therapy session, and wait-list control participants eventually received a group recreational music therapy intervention. Although there was no significant between-group difference in drug avoidance self-efficacy, participants in the music therapy condition tended to have the highest mean drug avoidance self-efficacy scores. Posttest written comments supported the use of both music therapy and verbal therapy sessions. Two music therapy participants specifically noted that their initial skepticism had dissipated after receiving music therapy. Despite a lack of significant differences, the theoretical support of self-efficacy for substance abuse rehabilitation suggests that this may be an area of continued clinical focus and empirical investigation. Clinical anecdotes, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  17. Introducing music therapy in hospice and palliative care: an overview of one hospice's experience.

    PubMed

    Pawuk, Laura G; Schumacher, John E

    2010-01-01

    A middle-aged man with lung cancer breathes more easily and reduces his need for pain medication after participating in music-focused relaxation. An 8-year-old boy with cancer writes songs and records a CD for his family. An elderly woman in the final stages of Alzheimer's who is no longer able to speak sings a few words of her favorite lullaby to her adult daughter. A much-loved grandmother dies peacefully as her family sings her favorite spiritual songs to the accompaniment of a music therapist's folk harp. These illustrations demonstrate the role that music therapy plays in attending to the physical, emotional, and spiritual needs of hospice and palliative care patients and families while respecting their dignity and celebrating their lives.

  18. An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Alison J; Baker, Felicity A

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation manifested by nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease. A non-randomised experimental design was employed with one group receiving weekly music therapy (n = 26) and another group receiving standard nursing home care (n = 19). Agitation levels were measured five times over one year using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1989). Agitation in the elderly. In N. Billig & P. V. Rabins (Eds.), Issues in geriatric psychiatry (pp. 101-113). Basel, Switzerland: Karger). Although music therapy participants showed short-term reductions in agitation, there were no significant differences between the groups in the range, frequency, and severity of agitated behaviours manifested over time. Multiple measures of treatment efficacy are necessary to better understand the long-term effects music therapy programs have on this population.

  19. Effect of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety Levels of Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Priyadharshini; Nair, Shoba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] – of 4 to 10). Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student's t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003). No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356). There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034). The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of a patient who

  20. Music therapy for service users with dementia: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, R; Bradshaw, T

    2014-12-01

    Dementia is an organic mental health problem that has been estimated to affect over 23 million people worldwide. With increasing life expectancy in most countries, it has been estimated that the prevalence of dementia will continue to significantly increase in the next two decades. Dementia leads to cognitive impairments most notably short-term memory loss and impairments in functioning and quality of life (QOL). National policy in the UK advocates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and social inclusion in maintaining a good QOL. First-line treatment options often involve drug therapies aimed at slowing down the progression of the illness and antipsychotic medication to address challenging behaviours. To date, research into non-pharmacological interventions has been limited. In this manuscript, we review the literature that has reported evaluations of the effects of music therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention. The results of six studies reviewed suggest that music therapy may have potential benefits in reducing anxiety, depression and agitated behaviour displayed by elderly people with dementia as well as improving cognitive functioning and QOL. Furthermore, music therapy is a safe and low-cost intervention that could potentially be offered by mental health nurses and other carers working in residential settings.

  1. Music therapy for service users with dementia: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, R; Bradshaw, T

    2014-12-01

    Dementia is an organic mental health problem that has been estimated to affect over 23 million people worldwide. With increasing life expectancy in most countries, it has been estimated that the prevalence of dementia will continue to significantly increase in the next two decades. Dementia leads to cognitive impairments most notably short-term memory loss and impairments in functioning and quality of life (QOL). National policy in the UK advocates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and social inclusion in maintaining a good QOL. First-line treatment options often involve drug therapies aimed at slowing down the progression of the illness and antipsychotic medication to address challenging behaviours. To date, research into non-pharmacological interventions has been limited. In this manuscript, we review the literature that has reported evaluations of the effects of music therapy, a non-pharmacological intervention. The results of six studies reviewed suggest that music therapy may have potential benefits in reducing anxiety, depression and agitated behaviour displayed by elderly people with dementia as well as improving cognitive functioning and QOL. Furthermore, music therapy is a safe and low-cost intervention that could potentially be offered by mental health nurses and other carers working in residential settings. PMID:25303405

  2. [Using focus groups to explore the group music therapy experience of long term care elderly].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elderly's experience and perceptions of group music therapy. The residents of a long term care institution received group music therapy for one year. Afterwards, three interviews were conducted in focus groups of between six and eight of the elderly. Their ages ranged from 64 to 90. Ninety-five percent of these elderly subjects participated in the therapy for over ten months. The tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Six themes emerged regarding the elderly subjects' experiences and perceptions of group music therapy, as follows: (1) becoming more willing to participate; (2) feeling pain relief and more controlled moods; (3) getting physically better; (4) being more motivated to live; (5) learning positive personal interaction and obedience to the rules of the group; and (6) learning skills to improve personal health. This information might be used as a helpful and valuable reference in nursing education and by administrative organizations involved in the planning of therapeutic programs for the elderly.

  3. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation - A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Daniel S; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients' gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre-post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients' upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl-Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  4. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation – A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl–Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  5. The use of music therapy to address the suffering in advanced cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Magill, L

    2001-01-01

    Pain associated with advanced cancer is multifaceted and complex, and is influenced by physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual phenomena. Suffering may be identified in patients when pain is associated with impending loss, increased dependency, and an altered understanding of one's existential purpose. Comprehensive pain management aims to address problematic symptoms in order to improve comfort, peace of mind, and quality of life. Music therapy is a treatment modality of great diversity that can offer a range of benefits to patients with advanced cancer pain and symptoms of suffering. Music therapists perform comprehensive assessments that include reviews of social, cultural, and medical history; current medical status; and the ways in which emotions are affecting the pain. A variety of music therapy techniques may be used, including vocal techniques, listening, and instrumental techniques. These techniques provide opportunities for exploration of the feelings and issues compounding the pain experience. Case examples are presented to demonstrate the "lifting", "transporting", and "bringing of peace" qualities of music that offer patients moments of release, reflection, and renewal. PMID:11816757

  6. Music as an adjuvant therapy in control of pain and symptoms in hospitalized adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cole, Linda C; LoBiondo-Wood, Geri

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of music as an adjuvant therapy for pain control in hospitalized adults. The search terms music, music therapy, pain, adults, inpatient, and hospitalized were used to search the Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Medline, Natural Standard, and Scopus databases from January 2005 to March 2011. (A systematic review conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration has extensively covered the time frame from 1966 to 2004.) Seventeen randomized controlled trials met criteria for review and inclusion. Seven of the research studies were conducted with surgical patients, three with medical patients, one with medical-surgical patients, four with intensive care patients, and two with pregnant patients. The combined findings of these studies provide support for the use of music as an adjuvant approach to pain control in hospitalized adults. The use of music is safe, inexpensive, and an independent nursing function that can be easily incorporated into the routine care of patients. PMID:23107431

  7. The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory stimulation on motor therapies for stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and other movement disorders. The comprehensive effects on improving multiple aspects of motor control established the first neuroscience-based clinical method in music, which became the bedrock for the later development of neurologic music therapy. The discovery of entrainment fundamentally shifted and extended the view of the therapeutic properties of music from a psychosocially dominated view to a view using the structural elements of music to retrain motor control, speech and language function, and cognitive functions such as attention and memory.

  8. The discovery of human auditory-motor entrainment and its role in the development of neurologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of rhythmic auditory-motor entrainment in clinical populations was a historical breakthrough in demonstrating for the first time a neurological mechanism linking music to retraining brain and behavioral functions. Early pilot studies from this research center were followed up by a systematic line of research studying rhythmic auditory stimulation on motor therapies for stroke, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and other movement disorders. The comprehensive effects on improving multiple aspects of motor control established the first neuroscience-based clinical method in music, which became the bedrock for the later development of neurologic music therapy. The discovery of entrainment fundamentally shifted and extended the view of the therapeutic properties of music from a psychosocially dominated view to a view using the structural elements of music to retrain motor control, speech and language function, and cognitive functions such as attention and memory. PMID:25725919

  9. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes. PMID:24379454

  10. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes.

  11. Comparing Supervised Exercise Therapy to Invasive Measures in the Management of Symptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Thomas; McHugh, Seamus; Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.; Lee, Michael J.; McCaffrey, Noel; Moneley, Daragh; Leahy, Austin L.; Naughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Consensus rightly demands the incorporation of supervised exercise training (SET) into PAD treatment protocols. However, the exact role of SET particularly its relationship with intervention requires further clarification. While supervised exercise is undoubtedly an excellent tool in the conservative management of mild PAD its use in more advanced disease as an adjunct to open or endovascular intervention is not clearly defined. Indeed its use in isolation in this cohort is incompletely reported. The aim of this review is to clarify the exact role of SET in the management of symptomatic PAD and in particular to assess its role in comparison with or as an adjunct to invasive intervention. A systematic literature search revealed a total 11 randomised studies inclusive of 969 patients. All studies compared SET and intervention with monotherapy. Study results suggest that exercise is a complication-free treatment. Furthermore, it appears to offer significant improvements in patients walk distances with a combination of both SET and intervention offering a superior walking outcome to monotherapy in those requiring invasive measures. PMID:26601122

  12. Saying it in song: music therapy as a carer support intervention.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Julian

    2008-06-01

    The burdens experienced by informal caregivers are likely to increase in the context of the UK's ageing demographic, and the movement towards more home-based care for those with long-term, chronic or palliative illnesses. This article combines an overview of our understanding of caregiving and carer support interventions, with an outline of the evidence base for music therapy in palliative care. Case material from the author's experiences of songwriting with a carer is used to provide a practical insight into how this emerging palliative care discipline may have the potential to alleviate carer burden, and enhance wellness. More research to explore the efficacy of music therapy as a carer support intervention is recommended.

  13. Quantitative comparison of cognitive behavioral therapy and music therapy research: a methodological best-practices analysis to guide future investigation for adult psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    While the music therapy profession is relatively young and small in size, it can treat a variety of clinical populations and has established a diverse research base. However, although the profession originated working with persons diagnosed with mental illnesses, there is a considerable lack of quantitative research concerning the effects of music therapy with this population. Music therapy clinicians and researchers have reported on this lack of evidence and the difficulty in conducting psychosocial research on their interventions (Choi, 1997; Silverman, 2003a). While published studies have provided suggestions for future research, no studies have provided detailed propositions for the methodology and design of meticulous high quality randomized controlled psychiatric music therapy research. How do other psychotherapies accomplish their databases and could the music therapy field borrow from their rigorous "methodological best practices" to strengthen its own literature base? Therefore, as the National Institutes of Mental Health state the treatment of choice for evidence-based psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), aspects of this psychotherapy's literature base were analyzed. The purpose of this literature analysis was to (a) analyze and identify components of high-quality quantitative CBT research for adult psychiatric consumers, (b) analyze and identify the variables and other elements of existing quantitative psychiatric music therapy research for adult consumers, and (c) compare the two data sets to identify the best methodological designs and variables for future quantitative music therapy research with the mental health population. A table analyzing randomized and thoroughly controlled studies involving the use of CBT for persons with severe mental illnesses is included to determine chief components of high-quality experimental research designs and implementation of quantitative clinical research. The table also shows the same analyzed

  14. The efficacy of music therapy protocols for decreasing pain, anxiety, and muscle tension levels during burn dressing changes: a prospective randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xueli; Yowler, Charles J; Super, Dennis M; Fratianne, Richard B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of two music therapy protocols on pain, anxiety, and muscle tension levels during dressing changes in burn patients. Twenty-nine inpatients participated in this prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial. On two consecutive days, patients were randomized to receive music therapy services either on the first or second day of the study. On control days, they received no music. On music days, patients practiced music-based imagery (MBI), a form of music-assisted relaxation with patient-specific mental imagery before and after dressing changes. Also, on music days during dressing changes, the patients engaged in music alternate engagement (MAE), which consisted of active participation in music making. The dependent variables were the patients' subjective ratings of their pain and anxiety levels and the research nurse's objective ratings of their muscle tension levels. Two sets of data were collected before, three sets during, and another two sets after dressing changes. The results showed significant decrease in pain levels before (P < .025), during (P < .05), and after (P < .025) dressing changes on days the patients received music therapy in contrast to control days. Music therapy was also associated with a decrease in anxiety and muscle tension levels during the dressing changes (P < .05) followed by a reduction in muscle tension levels after dressing changes (P < .025). Music therapy significantly decreases the acute procedural pain, anxiety, and muscle tension levels associated with daily burn care.

  15. Cortical reorganization in recent-onset tinnitus patients by the Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Krick, Christoph M; Grapp, Miriam; Daneshvar-Talebi, Jonas; Reith, Wolfgang; Plinkert, Peter K; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiology and treatment of tinnitus still are fields of intensive research. The neuroscientifically motivated Heidelberg Model of Music Therapy, previously developed by the German Center for Music Therapy Research, Heidelberg, Germany, was applied to explore its effects on individual distress and on brain structures. This therapy is a compact and fast application of nine consecutive 50-min sessions of individualized therapy implemented over 1 week. Clinical improvement and long-term effects over several years have previously been published. However, the underlying neural basis of the therapy's success has not yet been explored. In the current study, the therapy was applied to acute tinnitus patients (TG) and healthy active controls (AC). Non-treated patients were also included as passive controls (PTC). As predicted, the therapeutic intervention led to a significant decrease of tinnitus-related distress in TG compared to PTC. Before and after the study week, high-resolution MRT scans were obtained for each subject. Assessment by repeated measures design for several groups (Two-Way ANOVA) revealed structural gray matter (GM) increase in TG compared to PTC, comprising clusters in precuneus, medial superior frontal areas, and in the auditory cortex. This pattern was further applied as mask for general GM changes as induced by the therapy week. The therapy-like procedure in AC also elicited similar GM increases in precuneus and frontal regions. Comparison between structural effects in TG vs. AC was calculated within the mask for general GM changes to obtain specific effects in tinnitus patients, yielding GM increase in right Heschl's gyrus, right Rolandic operculum, and medial superior frontal regions. In line with recent findings on the crucial role of the auditory cortex in maintaining tinnitus-related distress, a causative relation between the therapy-related GM alterations in auditory areas and the long-lasting therapy effects can be assumed.

  16. Neuroscientific and neuroanthropological perspectives in music therapy research and practice with patients with disorders of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M.; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses. PMID:26300720

  17. Neuroscientific and neuroanthropological perspectives in music therapy research and practice with patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Julia; Heine, Astrid M; Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Weiss, Konrad; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    A growing understanding of music therapy with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) has developed from observing behavioral changes and using these to gain new ways of experiencing this research environment and setting. Neuroscience provides further insight into the effects of music therapy; however, various studies with similar protocols show different results. The neuroanthropological approach is informed by anthropological and philosophical frameworks. It puts emphasis on a research with and not just on human beings concerning the subject/object question within a research process. It examines relational aspects and outcomes in the context of working in an interdisciplinary team. This allows a broader view of music therapy in a reflective process and leads to a careful interpretation of behavioral reactions and imaging results. This article discusses the importance of the neuroanthropological perspective on our way of obtaining knowledge and its influence on therapeutic practice. It is important to consider how knowledge is generated as it influences the results. Data from two cases will be presented to illustrate the neuroanthropological approach by comparing quantitative PET data with qualitative results of video analyses.

  18. Performative, Arts-Based, or Arts-Informed? Reflections on the Development of Arts-Based Research in Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ledger, Alison; McCaffrey, Tríona

    2015-01-01

    Arts-based research (ABR) has emerged in music therapy in diverse ways, employing a range of interpretive paradigms and artistic media. It is notable that no consensus exists as to when and where the arts are included in the research process, or which music therapy topics are most suited to arts-based study. This diversity may pose challenges for music therapists who are developing, reading, and evaluating arts-based research. This paper provides an updated review of arts-based research literature in music therapy, along with four questions for researchers who are developing arts-based research. These questions are 1) When should the arts be introduced? 2) Which artistic medium is appropriate? 3) How should the art be understood? and 4) What is the role of the audience? We argue that these questions are key to understanding arts-based research, justifying methods, and evaluating claims arising from arts-based research. Rather than defining arts-based research in music therapy, we suggest that arts-based research should be understood as a flexible research strategy appropriate for exploring the complexities of music therapy practice.

  19. Monitoring the autonomic nervous activity as the objective evaluation of music therapy for severely and multiply disabled children.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Kudo, Takashi; Koga, Mikitoshi; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Sotetsu; Hiramatsu, Kozaburo; Mori, Shunsuke; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Severely and multiply disabled children (SMDC) are frequently affected in more than one area of development, resulting in multiple disabilities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy in SMDC using monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous system, by the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability. We studied six patients with SMDC (3 patients with cerebral palsy, 1 patient with posttraumatic syndrome after head injury, 1 patient with herpes encephalitis sequelae, and 1 patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome characterized by frequent seizures, developmental delay and psychological and behavioral problems), aged 18-26 (mean 22.5 ± 3.5). By frequency domain method using electrocardiography, we measured the high frequency (HF; with a frequency ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), which represents parasympathetic activity, the low frequency/high frequency ratio, which represents sympathetic activity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, and heart rate. A music therapist performed therapy to all patients through the piano playing for 50 min. We monitored each study participant for 150 min before therapy, 50 min during therapy, and 10 min after therapy. Interestingly, four of 6 patients showed significantly lower HF components during music therapy than before therapy, suggesting that these four patients might react to music therapy through the suppression of parasympathetic nervous activities. Thus, music therapy can suppress parasympathetic nervous activities in some patients with SMDC. The monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous activities could be a powerful tool for the objective evaluation of music therapy in patients with SMDC.

  20. Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Children Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allyson

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)

  1. Effect of long-term music therapy intervention on autonomic function in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Song, Mi-Yun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2011-12-01

    Anthracyclines are potent antineoplastic agents associated with cardiotoxicity, which may lead to congestive heart failure, causing impairment of autonomic cardiovascular function as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). This decreases survival rates. This study aimed to determine whether music therapy intervention improves autonomic function in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients, and if so, whether such improvements persist after cessation of the intervention. Participants were 12 women with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy; they attended 8 weekly music therapy sessions, each lasting 2 hours. Electrocardiogram traces (5 minutes) for HRV analysis were recorded 4 times: prior to the first music session, T1; after the fourth music session, T2; after the eighth music session, T3; and 4 weeks after the completion of music therapy, T4. HRV parameters were subjected to a nonparametric Friedman test on the differences between T1 and T2, T3, and T4. The standard deviation of normal intervals and the total power of HRV parameters, related to global autonomic function, were significantly higher at T3 than at T1. The root-mean-square differences of successive normal R-R intervals and high-frequency (HF) HRV parameters, related to parasympathetic activity, were significantly increased, but no change was seen in the LF/HF ratio of HRV parameters (which is related to sympathetic activity) during the music therapy. Global autonomic function and parasympathetic activity had not changed significantly at T4 relative to T1. The authors provide preliminary evidence of the benefits of music therapy for anthracycline-treated breast cancer survivors.

  2. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level.

  3. Randomized Trial of Group Music Therapy With Chinese Prisoners: Impact on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Jing; Hannibal, Niels; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of group music therapy on improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in Chinese prisoners. Two-hundred male prisoners were randomly assigned to music therapy (n = 100) or standard care (n = 100). The music therapy had 20 sessions of group therapy compared with standard care. Anxiety (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), and self-esteem (Texas Social Behavior Inventory [TSBI], Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory [RSI]) were measured by standardized scales at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Data were analyzed based on the intention to treat principle. Compared with standard care, anxiety and depression in the music therapy condition decreased significantly at mid-test and post-test; self-esteem improved significantly at mid-test (TSBI) and at post-test (TSBI, RSI). Improvements were greater in younger participants (STAI-Trait, RSI) and/or in those with a lower level of education (STAI-State, STAI-Trait). Group music therapy seems to be effective in improving anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and was shown to be most beneficial for prisoners of younger age or with lower education level. PMID:25733743

  4. Effects of music therapy in the treatment of children with delayed speech development - results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Language development is one of the most significant processes of early childhood development. Children with delayed speech development are more at risk of acquiring other cognitive, social-emotional, and school-related problems. Music therapy appears to facilitate speech development in children, even within a short period of time. The aim of this pilot study is to explore the effects of music therapy in children with delayed speech development. Methods A total of 18 children aged 3.5 to 6 years with delayed speech development took part in this observational study in which music therapy and no treatment were compared to demonstrate effectiveness. Individual music therapy was provided on an outpatient basis. An ABAB reversal design with alternations between music therapy and no treatment with an interval of approximately eight weeks between the blocks was chosen. Before and after each study period, a speech development test, a non-verbal intelligence test for children, and music therapy assessment scales were used to evaluate the speech development of the children. Results Compared to the baseline, we found a positive development in the study group after receiving music therapy. Both phonological capacity and the children's understanding of speech increased under treatment, as well as their cognitive structures, action patterns, and level of intelligence. Throughout the study period, developmental age converged with their biological age. Ratings according to the Nordoff-Robbins scales showed clinically significant changes in the children, namely in the areas of client-therapist relationship and communication. Conclusions This study suggests that music therapy may have a measurable effect on the speech development of children through the treatment's interactions with fundamental aspects of speech development, including the ability to form and maintain relationships and prosodic abilities. Thus, music therapy may provide a basic and supportive therapy for

  5. Supervising Trainees in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Robyn D.; Westrup, Darrah

    2006-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) is a behaviorally based intervention designed to target and reduce experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion (holding the thoughts in one's mind to be literally true) while at the same time helping clients to make powerful life enhancing behavioral changes that are in line…

  6. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session frequency for therapy

  7. The challenges and benefits of a genuine partnership between Music Therapy and Neuroscience: a dialog between scientist and therapist

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Wendy L.; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialog between an experienced professional from each discipline explores the potential for collaboration, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing. PMID:25983683

  8. Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD.

  9. Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomomi; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Sato, Mai; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common problems for patients and caregivers. Although music therapy is considered a non-pharmacological intervention for the management of BPSD, its effectiveness remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavioral symptoms (SMD, -0.49; 95% CI, -0.82 - -0.17; p=0.003). In studies of duration >3 months, music therapy had large effects on anxiety (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.72 - -0.13; p=0.02). The present systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that music therapy is effective for the management of BPSD. PMID:23511664

  10. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  11. Dose-response relationship in music therapy for people with serious mental disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gold, Christian; Solli, Hans Petter; Krüger, Viggo; Lie, Stein Atle

    2009-04-01

    Serious mental disorders have considerable individual and societal impact, and traditional treatments may show limited effects. Music therapy may be beneficial in psychosis and depression, including treatment-resistant cases. The aim of this review was to examine the benefits of music therapy for people with serious mental disorders. All existing prospective studies were combined using mixed-effects meta-analysis models, allowing to examine the influence of study design (RCT vs. CCT vs. pre-post study), type of disorder (psychotic vs. non-psychotic), and number of sessions. Results showed that music therapy, when added to standard care, has strong and significant effects on global state, general symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, functioning, and musical engagement. Significant dose-effect relationships were identified for general, negative, and depressive symptoms, as well as functioning, with explained variance ranging from 73% to 78%. Small effect sizes for these outcomes are achieved after 3 to 10, large effects after 16 to 51 sessions. The findings suggest that music therapy is an effective treatment which helps people with psychotic and non-psychotic severe mental disorders to improve global state, symptoms, and functioning. Slight improvements can be seen with a few therapy sessions, but longer courses or more frequent sessions are needed to achieve more substantial benefits.

  12. PHASE: a randomised, controlled trial of supervised self-help cognitive behavioural therapy in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Ann; Barkham, Michael; Cahill, Jane; Richards, David; Williams, Chris; Heywood, Phil

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common mental health problems account for up to 40% of all general practitioner (GP) consultations. Patients have limited access to evidence-based psychological therapies. Cognitive behavioural therapy self-help strategies offer one potential solution. AIM: To determine differences in clinical outcome, patient satisfaction and costs, between a cognitive behavioural-based self-help package facilitated by practice nurses compared to ordinary care by GPs for mild to moderate anxiety and depression. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Seventeen primary healthcare teams. METHOD: Patients presenting to their GP with mild to moderate anxiety and/or depression were recruited to the study and randomised to receive either a self-help intervention facilitated by practice nurses or ordinary care. The self-help intervention consisted of up to three appointments: two 1 week apart and a third 3 months later. There were no restrictions on ordinary care. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis showed that patients treated with practice nurse-supported cognitive behavioural therapy self-help attained similar clinical outcomes for similar costs and were more satisfied than patients treated by GPs with ordinary care. On-treatment analysis showed patients receiving the facilitated cognitive behavioural therapy self-help were more likely to be below clinical threshold at 1 month compared to the ordinary care group (odds ratio [OR] = 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87 to 4.37). This difference was less well marked at 3 months (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.52 to 3.56). CONCLUSION: Facilitated cognitive behavioural self-help may provide a short-term cost-effective clinical benefit for patients with mild to moderate anxiety and depression. This has the potential to help primary care provide a choice of effective psychological as well as pharmacological treatments for mental health problems. PMID:14601351

  13. An analysis of music therapy program goals and outcomes for clients with diagnoses on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ronna S; Steele, Anita Louise

    2005-01-01

    The researchers analyzed data related to goals and outcomes over 2 program years for 40 music therapy clients, ranging in age from 2-49 years, with diagnoses on the autism spectrum. They investigated music therapy interventions, session types, and formats most frequently used; goals most frequently addressed; assessed level of difficulty of clients and their situations; and generalization of skills attained in music therapy to other settings. The most common session type was individual, followed by partner, small or large groups, peer model, or a combination. Primary goal areas were ranked from language/communication (41%), behavioral/psychosocial (39%), cognitive (8%), and musical (7%), to perceptual/motor (5%). One hundred percent of subjects reached their initial objectives in these goal areas within one year or less, regardless of session type, level of difficulty, or goal area. Seventy-seven percent of intermediate objectives were reached within that time. The most frequently utilized interventions were interactive instrument playing, musical instrument instruction, interactive singing, instrument choices, and song choices. Specific interventions chosen did not affect accomplishment of initial objectives. However, there was more variation among interventions in terms of achievement of intermediate objectives. Session formats were ranked from activity-based as most frequent to lesson-based, client-led/"shadow," and ensemble format. All formats were successful when addressing initial objectives, with lesson-based format being most effective in reaching intermediate objectives. Lastly, 100% of parents and caregivers surveyed indicated subjects generalized skills/responses acquired in music therapy to non-music therapy environments.

  14. Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation with Parkinson's Disease - A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Anna A; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes

  15. Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation with Parkinson's Disease - A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Anna A; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes

  16. Using the SCERTS model assessment tool to identify music therapy goals for clients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Darcy D; Register, Dena; Engel, Judy Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to identify and compare goals and objectives addressed by music therapists that are contained in the SCERTS Model, for use with children at risk or diagnosed with a communication impartment including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). A video analysis of music therapists working with clients at risk or diagnosed with ASD (N = 33) was conducted to: (a) identify the areas of the SCERTS assessment model that music therapists are currently addressing within their sessions for clients with ASD, and (b) compare the frequency of SCERTS domains and goals addressed by music therapists within sessions. Results of the analysis revealed that all three domains of social communication, emotional regulation, and transactional support were addressed within music therapy sessions. Within each domain both broad goals were all addressed including joint attention and symbol use for social communication, self-regulation and mutual regulation for emotional regulation, and interpersonal support and learning support for transactional support. Overall, music therapists addressed transactional support goals and subgoals more often than social communication and emotional regulation goals and subgoals. The highest frequency goal area addressed was interpersonal support (73.96%) and the lowest goal area addressed was joint attention (35.96%). For the social partner and language partner language stages, 58 of the 320 possible subgoals were addressed with 90% frequency or higher, while 13 of the same subgoals were never addressed. The SCERTS Model is designed for use by a multidisciplinary team of professionals and family members throughout a client's treatment and contains an ongoing assessment tool with resulting goals and objectives. This analysis indicates that many SCERTS goals and objectives can be addressed in music therapy interventions. Additionally, goals and subgoals not previously recognized in music therapy treatment can be generated by the use of the

  17. Battling illness with wellness: a qualitative case study of a young rapper’s experiences with music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Solli, Hans Petter

    2015-01-01

    Mental health difficulties are connected with major interpersonal and social challenges. Recent qualitative research indicates that music therapy can facilitate many of the core elements found to promote social recovery and social inclusion, findings also reflected in results from a growing body of effect studies. The objective of this study was to explore how music therapy might afford possibilities for social recovery to one man with psychosis admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit. This was achieved by means of a qualitative case study featuring a description of the music therapeutic process alongside first-hand accounts of the participant’s subjective experiences. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings are presented in a narrative form reflecting processes and activities considered particularly important for the process of social recovery. Theoretical perspectives from the recovery literature and current perspectives in music therapy are discussed with a view to the possible use of music therapy for strengthening agency, (re)building identity, developing positive relationships, and expanding social networks. PMID:26246669

  18. Music therapy modulates fronto-temporal activity in rest-EEG in depressed clients.

    PubMed

    Fachner, Jörg; Gold, Christian; Erkkilä, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Fronto-temporal areas process shared elements of speech and music. Improvisational psychodynamic music therapy (MT) utilizes verbal and musical reflection on emotions and images arising from clinical improvisation. Music listening is shifting frontal alpha asymmetries (FAA) in depression, and increases frontal midline theta (FMT). In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 79 depressed clients (with comorbid anxiety), we compared standard care (SC) versus MT added to SC at intake and after 3 months. We found that MT significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test whether or not MT has an impact on anterior fronto-temporal resting state alpha and theta oscillations. Correlations between anterior EEG, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A), power spectral analysis (topography, means, asymmetry) and normative EEG database comparisons were explored. After 3 month of MT, lasting changes in resting EEG were observed, i.e., significant absolute power increases at left fronto-temporal alpha, but most distinct for theta (also at left fronto-central and right temporoparietal leads). MT differed to SC at F7-F8 (z scored FAA, p < .03) and T3-T4 (theta, p < .005) asymmetry scores, pointing towards decreased relative left-sided brain activity after MT; pre/post increased FMT and decreased HADS-A scores (r = .42, p < .05) indicate reduced anxiety after MT. Verbal reflection and improvising on emotions in MT may induce neural reorganization in fronto-temporal areas. Alpha and theta changes in fronto-temporal and temporoparietal areas indicate MT action and treatment effects on cortical activity in depression, suggesting an impact of MT on anxiety reduction.

  19. An Eight-Eyed Version of Hawkins and Shohet's Clinical Supervision Model: The Addition of the Cognitive Analytic Therapy Concept of the "Observing Eye/I" as the "Observing Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darongkamas, Jurai; John, Christopher; Walker, Mark James

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes incorporating the concept of the "observing eye/I", from cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), to Hawkins and Shohet's seven modes of supervision, comprising their transtheoretical model of supervision. Each mode is described alongside explicit examples relating to CAT. This modification using a key idea from CAT (in…

  20. Patient-directed music therapy reduces anxiety and sedation exposure in mechanically-ventilated patients: a research critique.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian

    2015-05-01

    This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise

  1. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy.

  2. Historical Data Enhances Safety Supervision System Performance in T1DM Insulin Therapy Risk Management★

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Karvetski, Colleen; Patek, Stephen D.; Breton, Marc D.; Kovatchev, Boris P.

    2012-01-01

    Safety measures to prevent or mitigate hypoglycemia are an important component of open loop, closed loop, and advisory mode insulin therapy control settings in type 1 diabetes. In recent work, we introduce a method for the automatic, gradual attenuation of the insulin pump delivery rate when a risk of hypoglycemia is detected, a method that we refer to as brakes. In the methods presented here, we demonstrate the use of historical glucose measurement data to inform and enhance the ability of the brakes to prevent hypoglycemia in real-time. The updated brakes are based on a patient-specific, time-varying model that reflects the typical trajectory of glycemic fluctuations throughout the day. Historical heightened risk of hypoglycemia throughout the day prompts an increase in the aggressiveness of insulin attenuation as compared to the original brakes that are based on real-time data alone. Through the use of available real-time data supplemented with historical glucose information to assess hypoglycemic risk, we are able to better anticipate and prevent hypoglycemia. PMID:22342221

  3. [Behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods of music therapy in elderly patients with senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (p<0.05) after the intervention. 3. In the 25th session, mean saliva Cg A was significantly decreased after MT (p<0.05). IgA was slightly increased prior to intervention. Our results suggest that a combination of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods were valuable for assessing changes that occurred during MT for elderly patients with dementia.

  4. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  5. Music for Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Columbia University neurologist Dr. Oliver Sacks observes that music therapy can treat the loss of expressive language in ... states that Parkinson’s and stroke patients respond to music therapy because the human brain is uniquely programmed to ...

  6. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  7. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  8. Psychiatry and music

    PubMed Central

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  9. Rehabilitation, exercise therapy and music in patients with Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of the effects of music-based movement therapy on walking ability, balance and quality of life.

    PubMed

    de Dreu, M J; van der Wilk, A S D; Poppe, E; Kwakkel, G; van Wegen, E E H

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that music-based movement (MbM) therapy may be a promising intervention to improve gait and gait-related activities in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, because it naturally combines cognitive movement strategies, cueing techniques, balance exercises and physical activity while focussing on the enjoyment of moving on music instead of the current mobility limitations of the patient. A meta-analysis of RCTs on the efficacy of MbM-therapy, including individual rhythmic music training and partnered dance classes, was performed. Identified studies (K = 6) were evaluated on methodological quality, and summary effect sizes (SES) were calculated. Studies were generally small (total N= 168). Significant homogeneous SESs were found for the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test and stride length (SESs: 4.1,2.2,0.11; P-values <0.01; I(2) 0,0,7%, respectively). A sensitivity analysis on type of MbM-therapy (dance- or gait-related interventions) revealed a significant improvement in walking velocity for gait-related MbM-therapy, but not for dance-related MbM-therapy. No significant effects were found for UPDRS-motor score, Freezing of Gait and Quality of Life. Overall, MbM-therapy appears promising for the improvement of gait and gait-related activities in PD. Future studies should incorporate larger groups and focus on long-term compliance and follow-up. PMID:22166406

  10. Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing" found on pages 25-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the worldwide shortage of nurses specializing in

  11. Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing" found on pages 25-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the worldwide shortage of nurses specializing in

  12. The Effects of Music and Poetry Therapy on the Treatment of Women and Adolescents with Chemical Addictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Alisha A.

    1997-01-01

    Finds that both poetry and music therapy activities used in rehabilitation counseling sessions with clients were equally effective, evoking strong client response to both, demonstrating high goal attainment and a high percentage of on-task behaviors during the sessions. (SR)

  13. The effect of complementary music therapy on the patient's postoperative state anxiety, pain control, and environmental noise satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Tressa; Comeaux, Tressa

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain is difficult to manage with analgesia alone. Complementary interventions such as music therapy provide a level of distraction, thus promoting comfort. In this study, decreased pain and environmental noise were demonstrated, without diminishing state anxiety, in a group of postoperative patients.

  14. Effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in patients on an acute care psychiatric unit: a randomized three group effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Stigma is a major social barrier that can restrict access to and willingness to seek psychiatric care. Psychiatric consumers may use secrecy and withdrawal in an attempt to cope with stigma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of music therapy on self- and experienced stigma in acute care psychiatric inpatients using a randomized design with wait-list control. Participants (N=83) were randomly assigned by cluster to one of three single-session group-based conditions: music therapy, education, or wait-list control. Participants in the music therapy and education conditions completed only posttests while participants in the wait-list control condition completed only pretests. The music therapy condition was a group songwriting intervention wherein participants composed lyrics for "the stigma blues." Results indicated significant differences in measures of discrimination (experienced stigma), disclosure (self-stigma), and total stigma between participants in the music therapy condition and participants in the wait-list control condition. From the results of this randomized controlled investigation, music therapy may be an engaging and effective psychosocial technique to treat stigma. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for clinical practice and psychiatric music therapy research are provided.

  15. Effects of music therapy on pain among female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Yan, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Na; Dang, Shao-Nong; Wang, Duo-Lao; Zhang, Yin-Ping

    2011-07-01

    Music therapy has been used in multiple health care settings to reduce patient pain, anxiety, and stress. However, few available studies have investigated its effect on pain among breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of music therapy on pain reduction in patients with breast cancer after radical mastectomy. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Surgical Department of Oncology Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from March to November 2009. A total of 120 breast cancer patients who received Personal Controlled Analgesia (PCA) following surgery (mastectomy) were randomly allocated to two groups, an intervention group and a control group (60 patients in each group). The intervention group accepted music therapy from the first day after radical mastectomy to the third admission to hospital for chemotherapy in addition to the routine nursing care, while the control group received only routine nursing care. Pain scores were measured at baseline and three post-tests using the General Questionnaire and Chinese version of Short-Form of McGill Pain Questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the change in the Pain Rating Index (PRI-total) score from baseline. Music therapy was found to reduce the PRI-total score in the intervention group significantly compared with the control group with a mean difference (95% CI) of -2.38 (-2.80, -1.95), -2.41 (-2.85, -1.96), and -1.87 (-2.33, -1.42) for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd post-tests, respectively. Similar results were found for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Present Pain Intensity (PPI) scores. The findings of the study provide some evidence that music therapy has both short- and long-term positive effects on alleviating pain in breast cancer patients following radical mastectomy.

  16. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; McIntosh, Gerald C.; Hoemberg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy. PMID:25774137

  17. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings.

  18. Effects of active music therapy on the normal brain: fMRI based evidence.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Galandra, Caterina; Sibilla, Luisella; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Francesca; Di Salle, Francesco; Moro, Luca; Carne, Irene; Bastianello, Stefano; Baldi, Maurizia; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neurophysiological bases of Active Music Therapy (AMT) and its effects on the normal brain. Twelve right-handed, healthy, non-musician volunteers were recruited. The subjects underwent 2 AMT sessions based on the free sonorous-music improvisation using rhythmic and melodic instruments. After these sessions, each subject underwent 2 fMRI scan acquisitions while listening to a Syntonic (SP) and an A-Syntonic (AP) Production from the AMT sessions. A 3 T Discovery MR750 scanner with a 16-channel phased array head coil was used, and the image analysis was performed with Brain Voyager QX 2.8. The listening to SP vs AP excerpts mainly activated: (1) the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right middle frontal gyrus and in particular the right precentral gyrus, (3) the bilateral precuneus, (4) the left superior temporal sulcus and (5) the left middle temporal gyrus. These results are consistent with the psychological bases of the AMT approach and with the activation of brain areas involved in memory and autobiographical processes, and also in personal or interpersonal significant experiences. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to explain possible effects of AMT in clinical settings. PMID:25847861

  19. Home-based music therapy - a systematic overview of settings and conditions for an innovative service in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Almost every Western healthcare system is changing to make their services more centered around out-patient care. In particular, long-term or geriatric patients who have been discharged from the hospital often require home-based care and therapy. Therefore, several programs have been developed to continue the therapeutic process and manage the special needs of patients after discharge from hospital. Music therapy has also moved into this field of healthcare service by providing home-based music therapy (HBMT) programs. This article reviews and summarizes the settings and conditions of HBMT for the first time. Methods The following databases were used to find articles on home-based music therapy: AMED, CAIRSS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PSYNDEX. The search terms were "home-based music therapy" and "mobile music therapy". Included articles were analyzed with respect to participants as well as conditions and settings of HBMT. Furthermore, the date of publication, main outcomes, and the design and quality of the studies were investigated. Results A total of 20 international publications, 11 clinical studies and nine reports from practice, mainly from the United States (n = 8), were finally included in the qualitative synthesis. Six studies had a randomized controlled design and included a total of 507 patients. The vast majority of clients of HBMT are elderly patients living at home and people who need hospice and palliative care. Although settings were heterogeneous, music listening programs played a predominant role with the aim to reduce symptoms like depression and pain, or to improve quality of life and the relationship between patients and caregivers as primary endpoints. Conclusions We were able to show that HBMT is an innovative service for future healthcare delivery. It fits with the changing healthcare system and its conditions but also meets the therapeutic needs of the increasing number of elderly and severely impaired people. Apart from

  20. Supervised Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Patrick; Levy, Linda S.; Willeford, K. Sean; Barnum, Mary G.; Gardner, Greg; Guyer, M. Susan; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this paper is to present the evolution, purpose, and definition of direct supervision in the athletic training clinical education. The secondary objective is to briefly present the factors that may negatively affect the quality of direct supervision to allow remediation and provide higher quality clinical…

  1. Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking.

  2. Effectiveness of music therapy: a summary of systematic reviews based on randomized controlled trials of music interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Yamada, Minoru; Park, Hyuntae; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuruoka, Koki; Honda, Takuya; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Handa, Shuichi; Oshio, Takuya; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness of music therapy (MT) and to assess the quality of systematic reviews (SRs) based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study design An SR of SRs based on RCTs. Methods Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included were those with at least one treatment group in which MT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1995 to October 1, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Web of Science, Global Health Library, and Ichushi-Web. We also searched all Cochrane Database and Campbell Systematic Reviews up to October 1, 2012. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, we identified a disease targeted for each article. Results Twenty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. This study included 16 Cochrane reviews. As a whole, the quality of the articles was very good. Eight studies were about “Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-99)”; there were two studies on “Diseases of the nervous system (G00-99)” and “Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-99)”; and there was one study each for “Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-90)”, “Diseases of the circulatory system (I00-99)”, and “Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O60)”. MT treatment improved the following: global and social functioning in schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, gait and related activities in Parkinson’s disease, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. Conclusion This comprehensive summary of SRs demonstrated that MT treatment improved the following: global and social functioning in schizophrenia and/or serious mental disorders, gait and related activities in Parkinson’s disease, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality. MT may have the potential for improving other diseases, but there is not enough evidence at present. Most importantly, no specific adverse effect or

  3. Effect of oriental medicine music therapy on patients with Hwa-byung: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hwa-byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome with both psychological and somatic symptoms, is also known as ‘anger syndrome’. It includes various physical symptoms including anxiety, a feeling of overheating, a sensation of pressure on the chest, heart palpitations, respiratory stuffiness, insomnia, and anxiety. Methods/design The proposed study is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms: an oriental medicine music therapy (OMMT) group and a control music therapy (CMT) group. In total, 48 patients will be enrolled into the trial. The first visit will be the screening visit. At baseline (visit 2), all participants fulfilling both the inclusion and the exclusion criteria will be split and randomly divided into two equal groups: the OMMT and the CMT (n = 24 each). Each group will receive treatment sessions over the course of 4 weeks, twice per week, for eight sessions in total. The primary outcome is the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the secondary outcomes are the Hwa-byung scale (H-scale), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hwa-byung visual analogue scale (H-VAS) for primary symptoms, the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), and levels of salivary cortisol. Patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at the baseline visit (visit 2), after the last treatment session (visit 9), and at 4 weeks after the end of all trial sessions (visit 10). From the baseline (visit 2) through the follow-up (visit 10), the entire process will take a total of 53 days. Discussion This proposed study targets patients with Hwa-byung, especially those who have exhibited symptoms of anxiety. Therefore, the primary outcome is set to measure the level of anxiety. OMMT is music therapy combined with traditional Korean medicinal theories. Unlike previously reported music therapies, for which patients simply listen to music passively, in OMMT, patients

  4. How Well Do Randomized Controlled Trials Reflect Standard Care: A Comparison between Scientific Research Data and Standard Care Data in Patients with Intermittent Claudication undergoing Supervised Exercise Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mesters, E. P. E.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Teijink, J. A. W.; de Bie, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the degree and impact of patient selection of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing supervised exercise therapy in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) by describing commonly used exclusion criteria, and by comparing baseline characteristics and treatment response measured as improvement in maximum walking distance of patients included in RCTs and patients treated in standard care. Methods We compared data from RCTs with unselected standard care data. First, we systematically reviewed RCTs that investigated the effect of supervised exercise therapy in patients with intermittent claudication. For each of the RCTs, we extracted and categorized the eligibility criteria and their justifications. To assess whether people in RCTs (n = 1,440) differed from patients treated in daily practice (n = 3,513), in terms of demographics, comorbidity and walking capacity, we assessed between group-differences using t-tests. To assess differences in treatment response, we compared walking distances at three and six months between groups using t-tests. Differences of ≥15% were set as a marker for a clinically relevant difference. Results All 20 included RCTs excluded large segments of patients with intermittent claudication. One-third of the RCTs eligibility criteria were justified. Despite, the numerous eligibility criteria, we found that baseline characteristics were largely comparable. A statistically significant and (borderline) clinically relevant difference in treatment response after three and six months between trial participants and standard care patients was found. Improvements in maximum walking distance after three and six months were significantly and clinically less in trial participants. Conclusions The finding that baseline characteristics of patients included in RCTs and patients treated in standard care were comparable, may indicate that RCT eligibility criteria are used implicitly by professionals

  5. Impact of music therapy interventions (listening, composition, Orff-based) on the physiological and psychosocial behaviors of hospitalized children: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Cynthia M; Edwards, Robin; Hernandez, Emily; Brees, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three music therapy strategies (music listening, music composition, and Orff-based active engagement) on physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and pain) and psychosocial (anxiety) behaviors of hospitalized children (N=32, 17 females,15 males, ranging in age from 6 to 17). This study was designed and facilitated cooperatively by pediatric nurses and music therapists. Results indicated no clinically significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation (p>.05). Pain and anxiety both decreased significantly (p=.01) but not differentiated among conditions. Videotape analysis determined level of engagement in coping-related behaviors. PMID:23036597

  6. Clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    Goorapah, D

    1997-05-01

    The introduction of clinical supervision to a wider sphere of nursing is being considered from a professional and organizational point of view. Positive views are being expressed about adopting this concept, although there are indications to suggest that there are also strong reservations. This paper examines the potential for its success amidst the scepticism that exists. One important question raised is whether clinical supervision will replace or run alongside other support systems.

  7. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bringas, Maria L.; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A.; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M.; Ortega, Maria A.; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E.; Morales, Lilia M.; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT “Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol” just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  8. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bringas, Maria L; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M; Ortega, Maria A; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E; Morales, Lilia M; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT "Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol" just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  9. Effectiveness of music therapy as an aid to neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Bringas, Maria L; Zaldivar, Marilyn; Rojas, Pedro A; Martinez-Montes, Karelia; Chongo, Dora M; Ortega, Maria A; Galvizu, Reynaldo; Perez, Alba E; Morales, Lilia M; Maragoto, Carlos; Vera, Hector; Galan, Lidice; Besson, Mireille; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT) intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT "Auditory Attention plus Communication protocol" just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT) identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, confirm the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions. PMID:26582974

  10. Effects of Educational Music Therapy on State Hope for Recovery in Acute Care Mental Health Inpatients: A Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on recovery as the expectation for people with mental health disorders. Purpose: The purpose of this effectiveness study is to determine if group-based educational music therapy can immediately impact state hope for recovery in acute care mental health patients. Research questions included: will acute care mental health inpatients who participate in a single music therapy session have higher agency and pathway aspects of state hope for recovery than patients in a control condition? Will there be differences in state hope for recovery as a result of hope-oriented songwriting or lyric analysis interventions? Method: Participants (N = 169) were cluster randomized to one of three single-session conditions: lyric analysis, songwriting, or wait-list control. Results: There was no significant between-group difference. However, both music therapy conditions tended to have slightly higher mean pathway, agency, and total state hope scores than the control condition even within the temporal parameters of a single music therapy session. There was no between-group difference in the songwriting and lyric analysis interventions. Conclusion: Although not significant, results support that educational music therapy may impact state hope for recovery within the temporal parameters of a single session. The specific type of educational music therapy intervention did not affect results. Implications for practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:27774084

  11. The involvement of audio-motor coupling in the music-supported therapy applied to stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Rojo, Nuria; Amengual, Julià L; Ripollés, Pablo; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F

    2012-04-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) has been developed recently to improve the use of the affected upper extremity after stroke. MST uses musical instruments, an electronic piano and an electronic drum set emitting piano sounds, to retrain fine and gross movements of the paretic upper extremity. In this paper, we first describe the rationale underlying MST, and we review the previous studies conducted on acute and chronic stroke patients using this new neurorehabilitation approach. Second, we address the neural mechanisms involved in the motor movement improvements observed in acute and chronic stroke patients. Third, we provide some recent studies on the involvement of auditory-motor coupling in the MST in chronic stroke patients using functional neuroimaging. Finally, these ideas are discussed and focused on understanding the dynamics involved in the neural circuit underlying audio-motor coupling and how functional connectivity could help to explain the neuroplastic changes observed after therapy in stroke patients. PMID:22524370

  12. [Regulative music therapy and training as a means for enhancing adaptive potentials and for overcoming fatigue and stress].

    PubMed

    Tsenova, B

    1996-01-01

    The method of regulative music therapy (RMT) by C. Schwabe is presented-its mechanisms, the caring out procedure, usability and application domains. RMT can help to cope with mental and physical overstrain, resulting in variety of disorders regarding sleep and cardiovascular system; stomach and muscle pains, irritability and lack of balance, anxiety. RMT is based on the learning of specific perception form-efficient observation on: one's own personality, body, functions, thoughts, emotions, and not reasoning. In this way the pathogenic attention narrowing is overwhelmed and the behavior changes which reflect on the general well-being and self-tolerance. The music in RMT has a starting function. RMT is used not only in the case of neurosis therapy, it is successfully applied in the preventive medicine as a training method to cope with over-tension and as means to prevent emotional alienation in every day life. PMID:9190599

  13. Effect of Music Therapy on Patients’ Anxiety and Hemodynamic Parameters During Coronary Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Forooghy, Masoumeh; Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Pishgoo, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Background: A cardiac catheterization laboratory can be a frightening environment and music can be a supportive source of environmental sound that stimulates and maintains relaxation. However, the results of studies are conflicting in this regard. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music therapy on patients’ anxiety and hemodynamic parameters during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial, conducted in the Catheterization Laboratory Unit of Baqiyatallah Hospital, in Tehran, Iran. A sample of 64 patients, who were planned to undergo coronary angioplasty, was recruited. Patients were randomly allocated to either the control or the experimental groups. In the experimental group, patients received a 20 to 40-minute music therapy intervention, consisting of light instrumental music albums by Johann Sebastian Bach and Mariko Makino. Patients in the control group received the routine care of the study setting, which consisted of no music therapy intervention. Study data were collected by a demographic questionnaire, the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory, and a data sheet for documenting hemodynamic parameters. Chi-square, independent-samples t tests, paired-samples t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: Before the intervention, the study groups did not differ significantly in terms of anxiety level and hemodynamic parameters. Moreover, the differences between the two groups, regarding hemodynamic parameters, were not significant after the intervention (P > 0.05). However, the level of post-intervention anxiety in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (32.06 ± 8.57 and 38.97 ± 12.77, respectively; P = 0.014). Compared with the baseline readings, the level of anxiety in the control group did not change significantly after the study (41.91 ± 9.88 vs. 38.97 ± 12.77; P = 0

  14. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  15. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  16. A pilot usability study of MINWii, a music therapy game for demented patients.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Mélodie; Benveniste, Samuel; Boespflug, Sandra; Jouvelot, Pierre; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    MINWii is a music therapy game for the renarcissization of demented patients. It lets players improvise or play songs of their choice by pointing at a virtual keyboard with a Wiimote Pistol. We present the results of a three-month usability study we conducted with 7 institutionalized patients suffering from mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease at the LUSAGE Living Lab in Paris. We demonstrate that MINWii is indeed usable by AD patients despite their motor and cognitive impairments: our results, which were largely computed automatically thanks to MINWii's extensive logging capabilities, show either an instant mastery or a clear learning effect depending on patients' cognitive abilities. Moreover, patients were overall very satisfied with the game and expressed a desire to repeat the experience: MINWii fosters positive interaction with the caregivers and elicits powerful reminiscence with even the most severely impaired patients. This study justifies future research to assess the lasting effects of playing MINWii on both quality of life and cognitive impairment in demented patients.

  17. Music therapy as a treatment method for improving respiratory muscle strength in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wiens, M E; Reimer, M A; Guyn, H L

    1999-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness, predominantly of the expiratory muscles, is characteristic of individuals with advanced multiple sclerosis and can result in difficulty in clearing secretions and repeated episodes of pneumonia. This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of music therapy in strengthening respiratory muscles through an emphasis on diaphragmatic breathing and coordination of breath and speech. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one that received music therapy or one that attended music appreciation sessions. Participants' inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength was measured by testing mouth pressure before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed some improvement in terms of expiratory muscle strength, in contrast to the control group, which showed deterioration. The results were not statistically significant, however. Patients in both groups exhibited considerable weakness in their expiratory muscles, and results for 79% of the participants were below 30% of the predicted values. Variability, a major confounding factor that resulted in reduced statistical power, led the investigators to suggest an intercenter collaboration to amass sufficient numbers of patients for a future study. Early manifestation of respiratory muscle weakness warrants inclusion of respiratory muscle testing in examination protocols and early intervention efforts.

  18. Perceived outcomes of music therapy with Body Tambura in end of life care – a qualitative pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, music therapy is increasingly used in palliative care. The aim of this pilot study was to record and describe the subjective experiences of patients and their relatives undergoing music therapy with a Body Tambura in a German hospice and to develop hypotheses for future studies. Methods In a qualitative interview pilot study, data collection and analyses were performed according to the methodological framework of grounded theory. We included German-speaking patients, or relatives of patients, receiving end of life care in an inpatient hospice setting. Results 11 persons consisting of 8 patients (age range 51–82 years, 4 male and 4 female) and 3 relatives were treated and interviewed. All patients suffered from cancer in an advanced stage. The most often described subjective experiences were a relaxing and calming effect, sensations that the body feels lighter, and the generation of relaxing images and visualizations. Family members enjoyed listening to the music and felt more connected with the sick family member. Conclusion Patient reported beneficial aspects. The small sample size could be seen as a limitation. Assessment instruments measuring relaxation, stress, quality of life and should be included in future quantitative studies. PMID:24708801

  19. The temporal limits of cognitive change from music therapy in elderly persons with dementia or dementia-like cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruer, Robert A; Spitznagel, Edward; Cloninger, C Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the temporal limits of cognitive change from an intention-to-treat with group music therapy. Elderly cognitively-impaired psychiatric inpatients (N = 28) participated in an 8-week randomized control trial using a crossover design. Once a week, subjects were assigned either to music therapy or a control treatment (age-appropriate movie). The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) assessed cognition 3 times every week: prior to the intervention, immediately after the mid-afternoon intervention, and the morning following the intervention. Comparisons between conditions included weekly changes in individual subject's MMSE scores from weekly baseline to both the 2 follow-ups and the following week's baseline. Significant next morning improvements in MMSE scores were found within intent-to-treat music therapy cases as compared to control cases. While all the subjects in this study were cognitively impaired, only 17 had been formally diagnosed with dementia. Based on a Cochrane Collaboration suggestion that music therapy studies within geriatric populations look specifically at the treatment of dementia, a final generalized estimating equation model considered only the change within the 17 dementia-diagnosed subjects. Immediately after the intervention, MMSE scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy improved 2.00 points compared to the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to the control group (Z = 1.99, p < .05). Next-day MMSE test scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy showed average improvements of 3.69 points compared to the control subjects (Z = 3.38, p < .001). By the following week, no significant cognitive differences remained between the two groups. It was concluded that a reasonable music therapy intervention facilitated by a trained and accredited music therapist significantly improved next-morning cognitive functioning among dementia patients. With many music therapists working in geriatric

  20. Turning Experience into Learning: Educational Contributions of Collaborative Peer Songwriting during Music Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Krout, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of 21 Australian and United States (US) tertiary/university students involved in training to become professional music therapists. The study aimed to identify the learning outcomes--musical, professional, and personal--that occurred when students participated in collaborative peer songwriting experiences. Student…

  1. Group Rhythm and Drumming with Older Adults: Music Therapy Techniques and Multimedia Training Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuer, Barbara Louise; Crowe, Barbara; Bernstein, Barry

    2007-01-01

    Written by a team of creative and highly qualified music therapists, this publication provides content training for the use of group percussion strategies with mature adults. In fact, the book promotes senior peers as group facilitators and/or coleaders. The grace of this approach is that no previous musical training is necessary in order to…

  2. Music Performance Anxiety: An Overview of Technological Advances in Therapy, Psychopharmacology & Bio-Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, John

    Incidence of anxiety among musicians has been investigated mostly among classical players and music students. This paper determines that any intervention requires a comprehensive understanding of the primary problem. The presentation of music performance anxiety varies from individual to individual with many possible sources of origin as well as…

  3. The Music Therapist: Musician or Therapist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the importance of both the music and the counselor to the success of music therapy. Describes three stages of practice involving music therapy, and skills need by the therapist. Presents two examples of successful music therapy in clinical practice. (JAC)

  4. Music therapy: An effective approach in improving social skills of children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemtabar, Seyyed Nabiollah; Hosseini, Mahbubeh; Fayyaz, Irandokht; Arab, Saeid; Naghashian, Hamed; Poudineh, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The existing methodological weakness in conducted researches concerning music therapy (MT) for children with autism led to ambiguity and confusion in this scope of studies. The aim of the present research is to identify the effectiveness of MT method in improving social skills of children with autism and its stability, as well. Materials and Methods: In the form of a clinical trial study with design of pretest/posttest/follow-up with control group, among the children with autism in community of Tehran city, on the basis of childhood autism rating scale, 27 children with mild to moderate autism were chosen and were divided into two groups of experiment (n = 13), and control (n = 14). Social skills’ level of both groups was measured and recorded with the help of social skills rating system scale. The children of the experiment group participated in MT programs of Orff–Schulwerk for 45 days in 12 sessions (two sessions of 1-h/week), whereas the control group received no intervention. The data were analyzed with Statistic Package For Social Science (SPSS) software t-test and analysis of covariance was used to compare groups. Results: In posttest, the results of covariance analysis showed a significant increase in social skills’ scores of the experiment group (P < 0.001). Also, results of the paired-sample t-test showed that the effectiveness of MT has been persistent up to the follow-up phase. Conclusions: The study showed that MT is an effective method with deep and consistent effects on improving social skills of children with autism. PMID:26380242

  5. Music therapy with Alzheimer's patients and their family caregivers: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Melissa; Marti, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot project sponsored by a private foundation in Spain ("Fundació la Caixa"), in order to demonstrate some of the applications of music therapy, and to measure more systematically some of its effects on people with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ADRD) in early-moderate stages of the disease, and their family caregivers. Subjects for this project were 14 patients (5 women and 9 men) with a probable diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, and 14 family caregivers (9 women and 5 men) from a rural area outside of Barcelona. Their age range was 70 to 80 years. Prior to the beginning of the project, a neuropsychologist specialized in gerontology administered a series of standardized tests to the participants. These same tests were administered again 2 days before the end of the project and 2 months later for follow-up purposes. The results of the satisfaction questionnaire showed that the caregivers perceived an improvement in the social and emotional areas of their patients, and statistical tests showed significant differences between pre and posttest scores in the following tests: (a) Dementia Scale (X2 = 12.29, p = .002), (b) NPI (X2 = 17.72, p = .001), (c) the Cohen-Mansfield agitation scale (X2 = 11.45, p = .003), (d) Burden Interview (X2 = 9.19, p = .01), (e) Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (frequency subscale) (X2 = 11.09, p = .004), (f) STAI-S (X2 = 14.72, p = .001), and (g) Beck's Depression Inventory (X2 = 9.38, p = .009). These results and their implications are discussed extensively.

  6. Effects of music therapy on patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life of hospital inpatients.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Susan E; Davis, Beth A; Secic, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The matched-case control study investigated the effect of inpatient music therapy (MT), including the gift of a compact disc, on patient satisfaction and quality of life. Overall rating of the hospital and likelihood to recommend it (n = 210), and SF-12 quality of life scores (n = 160) were compared between groups. Although no significant difference in overall hospital rating was found, MT patients' recommendation scores were higher (p =.02). The MT patients had marginally better quality of life pain scores (p =.06). Integration of MT with inpatient care can improve the likelihood that patients will recommend the hospital and may impact their perception of pain.

  7. Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation with Parkinson’s Disease – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowska, Anna A.; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes

  8. A Qualitative Study of Intimate Partner Violence Universal Screening by Family Therapy Interns: Implications for Practice, Research, Training, and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todahl, Jeffrey L.; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented--and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening--is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy…

  9. Music therapy as an adjunctive treatment in the management of stress for patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Bryan C; Oliva, Rosemary; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Gaisser, D'Arcy; Salipante, Diane M; Arezina, Clare H

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated music therapy (MT) in managing anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. The use of sedation to treat anxiety during weaning is problematic because side effects (e.g., respiratory depression) are precisely the symptoms that cause the weaning process to be interrupted and consequently prolonged. Study goals were to determine the feasibility of incorporating MT into the weaning process and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, based on levels of anxiety, Days to Wean (DTW), and patient/nurse satisfaction. Adult patients received multiple MT sessions per week while undergoing weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Feasibility was determined by successful enrollment in the study and nurse survey. Efficacy was evaluated through anxiety, as measured by heart rate, respiratory rate, and patient/nurse survey; DTW; and patient/nurse satisfaction. Nurse surveys reported that MT was successfully incorporated into the milieu and 61 subjects were enrolled. Significant differences in heart rate and respiratory rate were found from the beginning to the end of MT sessions (p < .05 and p < .0001, respectively), indicating a more relaxed state. No significant difference in mean DTW was found between study and control subjects. Patient/nurse satisfaction was high. Music therapy can be used successfully to treat anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. Limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  10. Automated contouring error detection based on supervised geometric attribute distribution models for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Dolly, Steven; Kavanaugh, James; Harold Li, H.; Altman, Michael; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade L.; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua; Anastasio, Mark A.; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets

  11. The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F

    2011-01-01

    Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.

  12. Moments of Meeting: Difficulties and Developments in Shared Attention, Interaction, and Communication with Children with Autism during Two Years of Music Therapy in a Public Preschool Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…

  13. AMTA Monograph Series - Effective Clinical Practice in Music Therapy Early Childhood and School Age Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpal, Marcia Earl, Ed.; Colwell, Cynthia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Educators, families, and media in increasing numbers are recognizing the unique role music plays in young children's development. More and more daycare, preschool, and early intervention centers offer employment opportunities that reflect the needs and attitudes of our ever-changing society. Furthermore, Federal and state regulations, a changing…

  14. [Use of musical experiences as therapy for symptoms of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela Jorge; Fonseca, Mirlene dos Santos; Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; de Oliveira, Patrícia Peres; Brasil, Débora Rabelo Magalhães; Moreira, Maysa Mayran Chaves

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of musical experiments in nausea and vomiting associated with antineoplastic chemotherapy, and to identify changes in vital parameters of the patients who participated in the experience. This is a descriptive, transversal study, level II, which used a quantitative approach, conducted with thirteen patients from an outpatient chemotherapy unit, of a private hospital in São Paulo City. Two instruments were used, one of them proposed by MASCC (Multinational Association on Supportive Care in Cancer). The participants were predominantly females, aged 40 to 60 years, married and with breast cancer. Heart rate has decreased in 77% of the sample, and the reduction of nausea occurred in 100% of patients after the first musical experience, and in 85% after the second one. Patients reported disbelief in music in relieving nausea and vomiting before the sessions, and relief of nausea after them. It was concluded that there was a statistically significant reduction of the symptoms nausea and vomiting after the musical experiences. PMID:25271590

  15. Constructing optimal experience for the hospitalized newborn through neuro-based music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shoemark, Helen; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Music-based intervention for hospitalized newborn infants has traditionally been based in a biomedical model, with physiological stability as the prime objective. More recent applications are grounded in other theories, including attachment, trauma and neurological models in which infant, parent and the dyadic interaction may be viewed as a dynamic system bound by the common context of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The immature state of the preterm infant’s auditory processing system requires a careful and individualized approach for the introduction of purposeful auditory experience intended to support development. The infant’s experience of an unpredictable auditory environment is further compromised by a potential lack of meaningful auditory stimulation. Parents often feel disconnected from their own capacities to nurture their infant with potentially life-long implications for the infant’s neurobehavioral and psychological well-being. This perspectives paper will outline some neurological considerations for auditory processing in the premature infant to frame a premise for music-based interventions. A hypothetical clinical case will illustrate the application of music by a music therapist with an infant and family in NICU. PMID:26388762

  16. A survey of the use of aided augmentative and alternative communication during music therapy sessions with persons with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, Anita L

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that as many as 50% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will not develop adequate speech to meet their communication needs (Noens & van Berckelaer-Onnes, 2004). Thus, alternate means of communication such as Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) are necessary. Though many music therapists work with clients with ASD, there is a lack of research regarding music therapists' use of aided AAC. This study sought to obtain information from music therapists who work with persons with ASD via a survey to answer the following questions: (a) how many music therapists are using aided AAC in their sessions, (b) how they are using aided AAC, and (c) what type of training they have had regarding AAC systems. To assess the research questions, the author created an electronic survey. Upon distribution, the survey response rate was 49.6%. Results indicated that only 14.6% of respondents utilize aided AAC with all of their clients who use aided AAC outside of music therapy. The most common form of aided input used by music therapists in their sessions with clients with ASD is a picture schedule. Only 40% of respondents have additional training in aided AAC. Chi square tests revealed significant relationships among many of the variables: use of aided AAC and additional training, use and treatment setting, literacy promotion and additional training, modeling and additional training, referral for AAC systems and length of work with clients with ASD, referral and additional training. Results are discussed in relation to current communication literature.

  17. A survey of the use of aided augmentative and alternative communication during music therapy sessions with persons with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, Anita L

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that as many as 50% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) will not develop adequate speech to meet their communication needs (Noens & van Berckelaer-Onnes, 2004). Thus, alternate means of communication such as Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) are necessary. Though many music therapists work with clients with ASD, there is a lack of research regarding music therapists' use of aided AAC. This study sought to obtain information from music therapists who work with persons with ASD via a survey to answer the following questions: (a) how many music therapists are using aided AAC in their sessions, (b) how they are using aided AAC, and (c) what type of training they have had regarding AAC systems. To assess the research questions, the author created an electronic survey. Upon distribution, the survey response rate was 49.6%. Results indicated that only 14.6% of respondents utilize aided AAC with all of their clients who use aided AAC outside of music therapy. The most common form of aided input used by music therapists in their sessions with clients with ASD is a picture schedule. Only 40% of respondents have additional training in aided AAC. Chi square tests revealed significant relationships among many of the variables: use of aided AAC and additional training, use and treatment setting, literacy promotion and additional training, modeling and additional training, referral for AAC systems and length of work with clients with ASD, referral and additional training. Results are discussed in relation to current communication literature. PMID:21866714

  18. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology. PMID:23521381

  19. [Music therapy in the behavior therapeutic combined treatment concept. Comparison between alcoholics with neurotic personality structure and patients with behavior disturbances].

    PubMed

    Formann-Radl, I

    1980-01-01

    From times immemorial, music closely associating with magic, played a significant part in the art of healing and in religion itself. It is not an invention of modern technical age and today it is legitimately involved in the overall rehabilitation programms in psychiatry. We have therefore attempted to conduct a study on this subject. The present investigation compares the behaviour of 100 alcoholics and 100 patients with neurotic personality disturbances drawn from the catchment areas of the Psychiatric University Clinic Vienna/Austria and the Anton-Proksch-Institut in Vienna-Kalksburg with regard to their respone to this type of therapy. We found that music provides a substantial contribution in reinforcing the basic ethical concept of the person concerned. It also breaks the barriere of expressivity by enriching the pool fo potential vocabulary. It appears to be the ideal medium of free communication. Investigation has to be continued, but music therapy will never develop from an ancilliary treatment into a therapeutic method in its own right. However, the music therapist should be prepared if necessary to allow for useful deviations from the traditional lines of musical concepts in his efforts to reduce the state of anxiety in his patients and prevent further deterioration instinct and traditional values, thus strengthening the ethical concept.

  20. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M.; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music “ to do to us what it does.” While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research. PMID:26347603

  1. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music " to do to us what it does." While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research.

  2. A pilot study into the effects of music therapy on different areas of the brain of individuals with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Nikolaus; Heine, Astrid M; Vogl, Julia; Weiss, Konrad; Aschraf, Asita; Hajek, Paul; Schnider, Peter; Tucek, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The global cerebral network allows music " to do to us what it does." While the same music can cause different emotions, the basic emotion of happy and sad songs can, nevertheless, be understood by most people. Consequently, the individual experience of music and its common effect on the human brain is a challenging subject for research. Various activities such as hearing, processing, and performing music provide us with different pictures of cerebral centers in PET. In comparison to these simple acts of experiencing music, the interaction and the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist in Music Therapy (MT) provide us with an additional element in need of investigation. In the course of a pilot study, these problems were approached and reduced to the simple observation of pattern alteration in the brains of four individuals with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) during MT. Each patient had three PET investigations: (i) during a resting state, (ii) during the first exposure to MT, and (iii) during the last exposure to MT. Two patients in the MT group received MT for 5 weeks between the 2nd and the 3rd PET (three times a week), while two other patients in the control group had no MT in between. Tracer uptake was measured in the frontal, hippocampal, and cerebellar region of the brain. With certain differences in these three observed brain areas, the tracer uptake in the MT group was higher (34%) than in the control group after 5 weeks. The preliminary results suggest that MT activates the three brain regions described above. In this article, we present our approach to the neuroscience of MT and discuss the impact of our hypothesis on music therapy practice, neurological rehabilitation of individuals in UWS and additional neuroscientific research. PMID:26347603

  3. [Music therapy used on a patient in the terminal stage of cancer who narrated a tale based on her fantasy].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    Music therapy was used on a patient in the terminal stage of cancer who described a fantastic tale built around her imagined pregnancy. We believe that psychiatric intervention was successful through the introduction of music therapy as part of her palliative treatment. Particularly notable in this case was that the patient dealt with the development of ascites by telling a fantastic tale related to a pregnancy--i.e., becoming pregnant with the therapist's child. Her tale started by statements such as "I am pregnant and suffering from morning sickness" and "I am in the third month of pregnancy with the child of my therapist." This progressed in parallel with the actual changes in her physiological symptoms. Among the attending physician, the patient, and her family, this imaginary tale was an important means of communication. The theme of pregnancy, love, and family developed from an unconscious dynamic process between the physician and patient, which could be interpreted as a family-related story originating in the mind of a terminally ill patient. Through this family romance with a major theme of pregnancy, the patient was able to sense her physical crises. This process may be thought of as a product of the so-called "mythgenerating capacity" under limited conditions, which was proposed by Ellenberger. Being aware of this situation, the attending physician and others in charge of her care did not insist on negating her story: instead they accepted her fantasy, and through it they succeeded in establishing psychiatric communications. The process may be considered a form of the narrative approach that is currently attracting attention. In this example, the "process of mourning" and "stages of accepting death" in the terminal state found an outlet in the creation of a fantasy. We believe that this case illustrates the important role of communication between the physician and a patient through the acceptance by the former of a fantastic tale given by the latter; and

  4. Music therapy, a review of the potential therapeutic benefits for the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Mofredj, A; Alaya, S; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A

    2016-10-01

    Intensive care units are a stressful milieu for patients, particularly when under mechanical ventilation which they refer to as inhumane and anxiety producing. Anxiety can impose harmful effects on the course of recovery and overall well-being of the patient. Resulting adverse effects may prolong weaning and recovery time. Music listening, widely used for stress release in all areas of medicine, tends to be a reliable and efficacious treatment for those critically ill patients. It can abate the stress response, decrease anxiety during mechanical ventilation, and induce an overall relaxation response without the use of medication. This relaxation response can lower cardiac workload and oxygen consumption resulting in more effective ventilation. Music may also improve sleep quality and reduce patient's pain with a subsequent decrease in sedative exposure leading to an accelerated ventilator weaning process and a speedier recovery. PMID:27481759

  5. Massage, Music and Art Therapy in Hospice: Results of a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dain, Aleksandra S.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Hurzeler, Rosemary; Aldridge, Melissa D.

    2015-01-01

    Context Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provides clinical benefits to hospice patients, including decreased pain and improved quality of life. Yet little is known about the extent to which U.S. hospices employ CAM therapists. Objectives To report the most recent national data regarding the inclusion of art, massage, and music therapists on hospice interdisciplinary teams and how CAM therapist staffing varies by hospice characteristics. Methods A national cross-sectional survey of a random sample of hospices (n=591; 84% response rate) from September 2008 to November 2009. Results Twenty-nine percent of hospices (169 of 591) reported employing an art, massage, or music therapist. Of those hospices, 74% employed a massage therapist, 53% a music therapist, and 22% an art therapist, and 42% expected the therapist to attend interdisciplinary staff meetings, indicating a significant role for these therapists on the patient’s care team. In adjusted analyses, larger hospices compared with smaller hospices had significantly higher odds of employing a CAM therapist (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.38, 95% CI 3.40, 11.99) and forprofit hospices had lower odds of employing a CAM therapist compared with nonprofit hospices (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.85). Forty-four percent of hospices in the Mountain/Pacific region reported employing a CAM therapist versus 17% in the South Central region. Conclusion Less than one-third of U.S. hospices employ art, massage, or music therapists despite the benefits these services may provide to patients and families. A higher proportion of large hospices, nonprofit hospices and hospices in the Mountain/Pacific region employ CAM therapists, indicating differential access to these important services. PMID:25555445

  6. [Theroretical and methodological aspects of music therapy in children with special reference to international developmental tendencies].

    PubMed

    Schwabe, C

    1976-05-01

    Two melodiotherapeutical principles, namely, the isoprinciple and the intermediary principle (Benenzon), are described in the light of results of recent investigations into the communicative function of music (Reinecke). The paper also discusses the difference between methods of musicotherapy used in the treatment of mental disorders in children and adults. Finally, international trends are analyzed and conclusions drawn in respect of the development of a standard methodology of melodiotherapy.

  7. Computer Monitor Supervision: A Clinical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherl, Charles R.; Haley, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Presents communication procedures for supervisors and therapy trainees that have been developed as a result of the use of computer technology. Using the computer as a supervision tool, therapy can be influenced by the supervisor while minimizing disruption. Successes and pitfalls in a master's level practicum course in family therapy are…

  8. Does Live Supervision Make a Difference? A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Brandon C.; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Meyer, Kevin; Toviessi, Paula

    2009-01-01

    While the benefit of live supervision on clinical training is largely unquestioned, research that examines how live supervision affects the therapeutic process is lacking. Although marriage and family therapy has embraced this method of supervision, there is little empirical evidence suggesting it "works." This study uses hierarchical linear…

  9. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  10. Effects of Music Therapy on Anesthesia Requirements and Anxiety in Women Undergoing Ambulatory Breast Surgery for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bradley Palmer, Jaclyn; Lane, Deforia; Mayo, Diane; Schluchter, Mark; Leeming, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of live and recorded perioperative music therapy on anesthesia requirements, anxiety levels, recovery time, and patient satisfaction in women experiencing surgery for diagnosis or treatment of breast cancer. Patients and Methods Between 2012 and 2014, 207 female patients undergoing surgery for potential or known breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive either patient-selected live music (LM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 69), patient-selected recorded music (RM) preoperatively with therapist-selected recorded music intraoperatively (n = 70), or usual care (UC) preoperatively with noise-blocking earmuffs intraoperatively (n = 68). Results The LM and the RM groups did not differ significantly from the UC group in the amount of propofol required to reach moderate sedation. Compared with the UC group, both the LM and the RM groups had greater reductions (P < .001) in anxiety scores preoperatively (mean changes [and standard deviation: −30.9 [36.3], −26.8 [29.3], and 0.0 [22.7]), respectively. The LM and RM groups did not differ from the UC group with respect to recovery time; however, the LM group had a shorter recovery time compared with the RM group (a difference of 12.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.2 to 22.5; P = .018). Satisfaction scores for the LM and RM groups did not differ from those of the UC group. Conclusion Including music therapy as a complementary modality with cancer surgery may help manage preoperative anxiety in a way that is safe, effective, time-efficient, and enjoyable. PMID:26282640

  11. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  12. #Music Students: College Music Students' Twitter Use and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori F.; Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gregory, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate music education and music therapy majors' use of Twitter and their perceptions and knowledge related to policies and practices. Music majors (N = 238) from five universities in the Southeastern and Midwestern United States participated in a 16-question researcher-designed survey. Results indicated that…

  13. [Vibration-assisted music therapy reduces pain and promotes relaxation of para- and tetraplegic patients. A pilot study of psychiatric and physical effects of simultaneous acoustic and somatosensory music stimulation as pain management].

    PubMed

    Mariauzouls, C; Michel, D; Schiftan, Y

    1999-11-01

    Pain is a well known phenomenon in posttraumatic spinal cord injuries. Nearly 10% of the patients develop most severe, invalidizing, as a rule neurogenic pain conditions that are hardly accessible to conventional therapies. A pilot study was therefore conducted with 10 paraplegics and tetraplegics suffering chronic pain, investigating how vibration supported music therapy with the Musica Medica method affected pain experience, tension/relaxation and well-being. In addition to subjective experience, we measured physiological parameters (finger tip skin temperature, electrodermal activity, heart rate, respiration frequency) during the therapy sessions. All patients had a high acceptance of the method which throughout the group had brought about an increase in relaxation and well-being as well as a decrease of pain experience. The autonomic nervous system variables correlated with relaxation and in addition pointed to an activating impact of the therapy chosen.

  14. Music and elderly.

    PubMed

    Leners, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since more than 3 decades now, music with seniors (or younger persons), either as an educational or recreational activity, but also as a therapeutically approach has progressed. Even nowadays, in the medical field, more and more studies prove its efficiency as complementary therapy with no known side-effects. The areas where music therapy has a positive outcome, reach from pulmonary disorders to a lot of neurological chronic diseases, including aphasia, dementia or Parkinson. And at the end of life, music therapy has found a remarkable place for expressing or supporting strong emotional feelings. Evidence-based results on physiological and hormonal changes will also be reviewed. PMID:24437074

  15. Music and elderly.

    PubMed

    Leners, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since more than 3 decades now, music with seniors (or younger persons), either as an educational or recreational activity, but also as a therapeutically approach has progressed. Even nowadays, in the medical field, more and more studies prove its efficiency as complementary therapy with no known side-effects. The areas where music therapy has a positive outcome, reach from pulmonary disorders to a lot of neurological chronic diseases, including aphasia, dementia or Parkinson. And at the end of life, music therapy has found a remarkable place for expressing or supporting strong emotional feelings. Evidence-based results on physiological and hormonal changes will also be reviewed.

  16. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia. PMID:19272287

  17. [Dementia and music].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Steinberg, Reinhard; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from dementia are nevertheless still able to render exceptional musical performances. For example, they can recognize music from childhood and reproduce lyrics and melodies of songs with four verses. Furthermore, behavioural symptoms such as psycho- motor agitation and crying, but also aggressive behaviour can be positively influenced by music and motivation and positive emotions can be increased. A variety of physiological and psychological changes occur when patients are listening to music. Previous research could show that music activated different parts of the brain especially in the temporal cortex, but also motoric areas in the frontal cortex, thalamus and cerebellum were essential for rhythm, melody and harmony perception and processing. Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals with various psychiatric or medical conditions. However, until now only little research has been directed towards non-pharmacological treatments like music therapy in dementia patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the long term influence of music therapy on patients suffering from dementia.

  18. Feasibility of the music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) for use with pediatric populations

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Wendy L.; Ghetti, Claire M.; Moyer, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Measuring responsiveness to gain accurate diagnosis in populations with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is of central concern because these patients have such complex clinical presentations. Due to the uncertainty of accuracy for both behavioral and neurophysiological measures in DOC, combined assessment approaches are recommended. A number of standardized behavioral measures can be used with adults with DOC with minor to moderate reservations relating to the measures’ psychometric properties and clinical applicability. However, no measures have been standardized for use with pediatric DOC populations. When adapting adult measures for children, confounding factors include developmental considerations for language-based items included in all DOC measures. Given the lack of pediatric DOC measures, there is a pressing need for measures that are sensitive to the complex clinical presentations typical of DOC and that can accommodate the developmental levels of pediatric populations. The music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC) is a music-based measure that has been standardized for adults with DOC. Given its emphasis on non-language based sensory stimuli, it is well-suited to pediatric populations spanning developmental stages. In a pre-pilot exploratory study, we examined the clinical utility of this measure and explored trends for test-retest and inter-rater agreement as well as its performance against external reference standards. In several cases, MATADOC items in the visual and auditory domains produced outcomes suggestive of higher level functioning when compared to outcomes provided by other DOC measures. Preliminary findings suggest that the MATADOC provides a useful protocol and measure for behavioral assessment and clinical treatment planning with pediatric DOC. Further research with a larger sample is warranted to test a version of the MATADOC that is refined to meet developmental needs of pediatric DOC

  19. Music and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Donatella; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo; D’Elios, John Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship. PMID:21197362

  20. Using clinical video excerpts to prompt music therapy majors' recall of related experiences and self-attributions of comfort and skill.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a method for collecting music therapy majors' hypothesized self-attributions of comfort and skill in diverse clinical scenarios and relating their attributions to recall and perceptions of similar personal and clinical experience. Fifty eight music therapy majors, from freshmen to graduate (board-certified) students, watched 10 brief video excerpts. After each excerpt participants moved 2 Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dials, one labeled "comfort" and the other labeled "skill," to indicate their feelings about themselves as therapist with the client(s) in the excerpt. At the end of viewing all excerpts, participants completed an open-ended total recall paper/pencil form requesting estimation of personal and clinical experience with any population represented in the excerpts. Participants recalled more personal experience compared to clinical experience. A strong positive correlation was found between personal and clinical experience estimates. A strong positive correlation was also found between comfort and skill scores. Personal experience estimates were not related to self-attributions of comfort or skill. Clinical excerpts prompted neutral self-attributions of comfort and skill with comfort being slightly higher than skill self-attributions. Clinical experience estimates, although not related to self-attributions of comfort; were positively related to self-attributions of skill. Exploratory comparisons with small groups within the total sample suggest a highly positive impact of specific music therapy clinical experience, particularly the post-coursework internship, on skill self-attributions. Results are discussed within the context of using the assessment to investigate the predictive value of self-attributes as clinical indicators of persistence for recruitment and retention of potentially successful music therapy students and young professionals.

  1. [Tones and being tuned. Suggestions for the common origins of music therapy and hypnotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, József Pál

    2013-01-01

    Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma.

  2. Supervision as Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alison; Green, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This article takes up the question of the language within which discussion of research degree supervision is couched and framed, and the consequences of such framings for supervision as a field of pedagogical practice. It examines the proliferation and intensity of metaphor, allegory and allusion in the language of candidature and supervision,…

  3. Supervising Knowledge Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    This paper summarizes a new paradigm of instructional supervision, which shifts the focus on supervision from an examination of individual behavior to the improvement of work processes and social system components of the school district. The paradigm, called "Knowledge Work Supervision," helps teams of teachers and specially trained supervisors…

  4. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  5. Does live supervision make a difference? A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Silverthorn, Brandon C; Meyer, Kevin; Toviessi, Paula

    2009-10-01

    While the benefit of live supervision on clinical training is largely unquestioned, research that examines how live supervision affects the therapeutic process is lacking. Although marriage and family therapy has embraced this method of supervision, there is little empirical evidence suggesting it "works." This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to examine how therapy cases utilizing live supervision affect perceptions of progress on the problem. Findings indicated that live supervision does appear to make a difference for therapists' ratings of progress on the problem over the course of therapy; however, clients did not rate their progress as improving to the same degree. Implications for the use of live supervision as well as limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. Adjunct effect of music therapy on cognition in Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Hsun; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Yang, Yuan-Han; Chou, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hung; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Music therapy (MT) reviews have found beneficial effects on behaviors and social interaction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but inconsistent effects on cognition. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the adjunct effect of long-term and home-based MT in AD patients under pharmacological treatment. Patients and methods Mild AD cases (clinical dementia rating =0.5~1) were consecutively recruited and voluntarily separated into an MT group or control group (CG) for 6 months. Outcome assessments included Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), CASI-estimated mini-mental state examination, clinical dementia rating with sum of box scores, and neuropsychiatric inventory. The MT interventions were Mozart’s Sonata (KV 448) and Pachelbel’s Canon, listening with headphones for 30 minutes daily in the morning and before sleep, respectively. Results Forty-one cases (MT versus CG number =20 versus 21) were analyzed. Adjusted differences of CASI-estimated mini-mental state examination and CASI after 6 months in the MT group were slightly less decreased than the CG without statistical significance. In further analysis of cognitive domains of CASI, the adjusted difference of abstraction domain in the MT group was significantly better than the CG. Conclusion Although there were no apparent additional benefits of this MT on the global cognition and daily functioning in mild AD patients, it confirms the adjunct cognition effect on the abstraction. This MT contributes to the supplementary treatment of AD. PMID:25678794

  7. Effects of a music therapy voice protocol on speech intelligibility, vocal acoustic measures, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Haneishi, E

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Music Therapy Voice Protocol (MTVP) on speech intelligibility, vocal intensity, maximum vocal range, maximum duration of sustained vowel phonation, vocal fundamental frequency, vocal fundamental frequency variability, and mood of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Four female patients, who demonstrated voice and speech problems, served as their own controls and participated in baseline assessment (study pretest), a series of MTVP sessions involving vocal and singing exercises, and final evaluation (study posttest). In study pre and posttests, data for speech intelligibility and all acoustic variables were collected. Statistically significant increases were found in speech intelligibility, as rated by caregivers, and in vocal intensity from study pretest to posttest as the results of paired samples t-tests. In addition, before and after each MTVP session (session pre and posttests), self-rated mood scores and selected acoustic variables were collected. No significant differences were found in any of the variables from the session pretests to posttests, across the entire treatment period, or their interactions as the results of two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures. Although not significant, the mean of mood scores in session posttests (M = 8.69) was higher than that in session pretests (M = 7.93). PMID:11796078

  8. [Tones and being tuned. Suggestions for the common origins of music therapy and hypnotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vas, József Pál

    2013-01-01

    Sound vibrations are viewed to play an important role in embryonic development. Before the cochlea evolves, the haptic and mechanic skin-receptors detect the amniotic fluid's pressure-waves produced by sounds in uterus. Touching and hearing are seen as primordial and the most relevant stimuli both of mother-fetus attunement and development of fetal nervous system. Man is attuned to environmental stimuli, mainly to human speaking since the embryonic period. Attunement is secured by energy zones (chakras) circling around body. It is considered to be base of our music capacity. Origin of hypnotic susceptibility is viewed as being in embryonic period as well. Movements, experiences supposed, bonding and communication patterns of both of fetus and hypnotized person are suggested to show similarities. Prenatal audio-somatosensory stimulating program facilitates newborn babies' cognitive, emotional and bonding capacities. As a matter of fact, by virtue of regressive fetus-like experiences, hypnotherapy contributes to the restart of personality development halted by trauma. PMID:23880513

  9. Compliance with 14-day primaquine therapy for radical cure of vivax malaria--a randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing unsupervised with supervised treatment.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Toby; Rab, Mohammad Abdur; Ahmadzai, Hayat; Durrani, Naeem; Fayaz, Mohammad; Kolaczinski, Jan; Rowland, Mark

    2004-03-01

    The only available treatment that can eliminate the latent hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria is a 14 d course of primaquine (PQ). A potential problem with long-course chemotherapy is the issue of compliance after clinical symptoms have subsided. The present study, carried out at an Afghan refugee camp in Pakistan, between June 2000 and August 2001, compared 14 d treatment in supervised and unsupervised groups in which compliance was monitored by comparison of relapse rates. Clinical cases recruited by passive case detection were randomised by family to placebo, supervised, or unsupervised groups, and treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg) over 3 days to eliminate erythrocytic stages. Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency were excluded from the trial. Cases allocated to supervision were given directly observed treatment (0.25 mg PQ/kg body weight) once per day for 14 days. Cases allocated to the unsupervised group were provided with 14 PQ doses upon enrollment and strongly advised to complete the course. A total of 595 cases were enrolled. After 9 months of follow up PQ proved equally protective against further episodes of P. vivax in supervised (odds ratio 0.35, 95% CI 0.21-0.57) and unsupervised (odds ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.59) groups as compared to placebo. All age groups on supervised or unsupervised treatment showed a similar degree of protection even though the risk of relapse decreased with age. The study showed that a presumed problem of poor compliance may be overcome with simple health messages even when the majority of individuals are illiterate and without formal education. Unsupervised treatment with 14-day PQ when combined with simple instruction can avert a significant amount of the morbidity associated with relapse in populations where G6PD deficiency is either absent or readily diagnosable. PMID:15024927

  10. The effects of music therapy incorporated with applied behavior analysis verbal behavior approach for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A; Draper, Ellary

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a common form of Applied Behavior Analysis Verbal Behavior (ABA VB) approach and music incorporated with ABA VB method as part of developmental speech-language training in the speech production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study explored how the perception of musical patterns incorporated in ABA VB operants impacted the production of speech in children with ASD. Participants were 22 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who were verbal or pre verbal with presence of immediate echolalia. They were randomly assigned a set of target words for each of the 3 training conditions: (a) music incorporated ABA VB, (b) speech (ABA VB) and (c) no-training. Results showed both music and speech trainings were effective for production of the four ABA verbal operants; however, the difference between music and speech training was not statistically different. Results also indicated that music incorporated ABA VB training was most effective in echoic production, and speech training was most effective in tact production. Music can be incorporated into the ABA VB training method, and musical stimuli can be used as successfully as ABA VB speech training to enhance the functional verbal production in children with ASD.

  11. Music composition from the brain signal: representing the mental state by music.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Li, Chaoyi; Yin, Yu; Zhou, Changzheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to translate human EEG into music, so as to represent mental state by music. The arousal levels of the brain mental state and music emotion are implicitly used as the bridge between the mind world and the music. The arousal level of the brain is based on the EEG features extracted mainly by wavelet analysis, and the music arousal level is related to the musical parameters such as pitch, tempo, rhythm, and tonality. While composing, some music principles (harmonics and structure) were taken into consideration. With EEGs during various sleep stages as an example, the music generated from them had different patterns of pitch, rhythm, and tonality. 35 volunteers listened to the music pieces, and significant difference in music arousal levels was found. It implied that different mental states may be identified by the corresponding music, and so the music from EEG may be a potential tool for EEG monitoring, biofeedback therapy, and so forth.

  12. The Use of Music Therapy During the Treatment of Cancer Patients: A Collection of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Boyde, Constance; Linden, Ulrike; Boehm, Katja; Ostermann, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    背景:音乐疗法是最古老的创意艺 术疗法形式之一,且已证实其在不 同的临床和治疗情境中有疗效,比 如对精神分裂症、疼痛、心血管参 数和痴呆症。本文将概述该领域近 期的一些发现,并报告两个单独的 案例片段,提出对临床音乐疗法日 常应用的见解。材料和方法:为收集音乐疗法在肿 瘤科的临床研究,已在数据库 AME D、CAIRSS、EMBASE、MEDLINE、Ps ychINFO 和 PSYNDEX 中用术 语“Study OR Trial(研究或试 验)”、“Music Therapy(音乐 疗法)”和“Cancer OR Oncology(癌症或肿瘤学)”进行 搜索。已对研究的设计、设置和干 预、适应症、患者和结果进行了分 析。此外,两个案例片段展示了音 乐疗法对一名儿童白血病患者和一 名成人乳腺癌患者的应用。效果:我们发现在 2001 年至 2011 年期间,共有 12 项临床研 究,涉及到对 922 名患者。八项 研究为随机对照设计,四项研究 针对小儿肿瘤科展开。研究报告 了对患者情绪和放松方面的短期 改善、疲惫和焦虑的缓解以及应 对疾病和癌症相关疼痛的各种效 果。案例描述显示,对表达情 绪、开创新目标,及心理转向健 康过程并将注意力转离疾病而关 注其它事项上具有类似效果。 结论:音乐疗法运用于癌症患者 的综合治疗,其健康导向潜力已 在许多案例研究,比如本文所展 示的研究中证实,是一种可取治 疗方案。但研究结果未能总结音 乐疗法的整体效果。除进一步临 床试验外,应以定性研究、个案 描述和基准研究补充零散证据。.

  13. Psychoanalysis, Teaching, and Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews some developments in psychoanalysis that related directly to supervision and are relevant for clinical supervision in schools. Shows how recent theoretical advances in psychoanalysis can help supervisors better understand the nature of teaching and guide their own relationships with teachers. (MLF)

  14. Supervision in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha J.

    Although the literature of library administration draws extensively on that of business management, it is difficult to compare library supervision to business or industrial supervision. Library supervisors often do not have managerial training and may consider their management role as secondary. The educational level of the staff they supervise…

  15. Networks of Professional Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Ryba, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An ecological analysis of the supervisory activity of 31 New Zealand school psychologists examined simultaneously the theories of school psychology, supervision practices, and the contextual qualities that mediated participants' supervisory actions. The findings indicated that the school psychologists worked to achieve the supervision goals of…

  16. New Developments in the Supervision of Cognitive Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judith S.

    Several important developments have evolved in the supervision of cognitive therapists in the past few years. Five such developments are: (1) the conscious structuring of the supervision session to conform to the suggested structure of the therapy session; (2) increased emphasis on quickly and efficiently conceptualizing patients, refining the…

  17. An Instrument for Person-of-the-Therapist Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aponte, Harry J.; Carlsen, J. Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a tool that serves as a guide for building an effective bridge between the personal and technical aspects of therapy in supervision. The instrument is based on a model of clinical supervision that emphasizes the purposeful utilization of self--in the moment, with both flaws and strengths--in the therapeutic relationship in…

  18. Improving Field Supervision through Collaborative Supervision Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia Smith; Amador, Andria; Finer, Diana; Gotthelf, David; Hintze, John; Kruger, Lou; Li, Chieh; Lichtenstein, Bob; Rogers, Laura; Struzziero, Joan; Wandle, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Adequate and appropriate supervision of interns is frequently identified as a significant problem by training programs while, on their part, field placement sites often indicate that training programs generate expectations for interns that are not always "in synch" with district expectations of school psychologists. As a result of an increasing…

  19. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  20. A pilot analysis of the psychological themes found during the CARING at Columbia--Music Therapy program with refugee adolescents from North Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Carolyn Mi Hwan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological themes found during the modified CARING at Columbia-Music Therapy (CAC-MT) program with refugee adolescents from North Korea. Nine students attending an alternative school participated in this study. Academically, students belong to an equivalent middle school level. Students participated in a music therapy program comprised of 25 sessions. A multiple case analysis was conducted to gather qualitative results. Students were found to be exposed to various psychosocially stressful life situations such as lack of social support system, family separation, academic difficulty, and economic hardship throughout their adaptation process to their new country. There were 5 common psychological themes--avoidance, distrust, loneliness, feelings of loss, and fear--found among the refugee students over the course of the CAC-MT treatment. For future research, studies with a larger sample size and differing types of session structure should be conducted to closely examine the effects of this program on refugee adolescents.

  1. Achieving effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David J; Spence, Susan H; Wilson, Jill; Crow, Natasha

    2002-09-01

    Supervision probably does have benefits both for the maintenance and improvement of clinical skills and for job satisfaction, but the data are very thin and almost non-existent in the area of alcohol and other drugs services. Because of the potential complexity of objectives and roles in supervision, a structured agreement appears to be an important part of the effective supervision relationship. Because sessions can degenerate easily into unstructured socialization, agendas and session objectives may also be important. While a working alliance based on mutual respect and trust is an essential base for the supervision relationship, procedures for direct observation of clinical skills, demonstration of new procedures and skills practice with detailed feedback appear critical to supervision's impact on practice. To ensure effective supervision, there needs not only to be a minimum of personnel and resources, but also a compatibility with the values and procedures of management and staff, access to supervision training and consultation and sufficient incentives to ensure it continues. PMID:12270075

  2. Parental supervision and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D G

    1983-04-01

    A review of the literature suggests that parental supervision over their children is a significant variable in controlling the amount of delinquent behaviour; high supervision is associated with low delinquency. The relationship remains when variables such as mother's affection, parental conflict, parental aggression, mother's self-confidence, father's deviance, father's absence, father's occupation are controlled. And it appears to be effective under extremely adverse conditions such as poverty and authoritarian and repressive methods of child rearing. Training packages providing basic information about processes of child development and emphasizing positive techniques of child management, with parental supervision as an essential ingredient, need to be further developed and evaluated as a means of reducing delinquency.

  3. Music Education and Medicine: A Renewed Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the renewed alliance between music educators and medical researchers in researching the learning process. Focuses on how music is used as therapy for disabled children and the research that enables teachers to provide effective instruction to special education students. Emphasizes the interdisciplinary courses that relate music and…

  4. Crisis Management during "Live" Supervision: Clinical and Instructional Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Laurie L.; Ticheli-Kallikas, Michele; Tyner, Kelly; Barber-Stephens, Brandi

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we illustrate two examples of "live" supervision with marriage and family therapy trainees whose clients presented in the therapy room in immediate crisis. The case examples, one a client with suicidal thoughts and the other a parent who had struck her child, demonstrate how the university-based therapy team managed the recursive…

  5. Why Music?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTamaney, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of music education in a child's development, and how music experiences affect the development of students' intellect. Music education has long been anecdotally linked to increased intellectual ability. Research suggests, though, that music education is far more than an entertaining diversion.…

  6. Gospel Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Horace Clarence

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the origins of gospel music the contributions of Thomas A. Dorsey, a blues musician who devoted his life to the composition and singing of gospel music, some modern gospel musicians, the forms and structures of gospel music, and the influence of gospel music. (Author/RK)

  7. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  8. The collaborative model of fieldwork education: a blueprint for group supervision of students.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Debra J; DeIuliis, Elizabeth D

    2015-04-01

    Historically, occupational therapists have used a traditional one-to-one approach to supervision on fieldwork. Due to the impact of managed care on health-care delivery systems, a dramatic increase in the number of students needing fieldwork placement, and the advantages of group learning, the collaborative supervision model has evolved as a strong alternative to an apprenticeship supervision approach. This article builds on the available research to address barriers to model use, applying theoretical foundations of collaborative supervision to practical considerations for academic fieldwork coordinators and fieldwork educators as they prepare for participation in group supervision of occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant students on level II fieldwork.

  9. Educational Benefits of Music in an Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Susan; Yu, Sanna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to highlight literature concerning the effects of music therapy on children with disabilities. The paper is organized in the following sections: (1) background of music and children with disabilities, (2) the aims of music therapy, (3) main contributions to cognitive, biopsychosocial development of children with…

  10. Using Music To Develop Peer Interaction: An Examination of the Response of Two Subjects with a Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the response of two adults who attended a music activity therapy program in which music activities encouraged peer interaction. Music activity therapy was compared with a control condition (i.e., ball and target games). Both conditions increased the level of positive interaction, however, music therapy was least effective.…

  11. Music perception.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana

    2007-05-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between music perception as it is studied in the laboratory and as it occurs in the real world. We first examine general principles by which listeners group musical tones into perceptual configurations, and how these principles are implemented in music composition and performance. We then show that, for certain types of configuration, the music as it is perceived can differ substantially from the music that is notated in the score, or as might be imagined from reading the score. Furthermore, there are striking differences between listeners in the perception of certain musical passages. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Music: Artistic Performance or a Therapeutic Tool? A Study on Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and describe how musicians who are also music therapy students separate music as artistic performance from music as a therapeutic tool. The data consist of 18 written reflections from music therapy students that were analyzed according to a phenomenographic method. The findings are presented as four…

  13. [Music-based intervention in children].

    PubMed

    Kiese-Himmel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Music-based interventions with children are an effective method in health and sickness treatment and in education systems. The engagement with music enables positive transfer effects on extra-musical developmental domains. Music therapy was applied primarily as a practically-oriented scientific discipline both within the framework of a multi-modal therapy approach as one treatment component and focused specifically on children with emotional disorders within a somatic therapy concept and in rehabilitation. The following narrative overview will present music therapy's working basis, treatment goals, and select outcome research in children from 2005-2010. There currently exists a substantial lack, even within empirical research, in relation to the application of music therapy to children. This is an opportunity to initiate a broad range of study for the future. Current challenges and opportunities in scientific, music-based intervention in the paediatric population lie in the concretization of differential indications (both in intervention approach and duration), replicable comparative therapy (alternated treatment-design), the application of a music-therapeutic placebo requirement, as well as in the verification and analysis of specific music therapeutic mechanisms.

  14. Biochemical and galvanic skin responses to music stimuli by college students in biology and music.

    PubMed

    VanderArk, S D; Ely, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biochemical and physiological responses to musical stimuli. Specifically, university music and biology students' plasma levels of norepinephrine, endorphin, and cortisol, and their galvanic skin responses were measured before and after listening to two different musical selections in an anechoic chamber and during controlled silence. The results indicated that biochemical variables changed significantly in both groups during listening to music but were not different during the controlled silence. These data suggest that music majors may listen more analytically to music. GSR responses were significantly higher for music majors than biology majors, and plasma cortisol increased in music students but decreased in biology students. Music which elicits specific emotions induces physiological changes which may be beneficial to relaxation and behavioral therapies. PMID:1501973

  15. Supervising Graduate Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jessica; Nonnamaker, John

    2011-01-01

    Discussions of personnel management in student affairs literature and at national conferences often focus on supervising new or midlevel professionals and the myriad challenges and possibilities these relationships entail (Carpenter, 2001; Winston and Creamer, 1997). Graduate students as employees and the often-complicated and ill-structured…

  16. Supervision as Cultural Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…

  17. Revisiting Supervised Agricultural Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; Clarke, Ariane; Fallon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    A Delphi panel of 40 agricultural educators unanimously agreed that supervised agricultural experience should remain an integral component of the curriculum; a name change is not currently warranted. Categories recommended were agribusiness entrepreneurship, placement, production, research, directed school lab, communications, exploration, and…

  18. What Is Effective Supervision? A National Survey of Supervision Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Vaughn E.; McNeill, Brian W.

    Previous research regarding the supervision of psychotherapists has been primarily based on the perceptions of supervisors and supervisees at various levels of experience. This national survey examines the attitudes and beliefs of experts in the field of supervision concerning what constitutes effective supervision. A number of themes and…

  19. Mozart, music and medicine.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. PMID:25060169

  20. Mozart, music and medicine.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress.

  1. Music Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, music programs in K-12 schools have emphasized performance opportunities for children and young people. Until the release of the 1994 National Standards in Music, targeted instruction in composition was frequently overlooked due to the emphasis on performance as well as the expectations of what a school music program ought to produce…

  2. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  3. Making Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Theodore M.

    1971-01-01

    Chicago's First Annual Summer Youth Music Competition (1970) was sponsored by the Chicago Park District and the American Music Conference. Termed highly successful, the summer-long festival involved 350 teenagers in a band contest. Music types were jazz, rock, folk, soul, and blues. (AN)

  4. Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience.

    PubMed

    Boso, Marianna; Politi, Pierluigi; Barale, Francesco; Enzo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Music, a universal art form that exists in every culture around the world, is integral to a number of social and courtship activities, and is closely associated with other creative behaviours such as dancing. Recently, neuroimaging studies have allowed researchers to investigate the neural correlates of music processing and perception in the brain. Notably, musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviours, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson?s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of rigorous scientific data supporting the clinical application of music therapy, and there is thus a need to confirm and expand the preliminary findings regarding the potential and actual effectiveness of music therapy. This need should be addressed through prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded investigations of the short- and long-term effects of music therapy in diverse clinical conditions. PMID:17367577

  5. Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience.

    PubMed

    Boso, Marianna; Politi, Pierluigi; Barale, Francesco; Enzo, Emanuele

    2006-01-01

    Music, a universal art form that exists in every culture around the world, is integral to a number of social and courtship activities, and is closely associated with other creative behaviours such as dancing. Recently, neuroimaging studies have allowed researchers to investigate the neural correlates of music processing and perception in the brain. Notably, musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviours, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson?s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, there is still a shortage of rigorous scientific data supporting the clinical application of music therapy, and there is thus a need to confirm and expand the preliminary findings regarding the potential and actual effectiveness of music therapy. This need should be addressed through prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded investigations of the short- and long-term effects of music therapy in diverse clinical conditions.

  6. What Is "Known" in Community Music in Higher Education? Engagement, Emotional Learning and an Ecology of Ideas from the Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Liz

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to make explicit the evolving ecology of ideas in the field of community music and higher education that are particular to a context yet transferable across respective fields of enquiry--music education, community music, music therapy and community music therapy. This is contextualized in two ways: (1) through a consideration of…

  7. Novice Supervisors' Understandings of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    Findings of a study that examined novice supervisors' understandings of supervision are presented in this paper. Data were collected from 110 graduate-level students enrolled in an introductory supervision class. Four themes emerged from students' definitions of supervision-domains, relationships, traits, and tasks. The most surprising finding was…

  8. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Home-based neurologic music therapy for upper limb rehabilitation with stroke patients at community rehabilitation stage—a feasibility study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Street, Alexander J.; Magee, Wendy L.; Odell-Miller, Helen; Bateman, Andrew; Fachner, Jorg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements. Methods: For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3–60 months post stroke) has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n = 7) or wait list control (n = 7) group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies. Discussion: Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes. PMID:26441586

  10. Musical pleasure.

    PubMed

    Galimany, N N

    1993-04-01

    Music reactivates foetal experiences of pleasure connected with auditory contact with the mother. Subject to an appropriate setting, the porosity of the skin-ego is increased, permitting bidirectional traffic between inside and outside. Kristeva uses the word significance to denote the meaning occurring along the spectrum from the infralinguistic level (the semiotics of affects) to language. The infralinguistic level (sonic, rhythmic, visual etc. traces) is that on which music develops, music here being presented as the carrier of nebulous 'fantasies' of fusion with the idealised mother of the foetal era. Primitive musical interchanges are illustrated by a clinical vignette. The paper develops the hypothesis that the pleasure of music revives the primitive auditory fusion with the mother; it points out the relations between aesthetics and musical pleasure and between musical forms and the production of pleasure in the unconscious.

  11. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise: a parallel-group randomized clinical trial evaluating relative effectiveness and harms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Back and neck disability are frequent in older adults resulting in loss of function and independence. Exercise therapy and manual therapy, like spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), have evidence of short and intermediate term effectiveness for spinal disability in the general population and growing evidence in older adults. For older populations experiencing chronic spinal conditions, long term management may be more appropriate to maintain improvement and minimize the impact of future exacerbations. Research is limited comparing short courses of treatment to long term management of spinal disability. The primary aim is to compare the relative effectiveness of 12 weeks versus 36 weeks of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) in older adults with back and neck disability. Methods/Design Randomized, mixed-methods, comparative effectiveness trial conducted at a university-affiliated research clinic in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metropolitan area. Participants Independently ambulatory community dwelling adults ≥ 65 years of age with back and neck disability of minimum 12 weeks duration (n = 200). Interventions 12 weeks SMT + SRE or 36 weeks SMT + SRE. Randomization Blocked 1:1 allocation; computer generated scheme, concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding Functional outcome examiners are blinded to treatment allocation; physical nature of the treatments prevents blinding of participants and providers to treatment assignment. Primary endpoint 36 weeks post-randomization. Data collection Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary outcomes include pain, general health status, improvement, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, satisfaction, and medication use. Functional outcome assessment occurs

  12. Supervised multimedia categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldershoff, Frank; Salden, Alfons H.; Iacob, Sorin M.; Kempen, Masja

    2003-01-01

    Static multimedia on the Web can already be hardly structured manually. Although unavoidable and necessary, manual annotation of dynamic multimedia becomes even less feasible when multimedia quickly changes in complexity, i.e. in volume, modality, and usage context. The latter context could be set by learning or other purposes of the multimedia material. This multimedia dynamics calls for categorisation systems that index, query and retrieve multimedia objects on the fly in a similar way as a human expert would. We present and demonstrate such a supervised dynamic multimedia object categorisation system. Our categorisation system comes about by continuously gauging it to a group of human experts who annotate raw multimedia for a certain domain ontology given a usage context. Thus effectively our system learns the categorisation behaviour of human experts. By inducing supervised multi-modal content and context-dependent potentials our categorisation system associates field strengths of raw dynamic multimedia object categorisations with those human experts would assign. After a sufficient long period of supervised machine learning we arrive at automated robust and discriminative multimedia categorisation. We demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our multimedia categorisation system in retrieving semantically meaningful soccer-video fragments, in particular by taking advantage of multimodal and domain specific information and knowledge supplied by human experts.

  13. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  14. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed. PMID:26561887

  15. Practice guidelines for music interventions with hospitalized pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Janice W; Shirk, Beverly J; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2007-12-01

    Music therapy is an effective complementary approach that can achieve specific therapeutic outcomes in the clinical management of pediatric patients. Growing research on music interventions has generated scientific knowledge about how this modality benefits patients and has formed the basis for effective protocols that can be used in practice. Although it can be challenging to translate research-based protocols into routine clinical care at the bedside, it is essential that music therapy interventions be aligned with evidence-based information and that accepted standards be established by the music therapy discipline to achieve the greatest benefit. The importance of partnerships between nurses and music therapists is emphasized to enhance the success of music-based treatments. This discussion synthesizes research findings that can be used to design pediatric practice guidelines in the application of music therapy.

  16. Mindful Music Listening as a Potential Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Kristen J.; Dinsmore, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental health issues. Although drug therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy remain popular and effective treatments, alternative interventions such as the use of music listening and mindfulness practice as interventions during therapy have gained ground. Research on the use of music listening and mindfulness…

  17. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2012-03-23

    This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlear implants. This article consolidates research studies from various disciplines (audiology, hearing science, speech-language pathology, cochlear implants, and music therapy) to provide practical recommendations for educators in fostering the musical growth of children with cochlear implants. PMID:23469365

  18. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlear implants. This article consolidates research studies from various disciplines (audiology, hearing science, speech-language pathology, cochlear implants, and music therapy) to provide practical recommendations for educators in fostering the musical growth of children with cochlear implants. PMID:23469365

  19. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Experiences of Master's Level Counselor Trainees in Expressive Arts Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Martha Howe

    2010-01-01

    Expressive arts group supervision is the use of music, stories, movement, poetry or prose, role-play or psychodrama, art, guided imagery, or play to help trainees develop reflective skills (Wilkins, 1995), express thoughts and feelings (Knill, Levine & Levine, 2005; Lahad, 2000), develop new perspectives (Gladding, 2005), increase communication…

  20. Music therapy assessment tool for awareness in disorders of consciousness (MATADOC): standardisation of the principal subscale to assess awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Magee, Wendy L; Siegert, Richard J; Daveson, Barbara A; Lenton-Smith, Gemma; Taylor, Steve M

    2014-01-01

    Establishing valid and reliable measures for use with patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) following profound brain injury is challenging due to a number of factors including the complex presentation of such patients and assessor variability. The auditory modality has been demonstrated to have greater sensitivity for detecting awareness in DOC patients. However, there are no measures developed to assess auditory responsiveness specifically. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the principal subscale of a music therapy assessment tool (MATADOC) developed for use with adult DOC patients. The subscale assesses behavioural domains essential for diagnosis of awareness. Twenty-one adult patients were recruited from a specialist rehabilitation unit. In a prospective study with repeated measures, internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest reliability and dimensionality were examined. The five-item scale showed satisfactory internal reliability (α = .76) and a strong first principal component. Corrected item-total correlations were all > .45. Inter-rater intra-class correlations (ICCs) ranged from 0.65-1.00 and intra-rater ICCs from 0.77-0.90. Rasch analysis confirmed these impressions of a reliable, unidimensional and homogenous scale. Diagnostic outcomes had 100% agreement with a validated external reference standard. The results indicate that the MATADOC principal subscale provides a new behavioural measure that can contribute to interdisciplinary assessment of awareness with DOC patients.

  1. [How does music affect the human body?].

    PubMed

    Myskja, A; Lindbaek, M

    2000-04-10

    Music therapy has developed its practice and research approaches within a qualitative framework more related to humanistic traditions than to medical science. Music medicine has therefore developed as a separate discipline, endeavouring to incorporate the legitimate therapeutic use of music within a medical framework. This paper argues that more extensive communication and collaboration between the methods developed within the music therapy community, and research based on medical science, could lead to a better understanding of the place of music as a therapeutic tool, both as regards its efficacy and its limits. Research has shown that music may influence central physiological variables like blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, EEG measurements, body temperature and galvanic skin response. Music influences immune and endocrine function. The existing research literature shows growing knowledge of how music can ameliorate pain, anxiety, nausea, fatigue and depression. There is less research done on how music, and what type of music, is utilized and administered specifically for optimum effect in specific clinical situations.

  2. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  3. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  4. The Integration of Speech Therapy Techniques with Those of Movement, Music, and Sensory Integrative Therapies in Order to Provide Communication Systems for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeShay, Debra N.

    Project LINK at the Developmental Center for Autistic Children in Philadelphia provides therapy to emotionally disturbed children and training and consultation for teachers and mental health professionals. Each child is evaluated by treatment team members through repeated observations and informal assessments. The primary goal of treatment is the…

  5. [The relations between music and medicine in history and present].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-12-01

    Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians. PMID:22169917

  6. [The relations between music and medicine in history and present].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-12-01

    Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians.

  7. Music and Informal Learning in Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…

  8. [Music for rheumatism--a historical overview].

    PubMed

    Evers, S

    1990-01-01

    The history of the use of music to lessen the pain of rheumatism is seen in the use of musical therapy in medicine as a whole. Sources citing the use of music specifically in rheumatism are rare; often, rather than rheumatism, terms like "gout (podagra)" or "joint-pain" are mentioned. This is connected with the obscure and pathognomic perceptions of rheumatism. In the archeo-medicine and for primitive cultures the considered potency of music was primarily dominated by animistic thinking. In antiquity humoral pathology developed a philosophy that tried to explain the benefits of music, even for rheumatism, but found little acceptance. In the Middle Ages and in the Baroque period iatromechanistic conceptions determined music as useful in fight against pain. In the Romantic period there was speculation about music as a causal therapy, but it was shortlived. In the 20th century music is applied as an active therapy in the care of persons suffering from rheumatism; its empiric success as a remedy in rehabilitative and palliative therapy is recognized. PMID:2198738

  9. The Patterns of Music: Young Children Learning Mathematics through Beat, Rhythm, and Melody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; Geist, Eugene A.; Kuznik, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Research on music and music therapy suggests that math and music are related in the brain from very early in life. Musical elements such as steady beat, rhythm, melody, and tempo possess inherent mathematical principles such as spatial properties, sequencing, counting, patterning, and one-to-one correspondence. With new understanding about the…

  10. How Are Doctoral Students Supervised? Concepts of Doctoral Research Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Literature about doctoral supervision has concentrated on describing the ever lengthening lists of functions that must be carried out. This functional approach is necessary, but there has been little exploration of a different paradigm, a conceptual approach towards research supervision. This article, based on interviews with supervisors from a…

  11. Supervision of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Williams, David L.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 found that supervised agricultural experience (SAE) teachers, students, parents, and employers value the teachers' supervisory role. Implementation practices vary widely and there are no cumulative data to guide policies and standards for SAE supervision. (SK)

  12. Supervising Knowledge Work: A Different Kind of Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional supervision paradigms, based on changing teachers' behavior, are ineffective. The Knowledge Work Supervision model helps align supervisory processes with a school system's purposes, goals, and outcomes. A special supervisory paradigm that shifts focus from individual behavior to an organization's work processes and social systems is…

  13. A Collaboratively Supervised Teaching Internship: Implications for Future Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas E.

    This paper describes the 5-year Austin Teacher Program (ATP) at Austin College with emphasis on the collaboratively supervised internship in the graduate year. Some results of a comprehensive survey of over 400 ATP graduates are discussed, as well as issues and needs in the supervision of interns, and implications for the future in the supervision…

  14. Can music serve as a "cultural immunogen"? An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Even

    2013-08-07

    The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday "musicking" performed by people outside the institutional practice.

  15. A Theory Upon Origin of Implicit Musical Language.

    PubMed

    Vas József, P

    2015-11-30

    The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants' spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness. PMID:26973966

  16. A Theory Upon Origin of Implicit Musical Language

    PubMed Central

    Vas József, P.

    2015-01-01

    The author suggests that the origin of musicality is implied in an implicit musical language every human being possesses in uterus due to a resonance and attunement with prenatal environment, mainly the mother. It is emphasized that ego-development and evolving implicit musical language can be regarded as parallel processes. To support this idea a lot of examples of musical representations are demonstrated by the author. Music is viewed as a tone of ego-functioning involving the musical representations of bodily and visceral senses, cross-modal perception, unity of sense of self, individual fate of ego, and tripolar and bipolar musical coping codes. Finally, a special form of music therapy is shown to illustrate how can implicit musical language be transformed into explicit language by virtue of participants’ spontaneity, creativity, and playfulness. PMID:26973966

  17. Musical hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Evers, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    Musical hallucinations have been described in numerous neurologic and psychiatric patients, but their pathophysiologic background is not understood. Analyzing the published cases, five subgroups can be separated according to their etiology: hypacusis, psychiatric disorders, focal brain lesions, epilepsy, and intoxication. There is a female preponderance of about 70%. Musical hallucinations most often occur in patients over age 60 years, although patients whose hallucinations are caused by focal brain lesions are significantly younger. Hemispheric dominance seems to play no major role in the pathogenesis of musical hallucinations, but hypacusis is present in the majority of all patients. Anticonvulsant and antidepressive agents have been effective in the treatment of some musical hallucinations. The discussion on the pathophysiology of musical hallucinations comprises theories of deafferentation (including auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome), of sensory auditory deprivation, of parasitic memory, and of spontaneous activity in a cognitive network module.

  18. Musical appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  19. Unfinished Business: Subjectivity and Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Within the now burgeoning literature on doctoral research education, postgraduate research supervision continues to be a problematical issue, practically and theoretically. This paper seeks to explore and understand supervision as a distinctive kind of pedagogic practice. Informed by a larger research project, it draws on poststructuralism,…

  20. Latent Supervised Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Susan; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A new machine learning task is introduced, called latent supervised learning, where the goal is to learn a binary classifier from continuous training labels which serve as surrogates for the unobserved class labels. A specific model is investigated where the surrogate variable arises from a two-component Gaussian mixture with unknown means and variances, and the component membership is determined by a hyperplane in the covariate space. The estimation of the separating hyperplane and the Gaussian mixture parameters forms what shall be referred to as the change-line classification problem. A data-driven sieve maximum likelihood estimator for the hyperplane is proposed, which in turn can be used to estimate the parameters of the Gaussian mixture. The estimator is shown to be consistent. Simulations as well as empirical data show the estimator has high classification accuracy. PMID:24319303

  1. Music Listening as Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…

  2. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  3. Chinese Musical Prodigies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Carolyn; Harris, R. Carl

    1989-01-01

    The article describes several young Chinese musical prodigies as well as principles of the Shanghai Music Conservatory's middle and primary schools which provide intensive musical training to musically gifted students. (DB)

  4. Ode to Healing Music in Health Care.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy has been around since the 1940s when physicians notice a positive effect that music had on the soldiers with "shell shock" (now more commonly known as posttraumatic stress disorder). For decades, veterans were the primary patients worked with by music therapists. In the 1970s, the hospice movement started to enter the health care continuum, largely due to Dr Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, who advocated for home care and patient choice for the terminally ill. Two decades later, it became apparent that hospice patients could benefit from music. And currently, there are not enough people certified to work with music in hospice patients, veterans, or patients with dementia/Alzheimer's disease. No, music does not prolong life, but it does add life to the time left. PMID:26618264

  5. Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, incidence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kaoru; Kurita, Akira; Takase, Bonpei; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kodani, Eitaro; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2009-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) has been used in geriatric nursing hospitals, but there has been no extensive research into whether it actually has beneficial effects on elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and dementia. We investigated the effects of MT on the autonomic nervous system and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with CVD and dementia, since these are related to aging and chronic geriatric disease. We also investigated the effects of MT on congestive heart failure (CHF) events.Eighty-seven patients with pre-existing CVD were enrolled in the study. We assigned patients into an MT group (n = 55) and non-MT group (n = 32). The MT group received MT at least once per week for 45 minutes over 10 times. Cardiac autonomic activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV). We measured plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in both the MT group and non-MT group. We compared the incidence of CHF events between these two groups. In the MT group, rMSSD, pNN50, and HF were significantly increased by MT, whereas LF/HF was slightly decreased. In the non-MT group, there were no significant changes in any HRV parameters. Among cytokines, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the MT group was significantly lower than those in the non-MT group. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were significantly lower in the MT group than in the non-MT group. CHF events were less frequent in the MT group than in the non-MT group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that MT enhanced parasympathetic activities and decreased CHF by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels.

  6. Clinical Supervision in Treatment Transport: Effects on Adherence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    This nonexperimental study used mixed-effects regression models to examine relations among supervisor adherence to a clinical supervision protocol, therapist adherence, and changes in the behavior and functioning of youths with serious antisocial behavior treated with an empirically supported treatment (i.e., multisystemic therapy [MST]) 1 year…

  7. Music as intervention: a notable endeavor to improve patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    White, J M

    2001-03-01

    Music interventions have been used in medicine and nursing throughout history. Music therapy is an easy-to-administer, relatively inexpensive, noninvasive intervention that has been used to reduce heart rate, blood pressure, myocardial oxygen consumption, gastrointestinal function, anxiety, and pain. A review of theoretic and empirical base for the use of music therapy to improve patient outcomes in a variety of areas of clinical practice is presented. Implications for practice and future research are suggested. PMID:11342404

  8. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  9. [Musical hallucinations: perpetual music].

    PubMed

    Zabalza-Estévez, Ramón J

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. Las alucinaciones musicales son un tipo de alucinacion auditiva prevalente en la poblacion no psiquiatrica, pero escasamente comunicada en la bibliografia neurologica. Ocurren con mayor frecuencia en la poblacion anciana, del sexo femenino y con perdida de audicion, pero su fisiopatologia esta por desentrañar. Casos clinicos. Se presentan seis casos (cinco mujeres y un hombre) de alucinaciones musicales diagnosticados en una consulta de neurologia general en un lapso de tiempo de cinco años. En cinco de ellos concurria la hipoacusia en mayor o menor grado y uno estaba desencadenado por la pentoxifilina. En su mayoria, el contenido musical de las alucinaciones provenia de experiencias musicales vividas en la infancia y juventud. En los casos sometidos a tratamiento farmacologico la respuesta fue pobre; sin embargo, una vez explicada a los pacientes la benignidad del cuadro y su desvinculacion con patologia psicotica, el grado de aceptacion del sintoma fue bueno. Conclusiones. Las alucinaciones musicales son una patologia fronteriza entre la neurologia, la otorrinolaringologia y la psiquiatria poco conocida, que, con frecuencia, se vincula erroneamente a la enfermedad mental. Es fundamental explicar a pacientes y familiares el caracter no necesariamente psiquiatrico de este sintoma, asi como conocer la potencialidad que tienen algunos farmacos de uso comun para generarlo.

  10. Automatic Music Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapuri, Anssi; Virtanen, Tuomas

    Written musical notation describes music in a symbolic form that is suitable for performing a piece using the available musical instruments. Traditionally, musical notation indicates the pitch, target instrument, timing, and duration of each sound to be played. The aim of music transcription either by humans or by a machine is to infer these musical parameters, given only the acoustic recording of a performance.

  11. The E-music box: an empirical method for exploring the universal capacity for musical production and for social interaction through music.

    PubMed

    Novembre, Giacomo; Varlet, Manuel; Muawiyath, Shujau; Stevens, Catherine J; Keller, Peter E

    2015-11-01

    Humans are assumed to have a natural-universal-predisposition for making music and for musical interaction. Research in this domain is, however, typically conducted with musically trained individuals, and therefore confounded with expertise. Here, we present a rediscovered and updated invention-the E-music box-that we establish as an empirical method to investigate musical production and interaction in everyone. The E-music box transforms rotatory cyclical movements into pre-programmable digital musical output, with tempo varying according to rotation speed. The user's movements are coded as continuous oscillatory data, which can be analysed using linear or nonlinear analytical tools. We conducted a proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate that, using this method, pairs of non-musically trained individuals can interact according to conventional musical practices (leader/follower roles and lower-pitch dominance). The results suggest that the E-music box brings 'active' and 'interactive' musical capacities within everyone's reach. We discuss the potential of this method for exploring the universal predisposition for music making and interaction in developmental and cross-cultural contexts, and for neurologic musical therapy and rehabilitation. PMID:26715993

  12. The E-music box: an empirical method for exploring the universal capacity for musical production and for social interaction through music

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Varlet, Manuel; Muawiyath, Shujau; Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are assumed to have a natural—universal—predisposition for making music and for musical interaction. Research in this domain is, however, typically conducted with musically trained individuals, and therefore confounded with expertise. Here, we present a rediscovered and updated invention—the E-music box—that we establish as an empirical method to investigate musical production and interaction in everyone. The E-music box transforms rotatory cyclical movements into pre-programmable digital musical output, with tempo varying according to rotation speed. The user’s movements are coded as continuous oscillatory data, which can be analysed using linear or nonlinear analytical tools. We conducted a proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate that, using this method, pairs of non-musically trained individuals can interact according to conventional musical practices (leader/follower roles and lower-pitch dominance). The results suggest that the E-music box brings ‘active’ and ‘interactive’ musical capacities within everyone’s reach. We discuss the potential of this method for exploring the universal predisposition for music making and interaction in developmental and cross-cultural contexts, and for neurologic musical therapy and rehabilitation. PMID:26715993

  13. Supervised clustering of genes

    PubMed Central

    Dettling, Marcel; Bühlmann, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background We focus on microarray data where experiments monitor gene expression in different tissues and where each experiment is equipped with an additional response variable such as a cancer type. Although the number of measured genes is in the thousands, it is assumed that only a few marker components of gene subsets determine the type of a tissue. Here we present a new method for finding such groups of genes by directly incorporating the response variables into the grouping process, yielding a supervised clustering algorithm for genes. Results An empirical study on eight publicly available microarray datasets shows that our algorithm identifies gene clusters with excellent predictive potential, often superior to classification with state-of-the-art methods based on single genes. Permutation tests and bootstrapping provide evidence that the output is reasonably stable and more than a noise artifact. Conclusions In contrast to other methods such as hierarchical clustering, our algorithm identifies several gene clusters whose expression levels clearly distinguish the different tissue types. The identification of such gene clusters is potentially useful for medical diagnostics and may at the same time reveal insights into functional genomics. PMID:12537558

  14. 42 CFR 484.32 - Condition of participation: Therapy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Supervision of speech therapy services. Speech therapy services are furnished only by or under supervision of... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Therapy services. 484....32 Condition of participation: Therapy services. Any therapy services offered by the HHA directly...

  15. 42 CFR 484.32 - Condition of participation: Therapy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Supervision of speech therapy services. Speech therapy services are furnished only by or under supervision of... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Therapy services. 484....32 Condition of participation: Therapy services. Any therapy services offered by the HHA directly...

  16. 42 CFR 484.32 - Condition of participation: Therapy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Supervision of speech therapy services. Speech therapy services are furnished only by or under supervision of... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Therapy services. 484....32 Condition of participation: Therapy services. Any therapy services offered by the HHA directly...

  17. 42 CFR 484.32 - Condition of participation: Therapy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Supervision of speech therapy services. Speech therapy services are furnished only by or under supervision of... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Therapy services. 484....32 Condition of participation: Therapy services. Any therapy services offered by the HHA directly...

  18. 42 CFR 484.32 - Condition of participation: Therapy services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Supervision of speech therapy services. Speech therapy services are furnished only by or under supervision of... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Therapy services. 484....32 Condition of participation: Therapy services. Any therapy services offered by the HHA directly...

  19. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia. PMID:25336931

  20. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice

    PubMed Central

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound–music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic–rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic–rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia. PMID:25336931

  1. Global music approach to persons with dementia: evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Raglio, Alfredo; Filippi, Stefania; Bellandi, Daniele; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Music is an important resource for achieving psychological, cognitive, and social goals in the field of dementia. This paper describes the different types of evidence-based music interventions that can be found in literature and proposes a structured intervention model (global music approach to persons with dementia, GMA-D). The literature concerning music and dementia was considered and analyzed. The reported studies included more recent studies and/or studies with relevant scientific characteristics. From this background, a global music approach was proposed using music and sound-music elements according to the needs, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic-rehabilitation goals that emerge in the care of persons with dementia. From the literature analysis the following evidence-based interventions emerged: active music therapy (psychological and rehabilitative approaches), active music therapy with family caregivers and persons with dementia, music-based interventions, caregivers singing, individualized listening to music, and background music. Characteristics of each type of intervention are described and discussed. Standardizing the operational methods and evaluation of the single activities and a joint practice can contribute to achieve the validation of the application model. The proposed model can be considered a low-cost nonpharmacological intervention and a therapeutic-rehabilitation method for the reduction of behavioral disturbances, for stimulation of cognitive functions, and for increasing the overall quality of life of persons with dementia.

  2. Maximising learning through effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Rudland, Joy; Bagg, Warwick; Child, Stephen; de Beer, Wayne; Hazell, Wayne; Poole, Phillippa; Sheehan, Dale; Wilkinson, Tim J

    2010-02-19

    This article targets supervisors and their important role in maximising learning of novice practitioners. The article draws on current research to highlight the importance of clinical supervision and the roles and tasks of the supervisor. Some of the challenges of supervision and how the supervisor can be supported are also discussed. The article has a pragmatic and practical focus to assist the supervisor in one of the most important, challenging but rewarding educational roles.

  3. Supervision of Student Teachers: How Adequate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ken

    This study attempted to ascertain how adequately student teachers are supervised by college supervisors and supervising teachers. Questions to be answered were as follows: a) How do student teachers rate the adequacy of supervision given them by college supervisors and supervising teachers? and b) Are there significant differences between ratings…

  4. 20 CFR 656.21 - Supervised recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supervised recruitment. 656.21 Section 656.21... Supervised recruitment. (a) Supervised recruitment. Where the Certifying Officer determines it appropriate, post-filing supervised recruitment may be required of the employer for the pending application...

  5. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  6. Shifting the Cantus Firmus: Australian Music Educators and the ERA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Managing the teaching-research-creative practice nexus is a concern for everyone working in higher music education, particularly those involved with the supervision and mentorship of graduate students and early career academics. This paper takes as its subject the new Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA), drawing examples from research…

  7. Music and its association with epileptic disorders.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and epileptic seizures is complex and intriguing. Musical processing within the human brain recruits a network which involves many cortical areas that could activate as part of a temporal lobe seizure or become hyperexcitable on musical exposure as in the case of musicogenic epilepsy. The dichotomous effect of music on seizures may be explained by modification of dopaminergic circuitry or counteractive cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis. Research has explored the utility of music as a therapy in epilepsy and while limited studies show some evidence of an effect on seizure activity; further work is required to ascertain its clinical potential. Sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs, e.g., carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, appear to effect pitch perception particularly in native-born Japanese, a rare but important adverse effect, particularly if a professional musician. Temporal lobe surgery for right lateralizing epilepsy has the capacity to effect all facets of musical processing, although risk and correlation to resection area need further research. There is a need for the development of investigative tools of musical processing that could be utilized along the surgical pathway. Similarly, work is also required in devising a musical paradigm as part of electroencephalography to improve surveillance of musicogenic seizures. These clinical applications could aid the management of epilepsy and preservation of musical ability. PMID:25725912

  8. Music and its association with epileptic disorders.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The association between music and epileptic seizures is complex and intriguing. Musical processing within the human brain recruits a network which involves many cortical areas that could activate as part of a temporal lobe seizure or become hyperexcitable on musical exposure as in the case of musicogenic epilepsy. The dichotomous effect of music on seizures may be explained by modification of dopaminergic circuitry or counteractive cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis. Research has explored the utility of music as a therapy in epilepsy and while limited studies show some evidence of an effect on seizure activity; further work is required to ascertain its clinical potential. Sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs, e.g., carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, appear to effect pitch perception particularly in native-born Japanese, a rare but important adverse effect, particularly if a professional musician. Temporal lobe surgery for right lateralizing epilepsy has the capacity to effect all facets of musical processing, although risk and correlation to resection area need further research. There is a need for the development of investigative tools of musical processing that could be utilized along the surgical pathway. Similarly, work is also required in devising a musical paradigm as part of electroencephalography to improve surveillance of musicogenic seizures. These clinical applications could aid the management of epilepsy and preservation of musical ability.

  9. Music and epilepsy: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Melissa Jane

    2012-06-01

    The effect of music on patients with epileptic seizures is complex and at present poorly understood. Clinical studies suggest that the processing of music within the human brain involves numerous cortical areas, extending beyond Heschl's gyrus and working within connected networks. These networks could be recruited during a seizure manifesting as musical phenomena. Similarly, if certain areas within the network are hyperexcitable, then there is a potential that particular sounds or certain music could act as epileptogenic triggers. This occurs in the case of musicogenic epilepsy, whereby seizures are triggered by music. Although it appears that this condition is rare, the exact prevalence is unknown, as often patients do not implicate music as an epileptogenic trigger and routine electroencephalography does not use sound in seizure provocation. Music therapy for refractory epilepsy remains controversial, and further research is needed to explore the potential anticonvulsant role of music. Dopaminergic system modulation and the ambivalent action of cognitive and sensory input in ictogenesis may provide possible theories for the dichotomous proconvulsant and anticonvulsant role of music in epilepsy. The effect of antiepileptic drugs and surgery on musicality should not be underestimated. Altered pitch perception in relation to carbamazepine is rare, but health care professionals should discuss this risk or consider alternative medication particularly if the patient is a professional musician or native-born Japanese. Studies observing the effect of epilepsy surgery on musicality suggest a risk with right temporal lobectomy, although the extent of this risk and correlation to size and area of resection need further delineation. This potential risk may bring into question whether tests on musical perception and memory should form part of the preoperative neuropsychological workup for patients embarking on surgery, particularly that of the right temporal lobe.

  10. Music Educators' Perceptions Regarding the Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities in Music Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Darrow

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to: (a) examine music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of full inclusion, (b) conduct a descriptive analysis of their perceptions, and (c) compare and contrast choral, instrumental, and general music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of inclusion. The data collection technique used in the study was personal interviewing. Participants were instrumental, choral, and general music educators (N = 35) in a midwestern school district that supports the practice of full inclusion. Written transcripts of the 35 interviews were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Music educators identified 13 critical issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities. The need for collaboration or consultation with special educators, music therapists, or others knowledgeable about students with disabilities was identified as a critical issue by nearly all of the participants. Many participants also identified as critical issues: the need for more information about the students included in their music classroom, the amount of time required to successfully include students with disabilities, and the range of abilities often found in the inclusive classroom. Most music educators felt that inclusion has had a positive impact on students both with and without disabilities, though reservations were also expressed by some of the music educators. Subject responses were also analyzed for frequency of: disabilities mentioned, positive and negative statements made regarding inclusion, personal anecdotes, and references to music therapy. Suggestions are given for the role music therapists can play in facilitating the inclusion of students with disabilities. PMID:10531582

  11. Music Educators' Perceptions Regarding the Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities in Music Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Darrow

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to: (a) examine music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of full inclusion, (b) conduct a descriptive analysis of their perceptions, and (c) compare and contrast choral, instrumental, and general music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of inclusion. The data collection technique used in the study was personal interviewing. Participants were instrumental, choral, and general music educators (N = 35) in a midwestern school district that supports the practice of full inclusion. Written transcripts of the 35 interviews were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Music educators identified 13 critical issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities. The need for collaboration or consultation with special educators, music therapists, or others knowledgeable about students with disabilities was identified as a critical issue by nearly all of the participants. Many participants also identified as critical issues: the need for more information about the students included in their music classroom, the amount of time required to successfully include students with disabilities, and the range of abilities often found in the inclusive classroom. Most music educators felt that inclusion has had a positive impact on students both with and without disabilities, though reservations were also expressed by some of the music educators. Subject responses were also analyzed for frequency of: disabilities mentioned, positive and negative statements made regarding inclusion, personal anecdotes, and references to music therapy. Suggestions are given for the role music therapists can play in facilitating the inclusion of students with disabilities.

  12. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment. PMID:19227107

  13. Guided imagery and music: using the Bonny method to evoke emotion and access the unconscious.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Lora Humphrey; Wyatt, Tami H

    2009-01-01

    The healing power of music has been recognized since ancient times. The use of music has been documented in diverse cultures worldwide, for ailments ranging from pain and cancer to depression and posttraumati stress disorder. The various models of music therapy are based on different theoretical traditions, including behaviorist, humanist, and psychodynamic approache This article describes the music therapy approach known as the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) therapy, reviews its research base, and presents a first-person account of the experience of GIM treatment.

  14. Style in Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  15. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  16. Supervised Gamma Process Poisson Factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dylan Zachary

    2015-05-01

    This thesis develops the supervised gamma process Poisson factorization (S- GPPF) framework, a novel supervised topic model for joint modeling of count matrices and document labels. S-GPPF is fully generative and nonparametric: document labels and count matrices are modeled under a uni ed probabilistic framework and the number of latent topics is controlled automatically via a gamma process prior. The framework provides for multi-class classification of documents using a generative max-margin classifier. Several recent data augmentation techniques are leveraged to provide for exact inference using a Gibbs sampling scheme. The first portion of this thesis reviews supervised topic modeling and several key mathematical devices used in the formulation of S-GPPF. The thesis then introduces the S-GPPF generative model and derives the conditional posterior distributions of the latent variables for posterior inference via Gibbs sampling. The S-GPPF is shown to exhibit state-of-the-art performance for joint topic modeling and document classification on a dataset of conference abstracts, beating out competing supervised topic models. The unique properties of S-GPPF along with its competitive performance make it a novel contribution to supervised topic modeling.

  17. Educating the Music User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  18. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  19. Fostering Musical Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Eric; Allsup, Randall Everett

    2016-01-01

    Musical independence has always been an essential aim of musical instruction. But this objective can refer to everything from high levels of musical expertise to more student choice in the classroom. While most conceptualizations of musical independence emphasize the demonstration of knowledge and skills within particular music traditions, this…

  20. Music, memory and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596