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Sample records for mussel candidate reference

  1. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  2. Freeze-drying for the stabilisation of shellfish toxins in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference materials.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Emteborg, Håkan; Hess, Philipp

    2007-04-01

    Two samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from the southwest of Ireland. One sample contained domoic acid, the other sample contained okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3. Wet and freeze-dried reference materials were prepared from each of the two samples to test for differences in homogeneity, stability and extractability of the analytes in either condition. Wet materials were homogenised, aliquoted and hermetically sealed under argon and subsequently frozen at -80 degrees C. Dry materials were similarly homogenised but frozen in flat cakes prior to freeze-drying. After grinding, sieving and further homogenisation, the resulting powder was aliquoted and hermetically sealed. Domoic acid materials were characterised using HPLC-UV, while LC-MS was used for the determination of lipophilic toxins. The extractabilities of all phycotoxins studied were comparable for wet and freeze-dried materials once a sonication step had been carried out for reconstitution of the freeze-dried materials prior to extraction. Homogeneity was assessed through replicate analysis of the phycotoxins (n = 10), and was found to be similar for wet and freeze-dried materials, for both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins. Water contents were determined for both wet and freeze-dried materials, and particle size was determined for the freeze-dried materials. Stability was evaluated isochronously over eight months at four temperatures (-20, +4, +20 and +40 degrees C). The freeze-dried material containing domoic acid was stable over the whole duration at all temperatures, while in the wet material domoic acid degraded to some extent at all temperatures except -20 degrees C. In freeze-dried and wet materials containing lipophilic toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, azaspiracid-1 and azaspiracid-2 were stable over the whole duration at all conditions, while concentrations of azaspiracid-3 changed significantly in both materials at some storage temperatures. Figure

  3. Preparation and analysis of a frozen mussel tissue reference material for the determination of trace organic constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Christensen, R.G.; Koster, B.J.; Kurz, J.; Schantz, M.M.; Zeisler, R. )

    1991-10-01

    A new mussel tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been prepared and analyzed for trace organic and inorganic constituents. SRM 1974 (Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis)) is a frozen mussel tissue homogenate that has been certified for the concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from results obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Noncertified concentrations for 19 additional PAHs are also reported. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were used to provide noncertified concentrations for 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 9 chlorinated pesticides. In addition to the organic contaminants, noncertified concentrations for 36 trace elements were determined primarily by instrumental neutron activation analysis. SRM 1974 is the first frozen tissue SRM for environmental measurements of organic and inorganic constituents.

  4. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  5. Long-term stability and temporal trends of organic contaminants in four collections of mussel tissue frozen standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Pugh, Rebecca S; Pol, Stacy S Vander; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    The stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides in frozen mussel tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) stored at -80 °C was assessed by analyzing samples of SRM 1974, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) periodically over 25 y, 20 y, and 12 y, respectively. The most recent analyses were performed during the certification of the fourth release of this material, SRM 1974c. Results indicate the concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants have not changed during storage at -80 °C. In addition, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) were quantified in each of the materials during this study. The stability information is important for on-going monitoring studies collecting large quantities of samples for future analyses (i.e., formally established specimen banking programs). Since all four mussel tissue SRMs were prepared from mussels collected at the same site in Dorchester Bay, MA, USA, the results provide a temporal trend study for these contaminants over a 17 year period (1987 to 2004).

  6. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of the mussel Elliptio complanata identifies candidate stress-response genes and an abundance of novel or noncoding transcripts.

    PubMed

    Cornman, Robert S; Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather; Blakeslee, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Mussels are useful indicator species of environmental stress and degradation, and the global decline in freshwater mussel diversity and abundance is of conservation concern. Elliptio complanata is a common freshwater mussel of eastern North America that can serve both as an indicator and as an experimental model for understanding mussel physiology and genetics. To support genetic components of these research goals, we assembled transcriptome contigs from Illumina paired-end reads. Despite efforts to collapse similar contigs, the final assembly was in excess of 136,000 contigs with an N50 of 982 bp. Even so, comparisons to the CEGMA database of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated that ∼ 20% of genes remain unrepresented. However, numerous candidate stress-response genes were present, and we identified lineage-specific patterns of diversification among molluscs for cytochrome P450 detoxification genes and two saccharide-modifying enzymes: 1,3 beta-galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase. Less than a quarter of contigs had protein-level similarity based on modest BLAST and Hmmer3 statistical thresholds. These results add comparative genomic resources for molluscs and suggest a wealth of novel proteins and noncoding transcripts.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of the mussel Elliptio complanata identifies candidate stress-response genes and an abundance of novel or noncoding transcripts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornman, Robert S.; Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussels are useful indicator species of environmental stress and degradation, and the global decline in freshwater mussel diversity and abundance is of conservation concern. Elliptio complanata is a common freshwater mussel of eastern North America that can serve both as an indicator and as an experimental model for understanding mussel physiology and genetics. To support genetic components of these research goals, we assembled transcriptome contigs from Illumina paired-end reads. Despite efforts to collapse similar contigs, the final assembly was in excess of 136,000 contigs with an N50 of 982 bp. Even so, comparisons to the CEGMA database of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated that ∼20% of genes remain unrepresented. However, numerous candidate stress-response genes were present, and we identified lineage-specific patterns of diversification among molluscs for cytochrome P450 detoxification genes and two saccharide-modifying enzymes: 1,3 beta-galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase. Less than a quarter of contigs had protein-level similarity based on modest BLAST and Hmmer3 statistical thresholds. These results add comparative genomic resources for molluscs and suggest a wealth of novel proteins and noncoding transcripts.

  9. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  10. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides <3eV resolution. The detector array consists of 32 × 32 pixels covering a 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 field of view, co-aligned with the WFI. This paper summarizes the results of the reformulation exercise and provides details on the payload complement and its accommodation on the spacecraft. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  11. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillus (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12--21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Copper analysis request and results; and Personnel training documentation.

  12. [Preparation and certification of mussel reference material for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using isotope dilution-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping; Wang, Shuqiu; Zou, Lili; Tian, Yuzeng; Ni, Yuwen; Su, Fan

    2012-09-01

    A method for the preparation and certification of the reference material of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mussel tissue is described. The mussel tissue from Dalian Bay was frozen-dried, comminuted, sieved, homogenized, packaged, and sterilized by 60Co radiation sterilization in turn. The certified values for 18 OCPs and 16 PCBs were determined by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using isotope dilution and internal standard quantitation techniques. The certified values were validated and given based on seven accredited laboratories, and these values are traceable to the SI (international system of units) through gravimetrically prepared standards of established purity and measurement intercomparisons. The certified values of PCBs and OCPs in mussel span 4 orders of magnitude with a relative uncertainty of about 10%. This material is a natural biological material with confirmed good homogeneity and stability, and it was approved as the grade "primary reference material" (GBW10069) in June 2012 in China. This reference material provided necessary quality control products for our country to implement the Stockholm Treaty on the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The material is intended to be used for the method validation and quality control in the determination of OCPs and PCBs in biota samples.

  13. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6--15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Although significant reduction in growth, compared to the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Copper analysis request and results.

  14. Determination of Cd and Cr in an ABS candidate reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangwon; Kang, Namgoo; Cho, Kyunghaeng; Lee, Jounghae

    2008-12-01

    In order to practically better cope with technical barriers to trade (TBT) of a great number of resin goods, our research presents first-ever results for the determination of Cd and Cr in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) candidate reference material using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) recently recognized as a candidate primary ratio method with a particular attention to the estimation of involved measurement uncertainties.

  15. A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 1: design and preparation.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Emteborg, Håkan; Nulty, Cíara; Rundberget, Thomas; Loader, Jared I; Teipel, Katharina; Miles, Christopher O; Quilliam, Michael A; Hess, Philipp

    2011-05-01

    The development of multi-analyte methods for lipophilic shellfish toxins based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry permits rapid screening and analysis of samples for a wide variety of toxins in a single run. Validated methods and appropriate certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to ensure accuracy of results. CRMs are essential for accurate instrument calibration, for assessing the complete analytical method from sample extraction to data analysis and for verifying trueness. However, CRMs have hitherto only been available for single toxin groups. Production of a CRM containing six major toxin groups was achieved through an international collaboration. Preparation of this material, CRM-FDMT1, drew on information from earlier studies as well as improved methods for isolation of toxins, handling bulk tissues and production of reference materials. Previous investigations of stabilisation techniques indicated freeze-drying to be a suitable procedure for preparation of shellfish toxin reference materials and applicable to a wide range of toxins. CRM-FDMT1 was initially prepared as a bulk wet tissue homogenate containing domoic acid, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, azaspiracids, pectenotoxin-2, yessotoxin and 13-desmethylspirolide C. The homogenate was then freeze-dried, milled and bottled in aliquots suitable for distribution and analysis. The moisture content and particle size distribution were measured, and determined to be appropriate. A preliminary toxin analysis of the final material showed a comprehensive toxin profile.

  16. Preparation and assessment of a candidate reference sample of Lake Baikal deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suturin, A. N.; Paradina, L. F.; Epov, V. N.; Semenov, A. R.; Lozhkin, V. I.; Petrov, L. L.

    2003-02-01

    The possibility of the creation of a multi-element reference sample of Lake Baikal deep-water composition is justified. This is a new type of reference sample composed of natural water with a wide range of macro- and microelements. This candidate reference sample has a matrix composition consisting of hydrocarbonate and calcium water, a composition that is typical of many rivers and lakes of the world, as well as rain water. The creation of a candidate reference sample of Lake Baikal water is possible due to the stable water composition at a depth of 500 m, and to the use of water sampling technology which results in the preservation of the initial composition of water and its absolute sterility. Trial batches of Baikal water collected annually and stored in special polyethylenetereftalate bottles for a period of 9 years remained stable and homogenous for most elements. Preliminary data for a range of elements and compounds are presented.

  17. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Davis, W Clay; Christopher, S J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Donard, O F X; Krupp, Eva A; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST.

  18. Development of candidate reference materials for the measurement of lead in bone

    PubMed Central

    Hetter, Katherine M.; Bellis, David J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of modest quantities of candidate bone lead (Pb) reference materials is described, and an optimized production procedure is presented. The reference materials were developed to enable an assessment of the interlaboratory agreement of laboratories measuring Pb in bone; method validation; and for calibration of solid sampling techniques such as laser ablation ICP-MS. Long bones obtained from Pb-dosed and undosed animals were selected to produce four different pools of a candidate powdered bone reference material. The Pb concentrations of these pools reflect both environmental and occupational exposure levels in humans. The animal bones were harvested post mortem, cleaned, defatted, and broken into pieces using the brittle fracture technique at liquid nitrogen temperature. The bone pieces were then ground in a knife mill to produce fragments of 2-mm size. These were further ground in an ultra-centrifugal mill, resulting in finely powdered bone material that was homogenized and then sampled-scooped into vials. Testing for contamination and homogeneity was performed via instrumental methods of analysis. PMID:18421443

  19. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  20. Proposal of a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure for free thyroxine in serum.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Linda M; Beastall, Graham; Christofides, Nicholas D; Faix, James D; Ieiri, Tamio; Jarrige, Véronique; Miller, W Greg; Miller, Richard; Nelson, Jerald C; Ronin, Cathérine; Ross, H Alec; Rottmann, Michael; Thijssen, Jos H; Toussaint, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the IFCC WG-STFT recommends and provides the rationale to establish metrological traceability of serum free thyroxine (FT4) measurements to a candidate international conventional reference measurement procedure. It is proposed that this procedure be based on equilibrium dialysis combined with determination of thyroxine in the dialysate with a trueness-based reference measurement procedure. The measurand is thus operationally defined as "thyroxine in the dialysate from equilibrium dialysis of serum prepared under defined conditions". With regard to the trueness-based reference measurement procedure, the WG-STFT recommends use of an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/tandem MS) procedure for total thyroxine that has been optimized towards measurement at picomolar concentration levels and that is listed in the database of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM). For calibration, the purified thyroxine material IRMM-468 (resulting from a project funded by the European Commission and recently submitted to the JCTLM) is proposed. The WG-STFT stresses that according to this recommendation it is a prerequisite to strictly adhere to the defined equilibrium dialysis procedure, whereas it is permissible to introduce variants in the ID-LC/tandem MS procedure.

  1. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material.

  2. Older candidates for kidney transplantation: Who to refer and what to expect?

    PubMed Central

    Concepcion, Beatrice P; Forbes, Rachel C; Schaefer, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    The number of older end-stage renal disease patients being referred for kidney transplantation continues to increase. This rise is occurring alongside the continually increasing prevalence of older end-stage renal disease patients. Although older kidney transplant recipients have decreased patient and graft survival compared to younger patients, transplantation in this patient population is pursued due to the survival advantage that it confers over remaining on the deceased donor waiting list. The upper limit of age and the extent of comorbidity and frailty at which transplantation ceases to be advantageous is not known. Transplant physicians are therefore faced with the challenge of determining who among older patients are appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. This is usually achieved by means of an organ systems-based medical evaluation with particular focus given to cardiovascular health. More recently, global measures of health such as functional status and frailty are increasingly being recognized as potential tools in risk stratifying kidney transplant candidates. For those candidates who are deemed eligible, living donor transplantation should be pursued. This may mean accepting a kidney from an older living donor. In the absence of any living donor, the choice to accept lesser quality kidneys should be made while taking into account the organ shortage and expected waiting times on the deceased donor list. Appropriate counseling of patients should be a cornerstone in the evaluation process and includes a discussion regarding expected outcomes, expected waiting times in the setting of the new Kidney Allocation System, benefits of living donor transplantation and the acceptance of lesser quality kidneys. PMID:28058214

  3. Older candidates for kidney transplantation: Who to refer and what to expect?

    PubMed

    Concepcion, Beatrice P; Forbes, Rachel C; Schaefer, Heidi M

    2016-12-24

    The number of older end-stage renal disease patients being referred for kidney transplantation continues to increase. This rise is occurring alongside the continually increasing prevalence of older end-stage renal disease patients. Although older kidney transplant recipients have decreased patient and graft survival compared to younger patients, transplantation in this patient population is pursued due to the survival advantage that it confers over remaining on the deceased donor waiting list. The upper limit of age and the extent of comorbidity and frailty at which transplantation ceases to be advantageous is not known. Transplant physicians are therefore faced with the challenge of determining who among older patients are appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. This is usually achieved by means of an organ systems-based medical evaluation with particular focus given to cardiovascular health. More recently, global measures of health such as functional status and frailty are increasingly being recognized as potential tools in risk stratifying kidney transplant candidates. For those candidates who are deemed eligible, living donor transplantation should be pursued. This may mean accepting a kidney from an older living donor. In the absence of any living donor, the choice to accept lesser quality kidneys should be made while taking into account the organ shortage and expected waiting times on the deceased donor list. Appropriate counseling of patients should be a cornerstone in the evaluation process and includes a discussion regarding expected outcomes, expected waiting times in the setting of the new Kidney Allocation System, benefits of living donor transplantation and the acceptance of lesser quality kidneys.

  4. A natural matrix (pureed tomato) candidate reference material containing residue concentrations of pesticide chemicals.

    PubMed

    Armishaw, P; Millar, R

    2001-06-01

    NARL (the Australian National Analytical Reference Laboratory) is preparing a pureed tomato reference material spiked with residue concentrations of a range of pesticide chemicals relevant to the Australian horticultural industry. Traceable certified pesticide concentration values will be established using both isotope dilution mass spectrometry primary methods (developed within NARL) and measurements carried out by a number of experienced laboratories. As far as we are aware, there is no other similar CRM available anywhere in the world. The need for such a material is evident from the results of interlaboratory proficiency studies conducted by NARL among Australian and Asia-Pacific residue testing laboratories. Many participants are experiencing difficulties with the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables at concentrations of regulatory significance. Chemicals such as methamidophos (an organophosphorus pesticide widely used on tomato crops) are causing particular problems. In a pilot study, a number of units of control (unspiked tomato) and the candidate reference material were prepared and packaged into lacquered steel cans which were sealed and sterilised by immersion in boiling water. Accelerated stability testing of the packaged material was conducted using isochronous measurement. All of the pesticides showed some degree of degradation after 4 weeks of storage at 50 degrees C, and after 168 days of storage at room temperature. However, all appeared to be stable after 168 days of freezer storage. Homogeneity testing involved duplicate test portions taken from every 50th unit of reference material. An experimental protocol was devised with the aim of minimising the analytical variability and assuring the quality of the data generated. There is some degree of inhomogeneity in the prepared material and a small fill trend is also indicated. Potential improvements to the spiking and preparation procedure have been identified and it is planned to

  5. Development of a matrix-based candidate reference material of total homocysteine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Song, Dewei; Xu, Bei; Li, Hongmei; Dai, Xinhua; Chen, Baorong

    2017-03-07

    We developed and evaluated a candidate serum reference material to help improve clinical routine measurement, and to provide traceability of the measurement results. D8-Homocystine, dithiothreitol, and acetonitrile were used as an internal standard, the reducing agent, and the protein precipitating agent, respectively. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source was used for monitoring the transitions (m/z 140.0 → 94.0, 136.0 → 90.0) in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. We used a calibration model relying on bracketing and gravimetric measurements to give SI-traceability and higher accuracy to serum value assignments. The method was evaluated for accuracy using NIST Standard Reference Material SRM1955. The results of the three concentrations (1, 2, and 3) of total homocysteine in human serum samples were determined by an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method; tHcy 1 is 28.8 ± 1.1 μmol/L, tHcy 2 is 17.93 ± 0.57 μmol/L, and tHcy 3 is 14.38 ± 0.46 μmol/L. Graphical abstract The workflow diagram.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  7. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  8. Thermocyclic stability of candidate Seebeck coefficient standard reference materials at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Caillat, Thierry; Yonenaga, I.; Green, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient is the most widely measured property specific to thermoelectric materials. There is currently no consensus on measurement protocols, and researchers employ a variety of techniques to measure the Seebeck coefficient. The implementation of standardized measurement protocols and the use of reliable Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®) will allow the accurate interlaboratory comparison and validation of materials data, thereby accelerating the development and commercialization of more efficient thermoelectric materials and devices. To enable members of the thermoelectric materials community the means to calibrate Seebeck coefficient measurement equipment, NIST certified SRM® 3451 "Low Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10 K to 390 K)". Due to different practical requirements in instrumentation, sample contact methodology, and thermal stability, a complementary SRM® is required for the high temperature regime (300 K to 900 K). The principal requirement of a SRM® for the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature is thermocyclic stability. We therefore characterized the thermocyclic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient for a series of candidate materials: constantan, p-type single crystal SiGe, and p-type polycrystalline SiGe, by measuring the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of 10 sequential thermal cycles, between 300 K and 900 K. We employed multiple regression analysis to interpolate and analyze the thermocyclic variability in the measurement curves.

  9. Mussel Glue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A mytilus edilus, a common blue ocean mussel is attaching itself to the underside of a wet glass in a laboratory. It secretes a glue like substance in the form of multiple threads which attach to surfaces such as shells, rocks, piers and ships. This natural super glue hardens within minutes and tightly affixes to its selected platform even in the roughest seas. Its superior adhesive properties suggest many practical applications. One company, Bio-Polymers, Inc., has developed a synthetic mussel glue for the commercial market.

  10. Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kuiju; Shi, Yi; Ma, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) belong to Gramineae and is widely used in lawns, golf courses, landscapes, and sport fields as a prominent cool-season grass. Gene expression patterns during different stages of plant development can provide clues toward the understanding of its biological functions. The selection and validation of reference genes are the first steps in any real-time quantitative PCR gene expression study. Therefore, suitable reference genes are necessary for obtaining reliable results in real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Kentucky bluegrass. In the present study, 9 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression stability in the leaves and roots of Kentucky bluegrass under different stresses (drought, salt, heat, and cold) were evaluated using the GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder programs. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate reference genes was dependent on the experimental conditions. The combination of SAM with GAPDH was the most stable in leaves under salt stress and cold stress, while TUB combined with ACT or GAPDH was stable in roots under salt or cold stress, respectively. ACT and SAM maintained stable expression in drought-treated leaves, and GAPDH combined with ACT was stable in drought-treated roots. SAM and TUB exhibited stable expression in heat-treated leaves. ACT and RPL were stable in heat-treated roots. In addition, the expression patterns of PpFEH in response to drought and cold stress were used to confirm the reliability of the selected reference genes, indicating that the use of an inappropriate reference gene as the internal control will cause erroneous results. This work is the first study on the expression stability of reference genes in Kentucky bluegrass and will be particularly useful in the selection of stress-tolerance genes and the identification of the molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this species.

  11. Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kuiju; Shi, Yi; Ma, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) belong to Gramineae and is widely used in lawns, golf courses, landscapes, and sport fields as a prominent cool-season grass. Gene expression patterns during different stages of plant development can provide clues toward the understanding of its biological functions. The selection and validation of reference genes are the first steps in any real-time quantitative PCR gene expression study. Therefore, suitable reference genes are necessary for obtaining reliable results in real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Kentucky bluegrass. In the present study, 9 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression stability in the leaves and roots of Kentucky bluegrass under different stresses (drought, salt, heat, and cold) were evaluated using the GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder programs. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate reference genes was dependent on the experimental conditions. The combination of SAM with GAPDH was the most stable in leaves under salt stress and cold stress, while TUB combined with ACT or GAPDH was stable in roots under salt or cold stress, respectively. ACT and SAM maintained stable expression in drought-treated leaves, and GAPDH combined with ACT was stable in drought-treated roots. SAM and TUB exhibited stable expression in heat-treated leaves. ACT and RPL were stable in heat-treated roots. In addition, the expression patterns of PpFEH in response to drought and cold stress were used to confirm the reliability of the selected reference genes, indicating that the use of an inappropriate reference gene as the internal control will cause erroneous results. This work is the first study on the expression stability of reference genes in Kentucky bluegrass and will be particularly useful in the selection of stress-tolerance genes and the identification of the molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this species. PMID:28261247

  12. Preparation and evaluation of candidate certified reference materials (CRMs) for nutrients in seawater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kerry M; Wells, David E

    2007-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are an essential part of the quality assurance (QA) necessary for the reliable analytical measurement of nutrients in seawater. The CRMs currently available for these analyses are not matrix matched to marine samples. QUASIMEME routinely produces test materials for the nutrients in seawater and nutrients in estuarine water and low-salinity open water Laboratory Performance Studies (LPS) that are both homogeneous and stable. QUASIMEME, in conjunction with Eurofins Scientific, Denmark have produced two reference materials (RMs). The homogeneity testing and preliminary stability studies were carried out by QUASIMEME, and the results are presented in this article. Participants of the QUASIMEME LPS who demonstrated satisfactory long-term performance for the analysis of nutrients in seawater and nutrients in estuarine water and low-salinity open water were invited to take part in the certification exercise. Twenty laboratories returned data, a summary of which is also presented. The certification and long-term stability testing and additional data analysis were carried out by Eurofins Scientific, Denmark, and are outwith the scope of this article and not reported here. Eurofins Scientific, Denmark have marketed these RMs as part of their range of VKI Reference Materials (further information is available from eurofins@eurofins.dk).

  13. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Pursimo, T.; Johnston, Helen M.; Stanford, Laura M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Jauncey, David L.; Zenere, Katrina A.

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  14. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  15. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  16. Homogeneity and stability of a candidate certified reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Han, Eunyoung; Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2010-12-01

    In the preparation of a reference material (RM) for quality assurance, both homogeneity and stability studies are integral parts. In the present study, both homogeneity and stability of a candidate RM for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair were examined by an isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, which is not only one of the analytical methods validated in our previous study but also one of the primary methods for the preparation of a certified reference material (CRM). Additionally, homogeneity was monitored using a different method: micropulverized extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), which was fully validated in the previous study. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the method as an isotope dilution with mass spectrometry (IDMS), the extraction efficiency was also determined according to time. Our results showed that the current method, i.e., agitating hair with isotope internal standards in the extraction solvent for 20 h followed by GC-MS, was accepted as an IDMS. No significant difference was observed between bottles of the candidate CRM. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability for 92 days at room temperature and 4 degrees C. An inter-laboratory quality assurance program was also performed successfully using this material. The candidate CRM developed in the present study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in hair drug analysis. Even though a RM is necessity as a quality control tool, it is not always easy to have an authentic RM containing target drugs and metabolites. Even when an in-house quality control material is used, both homogeneity and stability should be investigated.

  17. The Mussels' Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenburg, William

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings about mussels, an indicator species for the health of U.S. rivers and streams. Provides mussel descriptions, a history of the decline of mussel populations and cooperative efforts to repair damaged ecosystems cited as the root of the problem. (MCO)

  18. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for QPCR during ontogenesis and of immune-relevant tissues of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Mitter, Karin; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Mulero, Victor; Sepulcre, Pilar; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatrice; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2009-08-01

    The expression level of mRNA can vary significantly in different experimental conditions, such as stress, infection, developmental stage or tissue. Suitable reference genes are expected to exhibit constant expression levels. However no single gene is constitutively expressed in all cell types and under all experimental conditions. It has become clear that expression stability of the intended reference gene has to be examined before each experiment. For expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at least two reference genes have to be applied. So far expression studies in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as well as in the Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have been performed with only one reference gene (S18, Ef-1 alpha or Gapdh). Though significant variations showed up in other teleost species such as the Atlantic halibut and the zebrafish affirming the need for proper normalization strategies, the present study aims at identifying suitable reference genes among nine candidates [glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh), beta-actin (two regions of beta-actin), 40S ribosomal protein S30 (Fau), ribosomal protein L13 a (L13a), beta2-tubulin (Tubb2) and tyrosine 3 monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (Tyr)] for expression analysis of 8 developmental stages and a tissue panel (spleen, liver, kidney and brain) with samples infected with Nodavirus and Vibrio anguillarum in D. labrax. Besides the analysis of raw Ct-values, the gene expression stability was determined using two different software applications BestKeeper and NormFinder. According to both algorithms the best two reference genes for an appropriate normalization approach during D. labrax development are Ef-1 alpha and L13a whereas in the tissue panel Fau and L13a are recommended for qPCR normalization.

  19. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis Bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  20. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  1. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  2. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  3. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bellis, David J; Hetter, Katherine M; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (U(X) ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants' data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g(-1) Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (U(C) ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units.

  4. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (UX ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants’ data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g−1 Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (UC ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units. PMID:23087531

  5. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  6. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  7. The influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme ratio on preparation virgin coconut oil for candidate in-house reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohyami, Yuli; Anjani, Rafika Debby; Purwanti, Napthalina Putri

    2017-03-01

    Virgin coconut oil is an excellent product which has result of oil processing business opportunities in the international market. Standardization of virgin coconut oil necessary to satisfy the requirements industry needs. This research is expected as procedure preparation of reference materials. Preparation of virgin coconut oil by Sacharomycescerevisiaeenzyme. Based on the results of this study concluded that the ratio of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can affect the yield of virgin coconut oil produced. The preparation of virgin coconut oil enzymatically using a variety of mass ratio of 0.001 to 0.006% is obtained yield average of 12.40%. The optimum separation of virgin coconut oil on the use of enzymes with a mass ratio of 0.002%. The average water content at a ratio of 0.002% is 0.04 % with a value of uncertainty is 0.005%. The average iodine number in virgin coconut oil produced is 2.4403 ± 0,1974 grams of iodine per 100 grams of oil and optimum iodine number is obtained from the manufacturing process virgin coconut oil with a ratio of 0.006% Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sacharomycescerevisiae with a ratio of 0.002% results virgin coconut oil with acid number 0.3068 ± 0.1098%. The peroxide value of virgin coconut oil between 0.0108 ± 0.009 to 0.0114 ± 0015milli-equivalent per kilograms. Organoleptic test results and test chemical parameters can be used as the test data that can be developed in prototype preparation of candidate in-house reference material in the testing standards of quality virgin coconut oil.

  8. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 1: mussel distribution surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks in the Tennessee Valley is one of nine research activities developed as part of TVA's Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP). The name Cumberlandian refers to an endemic faunal assemblage that encompasses portions of 7 states bordering the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau Region. This geographic region is known as one of the major centers for mussel speciation and is considered the most prolific areas of the world for this particular group of organisms. Nine Tennessee Valley streams were selected for intensive qualitative and quantitative mussel surveys under Activity I of the CMCP. The surveys were designed to gather information on the present distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks. The streams chosen for surveys were based on the documented presence of diverse mussel fauna, endangered mussels, and/or sufficient information (diverse fish fauna, good water quality, etc.) to suggest potential for occurrence of diverse mussel fauna or endangered species.

  9. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  10. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  11. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  13. Zebra mussel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  14. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  15. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  16. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were first detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. They were likely transported as larvae or young adults inside the ballast tanks of large ocean-going ships originating from Europe. Since their introduction, they have spread throughout the Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern United States. In 2007, Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) were found in the Western United States in Lake Mead, Nevada; part of the Lower Colorado River Basin. State and Federal managers are concerned that the mussels (hereafter referred to as dreissenid mussels or mussels) will continue to spread to the Columbia River Basin and have a major impact on the region?s ecosystem, water delivery infrastructure, hydroelectric projects, and the economy. The transport and use of recreational watercraft throughout the Western United States could easily result in spreading mussels to the Columbia River Basin. The number of recreational watercraft using Lake Mead can range from 350 to 3,500 a day (Bryan Moore, National Park Service, oral commun., June 21, 2008). Because recreational watercrafts are readily moved around and mussels may survive for a period of time when they are out of the water, there is a high potential to spread mussels from Lake Mead to other waterways in the Western United States. Efforts are being made to prevent the spread of mussels; however, there is great concern that these efforts will not be 100 percent successful. When prevention efforts fail, early detection of mussels may provide an opportunity to implement rapid response management actions to minimize the impact. Control and eradication efforts are more likely to be successful if they are implemented when the density of mussels is low and the area of infestation is small. Once the population grows and becomes established, the mussels are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control. Although chemicals may be used to kill the mussels, the chemicals that are currently

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  18. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  19. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  20. The development and validation of a multivariable model to predict whether patients referred for total knee replacement are suitable surgical candidates at the time of initial consultation

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Laura; Malian, Samuel J.; Chesworth, Bert M.; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J.; Marsh, Jacquelyn D.; Giffin, J. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background In previous studies, 50%–70% of patients referred to orthopedic surgeons for total knee replacement (TKR) were not surgical candidates at the time of initial assessment. The purpose of our study was to identify and cross-validate patient self-reported predictors of suitability for TKR and to determine the clinical utility of a predictive model to guide the timing and appropriateness of referral to a surgeon. Methods We assessed pre-consultation patient data as well as the surgeon’s findings and post-consultation recommendations. We used multivariate logistic regression to detect self-reported items that could identify suitable surgical candidates. Results Patients’ willingness to undergo surgery, higher rating of pain, greater physical function, previous intra-articular injections and patient age were the factors predictive of patients being offered and electing to undergo TKR. Conclusion The application of the model developed in our study would effectively reduce the proportion of nonsurgical referrals by 25%, while identifying the vast majority of surgical candidates (> 90%). Using patient-reported information, we can correctly predict the outcome of specialist consultation for TKR in 70% of cases. To reduce long waits for first consultation with a surgeon, it may be possible to use these items to educate and guide referring clinicians and patients to understand when specialist consultation is the next step in managing the patient with severe osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:28234616

  1. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  2. Of Mussels and Men.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species. Understanding the "rules" that govern the numbers and diversity of species in an ecosystem is essential to efficient and sustainable management. But those same rules apply to us. Free of predation, humans are swarming over the planet, choking out other species. We are the planetary mussels. What next? A "mussel-bound" world, or perhaps renewed microbial predation?

  3. Morphology of spermatogenic and accessory cells in the mussel Modiolus kurilensis under environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Vaschenko, Marina A

    2010-08-01

    A comparative light- and electron microscopic study of the male gonads of the bivalve mollusk Modiolus kurilensis from the reference and polluted sites in Amursky Bay (Sea of Japan) was conducted. Testicular acini in the mussels from the reference site had well-ordered structure (vertical spermatogenic columns located among the accessory cells bodies) whereas in the testes of the mollusks from the polluted site, the accessory and spermatogenic cell populations were disarranged. Mussels from the polluted station had about 26% of spermatogenic cells with marginal localization of nuclear chromatin, swollen outer nuclear membrane and heavily vacuolated cytoplasm and about 8% of spermatozoa with transformed or destructed acrosome; in mussels from the reference station, these values were close to zero. The accessory cells in the mussels from the polluted site were underdeveloped, and their phagocytic activity was inhibited. Our ultrastructural observations provide evidence that both spermatogenic and accessory cells are targets of environmental pollution in marine mussels.

  4. Candidate qRT-PCR reference genes for barley that demonstrate better stability than traditional housekeeping genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transcript expression analysis is a useful tool for correlating gene activity with plant phenotype. For these studies, an appropriate reference gene is necessary to quantify the expression of target genes. Classic housekeeping genes have often been used for this purpose, but may not be consis...

  5. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) under a Variety of Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jiaodi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Mengjun

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1), Histone-H3 (His3), and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP) were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA) across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ) were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions. PMID:27116123

  6. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  7. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in three metabolism related tissues of mice after caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Sun, Liang; Chen, Beidong; Han, Yiwen; Pang, Jing; Wu, Wei; Qi, Ruomei; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a routine method for gene expression analysis, and reliable results depend on proper normalization by stable reference genes. Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust lifestyle intervention to slow aging and delay onset of age-associated diseases via inducing global changes in gene expression. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial in CR studies. In this study, the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), skeletal muscle (Sk.M) and liver of CR mice by using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper. Our results showed β2m, Ppia and Hmbs as the most stable genes in iWAT, Sk.M and liver, respectively. Moreover, two reference genes were sufficient to normalize RT-qPCR data in each tissue and the suitable pair of reference genes was β2m-Hprt in iWAT, Ppia-Gusb in Sk.M and Hmbs-β2m in liver. By contrast, the least stable gene in iWAT or Sk.M was Gapdh, and in liver was Pgk1. Furthermore, the expression of Leptin and Ppar-γ were profiled in these tissues to validate the selected reference genes. Our data provided a basis for gene expression analysis in future CR studies. PMID:27922100

  8. A comprehensive approach to identify reliable reference gene candidates to investigate the link between alcoholism and endocrinology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Taki, Faten A; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-01-01

    Gender and hormonal differences are often correlated with alcohol dependence and related complications like addiction and breast cancer. Estrogen (E2) is an important sex hormone because it serves as a key protein involved in organism level signaling pathways. Alcoholism has been reported to affect estrogen receptor signaling; however, identifying the players involved in such multi-faceted syndrome is complex and requires an interdisciplinary approach. In many situations, preliminary investigations included a straight forward, yet informative biotechniques such as gene expression analyses using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validity of qRT-PCR-based conclusions is affected by the choice of reliable internal controls. With this in mind, we compiled a list of 15 commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) as potential reference gene candidates in rat biological models. A comprehensive comparison among 5 statistical approaches (geNorm, dCt method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) was performed to identify the minimal number as well the most stable reference genes required for reliable normalization in experimental rat groups that comprised sham operated (SO), ovariectomized rats in the absence (OVX) or presence of E2 (OVXE2). These rat groups were subdivided into subgroups that received alcohol in liquid diet or isocalroic control liquid diet for 12 weeks. Our results showed that U87, 5S rRNA, GAPDH, and U5a were the most reliable gene candidates for reference genes in heart and brain tissue. However, different gene stability ranking was specific for each tissue input combination. The present preliminary findings highlight the variability in reference gene rankings across different experimental conditions and analytic methods and constitute a fundamental step for gene expression assays.

  9. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  10. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  11. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G

    2006-05-25

    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area.

  12. Results of an in-situ mussel bioassay in the Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Houkal, D.; Rummel, B.; Shephard, B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological evaluation in the Puget Sound, Washington, an in situ bioassay using the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was conducted to determine the effect of sediment-borne chemicals on bioaccumulation and growth of shellfish. The assay included four sample stations from a contaminated embayment (Sinclair Inlet) and one station from a reference site (Holmes Harbor). At each station, 300 mussels were deployed 1 meter above the sediment surface and maintained for a period of 3 months. The length and total weight of each mussel was measured at the beginning of the exposure period and the length, total weight, tissue weight, and shell weight of each mussel was measured at the end of the exposure period. Composite tissue samples from 100 mussels were collected at the beginning and end of the exposure period and analyzed for semivolatile organic chemicals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, inorganic chemicals, organotin, and lipids. Water quality measurements (including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a) were made at each station every two weeks during the assay to characterize environmental factors influencing mussel bioaccumulation and growth. Weight growth was similar among stations in Sinclair Inlet, but was significantly greater in all Sinclair Inlet stations compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. Length growth was statistically indistinguishable among stations in Sinclair Inlet. Only one Sinclair Inlet station had a significantly greater length growth compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. The influence of water quality on mussel growth is presented. The correlation between sediment chemistry and bioaccumulation is discussed.

  13. A candidate reference measurement procedure for quantifying serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d 3-25(OH)D2 and d 6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9 and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4 and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.3% for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Graphical abstract Bias assessment using NIST standard reference materials. Legend CDC mean mass fractions (ng/g) ± U 95 (6

  14. Evaluating the use of side-scan sonar for detecting freshwater mussel beds in turbid river environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jarrod; Brewer, Shannon K.; Long, James M.; Campbell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Side-scan sonar is a valuable tool for mapping habitat features in many aquatic systems suggesting it may also be useful for locating sedentary biota. The objective of this study was to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to identify freshwater mussel (unionid) beds and the required environmental conditions. We used side-scan sonar to develop a series of mussel-bed reference images by placing mussel shells within homogenous areas of fine and coarse substrates. We then used side-scan sonar to map a 32-km river reach during spring and summer. Using our mussel-bed reference images, several river locations were identified where mussel beds appeared to exist in the scanned images and we chose a subset of sites (n = 17) for field validation. The validation confirmed that ~60% of the sites had mussel beds and ~80% had some mussels or shells present. Water depth was significantly related to our ability to predict mussel-bed locations: predictive ability was greatest at depths of 1–2 m, but decreased in water >2-m deep. We determined side-scan sonar is an effective tool for preliminary assessments of mussel presence during times when they are located at or above the substrate surface and in relatively fine substrates excluding fine silt.

  15. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Kemble, Nile E; May, Thomas W; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D; Roberts, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms-amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)-in sediments from 2 lead-zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2-4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  16. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  17. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  18. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  19. Mussel byssus and biomolecular materials.

    PubMed

    Deming, T J

    1999-02-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins are remarkable materials that display an extraordinary capability to adhere to substrates underwater. Recent investigations from groups with quite diverse areas of expertise have made substantial progress in the identification of the genes and proteins that are involved in adhesive formation. These discoveries have led to the development of recombinant proteins and synthetic polypeptides that are able to reproduce the properties of mussel adhesives for applications in medicine and biotechnology.

  20. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dreissenid mussels have yet to be detected in the northwestern part of the United States and western Canada. Infestation of one of the jurisdictions within the mussel-free Pacific Northwest would likely have significant economic, soci­etal and environmental implications for the entire region. Understanding the biology and environmental tolerances of dreissenid mussels, and effectiveness of various man­agement strategies, is key to prevention.On November 4-5, 2015, the Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute and the Center for Lakes and Reservoirs at Portland State University, the US Geological Survey, and the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, convened a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The purpose of the workshop was to review dreissenid research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters, reassess those priorities, incorporate new information and emerging trends, and develop priorities to strategically focus research efforts on zebra and quagga mussels in the Pacific Northwest and ensure that future research is focused on the highest priorities. It is important to note that there is some repetition among dreissenid research priority categories (e.g., prevention, detection, control, monitoring, and biology).Workshop participants with research experience in dreissenid mussel biology and management were identified by a literature review. State and federal agency managers were also invited to the workshop to ensure relevancy and practicality of the work­shop outcomes. A total of 28 experts (see sidebar) in mussel biology, ecology, and management attended the workshop.

  1. Comparative study of 13 candidate genes applying multi-reference normalization to detect the expression of different fineness in skin tissues of wool sheep.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y Z; Usman, T; Tian, K C; Di, J; Huang, X X; Xu, X M; Tulafu, H; Wu, W W; Fu, X F; Bai, Y; Tuerxun, M; Maimaiti, A

    2017-02-16

    Fiber diameter is a useful indicator of wool traits and it is the main determinant of wool quality and value. A comparative study was conducted to analyze the abundance and expression of 13 candidate genes using expression profile microarray analysis and to identify novel molecular markers associated with wool traits to provide a molecular basis for improving wool quality in sheep. Genes associated with fineness of skin tissue were identified using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method with 18SrRNA, β-Actin, and GAPDH used for multi-reference normalization. The results indicated that the expression levels of TXNIP, TFDP1, and FAIM genes in super-fine type wool sheep were higher than those in fine-type wool sheep; the corresponding expression ratios of super-fine to fine wool sheep were 1.45, 1.57, and 2.55, respectively. The expression levels of PIK3CA, ADAM9, and FZD3 genes were lower in super-fine wool sheep compared with fine-type wool sheep; the corresponding expression ratios were 0.61, 0.65, and 0.52, respectively. The other genes tested (RPS6KA, ABCG2, GSTA1, PTPN13, GJB3, PPARD, and LAMB1) were similarly expressed in both types of wool sheep. These results infer that lower expression of PIK3CA, ADAM9, and FZD3 genes was associated with lower fiber diameter, whereas lower expression of TXNIP, TFDP1, and FAIM genes was associated with higher fiber diameter.

  2. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.0001) throughout the 28-day exposure, displaying concentration dependent uptake. The concentration of Pb in mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

  3. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002-2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers.

  4. Population genetic structure of mussels from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulnheim, H.-P.; Gosling, E.

    1988-03-01

    In a macrogeographic survey, the population genetic structure of mussels from various regions of the Baltic Sea, a large semi-enclosed brackish-water basin, was examined with reference to Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis samples from the North Sea, Irish coast and southern Portugal. Electrophoretically detectable variation was analysed at 6 polymorphic enzyme loci ( Ap, Est-D, Lap-2, Odh, Pgi and Pgm). Evidence was provided of a remarkably large amount of biochemical genetic differentiation among ecologically and morphologically divergent mussel populations in the Baltic. Patterns of allele frequencies in low-salinity populations from the area of the Baltic Proper were demonstrated to be widely homogeneous but contrast strongly with those of the western Baltic, the latter resembling populations from marine habitats of the North Sea. Associated with a pronounced salinity gradient, the spatial heterogeneity in gene-pool structure is indicated by steep clines of allele frequency changes in the area of the eastern Danish isles. The adaptive significance of the observed allozymic variation is suggested. From genetic distance estimates, the subdivision of population structure is discussed in relation to the significant amount of differentiation detected within Mytilus populations to date and to the evolutionary time required for the divergence of Baltic mussel populations. The allozymic data provide evidence for the genetic distinctiveness of mussels from the low-salinity areas of the Baltic. Their position at the specific or subspecific level of classification requires further consideration.

  5. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Carls, M G; Babcock, M M; Harris, P M; Irvine, G V; Cusick, J A; Rice, S D

    2001-03-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from < 60 micrograms/g in reference beds to 62,258 micrograms/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 523 micrograms/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 micrograms/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  6. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Irvine, G.V.; Cusick, J.A.; Rice, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from <60 mg/g in reference beds to 62,258 mg/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 253 mg/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 mg/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  7. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  8. Survival, growth and condition of freshwater mussels: effects of municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream.

  9. Survival, Growth and Condition of Freshwater Mussels: Effects of Municipal Wastewater Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  10. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  11. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  12. Zebra mussels. The assault continues

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the past seven years, zebra mussel infestation has spread relentlessly, fouling up utility cooling intakes and other industrial operations that draw fresh water. The striped invader has flourished in all of the Great Lakes and most of the major river systems east of and including the Mississippi. It has also migrated much deeper into the South than experts anticipated and is making its way westward. Now biologists have turned up a separate, look-alike species they fear may be just as destructive. EPRI is continuing its work to improve control techniques and has published a comprehensive monitoring and control guide that outlines the best practices currently available for dealing with the mussel problem. This article reviews the results of this work.

  13. Zebra mussel adhesion: structure of the byssal adhesive apparatus in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Nikrooz; Sone, Eli D

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) owes a large part of its success as an invasive species to its ability to attach to a wide variety of substrates. As in marine mussels, this attachment is achieved by a proteinaceous byssus, a series of threads joined at a stem that connect the mussel to adhesive plaques secreted onto the substrate. Although the zebra mussel byssus is superficially similar to marine mussels, significant structural and compositional differences suggest that further investigation of the adhesion mechanisms in this freshwater species is warranted. Here we present an ultrastructural examination of the zebra mussel byssus, with emphasis on interfaces that are critical to its adhesive function. By examining the attached plaques, we show that adhesion is mediated by a uniform electron dense layer on the underside of the plaque. This layer is only 10-20 nm thick and makes direct and continuous contact with the substrate. The plaque itself is fibrous, and curiously can exhibit either a dense or porous morphology. In zebra mussels, a graded interface between the animal and the substrate mussels is achieved by interdigitation of uniform threads with the stem, in contrast to marine mussels, where the threads themselves are non-uniform. Our observations of several novel aspects of zebra mussel byssal ultrastructure may have important implications not only for preventing biofouling by the zebra mussel, but for the development of new bioadhesives as well.

  14. Using Heavy Metal Content and Lipid Peroxidation Indicators in the Tissues of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus for Pollution Assessment After Marine Environmental Remediation.

    PubMed

    Belcheva, Nina; Istomina, Alexandra; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda; Lishavskaya, Tatiana; Chelomin, Victor

    2015-10-01

    We examined the effects of environmental remediation on the heavy metal concentration and lipid peroxidation activity in the digestive gland and gills of the marine mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. Changes in heavy metal concentrations and lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the tissues of mussels collected at a contaminated site were compared with those obtained from a reference site. Prior to remediation the concentration of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Zn and the levels of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin in mussels collected from the contaminated site were significantly increased compared with those obtained from the reference site. Three years after remediation, these parameters did not significantly exceed the reference site parameters, except Pb, whose concentration, though markedly decreased, yet was much higher than in tissues of mussels from the reference site.

  15. Effects of environmental pollution in caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; D'Agata, Alessia; Natalotto, Antonino; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    Biological effects of environmental pollution, mainly related to presence of PAHs, were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis caged in Priolo, an anthropogenically-impacted area, and Vendicari, a reference site, both located along the eastern coastline of Sicily (Italy). PAHs concentration and histopathological changes were measured in digestive gland tissues. Expression of cytochrome P4504Y1 (CYP4Y1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), indicative of xenobiotic detoxification, and activity of catalase (CAT) as oxidative stress index, were evaluated. The results show a direct correlation between the high concentrations of PAHs in digestive glands of mussels from Priolo and the significantly altered activity of phase I (P < 0.001) and phase II (P < 0.0001) biotransformation enzymes, along with increased levels of CAT activity (P < 0.05). These findings show the enhancement of the detoxification and antioxidant defense systems. The mussel caging approach and selected biomarkers demonstrated to be reliable for the assessment of environmental pollution effects on aquatic organisms.

  16. New Concerns Emerge as Zebra Mussel Spreads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Martha L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the Zebra Mussel invasion of North American inland waterways. Discusses United States Army Corps of Engineers operations that may facilitate or be affected by the spread of Zebra Mussels, the threat to native clams, chemical and mechanical control methods, natural solutions, and ongoing research. (MCO)

  17. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant.

  18. Brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as indicators of organic pollutants in the South African marine environment.

    PubMed

    Degger, N; Wepener, V; Richardson, B J; Wu, R S S

    2011-01-01

    A distinct lack of historical and current data on the status of organic pollutant contaminants within the South African marine environment is evident. This has highlighted the need for more current organic pollutant assessments. Reference mussels and SPMDs were transplanted at five South African harbour sites to assess organic bioaccumulation in brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Spatial patterns of PAH and PCB contaminants were determined by GC-MS and GC-ECD after appropriate sample preparation. Significant (p<0.05) spatial differences were observed between the sites. Results indicate no correlations between the passive device and the transplanted mussels; however the SPMDs provided complementary information on the presence of dioxin-like PCBs within the environment not detected by the mussel. The results indicate that information provided by both the mussels and SPMDs allow for a more in depth scrutiny of environmental conditions as a result of anthropogenic influence.

  19. Physiological measurements from native and transplanted mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in the canals of Venice. Survival in air and condition index.

    PubMed

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Volpato, Elisa; Marangon, Ilenia; Nasci, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon has been the focus of many environmental studies due to its heavy contaminant load derived from a variety of sources, including industrial activity, oil tanker traffic, and waste runoff from the mainland. In recent years, there has been increasing concern about water quality in the urban areas of Venice related to the discharge of untreated sewage directly into canals, adding to the pollutant load already existing in these areas. One way of gauging the impact of these chemicals is monitoring the local fauna. In the search for good indicators of water quality in the Venice urban area, two physiological indices for mussels-survival in air and condition index-have been evaluated. In 2002, a seasonal study was undertaken; mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected in three sites located in the canals of the city and a clean reference site. At the same time, two transplantation experiments were performed, deploying farmed mussels for 1,2, 4, and 12 weeks in the historic centre of Venice and also at a reference site. Data from survival in air test and the condition index of native and transplanted mussels are reported. The results suggest an impact of the complex mixture of pollutants on mussel health status. Both native mussels and those transplanted to the urban area showed reduced survivability in air and decreased condition index values, indicating a less healthy status in animals from the canals of the city. Data are discussed in relation to pollutant bioaccumulation.

  20. Simulated mussel mortality thresholds as a function of mussel biomass and nutrient loading

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Langenfeld, Kathryn; Spak, Scott N.; Newton, Teresa J.

    2017-01-01

    A freshwater “mussel mortality threshold” was explored as a function of porewater ammonium (NH4+) concentration, mussel biomass, and total nitrogen (N) utilizing a numerical model calibrated with data from mesocosms with and without mussels. A mortality threshold of 2 mg-N L−1 porewater NH4+ was selected based on a study that estimated 100% mortality of juvenile Lampsilis mussels exposed to 1.9 mg-N L−1 NH4+ in equilibrium with 0.18 mg-N L−1 NH3. At the highest simulated mussel biomass (560 g m−2) and the lowest simulated influent water “food” concentration (0.1 mg-N L−1), the porewater NH4+ concentration after a 2,160 h timespan without mussels was 0.5 mg-N L−1 compared to 2.25 mg-N L−1 with mussels. Continuing these simulations while varying mussel biomass and N content yielded a mortality threshold contour that was essentially linear which contradicted the non-linear and non-monotonic relationship suggested by Strayer (2014). Our model suggests that mussels spatially focus nutrients from the overlying water to the sediments as evidenced by elevated porewater NH4+ in mesocosms with mussels. However, our previous work and the model utilized here show elevated concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in overlying waters as an indirect consequence of mussel activity. Even when the simulated overlying water food availability was quite low, the mortality threshold was reached at a mussel biomass of about 480 g m−2. At a food concentration of 10 mg-N L−1, the mortality threshold was reached at a biomass of about 250 g m−2. Our model suggests the mortality threshold for juvenile Lampsilis species could be exceeded at low mussel biomass if exposed for even a short time to the highly elevated total N loadings endemic to the agricultural Midwest. PMID:28070462

  1. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities.

  2. Simulated mussel mortality thresholds as a function of mussel biomass and nutrient loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Langenfeld, Kathryn; Just, Craig L.; Spak, Scott N.; Newton, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    A freshwater “mussel mortality threshold” was explored as a function of porewater ammonium (NH4+) concentration, mussel biomass, and total nitrogen (N) utilizing a numerical model calibrated with data from mesocosms with and without mussels. A mortality threshold of 2 mg-N L−1 porewater NH4+ was selected based on a study that estimated 100% mortality of juvenile Lampsilis mussels exposed to 1.9 mg-N L−1NH4+ in equilibrium with 0.18 mg-N L−1 NH3. At the highest simulated mussel biomass (560 g m−2) and the lowest simulated influent water “food” concentration (0.1 mg-N L−1), the porewater NH4+ concentration after a 2,160 h timespan without mussels was 0.5 mg-N L−1 compared to 2.25 mg-N L−1 with mussels. Continuing these simulations while varying mussel biomass and N content yielded a mortality threshold contour that was essentially linear which contradicted the non-linear and non-monotonic relationship suggested by Strayer (2014). Our model suggests that mussels spatially focus nutrients from the overlying water to the sediments as evidenced by elevated porewater NH4+ in mesocosms with mussels. However, our previous work and the model utilized here show elevated concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in overlying waters as an indirect consequence of mussel activity. Even when the simulated overlying water food availability was quite low, the mortality threshold was reached at a mussel biomass of about 480 g m−2. At a food concentration of 10 mg-N L−1, the mortality threshold was reached at a biomass of about 250 g m−2. Our model suggests the mortality threshold for juvenile Lampsilis species could be exceeded at low mussel biomass if exposed for even a short time to the highly elevated total N loadings endemic to the agricultural Midwest.

  3. Uptake of methyl mercury by the floater mussel, Pyganodon grandis (Bivalvia, Unionidae), caged in a flooded wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Malley, D.F.; Stewart, A.R.; Hall, B.D. |

    1996-06-01

    A 16.7-ha wetland with a pond at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, was experimentally flooded to determine causes of elevated waterborne methyl mercury (MeHg) associated with impoundment. Unionid mussels, Pyganodon grandis (formerly Anodonata grandis grandis) were caged in the experimental pond before and after flooding to determine their ability to monitor the elevated waterborne MeHg. Mussels were also caged in a reference wetland pond and in the lake from which they were collected (source lake). Background levels of MeHg in source lake mussel body parts were in the order mantle < gill or visceral remains < foot or kidney and ranged from 108 to 618 ng/g dry weight. Caging in the source lake did not alter MeHg concentration in any body part. Mussels transplanted to the ponds for 90 d showed statistically significant increases above background MeHg in the mantle and visceral remains in the preflood experimental pond (waterborne MeHg 0.24 ng/L). The visceral remains of mussels in the reference pond contained higher levels of MeHg than did those in the preflood experimental pond. Flooding increased waterborne MeHg from 0.1 to 2.3 ng/L and resulted in an increase in MeHg and total Hg (THg) in the mantle, foot, and visceral remains of mussels in the experimental pond. Inexplicably, mussels caged in a hypoxic environment in the experimental pond lost MeHg and THg from all body parts. The authors concluded that not only can P. grandis monitor elevation in waterborne MeHg with flooding, but the MeHg levels in mussels also reflect small differences in background levels of natural MeHg in ponds.

  4. The Impact of Extreme Flooding on Mussel and Microbial Nutrient Dynamics at the Water-Sediment Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bril, J.; Just, C. L.; Newton, T.; Young, N.; Parkin, G.

    2009-12-01

    Labeled by the National Academy of Engineering as one of fourteen grand challenges for engineering, the management of the nitrogen cycle has become an increasingly difficult obstacle for sustainable development. In an effort to improve nitrogen cycle management practices, we are attempting to expand on the limited scientific knowledge of how aquatic environments are affected by increasing human- and climate-induced changes. To accomplish this, we are using freshwater mussels as a sentinel species to indicate how natural processes within large river systems may be altered by human activity. Freshwater mussels have been referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’ because they exert control over food resources and alter habitats for other organisms. Also, mussels and bacteria play a major role in nutrient cycling in large river systems by cycling nutrients taken up by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Under ‘normal’ environmental conditions, mussels appear to process nitrogen more rapidly than denitrifying bacteria. However, substantial deposition of carbon-rich sediment resulting from extreme flooding may increase bacterial nitrogen cycling rates and subsequently alter overall denitrification rates. We hypothesize that intense depositions of particulate matter from recent extreme floods in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) have altered the freshwater mussel and microbial food webs through physical and chemical means. This work will be done in a 1200-m reach of the UMRB near Buffalo, Iowa. The reach contains a healthy and diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels. A historic flood event during May-July 2008 coincided with intense spring cultivation and nutrient application activities in the heavily farmed landscape of the Upper Midwest and resulted in a significant pulse of agricultural contaminants to the UMRB. This led scientists to predict an almost unprecedented delivery of sediment and nutrients to the mussel bed, the broader Mississippi River, and ultimately

  5. Mussel bed restoration and monitoring. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 95090: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Carls, M.G.; Brodersen, C.C.; Rice, S.D.

    1998-12-01

    Many mussel beds in the spill area, particularly those on soft sediment, were not cleaned immediately after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Surveys documented the geographic extent (primarily Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula) and intensity of oiling. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined naturally from 1992--1995 in some, but not all beds. Distribution of oil in sediments was related to tidal elevation, depth, and grain size. Oil concentration in mussels correlated with that in sediment. Mussel condition was adversely affected by oil; prevalence of digestive gland metaplasia, brown cells, and hemocytic infiltrates in gonads increased, and storage cell abundance decreased. However, some physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, feeding rate, or glycogen content) in mussels contaminated 3--4 years were not correlated with oil concentration. Bed restoration caused immediate reductions in oil concentration in surface sediment, but these sediments were later partially recontaminated by remaining oil. Restoration efficacy was less evident in mussels; concentration declined in one-half of the beds after restoration, but density declines were similar in untreated reference beds.

  6. Advances and opportunities in assessing contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussel (unionidae) early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae, also referred to as freshwater pearly mussels, unionids, or naiades) are one of North America’s most endangered faunal groups. Near unanimity exists in characterizations of the imperilment of these ecologically, economically, and culturally important bivalve mollusks. Freshwater mussels are a renewable resource supporting a shell industry in the United States valued at $40–50 million annually [1]. In addition to being a food source for aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, this diverse fauna helps stabilize sediment [2] and provides critical nutrient and energy cycling in streams and lakes by filtering phytoplankton, bacteria, and particulate organic matter from the water column [3]. Thirty-five species of freshwater mussels are extinct [4], 70 species are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (www.fws.gov/endangered/wildlife.html), and nearly 180 species are identified as critically imperiled or vulnerable (www.natureserve.org/explorer). Declines in freshwater mussels are not unique to North America [5], but because the taxon reaches its greatest richness here, impacts are especially noteworthy.

  7. Biochemical biomarkers and metals in Perna perna mussels from mariculture zones of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Luis Alberto; Seibert, Edson Luiz; Zanette, Juliano; Fiedler, Haidi Dalida; Curtius, Adilson José; Ferreira, Jaime Fernando; Alves de Almeida, Eduardo; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2010-07-01

    The activity of cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT) was evaluated in the gill and digestive glands of the Perna perna mussel transplanted to three non-contaminated mariculture zones under the influence of distinct physical-chemical characteristics. Differences among sites for ChE, GST and CAT activities in gill, as well as ChE, GST and G6PDH activity in digestive gland of mussels, were found and possibly related to differences in physicochemical characteristics of the sites and/or biological status of the mussels. Mussels that were transplanted to another, more urbanized site (Ponta do Lessa) with similar physicochemical characteristics to one of the farming sites (Sambaqui), was also chosen to evaluate biomarker responses to pollution. Activities of ChE, GST and GR in the digestive glands and CAT in the gills were higher in the polluted site. GR was the only biomarker to be unaltered in different farming sites, but induced in the pollution site. The trace metal concentrations in the mussels were low and unlikely to cause the changes observed in the biomarker levels. The present study strongly suggests that monitoring programs should compare sites with similar physicochemical characteristics when using a complementary biomarker approach. In addition, the baselines for the biomarkers and metal used in the present study can serve as a reference for the monitoring of these mariculture zones in future monitoring programs employing P. perna.

  8. Microphytobenthic response to mussel farm biodeposition in coastal sediments of the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Annalisa; Cibic, Tamara; Del Negro, Paola; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2014-02-15

    The effects of long-line mussel farming on microphytobenthos were investigated in a coastal area of the Gulf of Trieste. Sediment grain-size, organic matter content, microalgal abundance and community structure were analysed in September 2008 and March 2009. Four areas were sampled: a twenty-year farm, a four-year farm, a disused farm and a reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted a decreasing gradient of organic matter content from the twenty-year farm to the control. Mussel farming seemed to influence microphytobenthic abundance with higher densities in the oldest farm. Three genera were dominant; Navicula and Gyrosigma seemed to be stimulated by the organic load under the active farms while we infer that Nitzschia proliferation was limited by shade caused by mussel ropes. In the PCA, samplings of the disused farm were placed in-between the still active farms and the control, indicating the partial recovery occurred in this site.

  9. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  10. Impact of environmental pollution on caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Mauceri, Angela; Corsaro, Carmelo; Maisano, Maria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Lo Paro, Giuseppe; Messina, Giuseppe; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-12-15

    Metabolic responses to environmental pollution, mainly related to Hg and PAHs, were investigated in mussels. Specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis, sedentary filter-feeders, were caged in anthropogenic-impacted and reference sites along the Augusta coastline (Sicily, Italy). The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion and gas exchange, were selected as target organ being the first organ to be affected by pollutants. Severe alterations in gill tissue were observed in mussels from the industrial area compared with control, while gill metabolic profiles, obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate statistics, exhibited significant changes in amino acids, energy metabolites, osmolytes and neurotransmitters. Overall, the morphological changes and metabolic disturbance detected in gill tissues may suggest that the mussels transplanted to the contaminated field site were suffering from adverse environmental condition. The concurrent morphological and metabolomic investigations as applied here result effective in assessing the environmental influences on health status of aquatic organisms.

  11. Candidate Reference Measurement Procedure for the Determination of (24R),25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Human Serum Using Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tai, Susan S-C; Nelson, Michael A

    2015-08-04

    The two major forms of vitamin D, vitamin D3 and vitamin D2, are metabolized in the liver through hydroxylation to 25-hydroxyvitamin D species, and then further hydroxylated in the kidney to various dihydroxyvitamin D species. (24R),25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 ((24R),25(OH)2D3) is a major catabolite of 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolism and is an important vitamin D metabolite used as a catabolism marker and indicator of kidney disease. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has recently developed a reference measurement procedure for the determination of (24R),25(OH)2D3 in human serum using isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS. The (24R),25(OH)2D3 and added deuterated labeled internal standard (24R),25(OH)2D3-d6 were extracted from serum matrix using liquid-liquid extraction prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation was performed using a fused-core C18 column. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used for LC-MS/MS. The accuracy of the measurement of (24R),25(OH)2D3 was evaluated by recovery studies of measuring (24R),25(OH)2D3 in gravimetrically prepared spiked samples of human serum with known (24R),25(OH)2D3 levels. The recoveries of the added (24R),25(OH)2D3 averaged 99.0% (0.8% SD), and the extraction efficiencies averaged 95% (2% SD). Excellent repeatability was demonstrated with CVs of ∼1%. The limit of quantitation at a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼10 was 0.2 ng/g. Potential isomeric interferences from other endogenous species and from impurity components of the reference standard were investigated. LC baseline resolution of (24R),25(OH)2D3 from these isomers was achieved within 35 min. This method was used for value assignment of (24R),25(OH)2D3 in Standard Reference Materials of Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum, which can serve as an accuracy base for routine methods used in clinical laboratories.

  12. A candidate reference method for quantification of low concentrations of plasmid DNA by exhaustive counting of single DNA molecules in a flow stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hee-Bong; Oh, Donggeun; Song, Jae Yong; Kawaharasaki, Mamoru; Hwang, Jeeseong; Yang, In Chul; Park, Sang-Ryoul

    2014-10-01

    This work demonstrates accurate measurement of the amount of substance concentration of low concentration plasmid DNA by counting individual DNA molecules using a high-sensitivity flow cytometric setup. Plasmid DNA is a widely used form of DNA, and its quantity often needs to be accurately determined. This work establishes a reference analytical method for direct quantification of low concentration plasmid DNA prepared as reference standards for polymerase chain reaction-based DNA quantification. The model plasmid DNA pBR322 (4361 bp) was stained with a fluorescent dye and was detected in a flow stream in a micro-fluidic channel with laser-induced fluorescence detection, for which the DNA flow was electro-hydrodynamically focused at the centre of the channel. 200 to 8000 DNA molecules in a ˜1 µL sample volume were counted within 2 min in an ‘exhaustive counting’ manner, which facilitated quantitation without calibration. The sample volume was measured and validated from the close agreement of the results of two independent measurement methods, gravimetric determination of water filling the capillary and graphical estimation of actual cross sectional area of the capillary tubing with the image of calibrated scanning electron microscopy. Within the given concentration range, an excellent measurement linearity (R2 = 0.999) was achieved with appropriate data processing for the correction of the events of double molecules (detection of double molecules opposed to single molecule detection assumed, which occurs due to their coincidental passing of the detection zone). The validity of the proposed method was confirmed from the close agreement with the results of quantitation of enzymatically released nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis.

  13. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  14. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  15. Resource subsidies from multi-trophic aquaculture affect isotopic niche width in wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldrick, C. K.; Jelinski, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are boreo-temperate, filter-feeding bivalves common to intertidal areas. As filter-feeders they have been employed in open-water, multi-tropic aquaculture systems to reduce organic benthic loading though the exploitation of suspended particulate organic materials. We compared δ13C and δ15N signatures and the isotopic niches of mussels growing in, and adjacent to, an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm in British Columbia, Canada, and using this information evaluated the contribution of aquaculture-derived effluent to their diet. Farm-sampled mussels had the least intraspecific isotopic variation compared to mussels sampled at the reference site. The interaction between time (i.e. sampling dates) and site did not significantly affect the isotopic composition of mussels; however significant variation was detected in δ15N values as a function of sampling date and particulate organic matter. A two-source isotopic mixing model indicated that marine particulate organic matter and IMTA farm effluent were approximately equal in importance (~ 46 % and ~ 54 %, respectively) to the diet of IMTA-retrieved mussels. Uptake of IMTA farm waste by M. edulis supports their use as economic extractives while also mitigating farmed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) nutrient loading to the aquatic environment.

  16. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  17. Stravation tolerance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (n=30), were held without food at 5{degrees}, 15{degrees}, or 25{degrees}C and examined daily for mortality. Further samples of 210 mussels at each test temperature were periodically subsampled (n=10) throughout the starvation period. Tissues and shells of sampled specimens were dried to a constant weight. Zebra mussels held at 25{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 166 days of starvation while mussels at 15{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 545 days. A mortality of 60% was recorded in mussels after 524 days at 5{degrees}C. Dry shell weight (DSW) of starving zebra mussels at 25{degrees}C remained constant; at 15{degrees}C, DSW increased, likely due to deposition of new shell without increase in length. At 5{degrees}C DSW decreased possibly due to the high solubility of shell calcium carbonate at this low temperature. Dry tissue weight (DTW) decreased linearly during starvation at all test temperatures with the rate of DTW loss increasing at higher holding temperatures. Estimated percent tissue biomass reductions in a 20 mm long starved individual were 73.8% after 132 days at 25{degrees}C, 68.9% after 545 days at 15{degrees}C and 61.6% after 516 days at 5{degrees}C. When DTW loss rates were converted to O{sub 2} consumption rates (O{sub 2}), the O{sub 2} of a 20 mm long mussel was estimated to be 22.2% of prestarvation O{sub 2} at 25{degrees}C, 11.0% at 15{degrees}C and 10.2% at 5{degrees}C. Major reduction in metabolic demand in starving zebra mussels at low temperatures allows overwintering without appreciable loss of organic energy stores.

  18. Radium-226 accumulation in Florida freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.M.; Leeper, D.A.; Streubert, M.; Baker, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Selected lakes in Hillsborough County, Florida have been hydrologically augmented with groundwater to offset stage declines caused by excessive pumping of the Floridan Aquifer. Augmentation water can be relatively rich in 226Ra (>5 decays per minute [dpm] L-1). We measured 226Ra activities in shells and soft tissues of adult bivalve molluscs (Elliptio cf. buckleyi) from groundwater-augmented and nonaugmented lakes to assess bioaccumulation of 226Ra by mussels. Mussels from augmented lakes displayed higher 226Ra in both shells and tissues than did mussels from nonaugmented lakes. Within a sample, 226Ra activity in Elliptio tissues was higher than the value measured in shells. Highest activities were found in a composite mussel sample (n = 6) from an augmented lake; soft tissue activity was 619 ?? 33 dpm g-1 dry weight and shell activity was 147 ?? 7 dpm g-1 g dry weight. Large mussels displayed greater activities in soft tissues and shells than did small mussels. We transplanted animals from a nonaugmented lake into a groundwater-augmented water body. 226Ra activity in dry tissue rose from 32 ?? 1 to 196 ?? 2 dpm g-1 within 2 months. When 226Ra-rich mussels (232 ?? 2 dpm g-1) from the augmented lake were transferred to the nonaugmented lake, they showed no significant 226Ra loss over the 69-d experiment. Large Elliptio mussels concentrated 226Ra in their soft tissues to levels about 1,000 to 25,000 times concentrations in lake water. Pumping of groundwater in Florida for residential, agricultural, and industrial use contributes dissolved 226Ra to some surface water bodies, where it can be bioaccumulated by bivalve molluscs. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  19. Thiaminase activity in native freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Sweet, Stephanie; Galbraith, Heather S.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the Great Lakes has been attributed to elevated levels of thiaminase I enzyme activity in invasive prey species; however, few studies have investigated thiaminase activity in native prey species. Some of the highest levels of thiaminase activity have been measured in invasive dreissenid mussels with little understanding of background levels contributed by native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). In this study, thiaminase activity was measured in two freshwater mussel species, Elliptio complanata and Strophitus undulatus, from the Delaware and Susquehanna River drainage basins located in north eastern United States. Thiaminase activity was also measured in gravid and non-gravid S. undulatus. Average thiaminase activity differed significantly between species (7.2 and 42.4 μmol/g/min, for E. complanata and S. undulatus respectively) with no differences observed between drainage basins. Gravid S. undulatus had significantly lower thiaminase activity (28.0 μmol/g/min) than non-gravid mussels (42.4 μmol/g/min). Our results suggest that a suite of factors may regulate thiaminase activity in freshwater mussels and that native freshwater mussel thiaminase activity is within the range observed for invasive dreissenids. These results add to our understanding of the complexities in identifying the ecological conditions that set the stage for thiamine deficiency.

  20. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  1. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher.

  2. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  3. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  4. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  5. Potential for Local Fertilization: A Benthocosm Test of Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Mussel Excretion on the Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Monica; Duffy, Sean; Robert, Pauline; Péquin, Bérangère; Mohit, Vani; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Archambault, Philippe; Myrand, Bruno; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Réjean; Plourde, Stéphane; Fussmann, Gregor F.

    2016-01-01

    Mussel aquaculture has expanded worldwide and it is important to assess its impact on the water column and the planktonic food web to determine the sustainability of farming practices. Mussel farming may affect the planktonic food web indirectly by excreting bioavailable nutrients in the water column (a short-term effect) or by increasing nutrient effluxes from biodeposit-enriched sediments (a long-term effect). We tested both of these indirect effects in a lagoon by using plankton-enclosing benthocosms that were placed on the bottom of a shallow lagoon either inside of a mussel farm or at reference sites with no history of aquaculture. At each site, half of the benthocosms were enriched with seawater that had held mussels (excretion treatment), the other half received non-enriched seawater as a control treatment. We monitored nutrients ([PO43-] and [NH4+]), dissolved oxygen and plankton components (bacteria, the phytoplankton and the zooplankton) over 5 days. We found a significant relationship between long-term accumulation of mussel biodeposits in sediments, water-column nutrient concentrations and plankton growth. Effects of mussel excretion were not detected, too weak to be significant given the spatial and temporal variability observed in the lagoon. Effects of mussels on the water column are thus likely to be coupled to benthic processes in such semi-enclosed water bodies. PMID:27249793

  6. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  7. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... planning an FY13 strategy to minimize the spread of quagga mussels from the Colorado River and a framework for working beyond FY13. Priorities for minimizing the spread of these mussels will be discussed....

  8. Simultaneous Direct Determinations of Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S in Biodiesel Fuel by ICP-QMS/QMS after Xylene Dilution: Development and Application of a High-throughput Method for a Homogeneity Assessment of a Candidate Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Kitamaki, Yuko; Numata, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS/QMS) measurements after xylene dilution were investigated as a method for determining the elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S) in a biodiesel fuel (BDF) candidate reference material (RM). Optimizations were respectively carried out for the following parameters to obtain the best performance for measurements: O2 flow rate (additional gas to the carrier gas) to ensure complete combustion of the xylene solvent in the plasma, plasma power to obtain lower background signal intensities for Na and K, O2 flow rate (reaction cell gas) to remove any spectral interference with the S, H2 flow rate so as to remove spectral interference with Ca. After optimization, the lower detection limits of Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S were 0.0004, 0.00004, 0.0003, 0.00012, 0.00005, and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively. Typical relative standard deviations were 2.1, 2.0, 1.7, 1.1, 2.5, and 2.5% for Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S, respectively, where the elemental concentrations in the BDF sample were, respectively, ca. 1 mg kg(-1) each for Na, Mg, K and Ca, ca. 2 mg kg(-1) for P, and ca. 6 mg kg(-1) for S. The established method was applied to the homogeneity assessment of a candidate RM of BDF made from palm oil. The relative uncertainties of the homogeneity were 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.3, 1.6, and 0.6% for Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S, respectively.

  9. Insights into the innate immunity of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    modulated in response to antigenic stimuli and represents an interesting window for looking at the mussel immunome (transcriptomes mediating the mussel response to non-self or abnormal antigens). On this basis, we have defined a new microarray platform, a mussel Immunochip, as a flexible tool for the experimental validation of immune-candidate sequences, and tested its performance on Vibrio-activated mussel hemocytes. The microarray platform and related expression data can be regarded as a step forward in the study of the adaptive response of the Mytilus species to an evolving microbial world. PMID:21269501

  10. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  11. A Candidate Reference Measurement Procedure for Quantifying Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 Using Isotope-Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ekaterina M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L.; Botelho, Julianne C.; Vesper, Hubert W.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d3-25(OH)D2 and d6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9% and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4% and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.4% for 25(OH)D3 and 100.3% for 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. PMID:25967149

  12. Anthropogenic pollution stimulates oxidative stress in soft tissues of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker1853)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcheva, Nina N.; Zakhartsev, Maxim V.; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Kavun, Victor Ya.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2011-06-01

    The digestive gland and gills of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus extracted from three locations — (i) sampled from a clean and (ii) polluted site and (iii) transplanted from the nonpolluted to polluted site - were analysed for antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase), total oxyradical scavenging capacity and levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin). Perturbation of redox status was found in both digestive gland and gill tissues of mussels living in the polluted area. As the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 1.2-3 times higher, the total oxyradical scavenging capacity was lower by 20-35% and the levels of lipid peroxidation products were 2-7 times higher compared to mussels from the reference site. In transplanted mussels, the lipid peroxidation process in both tissues was significantly stimulated (the level of conjugated dienes was increased 1.7-2.5-fold; malondialdehyde and lipofuscin contents were increased 3.5-5-fold) and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity fell by 50-70%. In addition, the transplantation generally resulted in transient and variable responses of antioxidant enzymes for both tissues. Complex response-behaviour of the antioxidant enzymes strongly points to the necessity of employing a combined approach that takes into account activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, as well as measurement of oxidative damage (e.g., lipid peroxidation) to evaluate the physiological health of molluscs.

  13. Biomarkers in mussels from a copper site gradient (Visnes, Norway): an integrated biochemical, histochemical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Soto, Manu; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2006-06-01

    In the present work, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were transplanted into a copper (Cu) gradient in Visnes (Norway) for a period of 3 weeks during November 2003. Sites 1 and 2 showed similar low levels of Cu, site 3 had intermediate Cu levels and site 4 was the most polluted with Cu as confirmed by AAS of digestive gland tissue. Values of lysosomal membrane labilization period were significantly lower at sites 3 and 4 compared to sites 1 and 2. The volume density and size of lysosomes was significantly decreased at site 4. The volume density of neutral lipids was also significantly lower at site 4 compared with the rest of sites. The volume density of lipofuscins showed significantly higher values at sites 2 and 3 compared to the reference site 1. Similar results were obtained regarding bioavailable metal levels measured by autometallography. All together, results are indicative of exocytosis of metal-containing lysosomes and lipofuscins to the digestive tubule lumen in mussels from site 4. In fact, autometallographic metal deposits were detected in digestive tubule lumen, brown cells and stomach in site 4 mussels. In agreement, there was a loss of digestive cells in mussels from site 4 (atrophy of the digestive epithelium) and cell type replacement (diminished volume density of digestive cells and increased volume density of basophilic cells). In conclusion, selected biomarkers indicated that mussels transplanted to sites closest to the Cu mine showed significant differences in metal accumulation pattern and in organization of the digestive gland tissue. Finally, female mussels closest to the Cu mine showed advanced gametogenesis with higher gonad index and vitellogenin-like protein levels than mussels at sites 1 and 2.

  14. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1993-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates and handling time of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhhynchus mykiss) eggs. In single prey species tests, crayfish ate zebra mussels at similar rates as they ate rainbow trout eggs. When both prey were present, crayfish preferred rainbow trout eggs. Handling time of mussels was about twice that of rainbow trout eggs, and energetic content of mussels was lower. Therefore, net benefit for foraging on rainbow trout eggs was about three times that of foraging on zebra mussels.

  15. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P. B.; Israelachvili, J. N.; Waite, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications.

  16. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  17. Chlorine dioxide treatment for zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarik, D.; Byron, J.; Germer, M.

    1995-06-01

    Chlorine is recognized and commonly used biocide for power plant cooling water and service water treatment programs, including the control of zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide has recently become a popular method of zebra mussel control because of its economy, safety, environmental acceptability, and effectiveness when compared to other mussel control methods. This control technique was recently demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s Alma Generating Station on the east bank of the upper Mississippi River in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was assisted with EPRI Tailored Collaboration Program funds. The Dairyland Power Alam Generating Station consists of five generating units that utilize raw, untreated Mississippi River water for condenser, circulating, and service water supplies. The first units were built in 1947, with the final and largest unit being completed in 1960. Total station generating capacity is 200 MW. Because of recent increases in the zebra mussel density at the station intake, Dairyland Power selected the team of Nalco and Rio Linda to perform a chlorine dioxide treatment of the station`s new water systems to eradicate and control the mussels before their presence created operational difficulties. This paper will present the results of the treatment including treatment theory, design and construction of the treatment system, the method of chlorine dioxide generation, treatment concentration, analytical methods o monitoring chlorine dioxide generation, residuals and trihalomethane (THM) concentrations, protocol for monitoring treatment mortality, and the effects of chlorine dioxide and detoxification on other water chemistry parameters and equipment materials. The goal of this paper is to inform and assist users with establishing consistent and uniform practices for safely utilizing and monitoring chlorine dioxide in the eradication and control of zebra mussels.

  18. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  19. Sediment, land use, and freshwater mussels: Prospects and problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brim-Box, J.; Mossa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The decline in freshwater mussel populations in many river basins throughout North America has been attributed, in part, to land-use modifications that cause changes in sediment regimes. However, the specific associations that mussels have with stream sediments are poorly understood, making it difficult to assess the impacts of changes in sedimentation rates on unionid mussels. Both bed and suspended materials, and concomitant changes in channel form associated with changes in sediment supply, may affect mussels in numerous ways at various stages in their life cycle. Considerable debate and uncertainty remains regarding the strength of associations between sediments and mussels, including whether increased sedimentation is a cause of recent mussel declines. It is important to be aware of appropriate procedures for sampling and analyzing fluvial sediments, and the nature of sediment sources, to adequately assess relationships between unionid mussels and fluvial sediments.

  20. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  1. Marine bioinorganic materials: mussels pumping iron.

    PubMed

    Wilker, Jonathan J

    2010-04-01

    The oceans are filled with an amazing variety of biological materials including the glues and cements of mussels, barnacles, tube worms, algae, and starfish. Recent studies on mussel adhesive are providing increasing evidence for a unique mechanism of material generation involving iron-induced protein oxidation and cross-linking chemistry. Insights are also being gathered on many of the other marine creatures producing adhesives. Beyond understanding biology, this growing knowledge is inspiring application development. New classes of biomimetic polymers are poised to provide the next generation of surgical adhesives and orthopedic cements.

  2. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  3. Active biomonitoring of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis with integrated use of micronucleus assay and physiological indices to assess harbor pollution.

    PubMed

    Gherras Touahri, Hamida; Boutiba, Zitouni; Benguedda, Wacila; Shaposhnikov, Sergey

    2016-09-15

    The mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from a noncontaminated site (Chaib Rasso) were transplanted during one, three and six months at Ghazaouet harbor (GH), areas with a strong gradient of pollution. The micronucleus test (MN) was selected to monitor the impact of contamination, along with physiological indexes (condition index CI and organo-somatic indexes RI and GSI). The results show a negative correlation of MN variation in gill cells with CI but a positive correlation with transplantation duration. However, a significant correlation was found between the indexes. Moreover, the findings indicate that MN in the hemolymph and gills of transplanted mussels for one, three and six months at GH are significantly higher than those of the reference site. However, no significant differences were noted between the three transplants at the two organs. Monitoring the physiological status of mussels, in parallel with the biomarker measurements, is useful in assessing the impact of contaminants.

  4. S1 certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate certified reference material (organochlorine pesticides in tea) by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della Wai-Mei; Wong, Yee-Lok; Cheng, Eddie Chung-Chin; Lo, Man-Fung; Ho, Clare; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Wong, Siu-Kay

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the certification of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in a candidate tea certified reference material (code: GLHK-11-03) according to the requirements of the ISO Guide 30 series. Certification of GLHK-11-03 was based on an analytical method purposely developed for the accurate measurement of the mass fraction of the target analytes in the material. An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method involving determination by (i) gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) and (ii) gas chromatography-electron ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-EI-HRMS) techniques was employed. The performance of the described method was demonstrated through participation in the key comparison CCQM-K95 "Mid-Polarity Analytes in Food Matrix: Mid-Polarity Pesticides in Tea" organized by the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance-Metrology in Chemistry in 2012, where the study material was the same as the certified reference material (CRM). The values reported by using the developed method were in good agreement with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) assigned for beta-endosulfan (727 ± 14 μg kg(-1)) and endosulfan sulfate (505 ± 11 μg kg(-1)), where the degree of equivalence (DoE) values were 0.41 and 0.40, respectively. The certified values of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate in dry mass fraction in GLHK-11-03 were 350, 730, and 502 μg kg(-1), respectively, and the respective expanded uncertainties, due to sample inhomogeneity, long-term and short-term stability, and variability in the characterization procedure, were 27 μg kg(-1) (7.8 %), 48 μg kg(-1) (6.6 %), and 33 μg kg(-1) (6.6 %).

  5. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization.

  6. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in mussels from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, document the return to baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A

    2004-12-01

    Bioavailable hydrocarbons in the Exxon Valdez oil spill zone in Prince William Sound (PWS; AK, USA) shorelines were at or near background levels in 2002, as indicated by low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected from sites throughout PWS. Total PAH (TPAH) minus parent naphthalene concentrations in mussels collected in 1998 to 2002 from sites oiled in 1989 were at or near reference-site values. Both oiled and reference sites included locations associated with past human and industrial activity (HA). Inclusion of the unoiled HA sites in the range of reference sites that define prespill conditions is consistent with federal regulations. For the period from 1998 to 2002, the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for 218 mussel samples collected from 72 sites, including four HA sites that had been heavily oiled in 1989, is 54 ng/g dry weight (range, 2-1,190 ng/g). The maximum mussel TPAH concentrations are equivalent to a weathered-oil exposure dose to intertidal foragers that is one to three orders of magnitude less than the doses shown to cause sublethal effects in surrogate species. The geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 28 locations not oiled in 1989 and unaffected by human use (NHA sites) is 28 ng/g (range, 3-355 ng/g), whereas the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 14 locations not oiled in 1989 and affected by human use (HA sites) is 106 ng/g (range, 2-12,056 ng/g). The range of data for the unoiled HA and NHA sites defines the background of bioavailable PAHs to mussels on western PWS shorelines that would have prevailed if the oil spill had not occurred. The low PAH concentrations in mussels from sites known to have subsurface oil residues demonstrates the low bioavailability of these spill remnants and, thus, are a low additional risk to foraging wildlife. The present study shows continuous exposure from four- to six-ring PAHs originating at HA

  8. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  9. A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

    2014-09-15

    mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs.

  10. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may

  11. Unique alloys prevent zebra mussel attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranschaert, B.; Maxson, D.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes cooperative research and application by a utility and an intake screen manufacturer of materials that are resistive to fouling by mussels. The article describes the intake structure, the screen manufacturer`s efforts to identify resistive materials, manufacture and installation of screens using the resistive copper alloys and the results achieved.

  12. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water.

  13. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  14. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living' document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  15. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  16. Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Scherer, Norbert F.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2006-08-01

    The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic. 3,4-dihydroxylphenylalanine | atomic force microscopy | mussel adhesive protein

  17. Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

  18. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  19. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A; Bence, A Edward

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone.

  20. Human exposure to trace metals and possible public health risks via consumption of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Adriatic coastal area.

    PubMed

    Jović, Mihajlo; Stanković, Slavka

    2014-08-01

    Considering the growing concern due to different levels of anthropogenic loadings, the main purpose of this study was to identify the levels of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg) in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled along the marine coast of Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro. In comparison with the permissible limits set by the EU and the US FDA, all trace metal concentrations found in the mussels from the coastal area of Boka Kotorska Bay were lower than the prescribed limits. Generally, the trace metal concentrations found in Montenegrin mussels are within the range of trace metal concentrations determined in low to moderately polluted Adriatic areas. Based on these and other available literature data published by other authors for Adriatic region, the public health risks associated with the consumption of mussels in relation to reported trace metal concentrations were evaluated. In terms of the obtained trace metals concentrations in mussels and the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the JECFA and oral reference doses by the US EPA, the Pb and Cd concentrations and the Co and Cd concentrations were recognized as the limiting factor for the consumption of mussels from some Adriatic areas, respectively.

  1. Residual effects of lead and zinc mining on freshwater mussels in the Spring River Basin (Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, USA).

    PubMed

    Angelo, Robert T; Cringan, M Steve; Chamberlain, Diana L; Stahl, Anthony J; Haslouer, Stephen G; Goodrich, Clint A

    2007-10-01

    Concentrations of selected trace elements in surface water and fluvial sediment were investigated as possible factors limiting the distribution and abundance of freshwater mussels in the Spring River Basin, a 6600 km(2) watershed overlapping a former Pb and Zn mining and ore processing district in the central USA. Mussel taxa richness surveys and supporting physical habitat assessments were performed in 23 stream reaches dispersed throughout the basin and above and below former mining sites. Quantitative mussel density surveys were performed in the Spring River at one upstream reference location and one downstream location. Concentrations of 16 trace elements in the soft tissues of mussels and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) were determined at most survey sites. Comparable analyses were performed on surface water samples collected during base flow and peak flow synoptic surveys and sediment samples collected during base flow periods. Sites on the Spring River immediately upstream of heavily mined areas supported at least 21-25 species of mussels, whereas sites near the lower terminus of the river yielded evidence of 6-8 extant species. Between the upper and lower quantitative survey sites, mean mussel and clam densities declined by 89% and 97%, respectively. Tributary reaches below heavily mined areas lacked evident bivalve communities and contained concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn that continually or sporadically exceeded hardness-dependent water quality criteria and consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (probable effect concentrations). In less contaminated stream reaches supporting bivalves, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in mussels and clams were correlated spatially with the levels occurring in surficial sediment (0.50 < or = tau < or = 0.64, p < or = 0.03). In non-headwater perennial stream reaches, sediment Cd, Pb, and Zn levels were related inversely to mussel taxa richness (-0.80 < or = tau < or = -0.64, p < or = 0.004). Metal contaminant burdens

  2. Establishing mussel behavior as a biomarker in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jason T; Beggel, Sebastian; Auerswald, Karl; Stoeckle, Bernhard C; Geist, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Most freshwater mussel species of the Unionoida are endangered, presenting a conservation issue as they are keystone species providing essential services for aquatic ecosystems. As filter feeders with limited mobility, mussels are highly susceptible to water pollution. Despite their exposure risk, mussels are underrepresented in standard ecotoxicological methods. This study aimed to demonstrate that mussel behavioral response to a chemical stressor is a suitable biomarker for the advancement of ecotoxicology methods that aids mussel conservation. Modern software and Hall sensor technology enabled mussel filtration behavior to be monitored real-time at very high resolution. With this technology, we present our method using Anodonta anatina and record their response to de-icing salt pollution. The experiment involved an environmentally relevant 'pulse-exposure' design simulating three subsequent inflow events. Three sublethal endpoints were investigated, Filtration Activity, Transition Frequency (number of changes from opened to closed, or vice versa) and Avoidance Behavior. The mussels presented a high variation in filtration behavior, behaving asynchronously. At environmentally relevant de-icing salt exposure scenarios, A. anatina behavior patterns were significantly affected. Treated mussels' Filtration Activity decreased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), however, increased during short de-icing salt exposure. Treated mussels' Transition Frequency increased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), which mirrored the Avoidance Behavior endpoint observed only by mussels under chemical stress. Characteristics of Avoidance Behavior were tighter shell closures with repeated and irregular shell movements which was significantly different to their undisturbed resting behavior (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that mussels were sensitive to a chemical stressor even when the mussel's valves were closed. Due

  3. Mussel beds — amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Sabine

    1990-09-01

    The faunal assemblages of a mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis L.) and ambient sandflat were compared to study how a bioherm of suspension feeding organisms affects benthic communities in a tidal flat. During a survey of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea at the island of Sylt (North Sea), a total of 52 macrofaunal species and 44 meiobenthic plathelminth species were detected. They occupied different microhabitats in the mussel bed. 56% of the macrofauna species were dwelling in the sediment beneath the mussels and 42% were epibenthic or epiphytic. The latter were restricted in their occurrence to the mussel bed. Along a transect from the sandflat to the mussel bed the mean species densities of macrofauna did not differ significantly, while abundances were significantly lower in the mussel bed than in the sandflat. The composition of the assemblages shifted from a dominance of Polychaeta in the sandflat to Oligochaeta in the mussel bed. Surface filter-feeding polychaetes of the sandflat ( Tharyx marioni) were displaced by deposit feeding polychaetes under the mussel cover ( Capitella capitata, Heteromastus filiformis). The total meiobenthic density was lower and single taxa (Ostracoda, Plathelminthes, Nematoda) were significantly less abundant in the mud of the mussel bed. The plathelminth assemblage was dominated by grazing species ( Archaphanostoma agile), and differed in community structure from a sandflat aseemblage. An amensalistic relationship was found between the suspension-feeding mussels and suspension-feeding infauna, while deposit-feeders were enhanced. The presence of epibenthic microhabitats results in a variety of trophic groups co-occurring in a mussel bed. This is hypothesized as trophic group amelioration and described as an attribute of heterotrophic reefs.

  4. Control Strategies for Zebra Mussel Infestations at Public Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    facilities. It was decided that sites where zebra mussel infestations would be most apparent were components of (1) navigation locks (walls, miter gates, fill... components likely to be negatively affected by zebra mussels. In addition, attendees prepared a preliminary list of strategies to deal with zebra mussel...struc- tural components , and suitable control strategies. The matrix was developed prior to the meeting by WES personnel and was based on an approach

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia to juvenile Lampsilis mussels (Unionidae) in sediment and water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of two juvenile unionid mussels (Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis higginsii) to ammonia in 96-h water-only and sediment tests by use of mortality and growth measurements. Twenty mussels were placed in chambers buried 2.5 cm into reference sediments to approximate pore-water exposure (sediment tests) or elevated above the bottom of the experimental units (water-only tests). In the sediment tests, a pH gradient existed between the overlying water (mean 8.0), sediment-water interface (mean 7.7), and 2.5 cm depth (mean 7.4). We assumed that mussels were exposed to ammonia in pore water and report effect concentrations in pore water, but if they were exposed to the higher pH water, more of the ammonia would be in the toxic un-ionized (NH 3) form. The only differences in toxicity and growth between mussel species occurred in some of the water-only tests. In sediment tests, median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 124 to 125 ??g NH3-N/L. In water-only tests, LC50s ranged from 157 to 372 ??g NH3-N/L. In sediment tests, median effective concentrations (EC50s based on growth) ranged from 30 to 32 ??g NH3-N/L. Juvenile mussels in the water-only tests grew poorly and did not exhibit a dose-response relation. These data demonstrate that growth is a sensitive and valuable endpoint for studies on ammonia toxicity with juvenile freshwater mussels and that growth should be measured via sediment tests. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine and Meuse rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, A.J.; Pieters, H.; Boer, J. de

    1998-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and various groups of organic microcontaminants were measured in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine-Meuse basin. Residues in mussel from the Rhine and Meuse were on average 2.3 and 2.9 times higher than in those from the reference location of IJsselmeer. Total body burdens of organic microcontaminants in mussel and eel varied between 0.05 to 0.07 mmol/kg fat weight in six out of seven samples. The largest contribution in mussels and eel came from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Concentrations of bromodiphenyl-ethers, chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroterphenyls, and chlorobenzyltoluenes were lower. Total polybrominated biphenyl residues appear lower than total PCB levels. The largest chlorobiocide residues were noted for 4,4{prime}-DDE, toxaphene, trichlorophenylmethane, and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane. An extraordinary high body burden of 1.2 mmol/kg fat weight, largely consisting of acenaphthene, was observed in one sample. Ratios of concentrations in organism fat and dry organic suspended solids varied between 1 and 10 for traditionally monitored organochlorines, independent of the octanol-water partition coefficient. The values did not deviate significantly from a value of about 3.3, expected for equilibrium partitioning of persistent chemicals. Lower values were observed for PAHs and some chloro(nitro)benzenes. Most ratios of concentrations in eel and mussel fat were within the range of 1 to 10, also largely independent of K{sub ow}. Yet, values tended to be higher at K{sub ow} > 10{sup 6}. Ratios below 1 were noted for pentabromodiphenylether, pentachloro(thio)anisol, chlorobenzyltoluenes, and some chloronitrobenzenes, chlorobiphenyls, and chlorobiocides. These field data confirm recent modeling efforts on bioconcentration and biomagnification. For heavy metals, atomic mass explained 67% of the variation in zebra mussel residues.

  7. Influence of intertidal recreational fisheries and 'bouchot' mussel culture on bivalve recruitment.

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Barbier, Pierrick; Tremblay, Réjean; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W; Winkler, Gesche; Meziane, Tarik; Olivier, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In coastal environments, fishing and aquaculture may be important sources of disturbance to ecosystem functioning, the quantification of which must be assessed to make them more sustainable. In the Chausey Archipelago, France, recreational fishing and commercial shellfish farming are the only two evident anthropogenic activities, dominated by bivalve hand-raking and 'bouchot' mussel culture, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of both activities on bivalve recruitment dynamics by comparing primary recruitment intensity (short-term effect) and recruitment efficiency (medium-term effect) by sampling bivalves in reference (undisturbed) and disturbed (i.e. subjected to hand-raking or in 'bouchot' mussel culture areas) parcels throughout and at the end of the recruitment season, respectively. Specific hypotheses evaluated were that (H1) bivalve hand-raking negatively affects bivalve recruitment and that (H2) 'bouchot' mussel culture promotes bivalve recruitment. Patterns in bivalve community structure in reference parcels (i.e. natural pattern) differed between initial and final recruitment, underlining the great importance of early post-settlement processes, particularly secondary dispersal. Primary recruitment intensity was inhibited in hand-raking parcels whereas it was promoted in 'bouchot' mussel culture parcels, but the effect on recruitment efficiency was muted for both activities due to post-settlement processes. Nevertheless, the importance of effects that occur during the first step of recruitment should not be ignored as they may affect bivalve communities and induce immediate consequences on the trophic web through a cascade effect. Finally, it is highlighted that hand-raking damages all life stages of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, one of the major target species, suggesting that this activity should be managed with greater caution than is currently done.

  8. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-28

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  9. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  10. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  11. A sampling method for conducting relocation studies with freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Luoma, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Low recovery of transplanted mussels often prevents accurate estimates of survival. We developed a method that provided a high recovery of transplanted mussels and allowed for a reliable assessment of mortality. A 3 x 3 m polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe grid was secured to the sediment with iron reinforcing bars. The grid was divided into nine 1-m super(2) segments and each treatment segment, was stocked with 100 marked mussels. The recovery of mussels after six months exceeded 80% in all but one treatment group.

  12. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. Variations in gene expression levels in four European zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, populations in relation to metal bioaccumulation: A field study.

    PubMed

    Kerambrun, E; Rioult, D; Delahaut, L; Evariste, L; Pain-Devin, S; Auffret, M; Geffard, A; David, E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was performed to validate the suitability of using gene expression in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, for biomonitoring of freshwater environment. Mussels were collected in four French rivers (Meuse, Moselle, Oise and Vilaine) in spring and autumn. Relative gene expression of 9 candidate genes involved in cellular metabolic activities (Cytochrome-c-oxidase - cox, and ATP synthase - atp), detoxification process (Metallothionein - mt and Glutathion-S-Transferase - gst), oxidative stress (Catalase - cat, Superoxyde Dismutase - sod and Glutathion peroxidase - gpx) and digestive functions (Amylase - amy and Cellulase - ghf) were measured in digestive gland. Metal bioaccumulation in tissues and morphometric parameters were also analyzed to interpret molecular responses. All our results are consistent with different physiological reactions to environmental condition between zebra mussel populations. In spring, the levels of mt, sod, gpx, cat, atp, amy and ghf relative expression were significantly higher in mussels with the lowest metal bioaccumulation (the Meuse) compared to at least one of the other sites. In autumn, this higher expression levels in Meuse River were still observed for gpx, cat, atp and amy. This study has also pointed out different sources of variability in gene expression (individual size, season, trophic resources and origin of mussels) which are inevitable in natural fluctuant environment. This underlines the importance to take them into account in field study to propose a correct interpretation of biomarker responses.

  15. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, F. Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-06-15

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  16. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  17. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  18. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  19. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  20. Fluoranthene transport in mussel blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lazinsky, D.; Robinson, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The role of mussel (Mytilus edulis) blood plasma in fluoranthene transport was investigated using in vitro binding studies and invivo exposure studies. In vitro binding studies on fluoranthene-spiked plasma utilized dialysis, ultrafiltration and fluorescence quenching. A significant degree of fluoranthene binding was observed with all the methods; as much 99.7% of the fluoranthene was bound to plasma proteins. Conditional affinity constants (log K{sub a}), calculated using a single component complexation model, averaged 6.8 M{sup {minus}1} suggesting a moderate affinity interaction between fluoranthene and plasma proteins. Mussels were exposed in vivo to {sup 3}H-fluoranthene and blood and tissues were sampled at 0.5, 3.5, 7, 24, 72 h post exposure. The mussels removed an average of 90% of the fluoranthene from the seawater within the first 0.5 h of exposure. Body tissues rapidly accumulated fluoranthene. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose was present in the tissues by 0.5 h and this increased to 96% by 3.5 h of exposure. Within the blood, fluoranthene was mainly partitioned in the plasma. Plasma fluoranthene decreased to 50% within 3.5 h. The fluoranthene distribution remained relatively constant throughout the remainder of the 72 h exposure. Ultrafiltration of plasma exposed in vivo indicated that fluoranthene was not free, but bound to plasma proteins. The plasma protein concentrations fluctuated during exposure, but were virtually the same at 0.5 h and 72 h post exposure.

  1. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  2. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-02-22

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-15. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  3. Immunological responses in the mussel Mytilus trossulus transplanted at the coastline of the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Höher, N; Turja, R; Köhler, A; Lehtonen, K K; Broeg, K

    2015-12-01

    The applicability of immune responses in transplanted Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) as biomarkers of immunotoxic effects was studied at differently contaminated locations in the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea). Here, we present a detailed report on the immune responses measured as complementary part of transplantation study by Turja et al. (2014).Various immunological endpoints such as total and differential cell count, morphological alterations,phagocytic activity, and caspase 3/7 activity of mussel haemocytes as well as haemolytic activity of the haemolymph were used. Mussels collected at a reference site at a Finnish coastal site (Hanko, H) were transplanted at the Swedish coast near industrial and urban regions of the cities Sundsvall (S1, S2) and Gävle (G1, G2), respectively. Based on the measured immunological responses, multivariate statistical analysis (PCA biplot) showed a clear separation of the most polluted site S1, indicating immunotoxic impacts of the mixture of contaminants present at this location. Based on these observations and results from Turja et al. (2014), we suggest the implementation of immunotoxic biomarkers for the evaluation of ecosystem health. However, these should be accompanied by complementary endpoints of biological effects encompassing i.e., physiological, antioxidant and bioenergetic markers.

  4. A simple optimized microwave digestion method for multielement monitoring in mussel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Y.; González, A.; Fernández, P.; Blanco, J.

    2004-04-01

    With the aim of obtaining a set of common decomposition conditions allowing the determination of several metals in mussel tissue (Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry; Cu and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry; and Cd, PbCr, Ni, As and Ag by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry), a factorial experiment was carried out using as factors the sample weight, digestion time and acid addition. It was found that the optimal conditions were 0.5 g of freeze-dried and triturated samples with 6 ml of nitric acid and subjected to microwave heating for 20 min at 180 psi. This pre-treatment, using only one step and one oxidative reagent, was suitable to determine the nine metals studied with no subsequent handling of the digest. It was possible to carry out the determination of atomic absorption using calibrations with aqueous standards and matrix modifiers for cadmium, lead, chromium, arsenic and silver. The accuracy of the procedure was checked using oyster tissue (SRM 1566b) and mussel tissue (CRM 278R) certified reference materials. The method is now used routinely to monitor these metals in wild and cultivated mussels, and found to be good.

  5. Differential metallothionein, reduced glutathione and metal levels in Perna perna mussels in two environmentally impacted tropical bays in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavradas, Raquel T; Rocha, Rafael C C; Bordon, Isabella C A C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Godoy, José M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    Mussel farming is an important economic activity in Brazil, and these organisms are consumed by the majority of the population in most coastal zones in the country. However, despite the increasing pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, little is known about the biochemical activity in mussels in response to metal exposure. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metal and metalloid exposure effects in Perna perna mussels, by determining metal levels, the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis, and oxidative stress, in the form of reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3 contaminated areas from the Guanabara Bay in comparison to a reference site, Ilha Grande Bay, both in summer and winter. Metal and metalloid concentrations were also compared to Brazilian and international guidelines, to verify potential health risks to human consumers. Mussels from all sampling sites were shown to be improper for human consumption due to metal contamination, including Ilha Grande Bay, which has previously been considered a reference site. Several statistically significant correlations and seasonal differences were observed between MT, GSH and metals and metalloids in both analyzed tissues. A Discriminant Canonical Analysis indicated that the digestive gland is a better bioindicator for environmental contamination by metals and metalloids in this species and offers further proof that MT variations observed are due to metal exposure and not oxidative stress, since GSH influence for both muscle tissue and the digestive glands was non-significant in this analysis. These results show that P. perna mussels are an adequate sentinel species for metal contamination with significant effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report metals, metalloids, MT and GSH levels in the muscle tissue of this species.

  6. Effects of ammonia on freshwater mussels in the St. Croix River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The St. Croix River contains a diverse and abundant group of freshwater mussels. The St. Croix is one of the few rivers in the Midwest not substantially affected by the invasion of the exotic zebra mussel, which encrusts and kills native freshwater mussels. Increased concentrations of ammonia in river sediments, however, poses a significant threat to mussels.

  7. Relationships between community structure of freshwater mussels and host fishes in a central Ohio watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of freshwater mussel communities has declined over the past several decades within watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Host fishes play an important role in the life cycle of freshwater mussels because they serve as hosts for parasitic mussel larvae to ensure successful mussel ...

  8. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  9. In situ assessment of genotoxicity using caged freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Westerfield, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a decline in mussel populations has been documented in many areas, particularly in contaminated environments. Mussels are particularly vulnerable to exposure to xenobiotics in sediment and/or water because of their modes of feeding and respiration and close association with sediments. Because of this potential for exposure, their apparent sensitivity to xenobiotics, and their ease in collection and handling, mussels are an excellent species for in situ biomonitoring. Recently the authors have adapted an electrophoretic assay for detecting DNA strand breakage in freshwater mussels. Using this assay DNA damage was quantified in selected tissues in two mussel species, Quadrula quadrula and Anodonta grandis, following subchronic laboratory exposures to lead and benzo[a]pyrene. Current experiments involve exposing mussels in situ in polyethylene cages and exposure racks in several environments containing genotoxic agents, including a fly ash settling pond and a site contaminated with mercury. Mussels will be exposed for 1 week to 3 months and sampled at 2 to 4week intervals. Upon removal mussels will be dissected, and mantle, adductor muscle, and foot tissue will be analyzed for DNA strand breakage and xenobiotic residues. These data will be compared with laboratory exposures to single compounds conducted over the same exposure durations.

  10. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  11. PIT tags increase effectiveness of freshwater mussel recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, J.; Loftin, C.; Zydlewski, J.; Rhymer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Translocations are used increasingly to conserve populations of rare freshwater mussels. Recovery of translocated mussels is essential to accurate assessment of translocation success. We designed an experiment to evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to mark and track individual freshwater mussels. We used eastern lampmussels (Lampsilis radiata radiata) as a surrogate for 2 rare mussel species. We assessed internal and external PIT-tag retention in the laboratory and field. Internal tag retention was high (75-100%), and tag rejection occurred primarily during the first 3 wk after tagging. A thin layer of nacre coated internal tags 3 to 4 mo after insertion, suggesting that long-term retention is likely. We released mussels with external PIT tags at 3 field study sites and recaptured them with a PIT pack (mobile interrogation unit) 8 to 10 mo and 21 to 23 mo after release. Numbers of recaptured mussels differed among study sites; however, we found more tagged mussels with the PIT-pack searches with visual confirmation (72-80%) than with visual searches alone (30-47%) at all sites. PIT tags offer improved recapture of translocated mussels and increased accuracy of posttranslocation monitoring. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  12. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Josefine; Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  13. High-throughput quantitative analysis of domoic acid directly from mussel tissue using Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Walsh, Callee M; McCarron, Pearse

    2014-12-15

    Eliminating sample extraction or liquid chromatography steps from methods for analysis of the neurotoxin Domoic Acid (DA) in shellfish could greatly increase throughput in food safety testing laboratories worldwide. To this end, we have investigated the use of Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for DA analysis directly from mussel tissue homogenates without sample extraction, cleanup or separation. DA could be selectively detected directly from mussel tissue homogenates using MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring scan mode. The quantitative capabilities of LAESI-MS/MS for DA analysis from mussel tissue were evaluated by analysis of four mussel tissue reference materials using matrix-matched calibration. Linear response was observed from 1 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg and the method limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Results for DA analysis in tissue within the linear range were in good agreement with two established methods, LC-UV and LC-MS/MS (recoveries from 103 to 125%). Beyond the linear range, extraction and clean-up were required to achieve good quantitation. Most notable is the extremely rapid analysis time of about 10 s per sample by LAESI-MS/MS, which corresponds to a significant increase in sample throughput compared with existing methodology for routine DA analysis.

  14. In-stream validation of the effects of intermittent sediment toxicity on recruitment of juvenile unionid mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, M.M.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A triad approach was used to assess sediment toxicity in the Clinch River, Virginia to determine if sediment bound toxicants are contributing to decreased recruitment of unionid mussel populations. Eleven sites in the Clinch River and one site in a tributary, which exhibited suitable mussel habitat, were included in the analysis. Physical characteristics of the sediment revealed similar particle size distribution and percent water content at the twelve sites; however, three of the sites exhibited high volatile organic compounds. Total recoverable metals analysis of lead, zinc and copper in the interstitial water showed fluctuating metal concentrations throughout the river on different sampling dates. Sediment bioassays using C. riparius, D. magna, and H. azteca identified intermittent toxicity which may be related to non-point runoff from rain events. At ten of the twelve sites, mussel density surveys indicated decreased recruitment despite apparent suitable habitat. Invertebrate community structure analysis identified eight of the twelve sites as having significantly lower total abundance than the reference side and six of the twelve sites as s supporting significantly fewer taxa. In-situ juvenile mussel testing was used to determine the degree to which toxicity may impair juvenile recruitment in unionid populations.

  15. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites. PMID:27812424

  16. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mussels from a South American Estuary.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Ana L; Arias, Andrés H; Quintas, Pamela Y; Buzzi, Natalia S; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2017-03-18

    Bivalves, especially mussels, have been pointed as putative species to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environment. After several environmental PAHs baseline reports, the present study was conducted to assess for the first time the levels of PAHs in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected from a critical industrialized estuary of Argentina. Under this objective, after an 18-month sampling period, 34 pools of mussels were assessed for 17 PAHs, including the 16 compounds prioritized by United States Environmental Protection Agency. By means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, results showed total PAHs concentrations in mussel's tissue ranged from under laboratory detection limits to 482.4 ng/g dry weight. Mussel body burdens were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs, such as phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene, whereas the overall PAHs profile suggested the predominance of petrogenic sources. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological impact was evaluated by applying Environmental Assessment Criteria and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent factors.

  18. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  19. California sea mussel and bay mussel: Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.N.; Hassler, T.J.; Moran, D.P.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The California sea mussel, Mytilus californianus, and the bay mussel, M. edulis, are commonly collected for bait. Some commercial landing and aquaculture occurs at a very low level of production. Both species are distributed along the California coast; the sea mussel is more commonly found on intertidal coastal rocks and the bay mussel on pilings and other hard substrates in bays and estuaries. The eggs of both species develop into a trochophore stage in 12--24 hours after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts 3--4 weeks. Sexual maturity can occur in one year. Spawning of the sea mussel occurs sporadically throughout the year; the bay mussel spawns in central California in late fall and winter. Maximum length is 120--150 mm for the bay mussel and 200--250 mm for the sea mussel. Both species are regarded as unsafe to eat from May 1 to October 31 due to the possible presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning. 55 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors.

  1. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.

  2. Kinetic determinations of trace element bioaccumulation in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    reference sites in national monitoring programs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the total suspended solids load, which can affect mussel feeding activity, assimilation, and trace element concentration in the dissolved and particulate phases, can significantly influence metal bioaccumulation for particle-reactive elements such as Ag and Am. For all metals, concentrations in mussels are proportionately related to total metal load in the water column and their assimilation efficiency from ingested particles. Further, the model predicted that over 96% of Se in mussels is obtained from ingested food, under conditions typical of coastal waters. For Ag, Am, Cd, Co and Zn, the relative contribution from the dissolved phase decreases significantly with increasing trace element partition coefficients for suspended particles and the assimilation efficiency in mussels of ingested trace elements; values range between 33 and 67% for Ag, 5 and 17% for Am, 47 and 82% for Cd, 4 and 30% for Co, and 17 and 51% for Zn.

  3. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies in mussels before and after an oil spill at the marine oil terminal in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Garnaga, Galina; Andreikėnaitė, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects in the gills of mussels Mytilus edulis, from the Baltic Sea areas close to the Būtingė oil terminal (Lithuania) before and after accidental oil spill in 31 January 2008 were studied. Mussels from the oil spillage zones were collected in 12 days, in 3 and 6 months after the spill to determine the effects of the spill. Mussels sampled in 2006-2007 were used for the assessment of the background levels of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the Būtingė oil terminal area. Comparison of the responses in M. edulis before and after the oil spill revealed significant elevation of frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and fragmented-apoptotic (FA) cells. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels in mussels from the Palanga site before the accident (in June 2007) served as a reference. Six months after the accident, in July 2008, 5.6-fold increase of MN, 2.9-fold elevation of NB, and 8.8-fold elevation of FA cells were observed in mussels from the same site.

  4. An integrated chemical-biological study using caged mussels (Mytilus trossulus) along a pollution gradient in the Archipelago Sea (SW Finland, Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Kari K; Turja, Raisa; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Mussels (Mytilus trossulus) were caged along a known pollution gradient in the inner Archipelago Sea (northern Baltic Sea) and retrieved after 71 and 121 d for the measurement of selected chemical contaminants in tissues and biological endpoints including biochemical biomarkers and growth. Additional samples were collected during the growth season from a native mussel population at an alleged reference site. Elevated concentrations of numerous contaminants (e.g., PAH) were observed in spring, apparently due to the loss of tissue mass during the winter, while also the levels of many biomarkers (e.g., glutathione S-transferase activity) were elevated. Spatial and temporal changes in the accumulation of contaminants and biological parameters were observed with some of them (e.g., growth) linked to seasonal changes in environmental factors. The results underline the importance of understanding the effects of seasonal natural factors on the growth dynamics and general condition of mussels when assessing tissue concentrations of contaminants and biological effects.

  5. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin.

  6. Purification of adhesive proteins from mussels.

    PubMed

    Pardo, J; Gutierrez, E; Sáez, C; Brito, M; Burzio, L O

    1990-11-01

    The adhesive polyphenolic proteins from the mussels Mytilus chilensis and Choromytilus chorus have been purified based on their solubility in dilute perchloric acid and on differential precipitation with acetone containing about 0.3 N HCl. The specific activity of the proteins obtained was 0.16 mg of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine per milligram of protein, or higher. The proteins have an apparent molecular weight of about 100,000 and they contain a high proportion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, lysine, and proline.

  7. Retrospective environmental biomonitoring - Mussel Watch expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, Bernd R.; Krause, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring bioavailable contaminants and determining baseline conditions in aquatic environments has become an important aspect of ecology and ecotoxicology. Since the mid-1970s and the initiation of the Mussel Watch program, this has been successfully accomplished with bivalve mollusks. These (mostly) sessile organisms reliably and proportionately record changes of a range of organic and inorganic pollutants occurring in the water, food or sediment. The great majority of studies have measured the concentration of pollutants in soft tissues and, to a much lesser extent, in whole shells or fractions thereof. Both approaches come with several drawbacks. Neither soft tissues nor whole shells can resolve temporal changes of the pollution history, except through the analysis of multiple specimens collected at different times. Soft tissues and shell fractions provide time-averaged data spanning months or years, and whole shells time-averaged data over the entire lifespan of the animal. Even with regular sampling of multiple specimens over long intervals of time, the resulting chronology may not faithfully resolve short-term changes of water quality. Compounding the problem, whole shell averages tend to be non-arithmetic and non-linear, because shell growth rate varies through seasons and lifetime, and different shell layers often vary ultrastructurally and can thus be chemically different from each other. Mussel Watch could greatly benefit from the potential of bivalve shells in providing high-resolution, temporally aligned archives of environmental variability. So far, only circa a dozen studies have demonstrated that the sclerochronological approach - i.e., combined growth pattern and high-resolution chemical analyses - can provide sub-seasonally to annually resolved time-series documenting the history of pollution over centuries and even millennia. On the other hand, the sclerochronological community has failed to fully appreciate that the formation of the shell and

  8. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  9. Using zebra mussels to monitor Escherichia coli in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Selegean, J P; Kusserow, R; Patel, R; Heidtke, T M; Ram, J L

    2001-01-01

    Use of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as an indicator of previously elevated bacteria concentrations in a watershed was examined. The ability of the zebra mussel to accumulate and purge Escherichia coli over several days was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments, periodic enumeration of E. coli in mussels that had been exposed to a dilute solution of raw sewage demonstrated that (i) maximum concentrations of E. coli are reached within a few hours of exposure to sewage, (ii) the tissue concentration attained is higher than the concentration in the ambient water, and (iii) the E. coli concentrations take several days to return to preexposure concentrations when mussels are subsequently placed in sterile water. In field experiments conducted in southeast Michigan in the Clinton River watershed, brief increases in E. coli concentrations in the water were accompanied by increases in mussel concentrations of E. coli that lasted 2 or 3 d. The ability of mussels to retain and to concentrate E. coli made it possible to detect E. coli in the environment under conditions that conventional monitoring may often miss. Sampling caged mussels in a river and its tributaries may enable watershed managers to reduce the sampling frequency normally required to identify critical E. coli sources, thereby providing a more cost-effective river monitoring strategy for bacterial contamination.

  10. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  11. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  12. Health status assessment through an integrative biomarker approach in mussels of different ages with a different history of exposure to the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Izagirre, U; Garmendia, L; Soto, M; Etxebarria, N; Marigómez, I

    2014-09-15

    A battery of cell and tissue-level biomarkers was applied in mussels of 6 size-classes collected from Galicia and the Basque coast in summer 2007 in an attempt to examine the health status of individuals affected as adults (mature before 2003), affected during their developmental or juvenile stages (2003-2004 offspring), or not directly affected by the Prestige oil spill (POS) exposure (presumably 2005-2006 offspring). This battery of biomarkers was akin to those formerly applied on mussels of 3.5-4.5 cm shell length for which there exist biomarker reference values in the studied geographical areas. The cause-effect relationship between biological responses and the different history of exposure to POS fuel oil was intricate for different reasons: (a) growth rate was dissimilar in mussels of the two studied localities and much lower than expected, (b) a chronological basis could not be directly associated to POS events (all mussels except the smallest from Galicia had been subjected to the direct POS impact at one or another stage of their life-cycle); and (c) some biomarkers and histopathology seemingly depended on size/age irrespectively of the locality and the POS chronology. As a whole, the present study gives a very useful set of reference values of biomarkers obtained for Mytilus galloprovincialis of different size-classes. Finally, it is recommended that Mussel Watch programmes should be designed by standardising the age of the sentinel mussels rather than their size, especially if the programme covers large or diverse geographical areas, if long-term trends are relevant or if significant pollution effects on growth are expected.

  13. Neuroendocrine disruption and health effects in Elliptio complanata mussels exposed to aeration lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; André, C; Gagnon, C; Salazar, M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neuroendocrine-disrupting effects of two domestic wastewater aeration lagoons on freshwater mussels. Mussels were caged and placed in two final aeration lagoons for treating domestic wastewaters for 60 days, at a site 1km downstream of the dispersion plume on the eastern shores of the Richelieu River; the western shore served as the reference site. The mussels were analysed for gonad activity, oxidative metabolism of xenobiotics, stress biomarkers and neuroendocrine status (monoamine and arachidonic acid metabolism). The domestic wastewaters produced many different effects at all levels examined. The gonado-somatic index and vitellogenin-like proteins were significantly induced in both aeration lagoons and gonad pyrimidine synthesis (aspartate transcarbamylase activity) was significantly reduced, indicating that vitellogenin-like proteins were produced while DNA synthesis in gametes remained constant. Biomarkers of oxidative metabolism revealed that global heme oxidase (HO), glutathione S-transferase and xanthine (caffeine) oxydoreductase (XOR) activities were significantly induced in at least one of the aeration lagoons, but not downstream of the dispersion plume. The activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin (cytochrome P4501A1), dibenzoylfluorescein (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5) and benzoyloxyresorurufin (cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2B6) dealkylases were readily induced by substances sharing structural similarities with coplanar polyaromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated or aminated aromatic or cyclic hydrocarbon compounds such as pharmaceuticals or steroids in the domestic wastewaters. Biomarkers of toxic stress revealed that exposure to aeration lagoons led to increased production of metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks, with decreased heme oxygenase activity. LPO was significantly correlated with XOR, HO and cytochrome P4501A1 activities. Neuroendocrine effects included significant increases in dopamine and

  14. The mussel thread cuticle, a biological granular composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Birkedal, Henrik; Lee, Kaa Yee C.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2009-03-01

    The cuticle of mussel byssal threads is a peculiar natural granular composite coating that combines high extensibility with high stiffness and hardness. In this study fluorescence microscopy and elemental analysis were exploited to show that the 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (dopa) residues of mussel foot protein-1 co-localize with Fe and Ca distributions in the cuticle of Mytilus galloprovincials mussel byssal threads. Removal of Fe and Ca from the cuticle by chelation results in a 50% reduction in hardness. Dopa-metal complexes may be a significant source of stability as cross-links in the composite cuticles.

  15. What makes a healthy environment for native freshwater mussels?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are sensitive to contamination of sediment that they inhabit and to the water that they filter, making the presence of live, adult mussels an excellent indicator of ecosystem health and stability. Freshwater mussels are relatively immobile, imbedded in the streambed with part of the shell sticking up into the water so that they can filter water to obtain oxygen and food. This lack of mobility makes them particularly vulnerable to water and sediment contamination, changes in sedimentation, or prolonged drought. Thus, ecosystem health and stability are critical for their reproduction and survival.

  16. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  17. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  18. Involvement of mytilins in mussel antimicrobial defense.

    PubMed

    Mitta, G; Vandenbulcke, F; Hubert, F; Salzet, M; Roch, P

    2000-04-28

    Four cationic peptides were purified from mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) hemocytes. A combination of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of plasma revealed (i) a previously characterized molecule, mytilin B (Charlet, M., Chernysh, S., Philippe, H., Hetrut, C., Hoffmann, J., and Bulet, P. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 21808-21813) and (ii) three new isoforms, mytilin C, D, and G1. The four molecules exhibited complementary antimicrobial properties. The cDNA sequence coding for the mytilin B precursor was obtained from a hemocyte cDNA library. This precursor contains a putative signal peptide of 22 residues, a processing peptide sequence of 34 amino acids, and a C-terminal extension of 48 residues rich in acidic residues. Distribution of mytilin B mRNA and of the corresponding peptide in various mussel tissues revealed that mytilins are synthesized and stored in a specific hemocyte subtype. Furthermore, in an experimental model of infection, we showed (i) a recruitment of hemocytes containing mytilins toward the injection site within hours following bacterial challenge, (ii) that mytilins probably play a prominent role in killing intracellular bacteria after phagocytosis, and (ii) later an increase of mytilin-like material occurred in the plasma suggesting a secondary systemic role.

  19. Effects of temperature change on mussel, Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Zippay, Mackenzie L; Helmuth, Brian

    2012-09-01

    An increasing body of research has demonstrated the often idiosyncratic responses of organisms to climate-related factors, such as increases in air, sea and land surface temperatures, especially when coupled with non-climatic stressors. This argues that sweeping generalizations about the likely impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems are likely less valuable than process-based explorations that focus on key species and ecosystems. Mussels in the genus Mytilus have been studied for centuries, and much is known of their physiology and ecology. Like other intertidal organisms, these animals may serve as early indicators of climate change impacts. As structuring species, their survival has cascading impacts on many other species, making them ecologically important, in addition to their economic value as a food source. Here, we briefly review the categories of information available on the effects of temperature change on mussels within this genus. Although a considerable body of information exists about the genus in general, knowledge gaps still exist, specifically in our ability to predict how specific populations are likely to respond to the effects of multiple stressors, both climate and non-climate related, and how these changes are likely to result in ecosystem-level responses. Whereas this genus provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of climate change on natural and human-managed ecosystems, much work remains if we are to make predictions of likely impacts of environmental change on scales that are relevant to climate adaptation.

  20. Effects of Fucus vesiculosus covering intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Reise, K.

    1994-06-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (Nienburg) Nienhuis covered about 70% of mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis) surface area in the lower intertidal zone of Königshafen, a sheltered sandy bay near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Mean biomass in dense patches was 584 g ash-free dry weight m-2 in summer. On experimental mussel beds, fucoid cover enhanced mud accumulation and decreased mussel density. The position of mussels underneath algal canopy was mainly endobenthic (87% of mussels with >1/3 of shell sunk into mud). In the absence of fucoids, mussels generated epibenthic garlands (81% of mussels with <1/3 of shell buried in mud). Mussel density underneath fucoid cover was 40 to 73% of mussel density without algae. On natural beds, barnacles (Balanidae), periwinkles ( Littorina littorea) and crabs (particularly juveniles of Carcinus maenas) were significantly less abundant in the presence of fucoids, presumably because most of the mussels were covered with sediment, whereas in the absence of fucoids, epibenthic mussel clumps provided substratum as well as interstitial hiding places. The endobenthic macrofauna showed little difference between covered and uncovered mussel beds. On the other hand, grazing herbivores — the flat periwinkle Littorina mariae, the isopod Jaera albifrons and the amphipods Gammarus spp. — were more abundant at equivalent sites with fucoid cover. The patchy growth of Fucus vesiculosus on mussel beds in the intertidal Wadden Sea affects mussels and their epibionts negatively, but supports various herbivores and increases overall benthic diversity.

  1. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  2. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment. PMID:28005940

  3. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  4. Mussel-inspired dendritic polymers as universal multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Achazi, Katharina; Liebe, Hendrik; Schulz, Andrea; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Grunwald, Ingo; Haag, Rainer

    2014-10-20

    A rapid and universal approach for multifunctional material coatings was developed based on a mussel-inspired dendritic polymer. This new kind of polymer mimics not only the functional groups of mussel foot proteins (mfps) but also their molecular weight and molecular structure. The large number of catechol and amine groups set the basis for heteromultivalent anchoring and crosslinking. The molecular weight reaches 10 kDa, which is similar to the most adhesive mussel foot protein mfp-5. Also, the dendritic structure exposes its functional groups on the surface like the folded proteins. As a result, a very stable coating can be prepared on virtually any type of material surface within 10 min by a simple dip-coating method, which is as fast as the formation of mussel byssal threads in nature.

  5. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana )

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  6. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-07-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading.

  7. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading.

  8. Status of fresh water mussel research in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In addition to the previously described mussel research projects in Virginia, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has undertaken a wide-ranging Cumberlandian Mollusc Conservation Program to (a) accumulate information on the present distribution, life histories, and ecological requirements of the Cumberlandian mussel fauna and (b) conserve or increase populations of these species in the Tennessee River drainage. This TVA program has contributed greatly toward a better understanding of species status, water quality problems, and research needs for this unique faunal group. The attention currently being given to fresh water mussels in the upper Tennessee River system is unprecedented, and participating State and Federal agencies are to be commended for supporting conservation activities far beyond what is legally required. The success of a mollusk conservation effort will depend on public awareness, not of mussels in and for themselves but as indicators of riverine degradation and its effect on environmental health and recreational opportunities for man.

  9. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  10. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  11. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Cao, Zhe M; Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H; Gu, Ruo B

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531-576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades.

  12. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dan; Xu, Pao; Ma, Xue Y.; Jin, Wu; Yuan, Xin H.; Gu, Ruo B.

    2017-01-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type) or females (F-type), is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp). Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf) were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp) is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531–576 bp), which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades. PMID:28068380

  13. The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, J.; Richer, Y.; Messer, R.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

  14. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  15. Effects of petrochemical contamination on caged marine mussels using a multi-biomarker approach: Histological changes, neurotoxicity and hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Natalotto, Antonino; Vitale, Valeria; Parrino, Vincenzo; Giannetto, Alessia; Oliva, Sabrina; Mancini, Giuseppe; Cappello, Simone; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    This work was designed to evaluate the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on marine mussels. Mytilus galloprovincialis, widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies, were caged at the "Augusta-Melilli-Priolo" industrial site (eastern Sicily, Italy), chosen as one of the largest petrochemical areas in Europe, and Brucoli, chosen as reference site. Chemical analyses of sediments at the polluted site revealed high levels of PAHs and mercury, exceeding the national and international guideline limits. In mussels from the polluted site, severe morphological alterations were observed in gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake and gas exchange. Changes in serotonergic and cholinergic systems, investigated through immunohistochemical, metabolomics and enzymatic approaches, were highlighted in gills, as well as onset of hypoxic adaptive responses with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor transcript. Overall, the application of a multi-biomarker panel results effective in assessing the biological effects of petrochemical contamination on the health of aquatic organisms.

  16. Heavy metal determinations in algae, mussels and clams. Their possible employment for assessing the sea water quality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2003-05-01

    An empirical criterion for a possible classification of sea water quality is proposed. It is based on the knowledge of metal content in algae (Ulva Rigida) mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) and clams (Tapes Philippinarum), three species present in marine ecosystems. The elements considered are Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cr. The anatytical technique employed is Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The analytical procedure has been verified on three standard reference materials : Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, Ulva Lactuca BCR-CRM 279 and Mussel Tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, accuracy and precision are given : the former, expressed as retative error (e). and the latter, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), were in all cases lower than 6%.

  17. Native Mussels Alter Nutrient Availability and Reduce Blue ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient cycling is a key process that ties all organisms together. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of different elements are interdependent because the organisms that drive these cycles require fixed ratios of nutrients. There is growing recognition that animals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling across ecosystems. In particular, dense aggregations of consumers can create biogeochemical hotspots in aquatic ecosystems via nutrient translocation. We predicted that filter-feeding freshwater mussels, which occur as speciose, high biomass aggregates, would create biogeochemical hotspots in streams by altering nutrient limitation and algal dynamics. In a field study, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus using nutrient-diffusing substrates in areas with high and low mussel abundance, recorded algal growth and community composition, and determined in situ mussel excretion stoichiometry at 18 sites in 3 rivers (Kiamichi, Little, and Mt. Fork rivers, southcentral U.S.). Our results indicate that mussels greatly influence ecosystem processes by modifying the nutrients that limit primary productivity. Sites without mussels were N-limited with ~26% higher abundances of N-fixing blue-green algae, while sites with high mussel densities were co-limited (N and P) and dominated by diatoms

  18. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  19. Redox proteomics in the mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, B; Tyther, R; Sheehan, D

    2006-07-01

    Pollutants (e.g. PAHs, metals) cause oxidative stress (OS) by forming reactive oxygen species. Redox proteomics provides a means for identifying protein-specific OS effects in Mytilus edulis. Groups of mussels were sampled from a clean site in Cork Harbour, Ireland and exposed to 1 mM H2O2 in holding tanks. Protein extracts of gill and digestive gland were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis and similar protein expression profiles were found. Effects of OS on disulphide bridge patterns were investigated in diagonal gels by separating proteins in non-reducing conditions followed by a second reducing dimension. Immunoprecipitation selected carbonylated and glutathionylated proteins. These methodologies can contribute to redox proteomic studies of pollutant responses in marine organisms.

  20. Comparison of PCB and trace metal bioaccumulation in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Cobb, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in deployed organisms also was compared with indigenous ribbed mussels. Significant mortality occurred in blue mussels after 28 d, when water temperatures exceeded 25 C. Therefore, tissue-residue comparisons between species are presented only up to day 28, while those between deployed and indigenous ribbed mussels continue to day 56. Results indicated that total PCB tissue residues and congener distributions were not statistically different in the two mussel species on day 28. Total PCB concentrations in both deployed mussel species reached approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight by day 28. Additionally, total PCB concentrations and congener distributions in the deployed ribbed mussels were not statistically different from the indigenous ribbed mussels on day 28, demonstrating that steady state was attained within 28 d. With respect to metal uptake, no single accumulation pattern occurred for the eight metals quantified. After 28 d, lead, cadmium, and iron concentrations in deployed blue and ribbed mussels were statistically similar. However, nickel and zinc accumulations were significantly greater in the blue mussels, and copper, chromium, and manganese were accumulated to significantly higher concentrations in the ribbed mussels. The comparison between the ribbed mussels indicated that cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher in indigenous than in deployed mussels after 28 d.

  1. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  2. Lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers in mussels cross-transplanted among four estuaries with different pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Lekube, Xabier; Izagirre, Urtzi; Soto, Manu; Marigómez, Ionan

    2014-02-15

    A 3-4 wk cross-transplantation experiment was carried out in order to investigate the sensitivity, rapidity, durability and reversibility of lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers in the digestive gland of mussels. Four localities in the Basque coast with different levels of chemical pollution and environmental stress were selected. Lysosomal membrane stability (LP) and lysosomal structural changes (VvL; S/VL; NvL) and changes in cell-type composition in digestive gland epithelium (VvBAS) were investigated to determine short (2d) and mid-term (3-4 wk) responses after cross-transplantation. Mussels from Txatxarramendi presented VvBAS<0.1 μm(3)/μm(3) (unstressed) whilst VvBAS>0.12 μm(3)/μm(3) was recorded in mussels from Plentzia (moderate stress) and VvBAS>0.2 μm(3)/μm(3) in Arriluze and Muskiz (high stress). Accordingly, LP<10 min (high stress) was recorded in mussels from Muskiz and Arriluze and LP~15 min (low-to-moderate stress) in those from Plentzia and Txatxarramendi. According to the VvL, S/VL and NvL data, a certain lysosomal enlargement was envisaged in mussels from Arriluze in comparison with those from Txatxarramendi and Plentzia. Mussels from Muskiz exhibited a peculiar endo-lysosomal system made of abundant tiny lysosomes (low VvL and high S/VL and NvL values). Lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers were responsive after 2d cross-transplantation between the reference and the polluted localities, which indicated that these biomarkers were quickly induced and, to a large extent, reversible. Moreover, the tissue-level biomarker values were maintained during the entire period (3-4 wk) of cross-transplantation, which evidenced the durability of the responsiveness. In contrast, comparisons in the mid-term were unfeasible for lysosomal biomarkers as these exhibited a seasonal winter attenuation resulting from low food availability and low temperatures. In conclusion, lysosomal enlargement and membrane stability and changes in cell-type composition were

  3. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  4. Evidence of coprostanol estrogenicity to the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Lachance, B; Sunahara, G I; Sabik, H

    2001-01-01

    Coprostanol (5 beta (H)-cholestan-3 beta ol) is a reduced metabolite of cholesterol produced by micro-organisms found in the intestinal tract of mammals. This substance abounds in urban effluents and is accumulated by organisms living in the vicinity of municipal effluent outfalls. In an earlier study, freshwater mussels exposed to contaminated river water for 62 days accumulated large quantities of coprostanol (Cop) in their soft tissues (16 micrograms/g dry wt.). Moreover, these mussels were found to have elevated levels of vitellin in their hemolymphs, suggesting estrogenic effects. Although municipal wastewaters are known to contain other estrogenic compounds capable of inducing Vn synthesis in mussels, the estrogenic potential of coprostanol was singled out for examination. To this end, mussels were first injected with concentrations of coprostanol via the abductor muscle route, and allowed to stand in aerated water for 72 h at 15 degrees C. The levels of Vn in mussel hemolymph were assayed using the organic alkali-labile phosphate method. A competitive estradiol-binding assay was then devised to measure the ability of coprostanol to compete in the binding of fluorescein-labeled estradiol-albumin to cytosolic proteins. Coprostanol partially reversed the binding of labeled estradiol-albumin to cytosolic proteins with an EC50 of 1 mM. In addition, injections of coprostanol and estradiol-17 beta led to increased levels of vitellins in the hemolymph of treated mussels. Moreover, incubation of cop in gonad homogenate extracts in the presence of NADPH led to the formation of two compounds, as determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. One of these compounds appears to be the C17 oxidation product of coprostanol, whose polarity is similar to that of estradiol. The results present evidence that coprostanol is estrogenic to freshwater mussels.

  5. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 x 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. Cardium was substituted for L. Higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  6. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 ?? 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. cardium was substituted for L. higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  7. Status of native freshwater mussels in Copper Creek, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanlon, S.D.; Petty, M.A.; Neves, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous freshwater mussel surveys conducted in Copper Creek showed a decline in the fauna from 1980 to 1998. In 2004 and 2005, we sampled 47 sites acquiring relative abundance estimates (measured in catch-per-unit-effort) to assess the current status of the mussel fauna relative to previous surveys. We also obtained absolute density estimates for 4 select sites for comparison with future and past surveys. Of the 25 mussel species reported from this and previous surveys, 16 were represented by living specimens, 5 are extant but may soon be extirpated, and 8 are likely extirpated from the creek. Presence-absence analysis showed a significant decline in species per site since 1980. Absolute density estimates (at Copper Creek river km 3.1) decreased significantly from 4.07 mussels/m2 in 1981 to 0.63 mussels/m2 in 2005. The cause of this faunal decline is likely due to several factors, including, most notably, the loss of riparian buffers. Nearly half of the stream banks in Copper Creek have inadequate riparian vegetation to provide even minimal sediment control. Precipitous declines of the Clinch River fauna (a likely source population for several species) may be another significant factor influencing the faunal decline in Copper Creek. Despite these declines, populations of several species may be in a state of recovery. Based on 18 comparable sites, average catch-per-unit-effort in 2005 was 25.16 mussels/hr, significantly higher than the 1998 survey (12.92 mussels/hr).

  8. Chemical contaminants and biological indicators of mussel health during gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Yeats, Phil; Steller, Sean; Gagné, François

    2003-09-01

    Mytilus edulis were collected intertidally from three locations in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, on five occasions during spring and summer 2000. Bioindicators of health (lipid content), condition and gonad indices (CI and GI), and sex ratio, as well as vitellins, were compared with the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coprostanol, and metals. Twice as many male as female mussels were collected from a downtown site (M8) close to numerous raw sewage effluents and a naval dockyard. Males from M8 had a high lipid content, and females had a delayed production of vitellins. These mussels also displayed the highest levels of PACs, coprostanol, Ag, and Sn. Coprostanol and silver are sewage markers in sediments, and their presence in mussels confirms exposure to sewage effluents. Female mussels were more abundant in an area outside the industrialized part of the harbor that had higher marine traffic (M14); displayed higher levels of vitellins in gonads; had similar time trends for CI and GI; and had some similar metals compared with mussels from M8. The lowest variability in biomarkers was observed at a site in a mostly residential arm of the harbor (M12), which was expected to be more pristine based on an earlier investigation. Compared to mussels in M14, the mussels of M12 had the lowest condition indices and PCB concentrations and low but similar levels of lipids, PACs, and coprostanol. They also displayed the highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Hg, and females had the highest gonad indices early in the season.

  9. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  10. Using tolerance intervals to assess recovery of mussel beds impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joel H; Braman, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been measured in mussel tissues in early spring and summer since 1993 throughout Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Season-specific thresholds were established at reference sites to identify 'above background' total PAH levels. Thresholds were estimated using one-sided 99% tolerance limits. Thresholds were similar across reference sites but differed by an order of magnitude across seasons. Trends in total PAH since 1998 were assessed for sites impacted by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill or the Alyeska Marine Terminal. Summer samples exhibited no trends; early spring samples declined. In early spring, all sites were judged 'recovered' by 2004; in summer, one site in western Prince William Sound and two in the western GOA exceeded thresholds by 11ng/g dry weight or less. Robust estimation methods prevented bias from observations affected by unknown releases or laboratory errors.

  11. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  12. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials.

  13. Ionic Liquids as a Reference Material Candidate for the Quick Performance Check of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometers for the Low Energy Range below 1 keV

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are proposed as simple and efficient test materials to evaluate the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) in the low energy range below 1 keV. By only one measurement, C Kα, N Kα, O Kα, and F Kα X-ray lines can be excited. Additionally, the S Kα line at 2.3 keV and, particularly, the S L series at 149 eV complete the picture with X-ray lines offered by the selected ILs. The well-known (certifiable) elemental composition of the ILs selected in the present study can be used to check the accuracy of results produced with the available EDS quantification routines in the low energy range, simultaneously, for several low atomic number elements. A comparison with other reference materials in use for testing the performance of EDS in the low energy range is included. PMID:27336962

  14. Mercury content in tinned molluscs (mussel, cockle, variegated scallop, and razor shell) normally consumed in Spain, 2005.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lozano, Gonzalo; González, Tomás; Ignacio Reguera, Juan; Hardisson, Arturo

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined for tinned molluscs (Mollusca, Bivalvia), i.e., mussels (Mytilus spp.), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), variegated scallops (Chlamys varia), and razor shells (Ensis spp.), consumed in Spain. A total of 220 samples were analyzed: 120 mussels, 40 cockles, 24 variegated scallops, and 36 razor shells. Samples were obtained weekly from markets in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) over a period of 12 months. All observed concentrations of mercury were below the maximum permitted for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as defined by European Community Decision 93/ 351/CE. Mercury concentrations were 27.28 +/- 12.43 microg/kg for mussels, 66.59 +/- 23.53 microg/kg for cockles, 33.68 +/- 15.76 microg/kg for variegated scallops, and 21.26 +/- 12.24 microg/kg for razor shells. To evaluate the importance of mercury as a food contaminant, the percentage ingested daily, the weight of mercury in the diet, and the calculated percentage of this metal in the diet contributed by reference species were estimated.

  15. Integrative assessment of marine pollution in Galician estuaries using sediment chemistry, mussel bioaccumulation, and embryo-larval toxicity bioassays.

    PubMed

    Beiras, R; Fernández, N; Bellas, J; Besada, V; González-Quijano, A; Nunes, T

    2003-08-01

    An integrative assessment of environmental quality was carried out in selected sites along the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) combining analytical chemistry of seawater and sediments, bioaccumulation in the marine mussel, and embryo-larval sediment toxicity bioassays, in order to link biological and chemical criteria for the assessment of coastal pollution. Maximum values of Hg and Cu in seawater, sediment and mussels, were found in the inner part of Ria of Pontevedra, while maximum levels of organics (polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and aldrin) were found in mussels from A Coruña. Outstanding values of Cu, Pb and Zn have been found in seawater and sediment from a single site, P3, which also was the most toxic in the embryo-larval bioassays performed with four different phyla of marine organisms: mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods and chordates. Sediment quality effects range-median values provided a valuable reference to predict biological effects from sediment chemistry data, while effects range-low values were too conservative. Sediment toxicity could also be predicted by using a toxic-unit model based on published EC50 values for trace metals and mobilization factors independently obtained from measurements of metal contents in sediments and their elutriates. When chemical and toxicological data are independently used to arrange sampling sites by using non-metric multidimensional scaling, a remarkable degree of concordance between both types of configurations could be observed.

  16. The use of transplanted mussels in the California State Mussel Watch Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Ichikawa, G.S.; Goetzl, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have relied solely on resident bivalves. This approach limits the versatility of monitoring programs in that residents are not often found in all the places necessary to sample and there are factors which are inherent in using residents that confound the results. The California State Mussel Watch Program has relied heavily on transplants because they eliminate much of the variation inherent in using residents and they can be transplanted almost anywhere. Examples are given that demonstrate the advantages of using transplants over residents.

  17. In-situ Raman Spectroscopic Imaging of a Mussel Coating and Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mašić, Admir; Harrington, Matthew; Waite, J. Herbert; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-08-01

    The mussel has evolved a very interesting and efficient way of attaching to hard substrata in wave-swept rocky seashores. This is enabled by a bundle of fine protein based threads called the byssus. The byssus is emerging as an effective model system for studying the requirements for underwater adhesion, wear resistance and combined hardness and extensibility (1, 2). Careful secretion of different mussel foot proteins (mfp) combined with some metal ions (Fe3+, Zn2+ etc.) allows the mussel to tune properties and optimize function of diverse parts of byssus thread (3). Here we report in-situ high-resolution Raman spectroscopic imaging of the byssal coating and plaque showing micron level spatial distribution of various proteins and their interaction with Fe3+ using specific Resonance Raman (RR) spectral features. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) is a strong chelator of Fe3+ within a specific pH window (stability constant of [Fe(dopa)3]3- complex can reach values up to Kf˜1045). The charge transfer from the catechol ring to Fe(III) characteristic of such complexes generates absorption bands in whole visible a part of near infra-red spectrum. As a consequence, a characteristic RR signal can be detected using 785 nm laser line. This method was recently utilized to localize Fe-dopa complexation of mfp-1 in the protective cuticles of mussel byssal threads (2), and the same approach was taken here to investigate metal complexation in the plaque. In figure 1A a scanning electron micrograph of a cross section of plaque is presented. Characteristic foam-like morphology of internal part of the plaque is visible. Figure 1B shows the results of Raman spectroscopic imaging (for specifications see reference (2)) on a thin (10 μm) section of the byssus plaque integrated for Fe3+-dopa complexation bands (500-650 cm-1, see Fig. 1D). The components distribution map in Fig. 1C was obtained using the basis analysis and image color combination functions (Witec Project software). In

  18. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  19. Interspecific comparison of the mechanical properties of mussel byssus.

    PubMed

    Brazee, Shanna L; Carrington, Emily

    2006-12-01

    Byssally tethered mussels are found in a variety of habitats, including rocky intertidal, salt marsh, subtidal, and hydrothermal vents. One key to the survival of mussels in these communities is a secure attachment, achieved by the production of byssal threads. Although many studies have detailed the unique biomechanical properties of byssal threads, only a few prevalent species have been examined. This study assesses the variation in the mechanical properties of byssus in a broad range of mussel species from diverse environments, including intertidal and subtidal Mytilus edulis, Modiolus modiolus, Geukensia demissa, Bathymodiolus thermophilus, and Dreissena polymorpha. A tensometer was used to measure quasi-static and dynamic mechanical properties of individual threads, and several aspects of morphology were quantified. The results indicate that thread mechanical properties vary among mussel species, and several novel properties were observed. For example, of the species examined, D. polymorpha threads were the strongest, stiffest, least resilient, and fastest to recover after partial deformation. Threads of M. modiolus were characterized by the presence of two distinct yield regions prior to tensile failure. This comparative study not only provides insight into the ecological limitations and evolution of mussels, but also suggests new models for the design of novel biomimetic polymers.

  20. Dynamics of submersible mussel rafts in waves and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-xin; Swift, M. Robinson; Dewhurst, Tobias; Tsukrov, Igor; Celikkol, Barbaros; Newell, Carter

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the dynamics of submersible mussel rafts, the finite element program Aqua-FE™, developed by the University of New Hampshire (UNH), was applied to rafts moored at the surface and submerged. The submerged configuration is used to reduce wave forcing and to avoid contact with floating ice during winters in northern waters. Each raft consists of three pontoons connected by a grid framework. Rafts are intended to support densely spaced mussel ropes hung from the framework. When submerged, the pontoons are flooded, and the raft is held vertically by floats attached by lines. The computer models were developed in Aqua-FE™ to simulate the effects of waves and current. They were validated by comparison with wave tank results by use of a 1/10 scale raft physical model. Comparisons showed good agreement for the important heave (vertical) and pitch (rotational) motions, though there was a tendency towards conservative results for wave and current drag. Full-scale simulations of surface and submerged single raft and two rafts connected in tandem were performed. Submerged raft wave response was found to be reduced relative to that at the surface for both the single and two-raft configurations. In particular, the vertical motion of mussel rope connection points was significantly reduced by submergence, resulting in reduced potential for mussel drop-off. For example, the maximum vertical velocities of mussel rope attachment points in the submerged two raft case were 7%-20% of the corresponding velocities when at the surface.

  1. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, D.; Bogan, A.E.; Kwak, T.J.; Gregory, Cope W.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivo evaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues. ?? 2008, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  3. Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2011-09-01

    Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production.

  4. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  5. Lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytosis and tolerance to emersion in the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) following exposure to acute, sublethal, copper.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S

    2003-08-01

    The mytilid mussel Perna viridis is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region and is potentially a suitable candidate for biological effects (biomarker) monitoring in the subtropics. A suite of cytological and physiological responses to acute (48-72 h) copper exposures of 50-200 microgl(-1) were assessed in order to determine the suitability of P. viridis for marine pollution monitoring. Copper elicited significant destabilisation of the haemocyte lysosomal membranes and also impaired phagocytosis. Survival during emersion following exposure to copper was not related to the experimental copper exposures suggesting that higher metal concentrations may be required to interfere with anaerobic enzymes responsible for suppression of metabolism. Based on this preliminary study, cytological biomarkers evaluated in the haemocytes extracted from P. viridis should prove an effective non-destructive means of assessing metal pollution throughout the mussels subtropical range.

  6. Biomonitoring of trace metals using transplanted mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan-Kook; Choi, Man Sik

    2017-03-01

    Mediterranean (blue) mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from a reference site were transplanted to 15 stations in coastal areas around Ulsan and Onsan Bays, an extensively metal polluted area in Korean coastal waters, to assess metal contamination in the coastal oceans of Korea. During the biomonitoring periods (June 30 to July 20, 2003; 21 days), transplanted mussels, seawater, and particulate materials were collected for analysis of 15 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn). Transplanted mussels showed metal enrichment compared to initial concentrations and spatial gradients consistent with dissolved and/or particulate metal concentrations in seawaters. Based on Q mode factor analysis, stations were clustered into three groups. The first group, located on Onsan Bay, showed high Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb and Zn enrichment, presumably arising from non-ferrous metal refineries and chemical industries in this area. The second group was located near the mouth of the Oehwang River and was enriched in Co from petrochemical industries. The third group comprised a site intermediate between Group 1 and Group 2, an isolated station with independent metal sources located in Jangsaengpo harbor, where a number of ship repairing and building companies operate, and a less contaminated station near a small fishing village. Metal accumulation rates (%·day-1) in mussels were estimated to be between 8% (Cr) and 281% (Pb), based on accumulated metal concentrations over 21 days. The active biomonitoring technique using M. galloprovincialis demonstrated here is a useful monitoring method because it reflects the present status of seawaters; furthermore, physiological factors can be standardized, and bioavailable and time-integrated metal concentrations can be obtained. Furthermore, this method can be applied even in coastal seawaters so heavily contaminated that living organisms would not normally survive.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  8. Application and evaluation of the neutral red retention (NRR) assay for lysosomal stability in mussel populations along the Iberian Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Benedicto, José; Campillo, Juan Antonio; Moore, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The neutral red retention (NRR) assay to determine lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) was applied to wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled from fourteen sites with different degrees of chemical pollution along the Iberian Mediterranean coast in 2002 and 2003. Total body burdens for a range of contaminants were measured in pooled samples (n = 50) of whole soft tissues in order to explore possible causality. Mean LMS values (n = 15) were significantly greater in mussels from one of the selected two reference sites (San Diego) than in chemically well-characterized hotspot sites. Mean LMS values were inversely correlated with contaminant concentrations in mussel tissues (except for Zn). The multidimensional scaling ordination technique classified the sampling sites into three groups according to their chemical-physical-biological similarities and the results were statistically confirmed using ANOSIM analysis. The results show that lysosomal stability is an effective indicator of health status in mussels along the Iberian Mediterranean coast and that it is related to body burden of contaminants, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  9. BMAA detected as neither free nor protein bound amino acid in blue mussels.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Johan; Westerberg, Erik; Schmiedt, Sebastian; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study imply that β-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) obtained from extracts of blue mussels from the Swedish west coast is neither free nor protein bound. The results were obtained by separation (precipitation and ultrafiltration) of low and high molecular weight compounds from neutral extracts of blue mussels, and treatment of these extracts with low and high concentrations of acids, varying time and temperature. The main portion of BMAA was obtained from the low molecular weight fraction, released or formed at 95 °C in dilute acids. The measured amount of BMAA did not increase by strong acid treatment. Lysine was used as reference and was only released at significant amounts when treating the high molecular weight fraction with concentrated acid. The results also indicated that breakage of peptide bonds was not involved in the formation/release of BMAA in these extracts unless any BMAA peptide bond would be significantly more susceptible to dilute acid than e.g. the monitored lysine peptide bond. BMAA was measured using isotope dilution and detection of the underivatized compound by HILIC-UHPLC-MS/MS (Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography, Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography, tandem Mass Spectrometry). The findings might add to the understanding of conflicting data in the literature regarding the occurrence of BMAA, and have implications for studies on possible biomagnification of BMAA in the food chain and bioavailability from food.

  10. Mussel dynamics model: A hydroinformatics tool for analyzing the effects of different stressors on the dynamics of freshwater mussel communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A model for simulating freshwater mussel population dynamics is presented. The model is a hydroinformatics tool that integrates principles from ecology, river hydraulics, fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies the individual-based modelling approach for simulating population dynamics. The general model layout, data requirements, and steps of the simulation process are discussed. As an illustration, simulation results from an application in a 10 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River are presented. The model was used to investigate the spatial distribution of mussels and the effects of food competition in native unionid mussel communities, and communities infested by Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Simulation results were found to be realistic and coincided with data obtained from the literature. These results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of different stressors on long-term population dynamics, and consequently, may improve the current understanding of cause and effect relationships in freshwater mussel communities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  12. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-01-27

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

  13. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  14. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

    2011-10-01

    The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

  15. The peculiar collagens of mussel byssus.

    PubMed

    Waite, J H; Qin, X X; Coyne, K J

    1998-06-01

    The byssal collagens of marine mussels are extracorporeal collagens that function in byssal threads under tension. Each byssal thread resembles a shock absorber in its mechanical design: it is strong and stiff at one end and pliably elastic at the other. Primary structures of three of these collagens (preCols), deduced from cDNAs, reveal signal peptide sequences, but no N-glycosylation sites or propeptides typical of procollagens. The collagen domain (40-50 kDa) represents roughly half the mass of the mature molecules and is distinguished by its central location, abundant Gly-Gly-X repeats, and "flaws" (usually Gly deletions). Flanking the collagen domains on both sides are structural domains that resemble elastin in preCol-P, spider drag-line silk in preCol-D, and Gly-rich cell wall proteins in preCol-NG. Not surprisingly, studies of preCol distribution in byssal threads suggest preCol-P enhancement in the elastic proximal portion, while preCol-D predominates in the stiffer distal portion. PreCol-NG, in contrast, is evenly distributed. Although no data are yet available on the fibrillogenesis and cross-linking of the preCols, the quarter-stagger assembly of fibrillar interstitial collagens does not pertain since preCols lack the terminal peptides of tropocollagen. Metal-binding by histidines may mediate the initial inter- and intramolecular stabilization of preCols in the byssus.

  16. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  17. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  18. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  19. Differential metabolic responses in three life stages of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L(-1)) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels. Basically, Cd caused osmotic stress in all the three life stages via different metabolic pathways. Cd exposure reduced the anaerobiosis in D-shape larval mussels and disturbed lipid metabolism in juvenile mussels, respectively. Compared with the D-shape larval and juvenile mussels, the adult mussels reduced energy consumption to deal with Cd stress.

  20. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-08-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation.

  1. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation. PMID:27506855

  2. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P <0.05 to P <0.01). Correlation between shell length (in the narrow range of shell lengths from 3.4 to 5.0 cm) and arsenic in the edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P <0.001). The increase of arsenic in the mussels during winter and spring was suggested at least partially as a result of a low nutritional status, i.e. reduced weight of the mussels' edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  3. Temporal and spatial variability in stable isotope compositions of a freshwater mussel: Implications for biomonitoring and ecological studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, L.; Showers, W.; Kwak, T.; Levine, J.; Stoskopf, M.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotopes can be used to elucidate ecological relationships in community and trophic studies. Findings are calibrated against baselines, e.g. from a producer or primary consumer, assumed to act as a reference to the isotopic context created by spatio-temporal attributes such as geography, climate, nutrient, and energy sources. The ability of an organism to accurately represent a community base depends on how, and over what time-scale, it assimilates ambient materials. Freshwater mussels have served as references for trophic studies of freshwater communities and as indicators of change in nutrient pollution load or source. Their suitability as reference animals has not yet been fully explored, however. We conducted a series of studies examining the suitability of freshwater mussels as isotopic baselines, using their ability to reflect variation in ambient nutrient loads as a case scenario. (1) We analyzed bivalve foot tissue ??15N and ??13C from 22 stream reaches in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA to show that compositions varied substantially among locations. Site mean bivalve ??13C values correlated with site ambient particulate organic matter (POM) ??13C values, and site mean bivalve ??15N values correlated with site ambient water dissolved ??15N-NO3 values. (2) Similarity of results among sample types demonstrated that the minimally invasive hemolymph sample is a suitable substitute for foot tissue in ??15N analyses, and that small sample sizes generate means representative of a larger population. Both findings can help minimize the impact of sampling on imperiled freshwater mussel populations. (3) In a bivalve transplantation study we showed that hemolymph ??15N compositions responded to a shift in ambient dissolved ??15N-NO3, although slowly. The tissue turnover time for bivalve hemolymph was 113 days. We conclude that bivalves serve best as biomonitors of chronic, rather than acute, fluctuations in stream nutrient loads, and provide initial

  4. Impact of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei on glyphosate concentration in water.

    PubMed

    Di Fiori, Eugenia; Pizarro, Haydée; dos Santos Afonso, María; Cataldo, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased dramatically during the past years around the world. Microbial communities are altered when glyphosate reaches water bodies. The freshwater golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has rapidly dispersed since it was introduced in Argentina two decades ago. Mussels alter aquatic conditions through their filtrating activity by increasing water clarity and nutrient recycling. We aim to evaluate the potential capacity of the golden mussel to reduce glyphosate concentration in water, in laboratory conditions. Firstly, the evasive response of mussels to glyphosate (10, 20, and 40 mg l⁻¹) was evaluated and a toxicity test was carried out for these concentrations. A three-week experiment was then performed to assess glyphosate variation under mussel presence for two mussel sizes. Finally, mussels' role on glyphosate concentration was evaluated considering different mussel parts (living organisms and empty shells) through another three-week experiment. Laboratory experiments were performed in triplicate using 2-l microcosms. An initial glyphosate concentration between 16 and 19 mg l⁻¹ was used, and when mussels or valvae were added, 20 organisms per aquaria were used. Samples were obtained at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21. Glyphosate decreased by 40% under large mussel presence in both experiments, and was reduced by 25% in empty shell treatments. We believe that part of the herbicide that disappears from the water column is adsorbed in valvae surface, while another proportion is being mineralized by microbial communities in shells' biofilm. The mechanisms by which living mussels increase glyphosate dissipation would be degradation, possibly mediated by bacteria associated to mussel's metabolism. Glyphosate half-life depended on mussel and valvae presence and varied with mussel size. L. fortunei presence (either alive or as empty valvae) alters glyphosate concentration in water. We provide preliminary

  5. Environmental Factors Influencing Human Viral Pathogens and Their Potential Indicator Organisms in the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis: the First Scandinavian Report

    PubMed Central

    Hernroth, Bodil E.; Conden-Hansson, Ann-Christine; Rehnstam-Holm, Ann-Sofi; Girones, Rosina; Allard, Annika K.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate human enteric virus contaminants in mussels from three sites on the west coast of Sweden, representing a gradient of anthropogenic influence. Mussels were sampled monthly during the period from February 2000 to July 2001 and analyzed for adeno-, entero-, Norwalk-like, and hepatitis A viruses as well as the potential viral indicator organisms somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli. The influence of environmental factors such as water temperature, salinity, and land runoff on the occurrence of these microbes was also included in this study. Enteric viruses were found in 50 to 60% of the mussel samples, and there were no pronounced differences between the samples from the three sites. E. coli counts exceeded the limit for category A for shellfish sanitary safety in 40% of the samples from the sites situated in fjords. However, at the site in the outer archipelago, this limit was exceeded only once, in March 2001, when extremely high levels of atypical indole-negative strains of E. coli were registered at all three sites. The environmental factors influenced the occurrence of viruses and phages differently, and therefore, it was hard to find a coexistence between them. This study shows that, for risk assessment, separate modeling should be done for every specific area, with special emphasis on environmental factors such as temperature and land runoff. The present standard for human fecal contamination, E. coli, seems to be an acceptable indicator of only local sanitary contamination; it is not a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels. To protect consumers and get verification of “clean” mussels, it seems necessary to analyze for viruses as well. The use of a molecular index of the human contamination of Swedish shellfish underscores the need for reference laboratories with high-technology facilities. PMID:12200309

  6. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  7. Responses of CYP450 dependent system to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons body burden in transplanted mussels from South coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, B; Ferreira, A M; Bebianno, M J

    2012-04-01

    Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were cross-transplanted at South Portugal from a reference site (site 1) to a site more contaminated with hydrocarbon compounds (site 2), and vice versa, in an active biomonitoring (ABM) concept, to assess the biotransformation capacity catalyzed by the mixed function oxygenase (MFO) system. Total alkanes (TAlk), the unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) concentration increased respectively 6, 4.4 and 4.2 fold relatively to control, in mussels transplanted from site 1 to 2. In the cross-transplant, a 48, 57 and 62% depuration of TAlk, UCM and TPAHs concentrations occurred by the end of the 3-4th week. Petrogenic and biogenic (marine and terrigenous) sources of AHs, and petrogenic and pyrolitic (biomass and oil/fuel incomplete combustion) sources of PAHs were detected at both sites. CYP450, CYT b (5) and NADPH-RED in mussels transplanted from site 1 to 2 were induced from day 0 to 28, with a total increase of 35, 32 and 35%, respectively, while biochemical equilibrium to lesser environmental contamination occurs in mussels transplanted from site 2 to 1. A significant relationship between CYP450 and NADPH-RED was found with TPAH, with distinctive behavior at the two sites. MFO system components increase with exposure time at one site and decreases in the other, reflecting an adaptation to distinct environmental hydrocarbon loads. The ABM strategy proved to be useful to understand the environment real impact on the biochemical responses in mussels' local populations. In this study, CYP450 and NADPH-RED are a useful biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure.

  8. Fast and Sensitive Method for Determination of Domoic Acid in Mussel Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxic amino acid produced by diatoms, is the main cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). In this work, we propose a very simple and fast analytical method to determine DA in mussel tissue. The method consists of two consecutive extractions and requires no purification steps, due to a reduction of the extraction of the interfering species and the application of very sensitive and selective HILIC-MS/MS method. The procedural method was validated through the estimation of trueness, extract yield, precision, detection, and quantification limits of analytical method. The sample preparation was also evaluated through qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the matrix effect. These evaluations were conducted both on the DA-free matrix spiked with known DA concentration and on the reference certified material (RCM). We developed a very selective LC-MS/MS method with a very low value of method detection limit (9 ng g−1) without cleanup steps. PMID:26904720

  9. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  10. Integrated assessment of water quality of the Costa da Morte (Galicia, NW Spain) by means of mussel chemical, biochemical and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Beatriz; Albentosa, Marina; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; González, Juan J; Campillo, Juan A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental quality at some of the sites most severely affected by the Prestige oil spill off 2 years after the spillage (April and November 2004). For this purpose analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and several biochemical (antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and DT-diaphorase and lipid peroxidation) and physiological [scope for growth (SFG)] biomarkers were determined on wild mussel populations (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at four points along the Costa da Morte and compared with those of a reference site not affected by the oil spill. Results showed that PAH contents had markedly decreased 17 months after the accident, although they were higher in April than in November, when they showed values similar to background levels reported for this area. Nevertheless, the predominance of chrysene on PAH profiles, similarly to findings obtained immediately after the spill, indicated the Prestige as their main source. In spite of the low PAH levels recorded, antioxidant activity levels (explained through the integrated antioxidant response-IAR) were higher in the Costa da Morte than at the reference site either in April and November. In April IAR seems to be related to PAH levels found 3 months after the accident (February 2003), suggesting the persistence in the environment of oxidative stress-producing components from the spill. However, evidence of oxidative stress was not reflected at physiological level by scope for growth, with only very slight differences being observed between values from the reference site and those from Costa da Morte sites. In conclusion, although 2 years after the spill PAHs bioaccumulated by mussels from the Costa da Morte had decreased to background levels, biochemical parameters showed signals of oxidative stress in mussels from this area. However, SFG reflected a good health status for the mussel populations studied

  11. Assessment of toxicity test endpoints for freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia).

    PubMed

    Fritts, Andrea K; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bradley, Megan; Liu, Na; Cope, W Gregory; Hammer, Edward; Bringolf, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if the viability of freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia) is an ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity tests and to define the appropriate duration of those tests. The authors assessed 1) how viability (the shell closure response to sodium chloride) compares with infectivity (ability to attach to a host fish and successfully metamorphose to the juvenile stage), and 2) the decline of viability and infectivity over time after glochidia were released from female mussels. Glochidia of 7 mussel species were isolated from females, placed in water, and subsampled daily for 2 d to 5 d. Viability, when ≥90%, was generally a good predictor of infectivity; however, when viability was <90%, infectivity was often disproportionately low, especially for glochidia collected near the end of the brooding period. Viability and infectivity declined more rapidly in natural water and sediment compared to reconstituted water. Following 24-h exposure to a toxicant (sodium chloride or copper), infectivity of the viable glochidia did not differ among concentrations of toxicants. The results indicate that viability is a valid proxy for infectivity and an ecologically relevant endpoint for standard toxicity tests with freshwater mussels for any test duration with control viability >90%.

  12. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  13. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  14. The zebra mussel: US utility implications. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, R.F. )

    1990-11-01

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling.

  15. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living` document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  16. Optimizing efficiency of zebra mussel monitoring at TVA power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, B.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) began monitoring for zebra mussels in spring 1992 and first detected veligers entering plant intake at Shawnee, Allen and Cumberland Fossil Plans in summer 1993. Existing information indicated that densities of zebra mussel veligers at plant intakes did not always correspond to densities in critical pipe units; however, a more accurate predictive technique was unavailable. The two sites chosen for this project were Shawnee Fossil Plant on the Ohio River and Allen Fossil Plant on the Mississippi River. The project involved a coordinated series of experiments to determine how densities of zebra mussel veligers varied throughout the day, how veliger densities estimated outside the plants related to estimates at different internal locations, and how growth rate of adult zebra mussels compared using measurements taken inside and outside the plants and from the two different rivers. The data indicated no significant difference in veliger densities from samples collected at the intakes and samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples collected inside the plants. There was also no significant difference in densities between samples taken at different times of the day. The data did indicate a significant difference in density estimates between samples collected on different days and between densities in the rivers compared to densities being drawn into the plant. The results will be used to assist plant staff in evaluating future data and in planning a more effective and cost efficient monitoring program.

  17. Standardization of the juvenile mussel bioassay: Dietary requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Optimizing a feeding regime is essential for establishing juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbecillus) as a standard toxicity test organism. Although very little is known about their dietary requirements, these juveniles appear to derive adequate nourishment for survival and growth in batch culture from a diet of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. However, results of previous studies have suggested that mussel diet in culture prior to exposure influences the sensitivity of these organisms to aqueous copper and cadmium exposure. Dietary components included three species of live algae (A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a suspension of rehydrated, dried Spirulina sp. Less than 24-hr laboratory cultured juveniles were fed all four components or combinations of three algal species daily to determine which mixtures promoted maximal growth. Preliminary data showed growth of control mussels receiving no food was comparable to those organisms fed all four algal species in combination. The greatest increase in shell length of juvenile mussels over 6 days was obtained with the tri-algal combination of A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and S. quadricauda. The mixture resulting in the least growth included A. falcatus, S. quadricauda, and dried Spirulina sp.

  18. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nadine R. Martinez; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2−3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  19. A biomarker study using mussels deployed in San Diego Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Steinert, S.; Montee, R.S.; Chadwick, B.; Leather, J.; Sanders, B. Salazar, M.; Salazar, S.; Anderson, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the summer of 1995 a comprehensive assessment of the extent and consequences of marine environmental contamination in the area of Naval Station San diego was conducted. The study addressed contamination sources, distributions, concentrations, transport, sediment-water exchange, biological effects, and degradation. The biological effects portion of the study included contaminant bioaccumulation, growth, and biomarker measurements, in mussels deployed at six stations around the Naval Station. The mussels were deployed for {approximately} 30 days in plastic mesh bags, placed 1 meter above the bottom. To reduce variability the mussels for the study were initially sorted within an extremely narrow size range, 37.8 {+-} 0.6 mm. DNA damage as measured using the comet assay, and tissue levels of stress proteins hsp 60 and hsp 70, were the biomarkers measured. In addition, mussel tissue extracts were applied to the P450 (CYP1A1) reporter gene system. Stress related biological effects increased in relation to sediment contaminants at all but one station. Evidence from this study and an earlier 1993 study suggests that the non-sediment associated effects observed at one station may be the result of PAH photoactivation of accumulated PAHs.

  20. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2 to 3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~ 8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8.

  1. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  2. Alternative mechanisms alter the emergent properties of self-organization in mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J; Herman, Peter M J; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2012-07-22

    Theoretical models predict that spatial self-organization can have important, unexpected implications by affecting the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resilience and productivity. Whether and how these emergent effects depend on specific formulations of the underlying mechanisms are questions that are often ignored. Here, we compare two alternative models of regular spatial pattern formation in mussel beds that have different mechanistic descriptions of the facilitative interactions between mussels. The first mechanism involves a reduced mussel loss rate at high density owing to mutual protection between the mussels, which is the basis of prior studies on the pattern formation in mussels. The second mechanism assumes, based on novel experimental evidence, that mussels feed more efficiently on top of mussel-generated hummocks. Model simulations point out that the second mechanism produces very similar types of spatial patterns in mussel beds. Yet the mechanisms predict a strikingly contrasting effect of these spatial patterns on ecosystem functioning, in terms of productivity and resilience. In the first model, where high mussel densities reduce mussel loss rates, patterns are predicted to strongly increase productivity and decrease the recovery time of the bed following a disturbance. When pattern formation is generated by increased feeding efficiency on hummocks, only minor emergent effects of pattern formation on ecosystem functioning are predicted. Our results provide a warning against predictions of the implications and emergent properties of spatial self-organization, when the mechanisms that underlie self-organization are incompletely understood and not based on the experimental study.

  3. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wa Kangeri, Arno K.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Barkman, Barbara R.; Donker, Jasper J. A.; Joppe, Daniel J.; Dankers, Norbert M. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal mussel bed in the tidal flats in the Western portion of the Dutch Wadden Sea was selected to investigate adhesion behavior of M. edulis. Sampling was conducted along a hydrodynamic gradient along the Front-edge, Center and Back-edge of a mussel bed. Mussels along the bed edges were characterized by adhesion to fine shell debris and high numbers of byssus threads. Mussels in the center of the bed were characterized by adhesion to shells of living conspecifics and relatively low numbers of byssus threads. An experimental investigation to isolate the role of perturbation on adhesion strategies was carried out under laboratory conditions. Experimental results show that under perturbed conditions mussels developed increased numbers of byssus threads relative to mussels left unperturbed. Additionally, mussels subjected to perturbation preferentially adhered more frequently to fine shell debris while unperturbed mussels adhered more frequently to conspecifics. Results show that differentiation in adhesion strategy is driven by physical perturbation and mediated by bed density. The results also suggest that adhesion by mussels in a sedimentary environment is a selective process in which larger shell fragments and shells of conspecifics are the preferred substrate.

  4. Influences of water and sediment quality and hydrologic processes on mussels in the Clinch River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ostby, Brett J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Segments of the Clinch River in Virginia have experienced declining freshwater mussel populations during the past 40 years, while other segments of the river continue to support some of the richest mussel communities in the country. The close proximity of these contrasting reaches provides a study area where differences in climate, hydrology, and historic mussel distribution are minimal. The USGS conducted a study between 2009 and 2011 to evaluate possible causes of the mussel declines. Evaluation of mussel habitat showed no differences in physical habitat quality, leaving water and sediment quality as possible causes for declines. Three years of continuous water-quality data showed higher turbidity and specific conductance in the reaches with low-quality mussel assemblages compared to reaches with high-quality mussel assemblages. Discrete water-quality samples showed higher major ions and metals concentrations in the low-quality reach. Base-flow samples contained high major ion and metal concentrations coincident to low-quality mussel populations. These results support a conceptual model of dilution and augmentation where increased concentrations of major ions and other dissolved constituents from mined tributaries result in reaches with declining mussel populations. Tributaries from unmined basins provide water with low concentrations of dissolved constituents, diluting reaches of the Clinch River where high-quality mussel populations occur.

  5. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  6. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    PubMed

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  7. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  8. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  9. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  10. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  11. Estimating the carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using net nutrient removal model.

    PubMed

    Srisunont, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate the nutrient removal potential and carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using the mass balance model. The developed model takes into consideration the green mussel growth rate, density and chlorophyll a concentration. The data employed in this study were based on culture conditions at Sriracha Fisheries Research Station, Thailand. Results show that net nutrient removal by green mussel is 3302, 380, and 124mg/year/indv for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus respectively. The carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation was found to be 300indv/m(2) based on chlorophyll a concentration which will not release phosphorus in the water environment beyond the standard (45μg-PO4(-3)-P/L). Higher chlorophyll a concentration results in lowered green mussel carrying capacity. This model can assist farm operators with possible management strategies for a sustainable mussel cultivation and protection of the marine environment.

  12. Accumulation, elimination, and speciation of cadmium and zinc in mussels, Mytilus edulis, in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Luten, J.B.; Bouquet, W.; Burggraaf, M.M.; Rus, J.

    1986-10-01

    Accumulation of trace metals like cadmium and zinc by the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) has been often studied. Most of these studies have been carried out under laboratory conditions. It has been shown that the accumulation of cadmium by the common mussel is affected by abiotic factors like salinity, temperature and the presence of complexing agents and biotic factors like animal size, sex and maturity. Elimination studies of cadmium from the common mussel are scarce. Detoxification of cadmium by the common mussel takes place by binding to low (metallothionein) and high molecular weight proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate accumulation and elimination of cadmium and zinc by the common mussel in the natural environment in combination with a study about the speciation of cadmium and zinc in the common mussel.

  13. Discrimination of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) feces in deposited materials by fecal morphology.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Iseri, Erina; Kataoka, Tomoya; Tanaka, Makiko; Katsukoshi, Kiyonori; Moki, Hirotada; Naito, Ryoji; Hem, Ramrav; Okada, Tomonari

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, we determined the common morphological characteristics of the feces of Mytilus galloprovincialis to develop a method for visually discriminating the feces of this mussel in deposited materials. This method can be used to assess the effect of mussel feces on benthic environments. The accuracy of visual morphology-based discrimination of mussel feces in deposited materials was confirmed by DNA analysis. Eighty-nine percent of mussel feces shared five common morphological characteristics. Of the 372 animal species investigated, only four species shared all five of these characteristics. More than 96% of the samples were visually identified as M. galloprovincialis feces on the basis of morphology of the particles containing the appropriate mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that mussel feces can be discriminated with high accuracy on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Thus, our method can be used to quantitatively assess the effect of mussel feces on local benthic environments.

  14. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    PubMed

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  15. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junda

    1991-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  16. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James T; Wisniewski, Jason M; Shea, Colin P; Jackson, C Rhett

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

  18. Proceedings of the fifth international zebra mussel and other aquatic nuisance organisms conference 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains articles from the proceedings of the fifth international zebra mussel & other aquatic nuisance organisms conference. Topics include articles on: Zebra mussel life history; Strategies for application of non-oxidizing biocides; examination of the potential of chlorine dioxide for use in zebra mussel veliger control; and ballast water control; overview of the Canadian approach. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Assessment of freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pennsylvania, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The upper reaches of the Allegheny River are a high-quality resource that supports populations of a number of endangered species. Two endangered species of freshwater mussel, the northern riffleshell, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, and clubshell, Pleurobema clava, are present in this river reach. Prior to a bridge-replacement project at the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pa. (river mile 86.2), a mussel survey was conducted to determine if either of the protected endangered species are present and to assess the quality of the mussel bed at this site. Shore and near-shore searches followed by SCUBA diving transects determined that a mussel bed is present at this location. The freshwater-mussel community consists of at least 14 species and includes both endangered species. Substrate type, stream velocity, and channel morphology combined with results from the transect searches documented that the mussel bed is largely limited to the east side of the river. A two-stage sampling design was employed to estimate the overall mussel abundance within the bed. Twelve 4-m2 (square meter) cells were sampled with four 0.25-m2 quadrants per cell. The mean population density within the mussel bed is 8.4 mussel per square meter. The overall mussel population in the survey area is 225,567 individuals (95-percent confidence interval, 135,973 to 374,195). River-bed scour and acid mine drainage appear to limit mussel distribution in the center and left section of the channel. Overall, a healthy and diverse mussel bed exists at this site.

  20. Estimation of Mussel Population Response to Hydrologic Alteration in a Southeastern U.S. Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Shea, Colin P.; Rhett Jackson, C.

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels ( Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  1. Sea Otters Homogenize Mussel Beds and Reduce Habitat Provisioning in a Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gerald G.; Markel, Russell W.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Salomon, Anne K.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity) by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities. PMID:23717697

  2. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.T.; Wisniewski, J.M.; Shea, C.P.; Rhett, Jackson C.

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola- Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  3. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gerald G; Markel, Russell W; Martone, Rebecca G; Salomon, Anne K; Harley, Christopher D G; Chan, Kai M A

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity) by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  4. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  5. Lesser scaup forage on zebra mussels at Cook nuclear plant, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Carlson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen of 21 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) entrained while foraging at the water intake structures of Cook Nuclear Plant, Bridgman, Michigan had consumed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The average number of zebra mussels in the upper gastrointestinal tract was 260; maximum number was 987. Migrating Lesser Scaup found this new food source during the first winter following settlement of zebra mussels on the water intake structures of the power plant.

  6. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  7. Do zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) alter lake water chemistry in a way that favours Microcystis growth?

    PubMed

    Bykova, Olga; Laursen, Andrew; Bostan, Vadim; Bautista, Joseph; McCarthy, Lynda

    2006-12-01

    This study examined possible relationships between the presence of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Microcystis spp. abundance. Experiments were conducted in 12 microcosms designed to mimic shallow lake ecosystems. Fresh, aerated water with phytoplankton (pseudokirchneriella spp. and Microcystis spp.) was pumped into each microcosm daily to ensure zebra mussels were exposed to oxygen and food. Microcosms containing zebra mussels experienced significantly higher fluxes of nitrate (p=0.019) and lower fluxes of ortho-phosphate (p=0.047) into sediments. In a second experiment, water column nutrient concentrations were compared in microcosms with and without live zebra mussels. Consistent with results of the previous experiment, microcosms with zebra mussels had significantly less nitrate (p=0.023) and organic nitrogen (p=0.003) in the water column, while ammonium (p=0.074), phosphate (p=0.491), and dissolved organic carbon (p=0.820) in the water column were not different between microcosms with or without zebra mussels. Microcosms with zebra mussels also experienced a reduction in green algae (pseudokirchneriella) (p<0.001) and an increase in abundance of Microcystis (p<0.001) relative to microcosms without zebra mussels. In an experiment without zebra mussels, nutrient ratios (N/P) were manipulated to determine potential links between N/P and relative abundance of each phytoplankton. Manipulation of N/P was intended to mimic differences observed in microcosms with and without zebra mussels in the previous experiment. Low N/P (mimicking microcosms with zebra mussels) was related to an increase in Microcystis (p<0.001) and Microcystis/Pseudokirchneriella biovolume (p<0.001). It is this shift in N/P, and possibly some level of selective feeding, that is believed to have driven changes in the relative abundance of Microcystis. In lakes invaded by zebra mussels, alterations in the processing of nitrogen and phosphorus could contribute to the re-emergence of

  8. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  9. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  10. Faunal structures associated with patches of mussels on East Asian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-04-01

    Aggregations of mussels harbor a variety of associated animals and make it possible for diverse species to coexist at the shore. Species composition and diversity of the associated fauna are controlled by the position of mussel beds or patches, e.g. tidal level, age structure of mussels, quality of ambient water and by mussel species. When patches of mussels were surrounded by algal growth, a difference in the species composition of the associated fauna was recognized between the patches and algal mats. Mechanisms promoting coexistence are discussed. Biodeposit production by mussels may affect the environment both within the bed and the ambient waters. Reducing sediments showing low Eh values caused by the accumulation of biodeposits was observed in calm waters where the polychaete Capitella capitata, an indicator for organic enrichment, occurred both in the intertidal mussel bed and the subtidal sandy bottom communities. In a shallow subtidal sandy bottom of the Gulf of Thailand, where heavy bioturbation by the spatangoid urchin Brissus latecarinatus was occurring, small patches of the mussel Modiolus metcalfi increased species diversity and equitability in this habitat. Species composition was different between mussel patches and pure sandy bottoms.

  11. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1)) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1)). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  12. Effects of substrate and hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of mussel beds in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model for simulation of freshwater mussel dynamics was used to investigate the effects of substrate and hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of mussel beds in a 10-km reach of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Suitable habitats for mussel survival were identified by creating a dimensionless parameter (shear stress ratio) combining shear force and substrate type. This parameter is a measure of substrate stability that could be used in many different applications. Dispersal of juvenile mussels with flow as they detach from their fish hosts was simulated by a particle-tracking mechanism that identified suitable areas for colonization with the potential to evolve into mussel beds. Simulated areas of mussel accumulation coincided with reported locations of mussel beds, and simulated densities were in the range of abundant mussel beds in other reaches of the UMR. These results, although more qualitative than quantitative, provide insight into factors influencing the formation of mussel beds in a large river. ?? 2006 by The North American Benthological Society.

  13. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  14. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually <3.0°C, sediments were up to 7.5°C cooler at one site in May, suggesting site-specific variation in the ability of sediments to act as thermal buffers. Sediment temperatures in the UMR exceeded those shown to cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  15. Bioaccumulation of PAHs in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, at Times Beach, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.M. |; Cherry, D.S.; Simmers, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    While zebra mussels have not been reported in confined disposal facilities (CDFs), recent reports of zebra mussels in soft sediments indicate a possible concern for dredging and the disposal of dredged material. In response to this concern, an insitu biomonitoring study utilizing the zebra mussel was performed at the Times Beach CDF, in Buffalo, NY. Mussels were placed at the facility for 30 days at sites of known PAH concentrations. The placement occurred at areas of comparably high, intermediate and low total PAH sediment concentrations. At each site the mussels were placed both in the water column and at the sediment surface. Mussels were collected on Day 34 of the study for tissue analysis. Tissues concentrations of total PAHs from mussels placed in water column and the sediment respectively were at the high site 8.4 and 5.6 mg/Kg, the intermediate site 4.3 and 3.3 mg/Kg and low site 3.2 and 2.7 mg/Kg. The following issues will be addressed; PAH concentration in the tissues compared to site sediment concentrations and the accumulation differences of mussels placed in the water column versus those in the sediment. The data indicate that zebra mussel PAH bioaccumulation potential is of environmental concern.

  16. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  17. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Waller, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  18. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  19. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  20. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  1. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  2. Conditions for coexistence of freshwater mussel species via partitioning of fish host resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rashleigh, B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larval stage may promote coexistence. A model of resource utilization was developed for two mussel species and analyzed to determine conditions for coexistence. Mussel species were predicted to coexist when they differed in terms of their success in contacting different fish host species; very similar strategies offered limited possibilities for coexistence. Differences in the mussel species' maximum infestation loads on the fish hosts that coincided with differences in their fish host contact success promoted coexistence. Mussel species with a given set of trade-offs in fish host use were predicted to coexist only for a subset of relative fish host abundances, so a shift in relative fish host abundances could result in the loss of a mussel species. An understanding of the conditions for freshwater mussel species coexistence can help explain high mussel diversity in rivers and guide ongoing conservation activities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h−1) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h−1). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals. PMID:26849372

  4. Certification of the methylmercury content in SRM 2977 mussel tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) and SRM 1566b oyster tissue.

    PubMed

    Tutschku, S; Schantz, M M; Horvat, M; Logar, M; Akagi, H; Emons, H; Levenson, M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    The methylmercury content in two new marine bivalve mollusk tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been certified using results of analyses from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and two other laboratories. The certified concentrations of methylmercury were established based on the results from four and six different (independent) analytical methods, respectively, for SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue (13.2 +/- 0.7 microg/kg) and SRM 2977 Mussel Tissue (organic contaminants and trace elements) (36.2 +/- 1.7 microg/kg). The certified concentration of methylmercury in SRM 1566b is among the lowest in any certified reference material (CRM).

  5. ALA Candidates: Presidential Timbre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with two effective spokespeople, notable school librarian Sara Kelly Johns and retired public library administrator Molly Raphael, who compete to be American Library Association (ALA) president. One of them will be elected president of ALA for a year's term beginning in July 2011. Each candidate comes from a…

  6. Selective settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) facilitates its growth and reproduction on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2001-07-01

    On the unstable sedimentary tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a suitable attachment substrate for sessile organisms is generally lacking. Epibenthic mussel beds (Mytilus edulis L.) provide the only and strongly limited settlement sites available for the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (L.). Field investigations showed that barnacles were non-randomly distributed within a mussel bed. They preferentially occurred near the siphonal apertures of living mussels but rarely grew on dead mussels or shell fragments. Field experiments revealed that this was due to selective settlement of barnacle cyprid larvae. Growth of barnacles was significantly higher upon living mussels than on empty mussel shells. Moreover, a higher reproductive output was obtained by individuals on living mussels which produced twice as many nauplii larvae than barnacles attached to empty shells. This study shows that selective settlement of S. balanoides cyprid larvae on living mussels is adaptive with respect to individual fitness.

  7. Removal of algae by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in western Lake Erie: a bioenergetics approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A bioenergetics model for growth of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) individual was verified with observations on zebra mussel growth in western Lake Erie. The bioenergetics model was then applied to the zebra mussel population in the western basin of Lake Erie to estimate the removal of phytoplankton by mussels. According to the modeling results, the zebra mussel population consumed 5.0 million tonnes of phytoplankton, while 1.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was deposited in pseudofeces from the mussels. Thus, a total of 6.4 ± 2.4 million tonnes of phytoplankton was removed from the water column by zebra mussel in western Lake Erie during 1990. Primary production was estimated to be 24.8 million tonnes; therefore, zebra mussel removed the equivalent of 26 ± 10% of the primary production for western Lake Erie.

  8. Determination of Polonium-210 in Mussels from the Adria Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylyku, Elida; Bode, Kozeta; Fisnka, Kujtim; Cfarku, Florinda

    2010-01-01

    The important role played by alpha radioactive nuclides in the marine radiation environment is already evident. The dominant contribution made by natural fall-out nuclide Polonium-210 to the alpha radioactivity of most marine organisms is very important. The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is selected as unique bio monitor species to be analyzed. Samples are collected at the Adria Sea along the Albanian coast. A radiochemical procedure followed by alpha spectrometry measurement of 210Po is performed. The standard solution of 209Po is used as a yield tracer. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry measurements are prepared by spontaneous deposition of polonium on to silver disks from weakly acid solutions. The value of specific activity of 210Po vary between 200 to 400 Bq/kg dry and are in good agreement with the results found for 210Po in mussels from other countries in the Adria Sea.

  9. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  10. Mussel foot protein-1 (mcfp-1) interaction with titania surfaces†

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Lu, Qingye; Masic, Admir

    2012-01-01

    Marine mussels utilize a variety of DOPA-rich proteins for purposes of underwater adhesion, as well as for creating hard and flexible surface coatings for their tough and stretchy byssal fibers. In the present study, moderately strong, yet reversible wet adhesion between the protective mussel coating protein, mcfp-1, and amorphous titania was measured with a surface force apparatus (SFA). In parallel, resonance Raman spectroscopy was employed to identify the presence of bidentate DOPA–Ti coordination bonds at the TiO2–protein interface, suggesting that catechol–TiO2 complexation contributes to the observed reversible wet adhesion. These results have important implications for the design of protective coatings on TiO2. PMID:23100857

  11. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  12. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Amnesic Shellfish Poison in Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2000-10-01

    A simple, rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic experiment suitable for undergraduate students is described for determining amnesic shellfish poison in mussels. The poison itself is an unusual naturally occurring amino acid, domoic acid, that has been found in seafood, particularly shellfish, worldwide. The symptoms of poisoning include amnesia (memory loss), loss of balance, mental confusion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, and in extreme cases death. The domoic acid is extracted from homogenized mussel tissue by boiling in water for 5 minutes. The homogenate is cooled and centrifuged, and an aliquot of the supernatant is diluted and analyzed by isocratic HPLC using a C18 column and an acetonitrile-water mobile phase at pH 2.5 with UV detection at 242 nm.

  13. Effect of pollution history on immunological responses and organ histology in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Sheir, Sherin K; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2013-05-01

    The effect of previous toxicant exposure (i.e., exposure history) on an organism's response to re-exposure to the toxicant is of considerable interest. The marine mussel Mytilus edulis was collected from reference and polluted sites in southwest England, and groups of mussels from each site were exposed to 20 μg/L CdCl2 for 0, 1, 4, and 8 days and compared with unexposed controls. End points evaluated were tissue metal and electrolyte concentrations, haemolymph chemistry, haemocyte characteristics [counts, neutral red uptake (NRU), and phagocytosis], histology, and expression of metallothionein gene (mt10) expression in digestive glands. Field-collected animals differed by collection site for some end points at time zero, at which time tissue Fe and Pb concentrations were greater and NRU and condition index lower in mussels from the polluted site. Subsequent exposure to cadmium (Cd) in the laboratory caused Cd accumulation mainly in digestive gland, but there were no site-specific effects on tissue trace-metal concentrations. NRU, phagocytosis, and haemolymph Na(+) and K(+) concentrations differed among sites and Cd treatment, but there were no clear trends. Exposure to Cd resulted in lower Ca(2+) concentrations in gill, digestive gland, and haemolymph in animals from the polluted site compared with controls (Kruskal-Wallis, p ≤ 0.05). Lesions, including necrosis, inflammation, and neoplasia, were observed in animals from the polluted site, but the frequency of these lesions appeared to decrease unexpectedly after Cd exposure. Expression of mt10 increased 3-fold in Cd-exposed animals from the polluted site compared with all other groups (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.01). We conclude that Cd exposure affected some immune responses in M. edulis, but pre-exposure history influenced toxicological outcomes of Cd exposure in the laboratory.

  14. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  15. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    PubMed

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments.

  16. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  17. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed Central

    Roesijadi, G

    1986-01-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl2. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP20 and HgBP10 following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP20 represents the primary mercury-binding species. These exist as dimers which can be dissociated into subunits by treatment with 1% 2-mercaptoethanol. Further purification of HgBP20 by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography resulted in the resolution of three major mercury-binding protein peaks; analysis of two of these showed that both had similar amino acid compositions with 26% half-cystine, 16% glycine, and very low levels of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine (0.3-0.5%), histidine (0.4%), methionine (about 0.5%), and leucine (about 1%). These are similar to the compositions of proteins reported as mussel thioneins by others. Separation of HgBP20 by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins. PMID:3709464

  18. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  19. Mussel-inspired plasmonic nanohybrids for light harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minah; Kim, Jong Uk; Lee, Joon Seok; Lee, Byung Il; Shin, Jonghwa; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-07-09

    Core-shell plasmonic nanohybrids are synthesized through a simple solutionbased process utilizing mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA). The multi-purpose PDA not only facilitates plasmonic metal formation, but also serves as a scaffold to incorporate photosensitizers around the metal cores, as well as an adhesive between the nanohybrids and the substrate. The resulting plasmonic assembly exhibits highly enhanced light absorption in photo catalytic systems to augment artificial photosynthesis.

  20. Use of Emersion as a Zebra Mussel Control Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    embayments, or any other hard-surfaced components in raw water systems (McMahon 1990; McMahon and Tsou 1990). For settlement of the postveliger (length...of shells (bound together by byssus threads) which are large enough to foul small-diameter down- stream components such as condLeser and heat...fouling only in redundant systems where redundant components could be alternately dewatered for periods long enough to achieve high mussel mor- talities

  1. [The toxicity of different crude oils on mussel larva].

    PubMed

    Lucas, A; Le Roux, S; Pérès, J M

    1975-05-26

    Five natural oils of varied origins, mixed with sea water by stirring, have been shown to be toxic for mussel larvae, which have been contaminated during one hour. This toxicity, expressed by the mortality percentage and the growth rate after contamination, was dependent on the type and the concentration of oil. The tests were carried out on 20 h old and 5 days old larvae, and were similar and complementary.

  2. Influence of sediment presence on freshwater mussel thermal tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal temperature (LT50) data from water-only exposures with the early life stages of freshwater mussels suggest that some species may be living near their upper thermal tolerances. However, evaluation of thermal sensitivity has never been conducted in sediment. Mussels live most of their lives burrowed in sediment, so understanding the effect of sediment on thermal sensitivity is a necessary step in evaluating the effectiveness of the water-only standard method, on which the regulatory framework for potential thermal criteria currently is based, as a test of thermal sensitivity. We developed a method for testing thermal sensitivity of juvenile mussels in sediment and used the method to assess thermal tolerance of 4 species across a range of temperatures common during summer. Stream beds may provide a thermal refuge in the wild, but we hypothesized that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. We also evaluated the effects of 2 temperature acclimation levels (22 and 27°C) and 2 water levels (watered and dewatered treatments). We then compared results from the sediment tests to those conducted using the water-only standard methods. We also conducted water-only LT tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) for comparison with the juvenile life stage. We found few consistent differences in thermal tolerance between sediment and water-only treatments, between acclimation temperatures, between waterlevel treatments, among species, or between juvenile and glochidial life stages (LT50 range = 33.3-37.2°C; mean = 35.6°C), supporting our hypothesis that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. The method we developed has potential for evaluating the role of other stressors (e.g., contaminants) in a more natural and complex environment.

  3. Environmental Impact Research Program. An Instruction Report on Freshwater Mussels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    35. Mussels initiate movement by first extending the foot into the substrate. Internal sinuses in the foot slowly fill with blood so after the foot is...cotizing and Anaesthetizing Gastropods," Malacologia 2: 231-238. van der Schalie, H. 1953. "Nembutal as a Relaxing Agent for Mollusks," The American...25 Nacre white, pinkish, or orange ................................ 26 25. Shell variable, usually subrhomboid, discs flattened, posterior

  4. Effect of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-04-01

    Effects of seeding density on biomass production in mussel bottom culture are investigated by detailed monitoring of culture practice in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands. The seeds originate from different sources. The seeds differ in size and farmers apply seeding techniques dependent on the seed size resulting in different seed densities on the culture plots. We hypothesise growth to be density dependent and that biomass production is primarily determined by survival and is therefore a function of seed density which is related to the activities of the farmers. Data was collected from 42 different culture plots over a three year period (June 2009-June 2012). During this period, 66 sub-populations were followed from seeding until harvest. Seeding at the start of the culture resulted in an instantaneous drop in biomass production, caused by large losses in mussel number. These losses were on average 42% of the mussels seeded. This seeding loss decreased with mussel size and increased with seeding density. A subsequent density dependent loss of 1.8 mussels per day was found for smaller mussels (< 30 mm), and a non-density dependent loss of 0.8 mussels per day for larger mussels (> 30 mm) during grow out. Overall loss from seeding to harvest was high, from 92% for the smallest seeds collected from spat collectors, to 54% for half-grown mussels fished from natural beds in the spring. No indication was found that growth or mussel condition was affected by culture plot scale density. Growth was dependent on mussel size and age, and this largely determined the differences in biomass production between seed sources. The density dependent seeding loss associated with seeding activities largely determined survival, and hence overall biomass production.

  5. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  6. Modelling growth variability in longline mussel farms as a function of stocking density and farm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosland, Rune; Bacher, Cédric; Strand, Øivind; Aure, Jan; Strohmeier, Tore

    2011-11-01

    Mussels ( Mytilus edulis) are commonly cultivated on artificial structures like rafts, poles or longlines to facilitate farming operations. Farm structures and dense mussel populations may result in water flow reduction and seston depletion and thus reduced individual mussel growth and spatial growth variability inside a farm. One of the challenges in mussel farming is thus to scale and configure farms in order to optimise total mussel production and individual mussel quality under different environmental regimes. Here we present a spatially resolved model for simulation of flow reduction, seston depletion and individual mussel growth inside a longline farm based on information about farm configuration (spacing between longlines, farm length and stocking density) and background environmental conditions (current speed, seston concentration and temperature). The model simulations are forced by environmental data from two fjords in south-western Norway and the farm configurations are defined within operational ranges. The simulations demonstrate spatial growth patterns at longlines under environmental settings and farm configurations where flow reduction and seston depletion have significant impacts on individual mussel growth. Longline spacing has a strong impact on the spatial distribution of individual growth, and the spacing is characterised by a threshold value. Below the threshold growth reduction and spatial growth variability increase rapidly as a consequence of reduced water flow and seston supply rate, but increased filtration due to higher mussel densities also contributes to the growth reduction. The spacing threshold is moderated by other farm configuration factors and environmental conditions. Comparisons with seston depletion reported from other farm sites show that the model simulations are within observed ranges. A demonstration is provided on how the model can guide farm configuration with the aim of optimising total farm biomass and individual

  7. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  8. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-05-12

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications.

  10. A mussel-derived one component adhesive coacervate.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Tan, Yerpeng; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms process and deliver many of their underwater coatings and adhesives as complex fluids. In marine mussels one such fluid, secreted during the formation of adhesive plaques, consists of a concentrated colloidal suspension of a mussel foot protein (mfp) known as Mfp-3S. The results of this study suggest that Mfp-3S becomes a complex fluid by a liquid-liquid phase separation from equilibrium solution at a pH and ionic strength reminiscent of the conditions created by the mussel foot during plaque formation. The pH dependence of phase separation and its sensitivity indicate that inter-/intra-molecular electrostatic interactions are partially responsible for driving the phase separation. Hydrophobic interactions between the non- polar Mfp-3S proteins provide another important driving force for coacervation. As complex coacervation typically results from charge-charge interactions between polyanions and polycations, Mfp-3S is thus unique in being the only known protein that coacervates with itself. The Mfp-3S coacervate was shown to have an effective interfacial energy of ⩽1mJm(-2), which explains its tendency to spread over or engulf most surfaces. Of particular interest to biomedical applications is the extremely high adsorption capacity of coacervated Mfp-3S on hydroxyapatite.

  11. A Mussel-Derived One-Component Adhesive Coacervate

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Tan, Yerpeng; Rodriguez, N. Martinez; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms process and deliver many of their underwater coatings and adhesives as complex fluids. In marine mussels, one such fluid, secreted during the formation of adhesive plaques, consists of a concentrated colloidal suspension of a mussel foot protein (mfp) known as Mfp-3S. Results of this study suggest that Mfp-3S becomes a complex fluid by a liquid-liquid phase separation from equilibrium solution at a pH and ionic strength reminiscent of conditions created by the mussel foot during plaque formation. The pH dependence of phase separation and its sensitivity indicate that inter/intra-molecular electrostatic interactions are partially responsible for driving the phase separation. Hydrophobic interactions between the nonpolar Mfp-3S proteins provide another important driving force for coacervation. As complex coacervation typically results from charge-charge interactions between polyanions and polycations, Mfp-3S is thus unique in being the only known protein that coacervates with itself. The Mfp-3S coacervate was shown to have an effective interfacial energy of ≤ 1 mJ/m2 which explains its tendency to spread over or engulf most surfaces. Of particular interest to biomedical applications is the extremely high adsorption capacity of coacervated Mfp-3S on hydroxyapatite. PMID:24060881

  12. Biomarker responses of mussels exposed to earthquake disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D.; Glover, Chris N.; Gaw, Sally

    2016-12-01

    The green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus is recognised as a bioindicator of coastal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels (shell length 60-80 mm) were collected from three intertidal areas of Canterbury in the South Island of NZ prior to extreme earthquake disturbances on 22nd February 2011, and 9 months later in October 2011. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle. Metal levels in tissues were site specific, and mostly unaffected by earthquake disturbances. Physiological biomarkers were negatively affected by earthquake disturbances and mussels from the Port of Lyttelton had higher negative scope for growth post-earthquake. Metallothionein-like protein in the digestive gland correlated with metal content of tissues, as did catalase activity in the gill and lipid peroxidation values for the digestive gland. This research demonstrates that physiological and other biomarkers are effective at detecting the effects of multiple stressors following seismic disturbances.

  13. Trace metals in mussels from mariculture zones, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiu, S T; Lam, F S; Tze, W L; Chau, C W; Ye, D Y

    2000-07-01

    In 1997, concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were analysed in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from three mariculture zones located in the north-east (Kat O), south (Lo Tik Wan) and to the west (Ma Wan) of Hong Kong. Spatial differences in the concentration of metals were found, chromium and copper were higher at Ma Wan and Lo Tik Wan compared to Kat O in the north-east. In contrast, the highest levels of lead (mean = 4.37 microg/g dry wt) were recorded at Kat O. There were no differences in the level of nickel between the study sites. A comparison of the metal concentrations in mussels with the results of a previous study seven years before, in 1990, showed a twofold increase in the mean levels of cadmium for all three sites. However, levels of the other metals in 1997 were lower by 12-32% for chromium, 32-39% for copper and 24-25% for nickel. The greatest reductions were recorded for lead: Kat O (39%), Ma Wan (51%) and Lo Tik Wan (75%). This may be related to the introduction of lead-free petrol in 1991. Despite the apparent reduction in some heavy metal bioaccumulation between 1990 and 1997, from a public health risk perspective, the data suggest a continued need for monitoring of heavy metals in mussels from mariculture zones.

  14. Radionuclides in Peconic River fish, mussels, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, A; Rosson, R; Lahr, J; Garcia, R; Kahn, B

    2001-12-01

    For regulatory oversight and quality control of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) actions, fish, mussels, and sediments were analyzed from the Peconic River system on Long Island, NY, downstream of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as from control locations. The analyses were for photon-emitting radionuclides (notably 60Co and 137Cs), uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sediments were cored in 4 sections to 0.37 m depth, whole fish were analyzed, and mussels were separated into flesh and shells. Radioisotopes of the cited elements were detected in sediment, some of the fish contained 137Cs, 241Am, and uranium, and mussel flesh contained 137Cs and uranium. All of the 60Co, 233U, and enriched uranium, and some of the 137Cs and 241Am, can most likely be attributed to Brookhaven National Laboratory. The other radionuclides (and some of the 137Cs and 241Am) are believed to have either fallout or nature as their origin. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) evaluated the radiological data in terms of adverse health implications due to consumption of fish with the levels of reported radioactivity. The NYSDOH determined that the added radiation doses likely to result from eating this fish are a small fraction of the radiation dose that normally results from radionuclides present in the body from natural sources.

  15. Validating Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Torres, G.; Marcy, G.; Brown, T.; Gilliland, R.; Gautier, T. N.; Isaacson, H.; Dupree, A.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Science Team has identified more than 700 transit-like signatures in the first 43 days of data returned from the spacecraft (Borucki et al. 2010, arXiv1006.2799B). However, only 7 of these candidates have been confirmed as planets as of late September 2010. The number of true planets in this sample is clearly far larger than 7, but the sample is also 'contaminated' with false-positives, including many from eclipsing binary stars. Separating the wheat from the chaff requires a careful study of individual candidates using both Kepler photometry and spectroscopic and imaging data from the ground. Techniques that the Science Team is developing to address these issues, which include detailed analysis of the photometric data and follow-up observations with ground-based telescopes, will be presented. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  16. The effects of flow and stream characteristics on the variation in freshwater mussel growth in a Southeast US river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dycus, Justin C.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Peterson, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insight to the factors affecting the growth of stream-dwelling freshwater mussels. Although hierarchical von Bertalanffy growth models are rarely used for freshwater mussel age and growth studies, this approach can provide important information regarding the ecology of freshwater mussels.

  17. Mortality, movement and behaviour of native mussels during a planned water-level drawdown in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Gray, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that drawdowns can influence the mortality, movement and behaviour of mussels in the UMR. However, more information on spatial and temporal distributions of mussels is needed to better understand the magnitude of these effects. Results from this study are being used by resource managers to better evaluate the effects of this management tool on native mussel assemblages.

  18. Dark matter candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of. Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs.

  19. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  20. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  1. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) California Sea Mussel and Bay Mussel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    small diatoms, depth, food, salinity, and current). zoospores, minute ova and spermatozoa , Of these, water temperature was the flagellates and other...motor boat Jolla were "hot spots" for silver, activity posed little threat (Carr and copper, lead, and zinc . Silver was Reish 1978). especially high... zinc . Zn. Levels in M. edulis from The amount of trace metals in mussels, California (Table 3) agreed with those depending on site, were in many of the

  2. Morphological and ecological determinants of body temperature of Geukensia demissa, the Atlantic ribbed mussel, and their effects on mussel mortality.

    PubMed

    Jost, Jennifer; Helmuth, Brian

    2007-10-01

    Measurements of body temperatures in the field have shown that spatial and temporal patterns are often far more complex than previously anticipated, particularly in intertidal regions, where temperatures are driven by both marine and terrestrial climates. We examined the effects of body size, body position within the sediment, and microhabitat (presence or absence of Spartina alterniflora) on the body temperature of the mussel Geukensia demissa. We then used these data to develop a laboratory study exposing mussels to an artificial "stressful" day, mimicking field conditions as closely as possible. Results suggested that G. demissa mortality increases greatly at average daily peak temperatures of 45 degrees C and higher. When these temperatures were compared to field data collected in South Carolina in the summer of 2004, our data indicated that mussels likely experienced mortality due to high-temperature stress at this site during this period. Our results also showed that body position in the mud is the most important environmental modifier of body temperature. This experiment suggested that the presence of marsh grass leads to increases in body temperature by reducing convection, overwhelming the effects of shading. These data add to a growing body of evidence showing that small-scale thermal variability can surpass large-scale gradients.

  3. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region.

  4. Effects of a municipal effluent on the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata following challenge with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    François, Gagné; Mélanie, Douville; Marlène, Fortier; Michel, Fournier

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effects of exposure to a pathogenic bacteria and municipal effluent in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata. Mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of an ozone-treated effluent at 15°C for 7days. A sub-group of mussels was inoculated with Vibrio anguillarum and exposed to the same conditions as above. After the exposure period, mussels were collected to assess hemocyte count and viability, immunocompetence (phagocytosis and nitrite production), oxidative stress/inflammation (cyclooxygenase and lipid peroxidation) and oxygen radical/xenobiotic scavenging activity (metallothioniens, glutathione S-transferase). The results showed that mussels exposed to municipal effluent had increased hemocyte counts, phagocytosis, nitrites, lipid peroxidation and metallothioneins. In the inoculated mussels, the same responses were observed, in addition to cyclooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase activities. Multivariate analyses revealed that (1) the response pattern changed with effluent concentration, where increased responses observed at low effluent concentrations (>10%, V/V) were attenuated at higher effluent concentrations, (2) the effluent produced more pronounced changes in lipid peroxidation, metallothionein and hemocyte viability, and (3) the simultaneous presence of V. anguillarum led to more important changes in hemocyte count and viability and nitrite levels. In conclusion, the presence of V. anguillarum could alter the response of mussels to municipal effluent, which could lead to increased inflammation in mussels.

  5. The Edible Blue Mussel: A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    The major unifying concept for each of the disciplinary sections in this curriculum infusion unit is that the blue mussel is an easily obtainable, high quality, very palatable seafood. A section is provided for teacher familiarity with the anatomy and ecological background of the mussel. The guide is arranged by discipline areas. Sections provide…

  6. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN MUSSELS USED TO ASSESS BASE LEVEL NITROGEN ISOTOPE RATIO IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater mussels have been used to establish base level nitrogen isotope ratio values ( 15N) used in trophic position and food web studies in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, we assess the variability introduced when using unionid mussels in this manner by investigating th...

  7. The bitterling-mussel coevolutionary relationship in areas of recent and ancient sympatry.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Polačik, Matej; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Spence, Rowena; Gaygusuz, Ozcan; Ercan, Ertan; Ondračková, Markéta; Smith, Carl

    2010-10-01

    Host-parasite relationships are often characterized by the rapid evolution of parasite adaptations to exploit their host, and counteradaptations in the host to avoid the costs imposed by parasitism. Hence, the current coevolutionary state between a parasite and its hosts is predicted to vary according to the history of sympatry and local abundance of interacting species. We compared a unique reciprocal coevolutionary relationship of a fish, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and freshwater mussels (Unionidae) between areas of recent (Central Europe) and ancient (Turkey) sympatry. Bitterling parasitize freshwater mussels by laying their eggs in the gills of mussel and, in turn, mussel larvae (glochidia) parasitize the fish. We found that all bitterling from both regions avoided one mussel species. Preferences among other mussel species tended to be related to local mussel abundance rather than duration of sympatry. Individual fish were not consistent in their oviposition choices, precluding the evolution of host-specific lineages. Mussels were demonstrated to have evolved strong defenses to bitterling parasitism in the area of ancient sympatry, but have no such defenses in the large areas of Europe where bitterling are currently invasive. Bitterling avoided glochidia infection irrespective of the duration of sympatry.

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  9. Direct and indirect effects of predation, herbivory and surface rugosity on mussel recruitment.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, Peter S

    1990-06-01

    The predatory gastropod Nucella lapillus, commonly preys upon the mussel, Mytilus edulis, and is thought to control the distribution and abundance of mussels on the rocky shores of New England, USA. In this study, done in Maine, USA, not only the presence of Nucella lapillus but also the roughness of the experimental surface and the presence of the herbivorous gastropod, Littorina littorea, were manipulated. Four types of surfaces were used as recruitment substrata for mussels: smooth bare granite, aggregations of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, fiberglass resin castings of smooth bare granite and resin castings of aggregations of S. balanoides. To ensure that caged N. lapillus were not starving, barnacles were provided as alternative prey. Experiments showed no detectable effect of N. lapillus on the recruitment of M. edulis. Mussel recruitment was enhanced by surface rugosity and depressed by the activities of L. littorea. Analysis of covariance, using the number of algal species as the covariate, suggested that L. littorea reduced the number of newlyrecruited mussels by removing algae that provided recruitment sites, but no manipulations were done to test this conjecture. It is likely that previous reports of N. lapillus controlling mussel abundance are attributable to N. lapillus preying upon barnacles, which increase surface rugosity and enhance mussel recruitment. Review of literature on feeding preferences of N. lapillus supports this view. When handling times and prey availability are taken into account, Nucella shows a clear preference for barnacles over mussels.

  10. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  11. Facile preparation of mussel-inspired polyurethane hydrogel and its rapid curing behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peiyu; Wang, Jing; Yao, Xiong; Peng, Ying; Tu, Xiaoxiong; Du, Pengfei; Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Xinling

    2014-08-13

    A facile method was found to incorporate a mussel-inspired adhesive moiety into synthetic polymers, and mussel mimetic polyurethanes were developed as adhesive hydrogels. In these polymers, a urethane backbone was substituted for the polyamide chain of mussel adhesive proteins, and dopamine was appended to mimic the adhesive moiety of adhesive proteins. A series of mussel mimetic polyurethanes were created through a step-growth polymerization based on hexamethylene diisocyanate as a hard segment, PEG having different molecular weights as a soft segment, and lysine-dopamine as a chain extender. Upon a treatment with Fe(3+), the aqueous mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be triggered by pH adjustment to form adhesive hydrogels instantaneously; these materials can be used as injectable adhesive hydrogels. Upon a treatment with NaIO4, the mussel mimetic polyurethane solutions can be cured in a controllable period of time. The successful combination of the unique mussel-inspired adhesive moiety with a tunable polyurethane structure can result in a new kind of mussel-inspired adhesive polymers.

  12. Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Grienke, Ulrike; Silke, Joe; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed.

  13. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  14. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  15. An analysis of mussel bed habitats in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkman, A. G.; Dankers, N.; van Stralen, M.

    2002-04-01

    A habitat suitability analysis for littoral mussel beds in the Dutch Wadden Sea was carried out. The analysis was based on the presence of mussel beds in the years 1960-1970, and a number of environmental characteristics: wave action, flow velocity, median grain size, emersion times and distance to a gully border. The habitat model describes mussel bed appearance quantitatively. It predicts the distribution of mussel beds quite well, as well as the distribution of spatfall in the years 1994 and 1996. From the analysis we found that wave action (maximum orbital velocity) was the main structuring factor. A low orbital velocity was preferred. Neither very low, nor maximum flow velocities were favourable for mussel beds. Very coarse sands or silty environments were not preferred. Sites close to the low water line showed lower mussel bed appearance; when emersion time was above 50% , hardly any mussel beds could be found. The habitat suitability analysis and the construction of a habitat suitability map was performed in the framework of the discussions on a further or reduced exploitation of the tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea by cockle and mussel fishery activities.

  16. Host-Symbiont Interactions between a Marine Mussel and Methanotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    condition index of the mussels, when compared to freshly collected animals. This second study also demonstrates that neither unicellular algae (as a food ... source ) nor thiosulfate (as a symbiont energy source) is sufficient for either shell or soft tissue growth in this mussel (Thiosulfate was suggested as

  17. CONDITIONS FOR COEXISTENCE OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL SPECIES VIA PARTITIONING OF FISH HOST RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larv...

  18. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  19. Sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Insights into the evolution of fertilization proteins in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Mu, Huawei; Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Cataloging the sperm proteome of an animal can improve our understanding of its sperm-egg interaction and speciation, but such data are available for only a few free-spawning invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis, a free-spawning marine mussel. We integrated public transcriptome datasets by de novo assembly, and applied SDS-PAGE coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to profile the sperm proteome, resulting in the identification of 550 proteins. Comparing the homologous sperm protein coding genes between M. galloprovincialis and its closely related species M. edulis revealed that fertilization proteins have the highest mean nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks = 0.62) among 11 functional groups, consistent with previous reports of positive selection of several fertilization proteins in Mytilus. Moreover, 78 sperm proteins in different functional groups have Ka/Ks values > 0.5, indicating the presence of many candidate sperm proteins for further analysis of rapid interspecific divergence. The MS data are available in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001665.

  20. Nontargeted metabolomics reveals biochemical pathways altered in response to captivity and food limitation in the freshwater mussel Amblema plicata.

    PubMed

    Roznere, Ieva; Watters, G Thomas; Wolfe, Barbara A; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-12-01

    Effective conservation of freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae), one of the most endangered groups of animals in North America, is compromised by limited knowledge of their health. We address this gap in knowledge by characterizing the metabolic profile of Amblema plicata in the wild and in response to captivity and food limitation. Eight mussels brought into captivity from the wild were isolated for 18 days without a food source. Hemolymph samples were taken prior to, and 9 and 18 days after the start of the experiment; these samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We detected and identified 71 biochemicals in the hemolymph of freshwater mussels; of these, 49 showed significant changes during captivity and/or food limitation (p<0.05). Fasting resulted in severe metabolite depletion. Captive (but fed) mussels experienced changes similar to (albeit less severe than) fasting mussels, suggesting that mussels may experience nutritional deficiency under common captive conditions. A. plicata responded to food limitation stress by preferentially using energy reserves for maintenance rather than growth. Carbohydrate and energy metabolism exhibited down-regulation in captive, food-limited, and wild mussels. Lipid metabolism was up-regulated in captive/food-limited mussels and unchanged in wild mussels. Amino acid metabolism was up-regulated in wild mussels and down-regulated in captive/food-limited mussels. Nucleotide metabolism was up-regulated in the wild mussels, down-regulated in food-limited mussels, and unchanged in captive mussels. The different responses between treatment groups suggest potential for nucleotide metabolism as a biomarker of health status for freshwater mussels.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Wu, Xiangyun; Yu, Ziniu

    2012-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (16,627 bp), an economically important bivalve, was newly sequenced and annotated. P. viridis is the shortest and has a comparatively highest overall A+T content (68%) among six available genomes of marine mussels to date. The atp8 gene's length (49 a.a.) of the green mussel is unexpectedly greatly shorter than that of other marine mussels (87 a.a.). Comparison of the gene order demonstrated that the six marine mussels share no identical gene blocks although they belong to the same family, which indicates that this group should be a good model to study mtDNA evolution and mitochondria inheritance.

  2. A tale of two rivers: implications of water management practices for mussel biodiversity outcomes during droughts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Galbraith, Heather S; Vaughn, Caryn C; Spooner, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Droughts often pose situations where stream water levels are lowest while human demand for water is highest. Here we present results of an observational study documenting changes in freshwater mussel communities in two southern US rivers during a multi-year drought. During a 13-year period water releases into the Kiamichi River from an impoundment were halted during droughts, while minimum releases from an impoundment were maintained in the Little River. The Kiamichi observed nearly twice as many low-flow events known to cause mussel mortality than the Little, and regression tree analyses suggest that this difference was influenced by reduced releases. During this period mussel communities in the Kiamichi declined in species richness and abundance, changes that were not observed in the Little. These results suggest that reduced releases during droughts likely led to mussel declines in one river, while maintaining reservoir releases may have sustained mussel populations in another.

  3. Impact of European zebra mussel infestation to the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, R.F. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on Dreissena polymorpha, the European freshwater zebra mussel, introduced to the Great Lakes in 1985. It is now found throughout Lakes St. Clair and Erie, in Green Bay, Lake Michigan and invaded western Lake Ontario by Fall 1989. As its planktonic veliger larva is dispersed on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, it is likely to spread throughout U.S. and southern Canadian freshwaters. Mussel accumulations impede flow, and aggravate sedimentation and corrosion. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5-2.0 m/sec. Mussels foul intake structures, low-flow piping, steam condensors, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Monitoring of source waters for mussels and veligers allows initiation of control measures before macrofouling occurs. Mussel fouling should be prevented as removal is difficult and expensive.

  4. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  5. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Declines in the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater-mussel species (family Unionidae1) have been reported worldwide (Bogan, 1993; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). The principal causes of the observed declines are difficult to confirm, however, because only a few of the many factors that affect mussel-species populations have been identified (Strayer and Ralley, 1993; Strayer, 1999; Baldigo and others, 2003; Strayer and others, 2006). The Neversink River, which drains the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York (fig. 1), contains seven species of mussels (Strayer and Ralley, 1991; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). Populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) and the threatened swollen wedgemussel (Alasmidonta varicosa) coexist with other unionid mussels in the Neversink River (Strayer and Ralley, 1991, 1993; Baldigo and others, 2003). Dwarf wedgemussel populations had previously been found only downstream from the site of an abandoned dam in the lower part of the river at Cuddebackville (fig. 1), and swollen wedgemussels were only found in the lower and middle reaches of the river. The limited distribution of these two species suggests that they may be susceptible to local extinctions. The distribution of mussel populations can be limited by impoundments. Mussel larvae develop in species-specific host fish; thus, impoundments that restrict passage of these host fish also restrict the extent of mussels. The Neversink River is impounded by the Neversink Reservoir [241 square kilometers (km2)], a major source of drinking water for the City of New York, and was also impounded 50 km downstream by the Cuddebackville Dam until 2004, when the latter was removed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve fish passage. The removal of this dam has provided previously unavailable habitat for diadromous and other fish species that act as hosts for rare mussel species. In addition, releases from

  6. Effects of Freshwater Pollution on the Genetics of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) at the Molecular and Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Emilia G.; Šrut, Maja; Štambuk, Anamaria; Klobučar, Göran I. V.; Seitz, Alfred; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Revealing long-term effects of contaminants on the genetic structure of organisms inhabiting polluted environments should encompass analyses at the population, molecular, and cellular level. Following this concept, we studied the genetic constitution of zebra mussel populations from a polluted (Dp) and reference sites (Cl) at the river Drava, Croatia, and applied microsatellite and DNA damage analyses (Comet assay, micronucleus test (MNT)). Additionally, mussels from both populations were exposed to polluted wastewater in the laboratory for three days, and DNA damage was analyzed to evaluate acclimatization and genetic adaptation of the investigated populations to the polluted environment. The two populations differed in their genetic constitution. Microsatellite analysis suggested that Dp had undergone a genetic bottleneck. Comet assay did not indicate any difference in DNA damage between the two populations, but MNT revealed that Dp had an increased percentage of micronuclei in hemocytes in comparison to Cl. The laboratory experiment revealed that Dp had a lower percentage of tail DNA and a higher percentage of micronuclei than Cl. These differences between populations were possibly caused by an overall decreased fitness of Dp due to genetic drift and by an enhanced DNA repair mechanism due to acclimatization to pollution in the source habitat. PMID:24883328

  7. Spawning and multiple end points of the embryo-larval bioassay of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk).

    PubMed

    Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1960s, little has been done to improve and simulate the use of short-duration chronic bioassays of bivalve embryos, particularly in mussels. However, these test organisms offer great advantages in relation to other groups, due to the ease of obtaining breeders in cultivation systems, in the environment and any time, and due to their high sensitivity to chemicals or contaminants. To contribute some methodological aspects, this study uses techniques to stimulate spawning or improve the obtaining of gametes for use in bioassays with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. It also evaluates different criteria for determining the effect on the larvae, for estimation of EC50 and NOEC values, based on morphological analysis of developmental delay and the biometrics of the larvae. KCl proved to be a reliable inducer of spawning, with positive responses in 10 of the 12 months of the year tested. Moreover, this chemical, in association with NH4Cl, demonstrated the capacity to activate immature oocytes obtained from extirpated gonads, enabling an improvement in fertilization rates. The different criteria adopted to determine the effects on the larvae in the assays with reference toxicants (SDS and K2Cr2O7) resulted in EC50 and NOEC values without significant differences, indicating reliability in the results and freedom in the choice of criteria of effect to be adopted in the trials.

  8. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    Group 1 mussel survival did not differ between treatment groups (p > 0.05); however, a difference was detected (p < 0.01) in the survival of Group 2 mussels. The survival of Group 2 mussels did not differ (p > 0.23) between control and treated groups. A difference in Group 2 mussel survival was detected (p = 0.03; odds ratio [OR] = 0.290) between the 50- and 100-mg/L treatment groups (that is, the survival was highest in the 50-mg/L treatment group and lowest in the 100-mg/L treatment group), however, the biological significance of the difference is indeterminate.

  9. A historical assessment of coastal contamination in Birch Harbor, Maine based on the analysis of mussels collected in the 1940s and the Mussel Watch Program.

    PubMed

    Apeti, D A; Lauenstein, G G; Christensen, J D; Kimbrough, K; Johnson, W E; Kennedy, M; Grant, K G

    2010-05-01

    Coastal contamination in the 1940s was assessed based on analysis of canned blue mussels presumably collected from Birch Harbor, Maine, USA. Analytical results on legacy organic contaminants were compared to long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Mussel Watch (MW) monitoring data to estimate the degree of coastal contamination before World War II (WWII) when many synthetic organic compounds were first introduced into the environment. While dieldrin and chlordane were not detected in the canned mussels, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were present at lower concentrations relative to the more recent MW data. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected, and the later were significantly higher in canned mussels relative to the MW data (p<0.05). Furthermore, moving average analysis applied to the MW data depicted three-phased temporal trend patterns (increase-decrease-steady state) for virtually all contaminants indicating an overall increased coastal contamination in post WWII era.

  10. Accumulation and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles in a Marine Mussel

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Shannon K.; Miller, Robert J.; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2014-01-01

    Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity of CuO ENPs to marine mussels and the influence of mussels on the fate and transport of CuO ENPs. We exposed marine mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs for four weeks, and measured clearance rate, rejection, excretion and accumulation of Cu, and mussel shell growth. Mussel clearance rate was 48% less, and growth was 68% less, in mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 than in control animals. Previous studies show 100% mortality at 1 mg Cu L−1, suggesting that CuO ENPs are much less toxic than ionic Cu, probably due to the slow dissolution rate of the ENPs. Mussels rejected and excreted CuO ENPs in biodeposits containing as much as 110 mg Cu g−1, suggesting the potential for magnification in sediments. Mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs accumulated 79.14 ± 12.46 μg Cu g−1 dry weight, which was 60 times more Cu than in control animals. Our results suggest that mussels have the potential to influence the fate and transport of CuO ENPs and potentially cause magnification of CuO ENPs in mussel bed communities, creating a significant source of Cu to marine benthos. PMID:28344235

  11. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.((111)Cd spiked algae+(113)Cd spiked river water) or B.((111)Cd spiked sediments+(113)Cd spiked river water). After exposure, (111)Cd or (113)Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight < 5 mg), while river water-Cd became more important in larger individuals (tissue dry weight > 5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels.

  12. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  13. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  14. Exposure of unionid mussels to electric current: Assessing risks associated with electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Levine, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Electric current is routinely applied in freshwater for scientific sampling of fish populations (i.e., electrofishing). Freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) are distributed worldwide, but their recent declines in diversity and abundance constitute an imperilment of global significance. Freshwater mussels are not targeted for capture by electrofishing, and any exposure to electric current is unintentional. The effects of electric shock are not fully understood for mussels but could disrupt vital physiological processes and represent an additional threat to their survival. In a controlled laboratory environment, we examined the consequences of exposure to two typical electrofishing currents, 60-Hz pulsed DC and 60-Hz AC, for the survival of adult and early life stages of three unionid species; we included fish as a quality control measure. The outcomes suggest that electrical exposure associated with typical electrofishing poses little direct risk to freshwater mussels. That is, adult mussel survival and righting behaviors (indicators of sublethal stress) were not adversely affected by electrical exposure. Glochidia (larvae that attach to and become parasites on fish gills or fins) showed minimal immediate reduction in viability after exposure. Metamorphosis from glochidia to free-living juvenile mussels was not impaired after electric current simulated capture-prone behaviors (stunning) in infested host fish. In addition, the short-term survival of juvenile mussels was not adversely influenced by exposure to electric current. Any minimal risk to imperiled mussels must be weighed at the population level against the benefits gained by using the gear for scientific sampling of fish in the same waters. However, scientists sampling fish by electrofishing should be aware of mussel reproductive periods and processes in order to minimize the harmful effects to host fish, especially in areas where mussel conservation is a concern. ?? Copyright by the

  15. Induction of DNA strand breaks in the mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and clam (Protothaca staminea) following chronic field exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the Exxon Valdez spill.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert E; Lindeberg, Mandy; Harris, Patricia M; Rice, Stanley D

    2007-06-01

    In 2002, 13 years after the Exxon Valdez spill, mussels and clams were examined for lingering oil exposure and damage. Known oil patches were sampled at four locations, and compared to nearby reference areas (same bay), and were also compared to "hot reference" sites to verify the methods used (Cordova harbor and fresh diesel spill at Port Chalmers). Passive samplers deployed for a month at the sites, along with tissue samples, confirmed that the oiled sites were oiled (fingerprinting back to Exxon Valdez oil) and that reference sites were clean. The highest PAH loads were detected in sub-surface interstitial waters at oiled sites. Exposure at the surface was generally low level, and probably intermittent. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells using sensitive comet analyses. DNA strand breakage was detected in both mussels and clams, with the highest level of damage detected at "hot reference" sites of Cordova harbor and Port Chalmers. Bioavailability and DNA damage at the oiled sties was low, indicating there has been substantial progress in recovery from the spill 13 years before, yet low level bioavailability and damage were still detectable.

  16. Freshwater mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, USA: a featured collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J.K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Clinch River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee is arguably the most important river for freshwater mussel conservation in the United States. This featured collection presents investigations of mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River. Analyses of historic water- and sediment-quality data suggest that water column ammonia and water column and sediment metals, including Cu and Zn, may have contributed historically to declining densities and extirpations of mussels in the river's Virginia sections. These studies also reveal increasing temporal trends for dissolved solids concentrations throughout much of the river's extent. Current mussel abundance patterns do not correspond spatially with physical habitat quality, but they do correspond with specific conductance, dissolved major ions, and water column metals, suggesting these and/or associated constituents as factors contributing to mussel declines. Mussels are sensitive to metals. Native mussels and hatchery-raised mussels held in cages in situ accumulated metals in their body tissues in river sections where mussels are declining. Organic compound and bed-sediment contaminant analyses did not reveal spatial correspondences with mussel status metrics, although potentially toxic levels were found. Collectively, these studies identify major ions and metals as water- and sediment-quality concerns for mussel conservation in the Clinch River.

  17. The Internal-Candidate Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author explains the complications involved when an internal candidate is included in an open search for a leadership position in an academic institution. Internal-candidate syndrome is a dilemma faced by institutions when they have to choose between an internal candidate and an external one. There are two reasons why…

  18. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls.

  19. Meet the Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutgold, Nichola D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To consider sex roles in public speaking through the conversational style of modern-day political rhetoric. Type of speech: Informative. Point value: 15% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 3; (b) Length: 5-7 minutes; (c) Visual aid: No; (d) Outline: Yes; (e) Prerequisite reading: Any biographical information found on the…

  20. 75 FR 24375 - Participation by Federal Candidates and Officeholders at Non-Federal Fundraising Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal candidates and officeholders are permitted to ``attend, speak, or be a featured guest at a... have allowed Federal candidates and officeholders only to attend, speak, or be a featured guest at..., its reference to ``featured guests''-- affected the role that Federal candidates and...

  1. 22 CFR 501.4 - Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6... FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.4 Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4). Cross-reference: The regulations governing the junior level Career Candidate program are codified in part 11 of...

  2. 22 CFR 501.4 - Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6... FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.4 Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4). Cross-reference: The regulations governing the junior level Career Candidate program are codified in part 11 of...

  3. 22 CFR 501.4 - Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6... FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.4 Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4). Cross-reference: The regulations governing the junior level Career Candidate program are codified in part 11 of...

  4. 22 CFR 501.4 - Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6... FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.4 Junior Level Career Candidate Program (Class 6, 5, or 4). Cross-reference: The regulations governing the junior level Career Candidate program are codified in part 11 of...

  5. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  6. Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Cusack, Maggie; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification.

  7. Mussel-Inspired Surface Chemistry for Multifunctional Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haeshin; Dellatore, Shara M.; Miller, William M.; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2007-10-01

    We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assembled monolayers through deposition of long-chain molecular building blocks, metal films by electroless metallization, and bioinert and bioactive surfaces via grafting of macromolecules.

  8. Original involvement of antimicrobial peptides in mussel innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Mitta, G; Vandenbulcke, F; Roch, P

    2000-12-15

    Recently, the existence and extended diversity of antimicrobial peptides has been revealed in two mussel species. These molecules are classified into four groups according to common features of their primary structure: defensins, mytilins, myticins and mytimycin. In Mytilus galloprovincialis, gene structure reveals synthesis as precursors in circulating hemocytes. Synthesised even in absence of challenge, the precursors mature and the peptides are stored in granules as active forms. The different peptides are engaged in the destruction of bacteria inside phagocytes, before being released into hemolymph to participate in systemic responses. Such involvement in anti-infectious responses is unique, and apparently more related to those of mammalian phagocytes than to those of insects.

  9. Mussel oligopeptides protect human fibroblasts from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Dong, Ying; Xu, Qing-Gang; Zhu, Shu-Yun; Tian, Shi-Lei; Huo, Jing-jing; Hao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Mussel bioactive peptides have been viewed as mediators to maximize the high quality of life. In this study, the anti-aging activities of mussel oligopeptides were evaluated using H2O2-induced prematurely senescent MRC-5 fibroblasts. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry displayed that exposure to H2O2 led to the loss of cell viability and cell cycle arrest. In addition, H2O2 caused the elevation of senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). It was found that pretreatment with mussel oligopeptides could significantly attenuate these properties associated with cellular senescence. Mussel oligopeptides also led to the increase of glutathione (GSH) level and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) recovery. In addition, mussel oligopeptides resulted in an improvement in transcriptional activity of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). This study revealed that mussel oligopeptides could protect against cellular senescence induced by H2O2, and the effects were closely associated with redox cycle modulating and potentiating the SIRT1 pathway. These findings provide new insights into the beneficial role of mussel bioactive peptides on retarding senescence process.

  10. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-11-11

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature's glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  11. Mussel attachment on rocky shores: the effect of flow on byssus production.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emily; Moeser, Gretchen M; Thompson, Sean B; Coutts, Laura C; Craig, Carrie A

    2008-12-01

    Mussels rely on a strong byssal attachment to persist in a range of habitats with differing rates of water flow. Recent studies, however, suggest that the ability of one mussel species to sense and respond adaptively to the flow in its environment is limited under even modest flow conditions because the process of byssal thread formation is disrupted. This study extends these findings to four mussel species, Mytilus trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus, and Modiolus modiolus. Collectively, the response of byssal thread formation decreased with rates of flow above ∼25 cm/s and the critical flow threshold was estimated to be <50 cm/s. How can mussels persist on shores where flow is an order of magnitude higher? Using a combination of techniques for measuring flow, velocity profiles were obtained above and within mussel aggregations in the laboratory and in the field. Flow was greatly reduced within mussel aggregations, ranging from 0.1% to 10% of free-stream velocity. These results suggest one key to the success of mussels in habitats with high rates of flow is the ability to form aggregations that ameliorate flows to a level that is conducive to byssal thread formation.

  12. Novel proteins identified in the insoluble byssal matrix of the freshwater zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Gantayet, Arpita; Rees, David J; Sone, Eli D

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is an invasive, biofouling species that adheres to a variety of substrates underwater, using a proteinaceous anchor called the byssus. The byssus consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. It contains the unusual amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is believed to play an important role in adhesion, in addition to providing structural integrity to the byssus through cross-linking. Extensive DOPA cross-linking, however, renders the zebra mussel byssus highly resistant to protein extraction, and therefore limits byssal protein identification. We report here on the identification of seven novel byssal proteins in the insoluble byssal matrix following protein extraction from induced, freshly secreted byssal threads with minimal cross-linking. These proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests of the matrix proteins by spectrum matching against a zebra mussel cDNA library of genes unique to the mussel foot, the organ that secretes the byssus. All seven proteins were present in both the plaque and thread. Comparisons of the protein sequences revealed common features of zebra mussel byssal proteins, and several recurring sequence motifs. Although their sequences are unique, many of the proteins display similarities to marine mussel byssal proteins, as well as to adhesive and structural proteins from other species. The large expansion of the byssal proteome reported here represents an important step towards understanding zebra mussel adhesion.

  13. Uptake, release, and absorption of nutrients into the marine environment by the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Srisunont, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya

    2015-08-15

    The nutrient uptake and release by the mussels in relation with amount of food consumption are emphasised in this research. Results of the study demonstrate that about 16% of the total mass dry weight food consumed by the mussels was released as faeces. The depositions of particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in mussel faeces were found to be 26.3, 5.7, and 0.6mg/day/indv respectively. Soluble inorganic nutrients such as NH4(+)-N (2.5mg/day/indv), and PO4(3-)-P (0.6mg/day/indv) were also released as mussel excretion. The nutrient absorption efficiency for the green mussel body was found to be 65.1% for carbon, 62.1% for nitrogen, and 79.2% for phosphorus. Subsequently, green mussels can remove particulate carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus at 108.1, 13.5, and 4.6mg/day/indv from aquatic systems. Finally, the results can help in estimating the carrying capacity of mussel cultivation without deteriorating the water quality in marine ecosystems.

  14. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review. PMID:26569266

  16. Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12-21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values.

  17. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  18. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Eckert, Nathan L; Bartsch, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  19. Heavy metals in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in the Bergen Harbor area, Western Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, V.; Johannessen, P.J.; Maage, A.

    1996-12-31

    Heavy metal discharges to the marine environment are of great concern all over the world. Both essential (e.g., Fe, Zn, Cu) and non essential (e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb) metals are toxic to living organism when subjected to high concentration. Many heavy metals accumulate in organisms and some also accumulate in the food chain. The anthropogenic heavy metal outlets can in this way both reduce marine species diversity and ecosystem. Further, by consuming seafood, humans will be exposed to the metals with a potential danger to human health. Goldberg proposed to use marine mussels to monitor contamination levels of coastal waters. Since then marine mussels, especially the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), has been used widely as a surveillance organism. The blue mussel is regarded a suitable species for this purpose because it accumulates metals, it sessile, has a relatively long life span, is large enough for individual analysis, can tolerate a relatively wide range of temperature and salinity regimes, and can also synthesize the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, for metal detoxification. Furthermore, the blue mussel is a popular and tasteful food source and is suitable for culturing. The world-wide annual yield of mussels during the period 1988 to 1992 was about 1.3 million tons, of which about 0.5 million tons was Mytilus edulis. In Norway, the annual production was 77 tons in 1990. The interest of culturing mussels has increased in recent years, but the consumption of mussels has been hampered both by toxic algae and high levels of heavy metals. The latter is of special concern to those close to urban or industrial areas. This study investigated whether blue mussels in the Bergen Harbor area were contaminated with the heavy metals zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, and mercury, evaluating whether humans could eat them. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Zebra mussels affect benthic predator foraging success and habitat choice on soft sediments.

    PubMed

    Beekey, M A; McCabe, D J; Marsden, J E

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of zebra mussels ( Dreissena spp.) to North America has resulted in dramatic changes to the complexity of benthic habitats. Changes in habitat complexity may have profound effects on predator-prey interactions in aquatic communities. Increased habitat complexity may affect prey and predator dynamics by reducing encounter rates and foraging success. Zebra mussels form thick contiguous colonies on both hard and soft substrates. While the colonization of substrata by zebra mussels has generally resulted in an increase in both the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities, it is not well known how these changes affect the foraging efficiencies of predators that prey on benthic invertebrates. We examined the effect of zebra mussels on the foraging success of four benthic predators with diverse prey-detection modalities that commonly forage in soft substrates: slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus), brown bullhead ( Ameirus nebulosus), log perch ( Percina caprodes), and crayfish ( Orconectes propinquus). We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the impact of zebra mussels on the foraging success of predators using a variety of prey species. We also examined habitat use by each predator over different time periods. Zebra mussel colonization of soft sediments significantly reduced the foraging efficiencies of all predators. However, the effect was dependent upon prey type. All four predators spent more time in zebra mussel habitat than in either gravel or bare sand. The overall effect of zebra mussels on benthic-feeding fishes is likely to involve a trade-off between the advantages of increased density of some prey types balanced against the reduction in foraging success resulting from potential refugia offered in the complex habitat created by zebra mussels.

  1. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  2. Population assessment and potential functional roles of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Rogala, James T.; Gray, Brian R.; Davis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    1. Despite a heightened global concern for native mussels, fundamental research on mussel ecology in large rivers is lacking. These gaps in knowledge about where mussels occur, and why, are limiting habitat restoration activities. 2. Large-scale systematic surveys for native mussels in three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River documented mussel communities composed of 16–23 species and ranging from 2.9–4.5 live mussels m-2 that were actively recruiting new cohorts into their populations (87–100% of the species were found as juveniles 5 years old). Estimates of mean tissue biomass and production in these reaches ranged from 2.1–3.1 g C m-2 and 0.4–0.6 g C m-2year-1, respectively. 3. Mussels filtered a significant amount of water (range, 0.05–0.07 m3m-2d-1) over a 480 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River — amounting to a filtration rate of 53.1 million m3day-1. The filtration rate of mussels as a percentage of river discharge ranged from 0.5–1.4% at high flows (5% exceedance), from 1.5–4.4% at moderate flows (50% exceedance) and from 4.4–12.2% during low flows (95% exceedance). 4. Collectively, these data suggest that native mussels play an integral role in this ecosystem by sequestering suspended materials that can be used by other benthic organisms.

  3. Gender-specific metabolic responses in hepatopancreas of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Ma, Mengwen; Zhang, Yuemei

    2014-10-01

    Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is a marine aquaculture shellfish and frequently studied in shellfish immunology. In this work, the gender-specific metabolic responses induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from M. galloprovincialis were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. In details, V. harveyi challenge increased the levels of amino acids including (valine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, alanine, arginine and tyrosine) and ATP, and decreased the level of glucose in male mussel hepatopancreas. In V. harveyi-challenged female mussel hepatopancreas, both threonine and AMP were significantly elevated, and choline, phoshphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, taurine, betaine and ATP were depleted. Obviously, only threonine was similarly altered to that in V. harveyi-challenged male mussel hepatopancreas. These findings confirmed the gender-specific metabolic responses in mussels challenged by V. harveyi. Overall, V. harveyi induced an enhanced energy demand through activated glycolysis and immune response indicated by increased BCAAs in male mussel hepatopancreas. In female mussel hepatopancreas, V. harveyi basically caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism through the metabolic pathways of conversions of phosphocholine and ADP to choline and ATP, and sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and H2O into choline and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (Cu/Zn-SOD, HSP90, lysozyme and defensin) suggested that V. harveyi induced obvious oxidative and immune stresses in both male and female mussel hepatopancreas. This work demonstrated that V. harveyi could induce gender-specific metabolic responses in mussel M. galloprovincialis hepatopancreas using NMR-based metabolomics.

  4. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  5. Evidence for adaptation from standing genetic variation on an antimicrobial peptide gene in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Gosset, Célia C; Do Nascimento, Joana; Augé, Marie-Thérèse; Bierne, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Genome scans of population differentiation identify candidate loci for adaptation but provide little information on how selection has influenced the genetic structure of these loci. Following a genome scan, we investigated the nature of the selection responsible for the outlying differentiation observed between populations of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis at a leucine/arginine polymorphism (L31R) in the antimicrobial peptide MGD2. We analysed DNA sequence polymorphisms, allele frequencies and population differentiation of polymorphisms closely linked to L31R, and pairwise and third-order linkage disequilibria. An outlying level of population differentiation was observed at L31R only, while no departure from panmixia was observed at linked loci surrounding L31R, as in most of the genome. Selection therefore seems to affect L31R directly. Three hypotheses can explain the lack of differentiation in the chromosomal region close to L31R: (i) hitchhiking has occurred but migration and recombination subsequently erased the signal, (ii) selection was weak enough and recombination strong enough to limit the hitchhiking effect to a very small chromosomal region or (iii) selection acted on a pre-existing polymorphism (i.e. standing variation) at linkage equilibrium with its background. Linkage equilibrium was observed between L31R and linked polymorphisms in every population analysed, as expected under the three hypotheses. However, linkage disequilibrium was observed in some populations between pairs of loci located upstream and downstream to L31R, generating a complex pattern of third-order linkage disequilibria which is best explained by the hypothesis of selection on a pre-existing polymorphism. We hypothesise that selection could be either balanced, maintaining alleles at different frequencies depending on the pathogen community encountered locally by mussels, or intermittent, resulting in sporadic fluctuations in allele frequency.

  6. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  7. Bioaccumulation of metals by blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Nelson, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of a marine Superfund site remedial monitoring program, blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were deployed for 28 day intervals to monitor the levels of bioavailable copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts. Dissolved and particulate seawater samples were collected periodically during twelve separate deployments and analyzed for these metals also. Bioconcentration factors, the concentration in mussel tissue normalized to dissolved, particulate and total seawater concentrations, were calculated. Previous studies conducted at this site demonstrated that these six metals bioconcentrate in blue mussels and that bioaccumulation patterns vary for each metal. The sources of this variability are discussed with respect to the partitioning of each metal in seawater.

  8. Edward D. Goldberg's proposal of "the Mussel Watch": Reflections after 40years.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John W; Tripp, Bruce W; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H

    2016-09-15

    We chronicle the extensive influence over the past forty years of Professor Edward D. Goldberg and his call in 1975 for a "Mussel Watch" or bivalve sentinel organism approach to assess geographic status and temporal trends of several chemicals of environmental concern in the coastal ocean. Examples of local, regional, national and international programs are discussed briefly as are examples of interesting useful findings and limitations to the Mussel Watch concept. Mussel Watch continues to provide useful data about status and trends of chemical contamination in coastal ecosystems.

  9. Investigation of the loss of byssus in Mytilus galloprovincialis from mussel farms in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonella; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2005-10-01

    A fungal infection has been found in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Adriatic Sea mussel farms. The infection ultimately results in the loss of the byssus, with serious consequences for mussel farming yield. The pathogen provokes the progressive destruction of the foot muscles, also damaging related structures such as the intra-organism part of the byssus apparatus, resulting in loss of the thread component. The affected health status of the animal is also sustained by modifications in the digestive gland structure, ranging from hyperactivity to extreme cell death in the tubula. At present, the identity of the harmful fungus is unknown.

  10. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  11. Freshwater Mussels as Biological Sensors and Cyclers of Aquatic Nitrogen Constituents: An Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, A.; Just, C. L.; Mudumbai, R.; Dasgupta, S.; Newton, T. J.; Durst, J.; Boddicker, M. D.; Diken, M. B.; Bril, J.; Baidoo-Williams, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most extensive manifestations of anthropogenic mismanagement of nitrogen is eutrophication of the Gulf of Mexico. Leaching and runoff transport nitrate compounds-excess agricultural fertilizer and animal waste-via the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton then multiplies exponentially, and consumes most of the dissolved oxygen. This hypoxia kills fish and other organisms, leading to so-called dead zones in the Gulf that can cover 6,000-7,000 square miles. Dead zone mitigation plans call for coupling management actions with enhanced monitoring, modeling, and research on nitrogen delivery to, as well as processing within, the Mississippi River. Our vision is to create a biosensor network of native freshwater mussels in a major river to monitor, comprehend, and ultimately model key components of the nitrogen cycle. Native freshwater mussels are a guild of long-lived, suspension feeding bivalves that perform important ecological functions in aquatic systems. Mussels can influence nutrient cycling by transferring nutrients from the water column to the riverbed. A major problem for environmental scientists is that relatively little is known about the diurnal behaviors of freshwater mussels or the impacts these behaviors may have on the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Our multidisciplinary team is performing a series of laboratory experiments exploring the feasibility of using freshwater mussels as sensors of and capacitors for nitrates. For sensing, we place Hall-effect sensors on mussels to monitor the rhythmic opening and closing of their valves (gape). One shortcoming of previous work is that mussels were monitored in artificial conditions: glued fast in laboratory flumes, or tethered in constrained settings. To overcome this shortcoming, our team has built a mussel microhabitat with a constant river water feed stock, solar simulator, and a variety of water chemistry sensor. A main thrust of our work is to develop the technology to monitor mussel

  12. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  13. Organic pollutant burden of the giant mussels Choromytilus chorus from the south-central Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Palma-Fleming, Hernán; Navarro, Jorge M

    2004-04-01

    A comparative quantitative analysis was made on the contents of organochlorines (OCh) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tissues of the giant mussel Choromytilus chorus from three bays in south-central Chile exposed to various degrees of pollutant input. Mussels from the three bays contained levels of OCh near the detection limits of method, with a tendency to be slightly higher in the polluted bay (San Vicente) than in the other bays (Corral and Yaldad). PAH levels and types in Corral and Yaldad were well below of carcinogenicity permitted in mussels for human consumption.

  14. Embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocide zinc pyrithione to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Granmo, Ke; Beiras, Ricardo

    2005-11-01

    The effects of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) were investigated in laboratory toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 7.7 nM for sea urchin embryos and 8 nM for mussel embryos. Toxic effects of Zpt on the larval growth of the sea urchin were detected at 0.5 nM. Predicted environmental concentrations of Zpt in pleasure craft harbours are higher than the predicted no effect concentrations for sea urchin and mussel embryos, indicating that Zpt may pose a threat to those species from exposure in the field.

  15. Metabolomic analysis revealed that female mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was sensitive to bisphenol A exposures.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in numerous chemicals, such as polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and it can be released into aquatic environment and poses risk on aquatic organisms. In this work, metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BPA. Our results indicated that the gonad of female mussel was sensitive to BPA exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) for one month. However, no significant metabolic responses were observed in male mussel gonads exposed to these two concentrations of BPA. Overall, this limited study suggested that the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  16. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, H.A.; Short, F.T.; Barker, S.; Kopp, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3 %, 46 to 61 % and <1 % that of the reference sites. Substantial differences in eelgrass biomass persisted between disturbed and reference sites up to 7 yr after dragging. Dragging did not affect physical characteristics of the sediment. The pattern and rate of eelgrass bed recovery depended strongly on initial dragging intensity; areas of relatively light dragging with many remnant eelgrass patches (i.e. patches that were missed by the mussel dredge) showed considerable revegetation in 1 yr. However, by developing recovery trajectories from measurements at sites disturbed in different years, we projected that it would require a mean of 10.6 yr for recovery of eelgrass shoot density within the areas of intense dragging characterizing most of the disturbed sites. A spatial simulation model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under

  17. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: Dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Short, Frederick T.; Barker, Seth; Kopp, Blaine S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and belowground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and <1% that of the reference sites. Substantial differences in eelgrass biomass persisted between disturbed and reference sites up to 7 yr after dragging. Dragging did not affect physical characteristics of the sediment. The pattern and rate of eelgrass bed recovery depended strongly on initial dragging intensity; areas of relatively light dragging with many remnant eelgrass patches (i.e. patches that were missed by the mussel dredge) showed considerable revegetation in 1 yr. However, by developing recovery trajectories from measurements at sites disturbed in different years, we projected that it would require a mean of 10.6 yr for recovery of eelgrass shoot density within the areas of intense dragging characterizing most of the disturbed sites. A spatial simulation model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr-1) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m-2 yr-1) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under

  18. Transcriptomic Profiling of Differential Responses to Drought in Two Freshwater Mussel Species, the Giant Floater Pyganodon grandis and the Pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity. PMID:24586812

  19. Fickle or Faithful: The Roles of Host and Environmental Context in Determining Symbiont Composition in Two Bathymodioline Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Laming, Sven R.; Szafranski, Kamil M.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Gaudron, Sylvie M.; Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Le Bris, Nadine; Duperron, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjoining East Atlantic Ocean host a diverse array of small-sized mussels that predominantly live on sunken, decomposing organic remains. At least two of these, Idas modiolaeformis and Idas simpsoni, are known to engage in gill-associated symbioses; however, the composition, diversity and variability of these symbioses with changing habitat and location is poorly defined. The current study presents bacterial symbiont assemblage data, derived from 454 pyrosequencing carried out on replicate specimens of these two host species, collected across seven sample sites found in three oceanographic regions in the Mediterranean and East Atlantic. The presence of several bacterial OTUs in both the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic suggests that similar symbiont candidates occur on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. The results reveal markedly different symbiotic modes in the two species. Idas modiolaeformis displays high symbiont diversity and flexibility, with strong variation in symbiont composition from the East Mediterranean to the East Atlantic. Idas simpsoni displays low symbiont diversity but high symbiont fidelity, with a single dominant OTU occurring in all specimens analysed. These differences are argued to be a function of the host species, where subtle differences in host evolution, life-history and behaviour could partially explain the observed patterns. The variability in symbiont compositions, particularly in Idas modiolaeformis, is thought to be a function of the nature, context and location of the habitat from which symbiont candidates are sourced. PMID:26710314

  20. The adhesive properties of coacervated recombinant hybrid mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seonghye; Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Song, Young Hoon; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-05-01

    Marine mussels attach to substrates using adhesive proteins. It has been suggested that complex coacervation (liquid-liquid phase separation via concentration) might be involved in the highly condensed and non-water dispersed adhesion process of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). However, as purified natural MAPs are difficult to obtain, it has not been possible to experimentally validate the coacervation model. In the present work, we demonstrate complex coacervation in a system including recombinant MAPs and hyaluronic acid (HA). Our recombinant hybrid MAPs, fp-151 and fp-131, can be produced in large quantities, and are readily purified. We observed successful complex coacervation using cationic fp-151 or fp-131, and an anionic HA partner. Importantly, we found that highly condensed complex coacervates significantly increased the bulk adhesive strength of MAPs in both dry and wet environments. In addition, oil droplets were successfully engulfed using a MAP-based interfacial coacervation process, to form microencapsulated particles. Collectively, our results indicate that a complex coacervation system based on MAPs shows superior adhesive properties, combined with additional valuable features including liquid/liquid phase separation and appropriate viscoelasticity. Our microencapsulation system could be useful in the development of new adhesive biomaterials, including self-adhesive microencapsulated drug carriers, for use in biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Impact Biofilm Communities and Mussel Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Long; Li, Yi-Feng; Liang, Xiao; Guo, Xing-Pan; Ding, De-Wen; Zhang, Demin; Zhou, Shuxue; Bao, Wei-Yang; Bellou, Nikoleta; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrating good antimicrobial activity are widely used in many fields. However, the impact of AgNPs on the community structures of marine biofilms that drive biogeochemical cycling processes and the recruitment of marine invertebrate larvae remains unknown. Here, we employed MiSeq sequencing technology to evaluate the bacterial communities of 28-day-old marine biofilms formed on glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and PDMS filled with AgNPs and subsequently tested the influence of these marine biofilms on plantigrade settlement by the mussel Mytilus coruscus. AgNP-filled PDMS significantly reduced the dry weight and bacterial density of biofilms compared with the glass and PDMS controls. AgNP incorporation impacted bacterial communities by reducing the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae (phylum: Bacteroidetes) and increasing the relative abundance of Vibrionaceae (phylum: Proteobacteria) in 28-day-old biofilms compared to PDMS. The settlement rate of M. coruscus on 28-day-old biofilms developed on AgNPs was lower by >30% compared to settlement on control biofilms. Thus, the incorporation of AgNPs influences biofilm bacterial communities in the marine environment and subsequently inhibits mussel settlement. PMID:27869180

  2. The microscopic network structure of mussel (Mytilus) adhesive plaques

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Daniel G.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus live in the hostile intertidal zone, attached to rocks, bio-fouled surfaces and each other via collagen-rich threads ending in adhesive pads, the plaques. Plaques adhere in salty, alkaline seawater, withstanding waves and tidal currents. Each plaque requires a force of several newtons to detach. Although the molecular composition of the plaques has been well studied, a complete understanding of supra-molecular plaque architecture and its role in maintaining adhesive strength remains elusive. Here, electron microscopy and neutron scattering studies of plaques harvested from Mytilus californianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis reveal a complex network structure reminiscent of structural foams. Two characteristic length scales are observed characterizing a dense meshwork (approx. 100 nm) with large interpenetrating pores (approx. 1 µm). The network withstands chemical denaturation, indicating significant cross-linking. Plaques formed at lower temperatures have finer network struts, from which we hypothesize a kinetically controlled formation mechanism. When mussels are induced to create plaques, the resulting structure lacks a well-defined network architecture, showcasing the importance of processing over self-assembly. Together, these new data provide essential insight into plaque structure and formation and set the foundation to understand the role of plaque structure in stress distribution and toughening in natural and biomimetic materials. PMID:26631333

  3. Leachate from microplastics impairs larval development in brown mussels.

    PubMed

    Gandara E Silva, Pablo Pena; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Resaffe, Pryscila; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Gusmão, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic debris is a pervasive type of contaminant in marine ecosystems, being considered a major threat to marine biota. One of the problems of microplastics is that they can adsorb contaminants in extremely high concentrations. When released from the particle, these contaminants have the potential to cause toxic effects in the biota. So far, reports of toxic effects are mostly linked with the direct exposure of organisms through ingestion of contaminated microplastics. There is little information on the toxicity of leachates from microplastics to marine organisms. In this study, we conducted experiments to evaluate the toxicity of leachates from virgin and beached plastic pellets to embryo development of the brown mussel (Perna perna). We compared the efficiency of two test procedures, and evaluated the toxicity of beached pellets collected in a coastal marine protected area. We observed that mussel embryo is sensitive to leachate from both virgin and beached pellets. However, the toxicity of the leachate from beached pellets was much higher than that of virgin pellets. We suggest contaminants adsorbed onto the surface of beached pellets were responsible for the high toxicity of leachate from beached pellets, while the toxicity of leachate from virgin pellets was mainly due to plastic additives. Our results suggest microplastic debris may be harmful even if ingestion is not the only or main pathway of interaction of marine organisms with contaminated plastic debris.

  4. Mussel-Inspired Silver-Releasing Antibacterial Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Fullenkamp, Dominic E.; Rivera, José G.; Gong, Yong-kuan; Lau, K. H. Aaron; He, Lihong; Varshney, Rahul; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    A silver-releasing antibacterial hydrogel was developed that simultaneously allowed for silver nanoparticle formation and gel curing. Water-soluble polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers were synthesized that contain reactive catechol moieties, inspired by mussel adhesive proteins, where the catechol containing amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) plays an important role in the ability of the mussel to adhere to almost any surface in an aqueous environment. We utilized silver nitrate to oxidize polymer catechols, leading to covalent cross-linking and hydrogel formation with simultaneous reduction of Ag(I). Silver release was sustained for periods of at least two weeks in PBS solution. Hydrogels were found to inhibit bacterial growth, consistent with the well-known antibacterial properties of silver, while not significantly affecting mammalian cell viability. In addition, thin hydrogel films were found to resist bacterial and mammalian cell attachment, consistent with the antifouling properties of PEG. We believe these materials have a strong potential for antibacterial biomaterial coatings and tissue adhesives, due to the material-independent adhesive properties of catechols. PMID:22374454

  5. Mercury removal using ground and calcined mussel shell.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-12-01

    We determined mercury retention on calcined and ground mussel shell, in presence and absence of phosphate, using batch and stirred flow chamber experiments. In batch experiments the calcined shell exhibited higher Hg adsorption, with good fitting to Freundlich equation (R2: 0.925-0.978); the presence of phosphate increased Hg adsorption; mercury desorption was 13% or lower, diminishing up to 2% under the presence of phosphates. In stirred flow chamber experiments calcined shell retained more Hg than ground shells (6300 vs. 4000-5200 micromol/kg); Hg retention increased an additional 40% on calcined shell and up to an additional 70% on ground shells when phosphates were present; mercury desorption was quite similar in all shell types (20%-34%), increasing up to 49%-60% in ground shells when phosphates were present. The higher Hg adsorption on calcined shell would be related to its calcite and dolomite concentrations; mercury-phosphate interactions would cause the increase in Hg retention when phosphates are present. Data on Hg desorption suggest that Hg retention was not easily reversible after batch experiments, increasing in the stirred flow chamber due to convective flow. Calcined and ground mussel shells could be recycled removing Hg from water, with the presence of phosphates in solution improving efficacy.

  6. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  7. The microscopic network structure of mussel (Mytilus) adhesive plaques.

    PubMed

    Filippidi, Emmanouela; DeMartini, Daniel G; Malo de Molina, Paula; Danner, Eric W; Kim, Juntae; Helgeson, Matthew E; Waite, J Herbert; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-12-06

    Marine mussels of the genus Mytilus live in the hostile intertidal zone, attached to rocks, bio-fouled surfaces and each other via collagen-rich threads ending in adhesive pads, the plaques. Plaques adhere in salty, alkaline seawater, withstanding waves and tidal currents. Each plaque requires a force of several newtons to detach. Although the molecular composition of the plaques has been well studied, a complete understanding of supra-molecular plaque architecture and its role in maintaining adhesive strength remains elusive. Here, electron microscopy and neutron scattering studies of plaques harvested from Mytilus californianus and Mytilus galloprovincialis reveal a complex network structure reminiscent of structural foams. Two characteristic length scales are observed characterizing a dense meshwork (approx. 100 nm) with large interpenetrating pores (approx. 1 µm). The network withstands chemical denaturation, indicating significant cross-linking. Plaques formed at lower temperatures have finer network struts, from which we hypothesize a kinetically controlled formation mechanism. When mussels are induced to create plaques, the resulting structure lacks a well-defined network architecture, showcasing the importance of processing over self-assembly. Together, these new data provide essential insight into plaque structure and formation and set the foundation to understand the role of plaque structure in stress distribution and toughening in natural and biomimetic materials.

  8. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  9. LC-MS measurment of free steroids in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Anna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Konieczna, Lucyna; Zabrzańska, Sandra; Belka, Mariusz; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-05

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify natural steroid hormones (17β-estradiol E2, estriol E3, estrone E1, testosterone T) and xenoestrogen (17α-ethinylestradiol EE2) in gills and gonads of Mytilus trossulus from the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland, using the LC-MS technique based on the enzymatic digestion of tissues, SPE extraction, and subsequent LC-MS analysis of the eluates. As a result, spatial differences in several steroid hormone concentrations were detected. While the highest concentrations of testosterone and natural estrogens were documented in mussels collected at the reference station (app. 13 ng g(-1) wet weight for T, 9 ng g(-1)w.w. for E2 and 3.5 ng g(-1)w.w. for E1), decreased levels of natural steroids and increased levels of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in individuals from the sewage treatment plant zone (app. 5 ng g(-1)w.w. for T, 3 ng g(-1)w.w. for E1, 1 ng g(-1)w.w. for E2 and E3, 1 ng g(-1)w.w. for EE2). No statistically significant tissue-related changes in steroids concentrations were found, but a trend towards higher steroids level in gills than in gonad was observed.

  10. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  11. Water and sediment quality factors affecting unionid mussel populations in the Clinch River, Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, J.H Van; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Farris, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Clinch River contains a very diverse unionid mussel fauna of 45 species, including 21 endemics and 11 federally listed endangered species. Recent surveys indicate that the mussel fauna is in decline in several areas of the river. To study this problem, differences in unionid mussel species-distribution, density, size demography, physiological condition, and contaminant body burden were quantified at sixteen sites encompassing 200 miles of the Clinch River in Virginia. These differences were associated with corresponding site differences in physical habitat and water and sediment contamination attributable to point (STPS, small industries) and nonpoint (abandoned mine lands, agriculture) discharge sources. Some of the documented impacts have been severe enough to prevent successful recruitment into local populations of several unionid species for several years. Validation of these sources of impact will allow evaluation of specific watershed management options for the protection and enhancement of unionid mussel resources of the Clinch River.

  12. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  13. Development and evaluation of methods to assess sublethal impacts of contaminants on freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.

    1995-12-31

    While a number of test methods have been used to evaluate the acute lethality of contaminants to freshwater mussels, far fewer techniques are available to measure chronic sublethal impacts. The authors selected respiration rate, ammonia excretion, glycogen stores and cholinesterase activity for evaluation as sublethal indicators of toxicity. Adults of three species, Utterbackia imbeciles, Elliptio icterina and Lampsilis teres, were sampled monthly to determine a baseline response for each of these measures as mussels experienced the changing seasons and reproductive cycle. Adaptations of assays developed for other mussel or animal species were made to maximize the response of some indicators.Differences based on mussel species and sex, and assayed tissue were measured. The potential use of these assays as indicators of contaminant stress was determined, as were personnel and material costs.

  14. Annual variation in recruitment of freshwater mussels and its relationship with river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Patricia R.; Newton, Teresa; Haro, Roger J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Davis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Understanding variation in recruitment dynamics of native mussels and its relationship to river discharge will be useful in designing effective management strategies to enhance conservation of this imperilled fauna.

  15. Sex-Limited Mitochondrial DNA Transmission in the Marine Mussel Mytilus Edulis

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, DOF.; Gallagher, C.; Beynon, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was thought to be inherited maternally in animals, although paternal leakage has been reported in mice and Drosophila. Recently, direct evidence of extensive paternal inheritance of mtDNA has been found in the marine mussel Mytilus. We give evidence that whereas female mussels are homoplasmic for a genome that is transmitted to eggs, male mussels are heteroplasmic for this genome and for a second genome that is transmitted preferentially to sperm. The results provide support for the existence of separate male and female routes of mtDNA inheritance in mussels. The two genomes show a base sequence divergence exceeding 20% at three protein coding genes, consistent with long term maintenance of the heteroplasmic state. We propose that the two genomes differ in fitness in males and females, possibly as a result of interaction with nuclear genes. PMID:7851776

  16. Processing of mussel adhesive protein analog thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Patz, T.; Narayan, R. J.; Menegazzo, N.; Mizaikoff, B.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Messersmith, P. B.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2005-07-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins are a new class of biologically-derived materials that possess unique biocompatibility, bioactivity, and adhesion properties. We have demonstrated successful thin film growth of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl- L-alanine modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (DOPA modified- PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer, a mussel adhesive protein analog, using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. We have demonstrated that the main functional groups of the mussel adhesive protein analog are present in the transferred film. The effect of increasing of chain length of the mussel adhesive protein analog on film structure was also examined. These novel polymer thin films could have numerous medical and technological applications if their thin film properties are similar to what is found in bulk. This is the first report of successful MAPLE deposition of this material as thin films.

  17. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations. PMID:27966602

  18. Mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography for low surface energy materials of teflon, graphene, and gold.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Lee, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Young; Shin, Dong Ok; Jeong, Hu Young; Hong, Seonki; Yun, Je Moon; Koo, Chong Min; Lee, Haeshin; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-12-15

    Mussel-inspired interfacial engineering is synergistically integrated with block copolymer (BCP) lithography for the surface nanopatterning of low surface energy substrate materials, including, Teflon, graphene, and gold. The image shows the Teflon nanowires and their excellent superhydrophobicity.

  19. SEASONAL VARIABILTIY LIPIDS, LIPID CLASSES AND PCBS IN INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS, MODIOLUS DEMISSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Modiolus demissus) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the seasonal variability of total lipids, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. One population was located in a highly c...

  20. Quality assessment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis): comparison between commercial and wild types.

    PubMed

    De Witte, B; Devriese, L; Bekaert, K; Hoffman, S; Vandermeersch, G; Cooreman, K; Robbens, J

    2014-08-15

    This study compared species identity, microplastics, chemical and microbial contamination between consumption mussels and wild type mussels, collected at Belgian department stores and Belgian groynes and quaysides, respectively. Species identification based on genetic analysis showed a high number of Mytilus (M.) edulis compared to M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis/galloprovincialis hybrid mussels. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.6 to 5.1 fibres/10 g of mussel. A higher prevalence of orange fibres at quaysides is related to fisheries activities. Chemical contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls could be related to industrial activities and water turbidity, with maximum concentrations at the quayside of port Zeebrugge. The inverse was noted for Escherichia coli contamination, which was relatively low at Zeebrugge quayside with a total count of 3.9 × 10(2)CFU/100 g tissue, due to limited agricultural effluents. Results of this complementary analysis stress the importance of integrated monitoring and quality assessment.