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Sample records for mussel species present

  1. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-10-28

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present.

  2. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  3. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    the Neversink Reservoir that mimic the river?s original flow patterns have recently been proposed by TNC and could benefit the established mussel populations and aquatic communities. The ability to protect mussel populations and the potential to increase mussel richness in the Neversink River is unknown, however, because the environmental factors that affect the seven mussel species are poorly defined, and the distribution of mussel beds is patchy and thus difficult to quantify. In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with TNC, began a 6-year study along the Neversink River and its tributaries to (1) document the current distribution of each mussel species, (2) assess environmental factors in relation to mussel-species richness and distribution, and (3) identify the factors that most strongly affect mussel populations and develop an equation that relates environmental factors to mussel-species richness. This report (a) summarizes the methods used to quantify or qualify environmental factors and mussel-species distribution and abundance, (b) presents a list of environmental factors that were correlated with mussel-species richness, and (c) offers an empirical model to predict richness of mussel species in benthic communities throughout the basin.

  4. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  5. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  6. California sea mussel and bay mussel: Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.N.; Hassler, T.J.; Moran, D.P.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The California sea mussel, Mytilus californianus, and the bay mussel, M. edulis, are commonly collected for bait. Some commercial landing and aquaculture occurs at a very low level of production. Both species are distributed along the California coast; the sea mussel is more commonly found on intertidal coastal rocks and the bay mussel on pilings and other hard substrates in bays and estuaries. The eggs of both species develop into a trochophore stage in 12--24 hours after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts 3--4 weeks. Sexual maturity can occur in one year. Spawning of the sea mussel occurs sporadically throughout the year; the bay mussel spawns in central California in late fall and winter. Maximum length is 120--150 mm for the bay mussel and 200--250 mm for the sea mussel. Both species are regarded as unsafe to eat from May 1 to October 31 due to the possible presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning. 55 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The Mussels' Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenburg, William

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings about mussels, an indicator species for the health of U.S. rivers and streams. Provides mussel descriptions, a history of the decline of mussel populations and cooperative efforts to repair damaged ecosystems cited as the root of the problem. (MCO)

  8. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  9. Conditions for coexistence of freshwater mussel species via partitioning of fish host resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rashleigh, B.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larval stage may promote coexistence. A model of resource utilization was developed for two mussel species and analyzed to determine conditions for coexistence. Mussel species were predicted to coexist when they differed in terms of their success in contacting different fish host species; very similar strategies offered limited possibilities for coexistence. Differences in the mussel species' maximum infestation loads on the fish hosts that coincided with differences in their fish host contact success promoted coexistence. Mussel species with a given set of trade-offs in fish host use were predicted to coexist only for a subset of relative fish host abundances, so a shift in relative fish host abundances could result in the loss of a mussel species. An understanding of the conditions for freshwater mussel species coexistence can help explain high mussel diversity in rivers and guide ongoing conservation activities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CONDITIONS FOR COEXISTENCE OF FRESHWATER MUSSEL SPECIES VIA PARTITIONING OF FISH HOST RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverine freshwater mussel species can be found in highly diverse communities where many similar species coexist. Mussel species potentially compete for food and space as adults, and for fish host resources during the larval (glochidial) stage. Resource partitioning at the larv...

  11. Species traits and catchment-scale habitat factors influence the occurrence of freshwater mussel populations and assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Heise, Ryan J.; Nichols, Robert B.; Pacifici, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of freshwater unionid mussels presents unique challenges due to their distinctive life cycle, cryptic occurrence and imperilled status. Relevant ecological information is urgently needed to guide their management and conservation.We adopted a modelling approach, which is a novel application to freshwater mussels to enhance inference on rare species, by borrowing data among species in a hierarchical framework to conduct the most comprehensive occurrence analysis for freshwater mussels to date. We incorporated imperfect detection to more accurately examine effects of biotic and abiotic factors at multiple scales on the occurrence of 14 mussel species and the entire assemblage of the Tar River Basin of North Carolina, U.S.A.The single assemblage estimate of detection probability for all species was 0.42 (95% CI, 0.36–0.47) with no species- or site-specific detection effects identified. We empirically observed 15 mussel species in the basin but estimated total species richness at 21 (95% CI, 16–24) when accounting for imperfect detection.Mean occurrence probability among species ranged from 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01–0.16) for Alasmidonta undulata, an undescribed Lampsilis sp., and Strophitus undulatus to 0.67 (95% CI, 0.42–0.86) for Elliptio icterina. Median occurrence probability among sites was <0.30 for all species with the exception of E. icterina. Site occurrence probability generally related to mussel conservation status, with reduced occurrence for endangered and threatened species.Catchment-scale abiotic variables (stream power, agricultural land use) and species traits (brood time, host specificity, tribe) influenced the occurrence of mussel assemblages more than reach- or microhabitat-scale features.Our findings reflect the complexity of mussel ecology and indicate that habitat restoration alone may not be adequate for mussel conservation. Catchment-scale management can benefit an entire assemblage, but species-specific strategies may be

  12. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  13. Patterns of species richness among assemblages of Unionicola spp. (Acari: Unionicolidae) inhabiting freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) of North America.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dale D; Vidrine, Malcolm F

    2013-04-01

    Water mites of Unionicola species are common symbionts of freshwater mussels, living on the gills or mantle and foot of their hosts and using these tissues as sites of oviposition. Although surveys of the mite fauna among North American mussels suggest that these mites represent highly diverse assemblages, there are currently no quantitative data characterizing Unionicola species diversity among their molluscan hosts. The present study addresses patterns of species richness of Unionicola assemblages from freshwater mussels, including the relationship between richness and host specificity among these mites. Results from this study indicate that mite species richness increased significantly with an increase in the number of host individuals sampled. When corrected for sampling effort, there was a positive relationship between host size and mite species richness. Results from this study also reveal a significant relationship between mite species richness and the geographical distribution of host mussels. Overall, the patterns of species richness observed for this study are consistent with those examining the richness of parasitic helminth communities. Because the phylogenetic history of host taxa can have a significant influence on patterns of parasite species richness, studies that correct for the phylogenetic history among host mussels will be required to better understand the role that evolutionary processes have in determining Unionicola species richness. The present study did not indicate a significant relationship between species richness and host specificity and, in not doing so, suggests that the dispersal ability of mites may also play a role in influencing Unionicola species richness. The host recognition behavior and swimming abilities for a larger sample of mites will be required to substantiate this hypothesis.

  14. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species in radioactivity monitoring of Eastern Adriatic coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Krmpotić, Matea; Rožmarić, Martina; Barišić, Delko

    2015-06-01

    Croatian Adriatic coastal waters are systematically monitored within the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as a bio-indicator species. The study includes determination of naturally occurring ((7)Be, (40)K, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U), as well as anthropogenic (137)Cs radionuclides. Activity concentrations in dry weight of mussels' soft tissue along the Croatian Adriatic coast are presented, with spatial and seasonal variations given and discussed. Samples were collected in spring and autumn for the period between 2009 and 2013. Radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Activity concentrations of (7)Be were the highest in spring periods, especially in the areas with significant fresh water discharges. Activity concentrations of (40)K did not vary significantly with season or location. (137)Cs activities were low, while (232)Th, (226)Ra and (238)U activities were mostly below the detection limit of performed gamma-spectrometric measurement.

  15. Misidentification of freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia:Unionidae): contributing factors, management implications, and potential solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shea, Colin P.; Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of freshwater mussel populations are used frequently to inform conservation decisions by providing information about the status and distribution of species. It is generally accepted that not all mussels or species are collected during surveys, and incomplete detection of individuals and species can bias data and can affect inferences. However, considerably less attention has been given to the potential effects of species misidentification. To evaluate the prevalence of and potential reasons for species misidentification, we conducted a laboratory-based identification exercise and quantified the relationships between mussel species characteristics, observer experience, and misidentification rate. We estimated that misidentification was fairly common, with rates averaging 27% across all species and ranging from 0 to 56%, and was related to mussel shell characteristics and observer experience. Most notably, species with shell texturing were 6.09× less likely than smooth-shelled species to be misidentified. Misidentification rates declined with observer experience, but for many species the risk of misidentification averaged >10% even for observers with moderate levels of experience (5–6 y). In addition, misidentification rates among observers showed substantial variability after controlling for experience. Our results suggest that species misidentification may be common in field surveys of freshwater mussels and could potentially bias estimates of population status and trends. Misidentification rates possibly could be reduced through use of regional workshops, testing and certification programs, and the availability of archived specimens and tissue samples in museum collections.

  16. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  17. Molecular markers for genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic population structure of freshwater mussel species.

    PubMed

    Choupina, A B; Martins, I M

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater mussel species are in global decline. Anthropogenic changes of river channels and the decrease of autochthonous fish population, the natural hosts of mussels larval stages (glochidia), are the main causes. Therefore, the conservation of mussel species depends not only on habitat conservation, but also on the availability of the fish host. In Portugal, information concerning most of the mussel species is remarkably scarce. One of the most known species, Unio pictorum is also in decline however, in the basins of the rivers Tua and Sabor (Northeast of Portugal), there is some indication of relatively large populations. The aforementioned rivers can be extremely important for this species conservation not only in Portugal, but also in the remaining Iberian Peninsula. Thus, it is important to obtain data concerning Unio pictorum bioecology (distribution, habitat requirements, population structure, genetic variability, reproductive cycle and recruitment rates), as well as the genetic variability and structure of the population. Concomitantly, information concerning fish population structure, the importance of the different fish species as "glochidia" hosts and their appropriate density to allow effective mussel recruitment, will also be assessed. The achieved data is crucial to obtain information to develop effective management measures in order to promote the conservation of this bivalve species, the conservation of autochthonous fish populations, and consequently the integrity of the river habitats.

  18. Patterns in species richness and assemblage structure of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, Steven J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Davis, Mike; Rogala, James T.

    2012-01-01

    1. To evaluate patterns in mussel assemblages in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), data from systematic surveys of mussels conducted in three large reaches (Navigation Pools 5, 6, and 18) from 2005–2007 were analysed. 2. Nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling analyses and permutation tests indicated that assemblages differed among reaches. The mussel assemblage in Pool 18 was substantially different from the assemblage in Pool 5 and moderately different from the assemblage in Pool 6, whereas assemblages in Pools 5 and 6 were similar. Assemblages in broadly defined, flowing aquatic habitats did not substantially differ. 3. The dissimilarity of Pool 18 was primarily the result of Pool 18 having higher abundances of three Quadrula species (Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and Q. nodulata), and lower abundances of Amblema plicata and Fusconaia flava. 4. Rarefaction analyses showed that species richness and species density were higher in Pool 18 compared with the other two pools. 5. Large-scale patterns in mussel assemblages may be related to other longitudinal trends in the system including geomorphology, water quality, and abundances of fish species that serve as hosts for glochidial larvae. 6. The results suggest that management goals and actions in the UMR may need to account for important differences in mussel assemblages that occur among reaches.

  19. Commercially important species associated with horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) biogenic reefs: A priority habitat for nature conservation and fisheries benefits.

    PubMed

    Kent, Flora E A; Mair, James M; Newton, Jason; Lindenbaum, Charles; Porter, Joanne S; Sanderson, William G

    2017-02-17

    Horse mussel reefs (Modiolus modiolus) are biodiversity hotspots afforded protection by Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the NE Atlantic. In this study, horse mussel reefs, cobble habitats and sandy habitats were assessed using underwater visual census and drop-down video techniques in three UK regions. Megafauna were enumerated, differences in community composition and individual species abundances were analysed. Samples of conspicuous megafauna were also collected from horse mussel reefs in Orkney for stable isotope analysis. Communities of conspicuous megafauna were different between horse mussel habitats and other habitats throughout their range. Three commercially important species: whelks (Buccinum undatum), queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) and spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) were significantly more abundant (by as much as 20 times) on horse mussel reefs than elsewhere. Isotopic analysis provided insights into their trophic relationship with the horse mussel reef. Protection of M. modiolus habitat can achieve biodiversity conservation objectives whilst benefiting fisheries also.

  20. Byssus attachment strength of two mytilids in mono-specific and mixed-species mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Babarro, Jose M F; Comeau, Luc A

    2014-09-01

    The mussel Xenostrobus securis is endemic to the brackish waters of New Zealand and Australia, but has successfully invaded the inner Galician Rías of NW Spain, where it coexists with the indigenous mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this laboratory study, the plasticity of the byssus attachment strength of two mytilids was compared by manipulating substratum, salinity, and bed assembly. M. galloprovincialis showed stronger byssus detachment strength than X. securis, despite lower byssus coverage. Both species responded similarly to the substratum, with substantially lower byssus strength on methacrylate, which offered the lowest surface free energy. Byssus detachment values for M. galloprovincialis were lower at lower salinity. In mixed beds, a number of mussels moved upwards, eventually colonising the upper layers of the assemblage. This behaviour increased byssus strength but only for X. securis. X. securis is adapted to a wide spectrum of abiotic conditions, a trait that may promote its dissemination within estuarine environments.

  1. Acute toxicity of six freshwater mussel species (Glochidia) to six chemicals: Implications for daphnids and Utterbackia imbecillis as surrogates for protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milam, C.D.; Farris, J.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute (24-h) toxicity tests were used in this study to compare lethality responses in early life stages (glochidia) of six freshwater mussel species, Leptodea fragilis, U. imbecillis, Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Megalonaias nervosa, and Ligumia subrostrata, and two standard test organisms, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna. Concentrations of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, permethrin, and 2,4-D were used in acute exposures to represent different chemical classes and modes of action. The relative sensitivities of species were evaluated by ranking their LC 50 values for each chemical. We used these ranks to determine the extent to which U. imbecillis (one of the most commonly used unionids in toxicity tests) was representative of the tolerances of other mussels. We also calculated geometric mean LC50s for the families Unionidae and Daphnidae. Rankings of these data were used to assess the extent to which Daphnidae can be used as surrogates for freshwater mussels relative to chemical sensitivity. While no single chemical elicited consistently high or low toxicity estimates, carbaryl and 2,4-D were generally the least toxic to all species tested. No species was always the most sensitive, and Daphnidae were generally protective of Unionidae. Utterbackia imbecillis, while often proposed as a standard unionid mussel test species, did not always qualify as a sufficient surrogate (i.e., a substitute organism that often elicits similar sensitivity responses to the same contaminant exposure) for other species of mussels, since it was usually one of the more tolerant species in our rankings. U. imbecillis should be used as a surrogate species only with this caution on its relative insensitivity. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Zebra mussel adhesion: structure of the byssal adhesive apparatus in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Nikrooz; Sone, Eli D

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) owes a large part of its success as an invasive species to its ability to attach to a wide variety of substrates. As in marine mussels, this attachment is achieved by a proteinaceous byssus, a series of threads joined at a stem that connect the mussel to adhesive plaques secreted onto the substrate. Although the zebra mussel byssus is superficially similar to marine mussels, significant structural and compositional differences suggest that further investigation of the adhesion mechanisms in this freshwater species is warranted. Here we present an ultrastructural examination of the zebra mussel byssus, with emphasis on interfaces that are critical to its adhesive function. By examining the attached plaques, we show that adhesion is mediated by a uniform electron dense layer on the underside of the plaque. This layer is only 10-20 nm thick and makes direct and continuous contact with the substrate. The plaque itself is fibrous, and curiously can exhibit either a dense or porous morphology. In zebra mussels, a graded interface between the animal and the substrate mussels is achieved by interdigitation of uniform threads with the stem, in contrast to marine mussels, where the threads themselves are non-uniform. Our observations of several novel aspects of zebra mussel byssal ultrastructure may have important implications not only for preventing biofouling by the zebra mussel, but for the development of new bioadhesives as well.

  3. Acute Toxicity of the Lampricides TFM and Niclosamide to Three Species of Unionid Mussels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Niclosamide to Three Species of Unionid Mussels By Michael A. Boogaard The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless parasitic eel-like fish native to...to control larval sea lampreys in tribu- taries of the Great Lakes since the early 1960s. The lampricide TFM is the main compound used to keep sea... lamprey populations in check while niclosamide is used primarily in combination with TFM as a cost-sav- ing measure. The addition of niclosamide at

  4. A new species of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae), Pleurobema athearni, from the Coosa River Drainage of Alabama, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangloff, M.M.; Williams, J.D.; Feminella, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The Mobile Basin historically supported one of the most diverse freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) assemblages in North America. More than 65 species of mussels are known from the Basin, but it is difficult to determine how many species were present historically. The drainage's unique physical habitat was largely destroyed between the late 1800s and mid-1900s by impoundment and channel modifications of most of the larger rivers. Many species that were once common are now restricted to small headwater rivers and mid-sized tributaries. Recent Coosa River tributary surveys revealed a new, undescribed species of Pleurobema. This new species, Pleurobema athearni, is distinctive in outward appearance, shell morphometry and reproductive morphology, and can be distinguished from other Coosa River drainage unionids. Our analysis indicates that P. athearni is morphologically different from other similar taxa. It differs both in shell width/length and width/height ratios and thus provides a simple, quantitative means to differentiate this species from P. georgianum (Lea, 1841) Fusconaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838), and F. cerina (Conrad, 1838), which it superficially resembles and that also occur in the area. Our morphological diagnosis of this species is supported by recent molecular analyses that suggest this species is a Pleurobema and one closely related to other endemic Coosa River drainage unionids. The discovery of a new species of large, long-lived macroinvertebrate from a relatively well-sampled drainage in a populated region of the southeast United States underscores the need for more detailed surveys in isolated stretches of tributary streams. It should also serve as a reminder that almost 40 species of aquatic mollusks have been extirpated from the Mobile Basin before anything could be learned about their habitat or life history requirements. Copyright ?? 2006 Magnolia Press.

  5. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  6. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1993-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates and handling time of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhhynchus mykiss) eggs. In single prey species tests, crayfish ate zebra mussels at similar rates as they ate rainbow trout eggs. When both prey were present, crayfish preferred rainbow trout eggs. Handling time of mussels was about twice that of rainbow trout eggs, and energetic content of mussels was lower. Therefore, net benefit for foraging on rainbow trout eggs was about three times that of foraging on zebra mussels.

  7. Cytotaxonomy of unionid freshwater mussels (Unionoida, Unionidae) from northeastern Thailand with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Kongim, Bangon; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Panha, Somsak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Morphological and chromosomal characteristics of a number of unionid freshwater mussels were studied from northeastern Thailand. Karyotypes of eight species from seven genera (Chamberlainia, Ensidens, Hyriopsis, Physunio, Pseudodon, Scabies and Trapezoideus) were examined. Six species possess 2n = 38 karyotypes, whereas Scabies crispata and an unidentified Scabies sp. lack three small chromosome pairs, giving a diploid number of 32. Moreover, the karyotypes of the unidentified Scabies differ from Scabies crispata as it exhibits a telocentric chromosome pair (6m + 7sm + 2st + 1t). Most of the conchological characters also differ between the two species – adult size, colour pattern, muscle scars, pseudocardinal and lateral teeth. The name Scabies songkramensis sp. n. is proposed for the unidentified species, and its description is included in this paper. Interestingly, seven species contain mostly bi-armed chromosomes, but only the mud-dweller in stagnant water, Ensidens ingallsianus, contains predominantly five telocentric pairs. In addition, the marker chromosome characteristics of an unbalanced long arm, twisted centromere, a wider angle 180° arrangement, a twisted arm and telomeric end union reported in this study are described for the first time for unionid mussels. PMID:26261434

  8. Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casper, A. F.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

  9. Past climate change drives current genetic structure of an endangered freshwater mussel species.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Lang, Brian K; Berg, David J

    2015-04-01

    Historical-to-recent climate change and anthropogenic disturbance affect species distributions and genetic structure. The Rio Grande watershed of the United States and Mexico encompasses ecosystems that are intensively exploited, resulting in substantial degradation of aquatic habitats. While significant anthropogenic disturbances in the Rio Grande are recent, inhospitable conditions for freshwater organisms likely existed prior to such disturbances. A combination of anthropogenic and past climate factors may contribute to current distributions of aquatic fauna in the Rio Grande basin. We used mitochondrial DNA and 18 microsatellite loci to infer evolutionary history and genetic structure of an endangered freshwater mussel, Popenaias popeii, throughout the Rio Grande drainage. We estimated spatial connectivity and gene flow across extant populations of P. popeii and used ecological niche models (ENMs) and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to infer its evolutionary history during the Pleistocene. structure results recovered regional and local population clusters in the Rio Grande. ENMs predicted drastic reductions in suitable habitat during the last glacial maximum. ABC analyses suggested that regional population structure likely arose in this species during the mid-to-late Pleistocene and was followed by a late Pleistocene population bottleneck in New Mexico populations. The local population structure arose relatively recently, perhaps due to anthropogenic factors. Popenaias popeii, one of the few freshwater mussel species native to the Rio Grande basin, is a case study for understanding how both geological and anthropogenic factors shape current population genetic structure. Conservation strategies for this species should account for the fragmented nature of contemporary populations.

  10. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  11. Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Kelly D.; Jeffrey, Jennifer D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Suski, Cory D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium), exposed to control pCO2 (~1000 µatm) or intermittent conditions of pCO2 (ranging from ~1000 to ~55 000 µatm) 12 times per day over a 28 day period were gathered. There was no indication of recovery in the physiological responses of mussels between applications of CO2, suggesting that the recovery time between CO2 pulses (1.5 h) was not sufficient for recovery from the CO2 exposure period (0.5 h). Observations of acid–base and stress responses were consistent with what has been observed in chronic studies of freshwater mussels exposed to elevated pCO2 (i.e. elevations in HCO3 −, Ca2+, Na+ and glucose, and decreases in Mg2+ and Cl−). However, species differences were observed across almost all variables measured, which emphasizes the need for multispecies studies. PMID:28066552

  12. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

  13. A survey of the indigenous microbiota (bacteria) in three species of mussels from the Clinch and Holston Rivers, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Neves, Richard J.; Hanlon, Shane; Whittington, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Freshwater mussel conservation efforts by many federal and state agencies have increased in recent years. This has led to a greater number of stream surveys, in which mussel die-offs involving high numbers of dead and moribund animals are being observed and reported with greater frequency. Typically, die-offs have been incidentally observed while research was being done for other purposes, therefore, accurate mortality data have been difficult to obtain. Specifically, seasonal die-offs were noted in localized areas of the Clinch and Holston Rivers, Virginia, and to lesser degrees, in neighboring rivers in this geographic region, including southeast Virginia. The observed mussel species affected were primarily the slabside pearlymussel (Lexingtonia dolabelloides) and to lesser extents, the pheasantshell (Actinonaias pectorosa), rainbow mussel (Villosa iris), and the endangered shiny pigtoe (Fusconaia cor). To determine if a bacterial pathogen might be involved in these recurring mussel die-offs, this study examined characteristics of the indigenous microbiota (bacteria) from healthy mussels from sites on the Clinch and Holston Rivers where die-offs were previously observed. These baseline data will allow for recognition of bacterial pathogens in future mussel die-offs. Means for total bacteria from soft tissues ranged from 1.77 × 105 to 3.55 × 106 cfu/g; whereas, the range in means from fluids was 2.92 × 104 to 8.60 × 105 cfu/mL. A diverse microbiota were recovered, including species that are common in freshwater aquatic environments. The most common bacterial groups recovered were motile Aeromonas spp. and nonfermenting bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare, a pathogen to cool- and warm-water fishes was recovered from one specimen, a Villosa iris from the Clinch River.

  14. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) California Sea Mussel and Bay Mussel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    small diatoms, depth, food, salinity, and current). zoospores, minute ova and spermatozoa , Of these, water temperature was the flagellates and other...motor boat Jolla were "hot spots" for silver, activity posed little threat (Carr and copper, lead, and zinc . Silver was Reish 1978). especially high... zinc . Zn. Levels in M. edulis from The amount of trace metals in mussels, California (Table 3) agreed with those depending on site, were in many of the

  15. Bioaccumulation of metals in three freshwater mussel species exposed in situ during and after dredging at a coal ash spill site (Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant).

    PubMed

    Otter, Ryan R; McKinney, David; Brown, Bobby; Lainer, Susan; Monroe, William; Hubbs, Don; Read, Bob

    2015-06-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing coal fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant (TN, USA) failed, and within months, dredging operations began to remove ash-contaminated sediments. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the bioaccumulation of metals in three mussel species during and after dredging operations. Mussels were caged for approximately 1 year during dredging and after, and then mussel condition index values and As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Se, Hg, U, Fe, Mg, Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ag, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn concentrations in soft tissue were determined via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometery. Overall, the differences observed in metal bioaccumulation and mussel health suggest that mussels in the immediate downstream area of the dredging site may have been impacted, as evidenced by a significant decrease in mussel condition index values, but that this impact did not result in increased tissue concentrations of metals.

  16. An Examination of Body Temperature for the Rocky Intertidal Mussel species, Mytilus californianus, Using Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Liff, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature is considered to be one of the most important physical factors in determining organismal distribution and physiological performance of species in rocky intertidal ecosystems, especially the growth and survival of mussels. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of temperature in intertidal ecosystems or how those patterns affect intertidal mussel species because of limitations in data collection. We collected in situ temperature at Strawberry Hill, Oregon USA using mussel loggers embedded among the intertidal mussel species, Mytilus californianus. Remotely sensed surface temperatures were used in conjunction with in situ weather and ocean data to determine if remotely sensed surface temperatures can be used as a predictor for changes in the body temperature of a rocky intertidal mussel species. The data used in this study was collected between January 2003 and December 2010. The mussel logger temperatures were compared to in situ weather data collected from a local weather station, ocean data collected from a NOAA buoy, and remotely sensed surface temperatures collected from NASA's sun-synchronous Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard the Earth Observing System Aqua and EOS Terra satellites. Daily surface temperatures were collected from four pixel locations which included two sea surface temperature (SST) locations and two land surface temperature (LST) locations. One of the land pixels was chosen to represent the intertidal surface temperature (IST) because it was located within the intertidal zone. As expected, all surface temperatures collected via satellite were significantly correlated to each other and the associated in situ temperatures. Examination of temperatures from the off-shore NOAA buoy and the weather station provide evidence that remotely sensed temperatures were similar to in situ temperature data and explain more variability in mussel logger temperatures than the in situ temperatures. Our

  17. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  18. Are Mussels Always the Best Bioindicators? Comparative Study on Biochemical Responses of Three Marine Invertebrate Species to Chronic Port Pollution.

    PubMed

    Laitano, María V; Fernández-Gimenez, Analía V

    2016-07-01

    Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels' immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North and Mid-Atlantic): Blue mussel

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.I.E.

    1989-06-01

    The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. is a widely distributed and locally abundant bivalve mollusc in the North and Mid-Atlantic Regions. It is a valuable commercial species; regional landings in 1986 were worth nearly $4 million. It is a semi-sessile species, anchored by byssus threads to firm surfaces in littoral and sub-littoral environments at salinities ranging from 5 to 35 ppt. It is a suspension feeder, ingesting phytoplankton and detrital particles in the size range of 3--30 /mu/m. The geographical range of the species is limited by lethal water temperatures above 27/degree/C in the south and by temperatures too low for growth and reproduction in the north. Animals from the northern end of the range are stressed by temperatures above 20/degree/C, whereas those near the southern distributional limit are not severely stressed by temperatures as high as 25/degree/C. The blue mussel is diecious and oviparous. The planktotrophic larvae take about 3 weeks to develop and metamorphose. The environmental tolerances of larvae are more restricted than those of adults. The juveniles grow to approximately 1.5 mm while attached to filamentous algae before being carried by water currents to reattach to a firm substrate, often close to adult mussels. Larval and adult blue mussels are important prey items for many animals, including crabs, fishes, and birds. 95 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Invasive zebra mussels (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is of great concern to natural resource managers in the United States. To effectively control the spread of these species, managers must be aware of the multitude of dispersal methods used by the organisms. We investigated the potential for survival through the gut of a migrating fish (blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus) as a dispersal mechanism for two invasive bivalves: zebra mussel (Driessena polymorpha) and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea). Blue catfish (N = 62) were sampled over several months from Sooner Lake, Oklahoma, transported to a laboratory and held in individual tanks for 48 h. All fecal material was collected and inspected for live mussels. Survival was significantly related to water temperature in the lake at the time of collection, with no mussels surviving above 21.1 C°, whereas 12 % of zebra mussels (N = 939) and 39 % of Asian clams (N = 408) consumed in cooler water survived gut passage. This research demonstrates the potential for blue catfish to serve as a dispersal vector for invasive bivalves at low water temperatures.

  1. Establishing mussel behavior as a biomarker in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jason T; Beggel, Sebastian; Auerswald, Karl; Stoeckle, Bernhard C; Geist, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Most freshwater mussel species of the Unionoida are endangered, presenting a conservation issue as they are keystone species providing essential services for aquatic ecosystems. As filter feeders with limited mobility, mussels are highly susceptible to water pollution. Despite their exposure risk, mussels are underrepresented in standard ecotoxicological methods. This study aimed to demonstrate that mussel behavioral response to a chemical stressor is a suitable biomarker for the advancement of ecotoxicology methods that aids mussel conservation. Modern software and Hall sensor technology enabled mussel filtration behavior to be monitored real-time at very high resolution. With this technology, we present our method using Anodonta anatina and record their response to de-icing salt pollution. The experiment involved an environmentally relevant 'pulse-exposure' design simulating three subsequent inflow events. Three sublethal endpoints were investigated, Filtration Activity, Transition Frequency (number of changes from opened to closed, or vice versa) and Avoidance Behavior. The mussels presented a high variation in filtration behavior, behaving asynchronously. At environmentally relevant de-icing salt exposure scenarios, A. anatina behavior patterns were significantly affected. Treated mussels' Filtration Activity decreased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), however, increased during short de-icing salt exposure. Treated mussels' Transition Frequency increased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), which mirrored the Avoidance Behavior endpoint observed only by mussels under chemical stress. Characteristics of Avoidance Behavior were tighter shell closures with repeated and irregular shell movements which was significantly different to their undisturbed resting behavior (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that mussels were sensitive to a chemical stressor even when the mussel's valves were closed. Due

  2. Assessment of the Species Composition, Densities, and Distribution of Native Freshwater Mussels along the Benton County Shoreline of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Turner, Gerald; Welch, Ian D.

    2011-01-31

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is the last unimpounded section of the river and contains substrate characteristics (cobble, gravel, sand/silt) suitable for many of the native freshwater mussels known to exist in the Pacific Northwest. Information concerning the native mussel species composition, densities, and distributions in the mainstem of the Columbia River is limited. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an assessment of the near-shore habitat on the Hanford Reach. Surveys conducted in 2004 as part of the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance project documented several species of native mussels inhabiting the near-shore habitat of the Hanford Reach. Findings reported here may be useful to resource biologists, ecologists, and DOE-RL to determine possible negative impacts to native mussels from ongoing near-shore remediation activities associated with Hanford Site cleanup. The objective of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the species composition, densities, and distribution of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae and Unionidae families) that exist in the Hanford Reach. Researchers observed and measured 201 live native mussel specimens. Mussel density estimated from these surveys is summarized in this report with respect to near-shore habitat characteristics including substrate size, substrate embeddedness, relative abundance of aquatic vegetation, and large-scale geomorphic/hydrologic characteristics of the Hanford Reach.

  3. Biochemical composition of three algal species proposed as food for captive freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gatenby, C.M.; Orcutt, D.M.; Kreeger, D.A.; Parker, B.C.; Jones, V.A.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    To identify potential diets for rearing captive freshwater mussels, the protein, carbohydrate (CHO), and lipid contents of two green algae, Neochloris oleoabundans, Bracteacoccus grandis, and one diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were compared at different growth stages. The fatty acid and sterol composition were also identified. Protein was greatest (55-70%) for all species at late log growth stage (LL), and declined in late stationary (LS) growth. CHO was greatest at LS stage for all species (33.9-56.4% dry wt). No significant change in lipid levels occurred with growth stage, but tended to increase in N. oleoabundans. Mean lipid content differed significantly in the order: N. oleoabundans > P. tricornutum > B. grandis. Total fatty acids (TFA) were higher at LS stage compared to other stages in the two green algae, and stationary stage in the diatom. Mean unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) as %TFA was significantly higher in N. oleoabundans than the other species. The green algae contained high percentages of C-18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while the diatom was abundant in C-16 saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids and C-20 PUFA fatty acids. Growth stage had no effect on sterol concentration of any species. B. grandis showed significantly higher sterol levels than the other species except P. tricornutum at S stage. B. grandis was characterized by predominantly ??5, C-29 sterols, while N. oleoabundans synthesized ??5,7, ??5,7,22, and ??7, C-28 sterols. P. tricornutum produced primarily a ??5,22, C-28 sterol, and a small amount of a ??7,22, C-28 sterol.

  4. Cytogenetic characterization of the invasive mussel species Xenostrobus securis Lmk. (Bivalvia: Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Concepción; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomes of the invasive black-pigmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis (Lmk. 1819)) were analyzed by means of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) / propidium iodide (PI) and chromomycin A3 (CMA) / DAPI fluorescence staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization using major rDNA, 5S rDNA, core histone genes, linker histone genes, and telomeric sequences as probes. The diploid chromosome number in this species is 2n = 30. The karyotype is composed of seven metacentric, one meta/submetacentric, and seven submetacentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear at both ends of every single chromosome. Major rDNA clusters appear near the centromeres on chromosome pairs 1 and 3 and are associated with bright CMA fluorescence and dull DAPI fluorescence. This species shows five 5S rDNA clusters close to the centromeres on four chromosome pairs (2, 5, 6, and 8). Three of the four core histone gene clusters map to centromeric positions on chromosome pairs 7, 10, and 13. The fourth core histone gene cluster occupies a terminal position on chromosome pair 8, also bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. The two linker histone gene clusters are close to the centromeres on chromosome pairs 12 and 14. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of 11 of the 15 chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of X. securis.

  5. Comparison of PCB and trace metal bioaccumulation in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Cobb, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in deployed organisms also was compared with indigenous ribbed mussels. Significant mortality occurred in blue mussels after 28 d, when water temperatures exceeded 25 C. Therefore, tissue-residue comparisons between species are presented only up to day 28, while those between deployed and indigenous ribbed mussels continue to day 56. Results indicated that total PCB tissue residues and congener distributions were not statistically different in the two mussel species on day 28. Total PCB concentrations in both deployed mussel species reached approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight by day 28. Additionally, total PCB concentrations and congener distributions in the deployed ribbed mussels were not statistically different from the indigenous ribbed mussels on day 28, demonstrating that steady state was attained within 28 d. With respect to metal uptake, no single accumulation pattern occurred for the eight metals quantified. After 28 d, lead, cadmium, and iron concentrations in deployed blue and ribbed mussels were statistically similar. However, nickel and zinc accumulations were significantly greater in the blue mussels, and copper, chromium, and manganese were accumulated to significantly higher concentrations in the ribbed mussels. The comparison between the ribbed mussels indicated that cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher in indigenous than in deployed mussels after 28 d.

  6. Comparative cryopreservation study of trochophore larvae from two species of bivalves: Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and Blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Paredes, E; Bellas, J; Adams, S L

    2013-12-01

    Oysters and mussels are among the most farmed species in aquaculture industry around the world. The aim of this study was to test the toxicity of cryoprotective agents to trochophore larvae from two different species of bivalves and develop an improved cryopreservation protocol to ensure greater efficiency in the development of cryopreserved trochophores (14 h old oyster larvae and 20 h old mussel larvae) to normal D-larvae for future developments of hatchery spat production. The cryopreservation protocol producing the best results for oyster trochophores (60.0 ± 6.7% normal D-larvae) was obtained by holding at 0 °C for 5 min then cooling at 1 °C min(-1) to -10 °C and holding for 5 min before cooling at 0.5 °C to -35 °C, holding 5 min and then plunging into liquid nitrogen (LN), using 10% ethylene glycol. For mussel experiments, no significant differences were found when cooling at 0.5 °C min(-1) or at 1 °C min(-1) for CPA combinations with 10% ethylene glycol and at 0.5 °C min(-1). Using these combinations, around half of trochophores were able to develop to normal D-larvae post-thawing (48.9 ± 7.6% normal D-larvae).

  7. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raimondo, Sandy; Lilavois, Crystal R.; Lee, Larisa; Augspurger, Tom; Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.; Barron, Mace G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitivity among commonly tested mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea, Utterbackia imbecillis, Villosa iris), commonly tested cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Pimephales promelas, Lepomis macrochirus). The results of these analyses indicate intra-laboratory variability for median effect concentrations (EC50) averaged about 2 fold for both life stages, while inter-laboratory variability averaged 3.6 fold for juvenile mussels and 6.3 fold for glochidia. The EC50s for juveniles and glochidia were within a factor of 2 of each other for 50% of paired records across chemicals, with juveniles more sensitive than glochidia by more than 2 fold for 33% of the comparisons made between life stages. There was a high concurrence of the sensitivity of commonly tested L. siliquoidea, U. imbecillis, and V. iris to that of other mussels. However, this concurrence decreases as the taxonomic distance of the commonly tested cladocerans and fish to mussels increases. The compiled mussel database and determination of data variability will advance risk assessments by including more robust species sensitivity distributions, interspecies correlation estimates, and availability of taxon-specific empirically derived application factors for risk assessment.

  8. Prodigious polyphyly in imperilled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydeard, Charles; Minton, Russell L.; Williams, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Unionid bivalves or freshwater pearly-mussels (Unionoidea: Unionidae) serve as an exemplary system for examining many of the problems facing systematists and conservation biologists today. Most of the species and genera were described in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but few phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test conventional views of species and classification. Pearly-mussels of Gulf Coastal drainages of the southeastern United States from the Escambia (southern Alabama to Florida) to the Suwannee Rivers (Florida) are a unique fauna comprised of approximately 100 species, with about 30 endemic to the region. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to test the monophyly and to estimate evolutionary relationships of five unionid species representing three different genera. The molecular phylogenies depict all three genera as polyphyletic. The prodigious polyphyly exhibited within unionids is due to incorrect notions of homology and false assumptions about missing anatomical data. In contrast, the molecular phylogeny provides evidence to support the recognition of all five unionid species as distinct evolutionary entities. Furthermore, molecular genealogical evidence supports the elevation of Quincuncina infucata (Conrad) of the Suwannee River to species level, for which Q. kleiniana (Lea) is available.

  9. Competitive Replacement of Invasive Congeners May Relax Impact on Native Species: Interactions among Zebra, Quagga, and Native Unionid Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade. PMID:25490103

  10. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: Interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Tulumello, Brianne L.; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Griffith, Traci A.; Scott, Mariah W.; Crail, Todd D.; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011–2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  11. Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels.

    PubMed

    Burlakova, Lyubov E; Tulumello, Brianne L; Karatayev, Alexander Y; Krebs, Robert A; Schloesser, Donald W; Paterson, Wendy L; Griffith, Traci A; Scott, Mariah W; Crail, Todd; Zanatta, David T

    2014-01-01

    Determining when and where the ecological impacts of invasive species will be most detrimental and whether the effects of multiple invaders will be superadditive, or subadditive, is critical for developing global management priorities to protect native species in advance of future invasions. Over the past century, the decline of freshwater bivalves of the family Unionidae has been greatly accelerated by the invasion of Dreissena. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current infestation rates of unionids by zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis) mussels in the lower Great Lakes region 25 years after they nearly extirpated native unionids. In 2011-2012, we collected infestation data for over 4000 unionids from 26 species at 198 nearshore sites in lakes Erie, Ontario, and St. Clair, the Detroit River, and inland Michigan lakes and compared those results to studies from the early 1990 s. We found that the frequency of unionid infestation by Dreissena recently declined, and the number of dreissenids attached to unionids in the lower Great Lakes has fallen almost ten-fold since the early 1990s. We also found that the rate of infestation depends on the dominant Dreissena species in the lake: zebra mussels infested unionids much more often and in greater numbers. Consequently, the proportion of infested unionids, as well as the number and weight of attached dreissenids were lower in waterbodies dominated by quagga mussels. This is the first large-scale systematic study that revealed how minor differences between two taxonomically and functionally related invaders may have large consequences for native communities they invade.

  12. Linking environmental heavy metal concentrations and salinity gradients with metal accumulation and their effects: A case study in 3 mussel species of Vitória estuary and Espírito Santo bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rodrigues, Paulo Pinheiro; Mubiana, Valentine K; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to link the heavy metal load in three species of mussels (Perna perna, Mytella falcata and Mytella guyanensis) from the estuaries and bays around Vitória island, south-east of Brazil, with the salinity gradient and the heavy metal levels in the abiotic environment (including water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment). Primarily based on the salinity gradient, a total of 26 sites around Vitória Island were selected for sampling of water, SPM, sediments and organisms. Besides tissue metal levels, the condition index and energy stores (glycogen, lipid and protein) were quantified as an indicator of fitness in response to metal pollution. Dissolved metals in water indicate that Cd and Mn content was higher along Espírito Santo Bay, while Al, Co, Cu, Cr and Fe were elevated in the sites with low salinity such as river mouths, estuarine and sewage canals. Likewise, suspended matter sampled from low salinity sites showed a higher heavy metal load compared to moderate and high salinity sites. Though mussels were sampled from different sites, the contamination for Cd, Cu, Fe and Mn was higher in mussels inhabiting low salinity sites (M. guyanensis and M. falcata) compared to P. perna, a high saline water inhabitant. However, a higher Zn body burden was observed for P. perna compared to Mytella species. Tissue Fe accumulation (but not Mn and Zn) correlated with heavy metal levels in suspended material for all three species, and for M. falcata this correlation also existed for Cd and Cu. Energy store and condition index in all mussels varied depending on the sampling sites and correlated with salinity gradient rather than tissue metal concentration. Overall, metal concentration in mussels did not exceed the safe levels as per the international standards for metals, and would be of no risk for human consumption.

  13. Assessment of freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pennsylvania, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    The upper reaches of the Allegheny River are a high-quality resource that supports populations of a number of endangered species. Two endangered species of freshwater mussel, the northern riffleshell, Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, and clubshell, Pleurobema clava, are present in this river reach. Prior to a bridge-replacement project at the Allegheny River at Foxburg, Pa. (river mile 86.2), a mussel survey was conducted to determine if either of the protected endangered species are present and to assess the quality of the mussel bed at this site. Shore and near-shore searches followed by SCUBA diving transects determined that a mussel bed is present at this location. The freshwater-mussel community consists of at least 14 species and includes both endangered species. Substrate type, stream velocity, and channel morphology combined with results from the transect searches documented that the mussel bed is largely limited to the east side of the river. A two-stage sampling design was employed to estimate the overall mussel abundance within the bed. Twelve 4-m2 (square meter) cells were sampled with four 0.25-m2 quadrants per cell. The mean population density within the mussel bed is 8.4 mussel per square meter. The overall mussel population in the survey area is 225,567 individuals (95-percent confidence interval, 135,973 to 374,195). River-bed scour and acid mine drainage appear to limit mussel distribution in the center and left section of the channel. Overall, a healthy and diverse mussel bed exists at this site.

  14. Species Distribution and Population Connectivity of Deep-Sea Mussels at Hydrocarbon Seeps in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Baptiste; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:25859657

  15. Species distribution and population connectivity of deep-sea mussels at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Faure, Baptiste; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Fisher, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 1: mussel distribution surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks in the Tennessee Valley is one of nine research activities developed as part of TVA's Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP). The name Cumberlandian refers to an endemic faunal assemblage that encompasses portions of 7 states bordering the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau Region. This geographic region is known as one of the major centers for mussel speciation and is considered the most prolific areas of the world for this particular group of organisms. Nine Tennessee Valley streams were selected for intensive qualitative and quantitative mussel surveys under Activity I of the CMCP. The surveys were designed to gather information on the present distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks. The streams chosen for surveys were based on the documented presence of diverse mussel fauna, endangered mussels, and/or sufficient information (diverse fish fauna, good water quality, etc.) to suggest potential for occurrence of diverse mussel fauna or endangered species.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Mussels from a South American Estuary.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Ana L; Arias, Andrés H; Quintas, Pamela Y; Buzzi, Natalia S; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2017-03-18

    Bivalves, especially mussels, have been pointed as putative species to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environment. After several environmental PAHs baseline reports, the present study was conducted to assess for the first time the levels of PAHs in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) collected from a critical industrialized estuary of Argentina. Under this objective, after an 18-month sampling period, 34 pools of mussels were assessed for 17 PAHs, including the 16 compounds prioritized by United States Environmental Protection Agency. By means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, results showed total PAHs concentrations in mussel's tissue ranged from under laboratory detection limits to 482.4 ng/g dry weight. Mussel body burdens were dominated by lower molecular weight PAHs, such as phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene, whereas the overall PAHs profile suggested the predominance of petrogenic sources. Finally, the potential ecotoxicological impact was evaluated by applying Environmental Assessment Criteria and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent factors.

  18. Discrimination of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) feces in deposited materials by fecal morphology.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro B; Iseri, Erina; Kataoka, Tomoya; Tanaka, Makiko; Katsukoshi, Kiyonori; Moki, Hirotada; Naito, Ryoji; Hem, Ramrav; Okada, Tomonari

    2017-02-15

    In the present study, we determined the common morphological characteristics of the feces of Mytilus galloprovincialis to develop a method for visually discriminating the feces of this mussel in deposited materials. This method can be used to assess the effect of mussel feces on benthic environments. The accuracy of visual morphology-based discrimination of mussel feces in deposited materials was confirmed by DNA analysis. Eighty-nine percent of mussel feces shared five common morphological characteristics. Of the 372 animal species investigated, only four species shared all five of these characteristics. More than 96% of the samples were visually identified as M. galloprovincialis feces on the basis of morphology of the particles containing the appropriate mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that mussel feces can be discriminated with high accuracy on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Thus, our method can be used to quantitatively assess the effect of mussel feces on local benthic environments.

  19. Comparison of organic contaminant accumulation by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and the caged mussel species Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofelt, C.; Shea, D.

    1995-12-31

    The accumulation of anthropogenic contaminants by sentinel species such as the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is common in many monitoring programs such as the National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program. Bivalves are used because they are filter-feeding organisms with a high lipid content and therefore accumulate pollutants readily, and they do not appear to metabolize contaminants to a large extent. There are difficulties associated with this approach however, such as mortality, changing lipid mass and respiration rates, and interspecies differences; therefore the use of a non-living substrate may be more practical. The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) consists of a length of thin-walled polyethylene tubing with a film of high molecular weight neutral lipid (triolein) sealed inside. The SPMD, when suspended in the water column, will concentrate lipophilic organic contaminants from the surrounding environment. The authors deployed SPMDs and caged Mytilus edulis side-by-side at five sites near New Bedford Harbor, MA; an area highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A good correlation was observed between the SPMDs and the caged blue mussels, with R{sup 2} ranging from 0.57 to 0.85 (N = 16) for chlorinated pesticides and from 0.81 to 0.96 (N = 20) for PCBs. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) based on water column concentrations were also calculated and a good correlation was obtained between the SPMD BCFs and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. Unlike previous investigations, the authors found good agreement even with the highest chlorinated PCBs suggesting that there was no steric hindrance of uptake through the SPMD membrane.

  20. Freshwater mussels of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, James D.; Butler, Robert S.; Warren, Gary L.; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive guide to all aspects of the freshwater mussel fauna in Florida,Freshwater Mussels of Florida covers the ecology, biology, distribution, and conservation of the many species of bivalve mollusks in the Sunshine State. In the past three decades, researchers, the public, businesses that depend on wildlife, and policy makers have given more attention to the threatened natural diversity of the Southeast, including freshwater mussels. This compendium meets the increasingly urgent need to catalog this imperiled group of aquatic organisms in the United States.

  1. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (<10 mm long) that could rapidly grow and cover unionids. At present, we do not know how zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  2. Trace metals assessment in water, sediment, mussel and seagrass species--validation of the use of Posidonia oceanica as a metal biomonitor.

    PubMed

    Lafabrie, C; Pergent, G; Kantin, R; Pergent-Martini, C; Gonzalez, J-L

    2007-08-01

    The accumulation of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) was measured in water, sediment, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Samples were collected in three locations of the north-western Mediterranean (Canari, Livorno and Porto-Torres) which present different levels and sources of human impact. Analyses in the different compartments (water, sediment, M. galloprovincialis and P. oceanica) have allowed to identify Canari as the most Cd, Co, Cr and Ni contaminated site; Livorno as the most Hg contaminated and Porto-Torres as the most Pb contaminated. Furthermore, for the first time, metal concentrations found in P. oceanica have been compared with those found in the water column, in the sediment and in the recognized metal bio-indicator species M. galloprovincialis and the results obtained have led to the same conclusions. Thus, this study allows to validate the use of P. oceanica as metal biomonitor of coastal waters.

  3. Of Mussels and Men.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species. Understanding the "rules" that govern the numbers and diversity of species in an ecosystem is essential to efficient and sustainable management. But those same rules apply to us. Free of predation, humans are swarming over the planet, choking out other species. We are the planetary mussels. What next? A "mussel-bound" world, or perhaps renewed microbial predation?

  4. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  5. Faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in and around Alsancak Harbour (Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean) with special emphasis on alien species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çinar, Melih Ertan; Katağan, Tuncer; Koçak, Ferah; Öztürk, Bilal; Ergen, Zeki; Kocatas, Ahmet; Önen, Mesut; Kirkim, Fevzi; Bakir, Kerem; Kurt, Güley; Dağli, Ertan; Açik, Sermin; Doğan, Alper; Özcan, Tahir

    The faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were examined seasonally at four stations located in and around Alsancak Harbour between January and September 2004. A total of 155 species belonging to 14 systematic groups were found in the assemblages, of which Polychaeta had the highest number of species and individuals. The assemblages were mainly composed of species tolerant to pollution. The number of individuals (maximum 209,000 ind m - 2 ) and biomass (maximum 24,563 g m - 2 ) of the assemblage were generally higher at the stations located in the harbours, whereas the station not located in the harbours had the highest number of species and diversity index values (maximum 4.19). The mussel faunal assemblages differed mainly according to seasons and locations (ANOSIM test), but seasonal samples collected at each station constituted separate groups in the MDS plot, which are moderately correlated with a combination of environmental variables such as temperature, the concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus ( ρr = 0.46, BIOENV test). The environmental conditions at each station, the structure of substratum to which the mussel was attached and the biotic interactions among the associated faunal components seemed to be main factors influencing the faunal assemblages of the mussel in the area. The combined effect of season and location significantly changed the community parameters such as the number of species and individuals, and the values of diversity, evenness and biomass (two-way ANOVA test). The factors significantly influencing these community parameters were the algae biomass on mussels, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen concentrations. The density of the mussel was negatively correlated with the diversity and evenness values of samples. The mussel community included ten alien species: Pseudonereis anomala, Polydora cornuta, Streblospio gynobranchiata, Hydroides dianthus, Hydroides elegans, Maera hamigera, Stenothoe

  6. Status of fresh water mussel research in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In addition to the previously described mussel research projects in Virginia, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has undertaken a wide-ranging Cumberlandian Mollusc Conservation Program to (a) accumulate information on the present distribution, life histories, and ecological requirements of the Cumberlandian mussel fauna and (b) conserve or increase populations of these species in the Tennessee River drainage. This TVA program has contributed greatly toward a better understanding of species status, water quality problems, and research needs for this unique faunal group. The attention currently being given to fresh water mussels in the upper Tennessee River system is unprecedented, and participating State and Federal agencies are to be commended for supporting conservation activities far beyond what is legally required. The success of a mollusk conservation effort will depend on public awareness, not of mussels in and for themselves but as indicators of riverine degradation and its effect on environmental health and recreational opportunities for man.

  7. From Space to the Rocky Intertidal: Measuring the Body Temperature of the Intertidal Mussel Species, Mytilus californianus using NASA MODIS Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, is an ecologically important species in the rocky intertidal ecosystems of the U.S. Pacific coast. During low tides, times of emersion, Mytilus californianus is exposed to aerial conditions and its body temperature can vary drastically depending on the amount of solar radiation they experience. Thermal stress from high temperatures during emersion sometimes can lead to mortality of individuals. Conversely, during high tides, times of submersion, body temperatures depend on the temperature of the water that surrounds them. This study used remotely sensed surface temperature observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra to predict the body temperatures of Mytilus californianus. Mussel body temperatures were provided by the Partnership for Interdisciplinary Studies of Coastal Oceans (PISCO) and de-tided. This technique divided the mussel body temperatures into times of emersion and times of submersion. During times of emersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed land surface temperatures (LST) and in-situ air temperatures. During times of submersion, mussel body temperatures were compared to remotely sensed sea surface temperatures (SST) and in-situ water temperatures. To identify spatial variation in temperatures, eight different study sites ranging in latitude along the coast of Oregon were analyzed. Additionally, to better understand the temporal variation in temperatures, fourteen years (2000-2013) were analyzed for each study site. Sea surface temperature collected during the Aqua overpass and Terra overpass were strongly correlated with mussel body temperatures but varied by study site. Our results show that remotely sensed temperature could predict average daily mussel temperature within 1°C on average during times of submersion. Being able to use remotely sensed surface temperatures to predict the body

  8. Generic reclassification and species boundaries in the rediscovered freshwater mussel ‘Quadrula’ mitchelli (Simpson in Dall, 1896)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeiffer, John M.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Randklev, Charles R.; Howells, Robert G.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The Central Texas endemic freshwater mussel, Quadrula mitchelli (Simpson in Dall, 1896), had been presumed extinct until relict populations were recently rediscovered. To help guide ongoing and future conservation efforts focused on Q. mitchelli we set out to resolve several uncertainties regarding its evolutionary history, specifically its unknown generic position and untested species boundaries. We designed a molecular matrix consisting of two loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and internal transcribed spacer I) and 57 terminal taxa to test the generic position of Q. mitchelli using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction. We also employed two Bayesian species validation methods to test five a priori species models (i.e. hypotheses of species delimitation). Our study is the first to test the generic position of Q.mitchelli and we found robust support for its inclusion in the genusFusconaia. Accordingly, we introduce the binomial, Fusconaia mitchelli comb. nov., to accurately represent the systematic position of the species. We resolved F. mitchelli individuals in two well supported and divergent clades that were generally distinguished as distinct species using Bayesian species validation methods, although alternative hypotheses of species delineation were also supported. Despite strong evidence of genetic isolation within F. mitchelli, we do not advocate for species-level status of the two clades as they are allopatrically distributed and no morphological, behavioral, or ecological characters are known to distinguish them. These results are discussed in the context of the systematics, distribution, and conservation ofF. mitchelli.

  9. Influence of species and sex on metal residues in freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) from the St. Lawrence River, with implications for biomonitoring programs

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe-Smith, J.L. . Rivers Research Branch)

    1994-09-01

    The implementation of freshwater mussel watch programs has been hindered by a lack of information on biological factors affecting the levels of contaminants accumulated by these organisms. This study investigated the influence of species and sex on metal residues in Elliptio complanata and Lampsilis radiata radiata (Family Unionidae) from the St. Lawrence River. Mussels were collected from sites representing a wide range of types and degrees of metal pollution. Composite samples of five specimens (males and females combined) per species per site and five specimens per sex per species per site were analyzed for residues of 12 metals in the soft tissues to determine the effects of species and sex, respectively, on variability in the data. Interspecific differences in bioaccumulation were observed for most metals; however, concentrations were frequently correlated between species and the differences could therefore be quantified. Elliptio complanata demonstrated a broader response range to the same exposures than Lampsilis radiata radiata for most metals, suggesting that it may be more sensitive to changes in pollution status. Differences in metal uptake between the sexes were less pronounced than differences between species, and male specimens displayed less variability than females. Consideration of these factors in mussel biomonitoring programs should greatly improve sensitivity and precision.

  10. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety.

  11. [Effect of excretion-secretion products of some fouling species on the biochemical parameters of blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the White Sea].

    PubMed

    Skidchenko, V S; Vysotskaia, R U; Krupnova, M Iu; Khalaman, V V

    2011-01-01

    The effect of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of five abundant fouling invertebrate species (bivalve mollusks Hiatella arctica and Mytilus edulis, solitary ascidia Styela rustica, sponge Halichondria panicea, and sea starAsterias rubens, inhabiting the White Sea) on the biochemical status of blue mussel M. edulis was assessed by the dynamics of lysosomal enzymes activity (nucleases, glycoside hydrolases, and cathepsins). ESP of conspecific species had no effect on the metabolism of the mollusks of this species. ESP of A. rubens, S. rustica, and H. panicea activated the same enzymes. First, acid RNase and glycoside hydrolases activity increased, but in different ways. The metabolites of H. arctica affected the activity of proteometabolism enzymes.

  12. A tale of two rivers: implications of water management practices for mussel biodiversity outcomes during droughts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Galbraith, Heather S; Vaughn, Caryn C; Spooner, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Droughts often pose situations where stream water levels are lowest while human demand for water is highest. Here we present results of an observational study documenting changes in freshwater mussel communities in two southern US rivers during a multi-year drought. During a 13-year period water releases into the Kiamichi River from an impoundment were halted during droughts, while minimum releases from an impoundment were maintained in the Little River. The Kiamichi observed nearly twice as many low-flow events known to cause mussel mortality than the Little, and regression tree analyses suggest that this difference was influenced by reduced releases. During this period mussel communities in the Kiamichi declined in species richness and abundance, changes that were not observed in the Little. These results suggest that reduced releases during droughts likely led to mussel declines in one river, while maintaining reservoir releases may have sustained mussel populations in another.

  13. Polonium-210 in marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) inhabiting the southern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2014-12-01

    The present study focused on the determination of the alpha-emitter, (210)Po, in two species of marine mussels (bivalve molluscs) commonly available in the southern coastal region of India. The brown mussel, Perna indica was collected from the west coast and the green mussel, Perna viridis from the east coast. The concentration of (210)Po was related to the allometry (length of shell, wet/dry weight of shell/soft tissue) of the mussels and significant results were found. The study period focused on three seasons namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon for a 1-year period (2010-2011). The results revealed higher activity levels in smaller-sized mussels compared to larger ones. Marked variation in (210)Po activity concentration was noted in the whole-body soft tissues between seasons and sampling site (p < 0.05). The dose rate assessment for mussels was performed using the ERICA Assessment tool. The chronic exposure to mussels due to (210)Po was found to be lesser than the global benchmark dose rate of 10 μGy h(-1). The effective ingestion dose to adults who intake mussels was estimated to be in the range 5.1-34.9 μSv y(-1). The measurement contributes to the furthering of knowledge of (210)Po, since no data exist in this region.

  14. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. Transcriptomic Profiling of Differential Responses to Drought in Two Freshwater Mussel Species, the Giant Floater Pyganodon grandis and the Pondhorn Uniomerus tetralasmus

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Andrew Gascho; Wang, Guiling; Stoeckel, James; Peatman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The southeastern US has experienced recurrent drought during recent decades. Increasing demand for water, as precipitation decreases, exacerbates stress on the aquatic biota of the Southeast: a global hotspot for freshwater mussel, crayfish, and fish diversity. Freshwater unionid mussels are ideal candidates to study linkages between ecophysiological and behavioral responses to drought. Previous work on co-occurring mussel species suggests a coupling of physiology and behavior along a gradient ranging from intolerant species such as Pyganodon grandis (giant floater) that track receding waters and rarely burrow in the substrates to tolerant species such as Uniomerus tetralasmus (pondhorn) that rarely track receding waters, but readily burrow into the drying sediments. We utilized a next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq approach to examine heat/desiccation-induced transcriptomic profiles of these two species in order to identify linkages between patterns of gene expression, physiology and behavior. Sequencing produced over 425 million 100 bp reads. Using the de novo assembly package Trinity, we assembled the short reads into 321,250 contigs from giant floater (average length 835 bp) and 385,735 contigs from pondhorn (average length 929 bp). BLAST-based annotation and gene expression analysis revealed 2,832 differentially expressed genes in giant floater and 2,758 differentially expressed genes in pondhorn. Trancriptomic responses included changes in molecular chaperones, oxidative stress profiles, cell cycling, energy metabolism, immunity, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. Comparative analyses between species indicated significantly higher induction of molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal elements in the intolerant P. grandis as well as important differences in genes regulating apoptosis and immunity. PMID:24586812

  16. Novel proteins identified in the insoluble byssal matrix of the freshwater zebra mussel.

    PubMed

    Gantayet, Arpita; Rees, David J; Sone, Eli D

    2014-04-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is an invasive, biofouling species that adheres to a variety of substrates underwater, using a proteinaceous anchor called the byssus. The byssus consists of a number of threads with adhesive plaques at the tips. It contains the unusual amino acid 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), which is believed to play an important role in adhesion, in addition to providing structural integrity to the byssus through cross-linking. Extensive DOPA cross-linking, however, renders the zebra mussel byssus highly resistant to protein extraction, and therefore limits byssal protein identification. We report here on the identification of seven novel byssal proteins in the insoluble byssal matrix following protein extraction from induced, freshly secreted byssal threads with minimal cross-linking. These proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests of the matrix proteins by spectrum matching against a zebra mussel cDNA library of genes unique to the mussel foot, the organ that secretes the byssus. All seven proteins were present in both the plaque and thread. Comparisons of the protein sequences revealed common features of zebra mussel byssal proteins, and several recurring sequence motifs. Although their sequences are unique, many of the proteins display similarities to marine mussel byssal proteins, as well as to adhesive and structural proteins from other species. The large expansion of the byssal proteome reported here represents an important step towards understanding zebra mussel adhesion.

  17. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  18. Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

  19. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  20. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  1. Mussel Glue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A mytilus edilus, a common blue ocean mussel is attaching itself to the underside of a wet glass in a laboratory. It secretes a glue like substance in the form of multiple threads which attach to surfaces such as shells, rocks, piers and ships. This natural super glue hardens within minutes and tightly affixes to its selected platform even in the roughest seas. Its superior adhesive properties suggest many practical applications. One company, Bio-Polymers, Inc., has developed a synthetic mussel glue for the commercial market.

  2. Substratum type and conspecific density as drivers of mussel patch formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Camilla; Geraldi, Nathan R.; Montgomery, W. I.; O'Connor, Nessa E.

    2017-03-01

    Biogenic reefs are an important component of aquatic ecosystems where they enhance biodiversity. These reefs are often established by dense aggregations of a single taxa and understanding the fundamental principles of biogenic reef formation is needed for their conservation and restoration. We tested whether substratum type and density affected the aggregation behaviour of two important biogenic-reef forming species, the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758), and the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus, 1758). First, we tested for effects of substratum type on mussel movement and aggregation behaviour by manipulating substrata available to mussels in mesocosms (three treatments: no sediment added, sediment added, sediment and shells added). Both mussel species moved less in treatments with sediment and with both sediment and shells present than when no sediment or shells were added and the percentage of these mussels that aggregated (clumps of two or more individuals) was lower when shells were present compared to treatments without shells, however, fewer M. modiolus attached to shells than M. edulis. There was no effect of different substratum type on patch complexity of either mussel species. In addition, motivated by our interest in the restoration of M. modiolus, we also tested experimentally whether the aggregation behaviour of M. modiolus was density-dependent. M. modiolus moved a similar distance in three density treatments (100, 200 and 300 mussels m- 2), however, their aggregation rate appeared to be greater when mussel density was higher, suggesting that the encounter rate of individuals is an important factor for aggregation. M. modiolus also formed aggregations with a higher fractal dimension in the high and medium density treatments compared to lower density, suggesting that at higher density this increased patch complexity could further facilitate increased recruitment with the enhanced habitat available for settlement. These findings add

  3. Mussel colonization of a high flow artificial benthic habitat: byssogenesis holds the key.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, S; Venugopalan, V P; van der Velde, G; Jenner, H A

    2006-08-01

    Water flow is an important characteristic determining the settlement and growth of macro-invertebrates in the marine environment. Intake systems of coastal power stations offer a unique opportunity to study the effect of water flow on benthic organisms under field conditions. The cooling water intake system of a tropical coastal power station is used as an experimental facility to study the effect of flow on the recruitment and growth of three mussel species, viz, Brachidontes variabilis, B. striatulus, and Modiolus philippinarum. The study was prompted by earlier observation that these mussels were numerically abundant in the biofouling community present inside the seawater intake tunnel of the power station, even though their occurrence in the benthic community in the coastal waters outside was only nominal. Recruitment data showed that the three mussel species very successfully colonised surfaces exposed to the intake mouth (characterised by relatively high flow) of the power station. Significant difference was observed in the recruitment recorded at the intake point and the ambient environment outside. Under high flow condition, the growth rates of all the three mussel species were uniformly enhanced. It is argued that recruitment of the different species is related to the number of byssus threads produced by each mussel and the strength of the byssus threads. The results indicate that byssus number and byssus strength of the mussels are important criteria that decide successful colonization and establishment in high flow environments.

  4. Flooding modifies the genotoxic effects of pollution on a worm, a mussel and two fish species from the Sava River.

    PubMed

    Aborgiba, Mustafa; Kostić, Jovana; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Elbahi, Samia; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Paunović, Momir; Gačić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    Extreme hydrological events, such as water scarcity and flooding, can modify the effect of other stressors present in aquatic environment, which could result in the significant changes in the ecosystem functioning. Presence and interaction of various stressors (genotoxic pollutants) in the environment can influence the integrity of DNA molecules in aquatic organisms which can be negatively reflected on the individual, population and community levels. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the impact of flooding, in terms of genotoxicity, on organisms belonging to different trophic levels. The study was carried out on the site situated in the lower stretch of the Sava River which faced devastating effects of severe flooding in May 2014. The flooding occurred during our field experiment and this event provided a unique opportunity to assess its influence to the environment. The in situ effects of this specific situation were monitored by measuring physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of water, and by comparing the level of DNA damage in coelomocytes and haemocytes of freshwater worms Branchiura sowerbyi, haemocytes of freshwater mussels Unio tumidus and blood cells of freshwater fish Abramis bjoerkna/Abramis sapa, by means of the comet assay. Our study indicated that the flooding had a significant impact on water quality by decreasing the amount and discharge rate of urban wastewaters but simultaneously introducing contaminants from the nearby fly ash disposal field into river by runoff, which had diverse effects on the level of DNA damage in the studied organisms. This indicates that the assessment of genotoxic pollution in situ is strongly affected by the choice of the bioindicator organism.

  5. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  6. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities.

  7. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  8. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations. PMID:27966602

  9. Simulated mussel mortality thresholds as a function of mussel biomass and nutrient loading

    PubMed Central

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Langenfeld, Kathryn; Spak, Scott N.; Newton, Teresa J.

    2017-01-01

    A freshwater “mussel mortality threshold” was explored as a function of porewater ammonium (NH4+) concentration, mussel biomass, and total nitrogen (N) utilizing a numerical model calibrated with data from mesocosms with and without mussels. A mortality threshold of 2 mg-N L−1 porewater NH4+ was selected based on a study that estimated 100% mortality of juvenile Lampsilis mussels exposed to 1.9 mg-N L−1 NH4+ in equilibrium with 0.18 mg-N L−1 NH3. At the highest simulated mussel biomass (560 g m−2) and the lowest simulated influent water “food” concentration (0.1 mg-N L−1), the porewater NH4+ concentration after a 2,160 h timespan without mussels was 0.5 mg-N L−1 compared to 2.25 mg-N L−1 with mussels. Continuing these simulations while varying mussel biomass and N content yielded a mortality threshold contour that was essentially linear which contradicted the non-linear and non-monotonic relationship suggested by Strayer (2014). Our model suggests that mussels spatially focus nutrients from the overlying water to the sediments as evidenced by elevated porewater NH4+ in mesocosms with mussels. However, our previous work and the model utilized here show elevated concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in overlying waters as an indirect consequence of mussel activity. Even when the simulated overlying water food availability was quite low, the mortality threshold was reached at a mussel biomass of about 480 g m−2. At a food concentration of 10 mg-N L−1, the mortality threshold was reached at a biomass of about 250 g m−2. Our model suggests the mortality threshold for juvenile Lampsilis species could be exceeded at low mussel biomass if exposed for even a short time to the highly elevated total N loadings endemic to the agricultural Midwest. PMID:28070462

  10. Simulated mussel mortality thresholds as a function of mussel biomass and nutrient loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bril, Jeremy S.; Langenfeld, Kathryn; Just, Craig L.; Spak, Scott N.; Newton, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    A freshwater “mussel mortality threshold” was explored as a function of porewater ammonium (NH4+) concentration, mussel biomass, and total nitrogen (N) utilizing a numerical model calibrated with data from mesocosms with and without mussels. A mortality threshold of 2 mg-N L−1 porewater NH4+ was selected based on a study that estimated 100% mortality of juvenile Lampsilis mussels exposed to 1.9 mg-N L−1NH4+ in equilibrium with 0.18 mg-N L−1 NH3. At the highest simulated mussel biomass (560 g m−2) and the lowest simulated influent water “food” concentration (0.1 mg-N L−1), the porewater NH4+ concentration after a 2,160 h timespan without mussels was 0.5 mg-N L−1 compared to 2.25 mg-N L−1 with mussels. Continuing these simulations while varying mussel biomass and N content yielded a mortality threshold contour that was essentially linear which contradicted the non-linear and non-monotonic relationship suggested by Strayer (2014). Our model suggests that mussels spatially focus nutrients from the overlying water to the sediments as evidenced by elevated porewater NH4+ in mesocosms with mussels. However, our previous work and the model utilized here show elevated concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in overlying waters as an indirect consequence of mussel activity. Even when the simulated overlying water food availability was quite low, the mortality threshold was reached at a mussel biomass of about 480 g m−2. At a food concentration of 10 mg-N L−1, the mortality threshold was reached at a biomass of about 250 g m−2. Our model suggests the mortality threshold for juvenile Lampsilis species could be exceeded at low mussel biomass if exposed for even a short time to the highly elevated total N loadings endemic to the agricultural Midwest.

  11. Radionuclides, Trace Metals, and Organic Compounds in Shells of Native Freshwater Mussels Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River: 6000 Years Before Present to Current Times

    SciTech Connect

    B. L. Tiller; T. E. Marceau

    2006-01-25

    This report documents concentrations of radionuclides, trace metals, and semivolatile organic compounds measured in shell samples of the western pearl shell mussel collected along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River.

  12. Incongruence between mtDNA and nuclear data in the freshwater mussel genus Cyprogenia (Bivalvia: Unionidae) and its impact on species delineation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jer Pin; Harris, John L; Roe, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Accurately identifying species is a crucial step for developing conservation strategies for freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled faunas in North America. This study uses genetic data to re-examine species delineation in the genus Cyprogenia. Historically, Cyprogenia found west of the Mississippi River have been ascribed to Cyprogenia aberti (Conrad 1850), and those east of the Mississippi River were classified as Cyprogenia stegaria (Rafinesque 1820). Previous studies using mitochondrial DNA sequences indicated that C. aberti and C. stegaria were not reciprocally monophyletic groups, suggesting the need for systematic revision. We generated a novel dataset consisting of 10 microsatellite loci and combined it with sequence data from the mitochondrial ND1 gene for 223 Cyprogenia specimens. Bayesian analysis of the ND1 nucleotide sequences identified two divergent clades that differ by 15.9%. Members of these two clades occur sympatrically across most sampling locations. In contrast, microsatellite genotypes support recognition of three allopatric clusters defined by major hydrologic basins. The divergent mitochondrial lineages are highly correlated with the color of the conglutinate lures used by mussels to attract and infest host fishes, and tests for selection at the ND1 locus were positive. We infer that the incongruence between mtDNA and microsatellite data in Cyprogenia may be the result of a combination of incomplete lineage sorting and balancing selection on lure color. Our results provide further evidence that mitochondrial markers are not always neutral with respect to selection, and highlight the potential problems of relying on a single-locus-marker for delineating species.

  13. Host Fish of Four Species of Unionid Mussels and the Dispersal of their Larvae with the Fish Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Mio; Ito, Kengo; Senge, Masateru

    Host fish of each mussel was examined in a biotope pond, a drainage canal and fishway between them in Gifu Prefecture from May to October 2008. The main host fish was Zacco platypus in Unio douglasiae and Lanceolaria grayana, Nipponocypris sieboldii in Anodonta sp. and Pronodularia japonensis. In the fish caught at fishway, intensity and total number of glochidium were more the descending fish from the biotope pond than the ascending one from the drainage canal, which suggests that the biotope pond is now the base of supply of juveniles to the neighboring areas.

  14. Temperature sensitivities of cytosolic malate dehydrogenases from native and invasive species of marine mussels (genus Mytilus): sequence-function linkages and correlations with biogeographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Fields, Peter A; Rudomin, Emily L; Somero, George N

    2006-02-01

    The blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a native of the Mediterranean Sea, has invaded the west coast of North America in the past century, displacing the native blue mussel, Mytilus trossulus, from most of its former habitats in central and southern California. The invasive success of M. galloprovincialis is conjectured to be due, in part, to physiological adaptations that enable it to outperform M. trossulus at high temperatures. We have examined the structure and function of the enzyme cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (cMDH) from these species, as well as from the more distantly related ribbed mussel, Mytilus californianus, to characterize the effects of temperature on kinetic properties thought to exhibit thermal adaptation. The M. trossulus cMDH ortholog differs from the other cMDHs in a direction consistent with cold adaptation, as evidenced by a higher and more temperature-sensitive Michaelis-Menten constant for the cofactor NADH (Km(NADH)). This difference results from minor changes in sequence: the M. trossulus ortholog differs from the M. galloprovincialis ortholog by only two substitutions in the 334 amino acid monomer, and the M. californianus and M. trossulus orthologs differ by five substitutions. In each case, only one of these substitutions is non-conservative. To test the effects of individual substitutions on kinetic properties, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create recombinant cMDHs. Recombinant wild-type M. trossulus cMDH (rWT) has high Km(NADH) compared with mutants incorporating the non-conservative substitutions found in M. californianus and M. galloprovincialis - V114H and V114N, respectively - demonstrating that these mutations are responsible for the differences found in substrate affinity. Turnover number (kcat) is also higher in rWT compared with the two mutants, consistent with cold adaptation in the M. trossulus ortholog. Conversely, rWT and V114H appear more thermostable than V114N. Based on a comparison of Km(NADH) and kcat

  15. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant.

  16. The use of chlorine dioxide for zebra mussel control - A perspective of treatment histories

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, N.; Rusznak, L.; Anderson, J.; Hale, L.

    1995-06-01

    It is of utmost importance to provide updated performance results of various chemical treatments presently being utilized for zebra mussel control. Zebra mussels have a distinctive ability to endure environmental changes by reproducing effectively and attaching to various hard surfaces. These traits are cause for concern and have resulted in some operating difficulties for industries bordering infested waterways. Various methods are being employed by industries to deal with the problems associated with these species. One of the options is control via chemical treatment. Prior field test studies showed that chlorine dioxide was determined to be an effective molluscicidal agent for adult zebra mussel eradication. Continuous feed of chlorine dioxide at treatment levels ranging from 0.25 - 5.0 ppm above the oxidant demand provided 100% adult zebra mussel mortality which required between 2.9 - 8.8 days of treatment. Previous studies also showed that water temperature was an essential parameter in determining the time required to achieve 100% mortality of adult zebra mussels. Further field applications were undertaken at three electric utility sites located in the midwest. These facilities were concerned with the potential for zebra mussels to reduce efficiency and availability by blocking water flow or plugging equipment. Treatment applications at these facilities consisted of a continuous feed of chlorine dioxide ranging from 0.15 - 0.5 ppm above the oxidant demand. Significant mortality was achieved in monitored mussels tested at each utility in a period ranging from two to four days. This time period was directly related to a number of parameters, with the predominant one being water temperature. Data from these field applications is presented in this paper and confirms that chlorine dioxide is an effective molluscicide for adult zebra mussel control.

  17. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    PubMed

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    Algal and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs are driven by nutrient enrichment and may present economic and conservation challenges for water managers. Current approaches such as suppression of algal growth with barley straw, ferric dosing or manipulation of fish stocks have not yielded long term successes. A possibility that has sparked growing interest is the encouragement and cultivation of natural filter feeders, such as mussels, which remove suspended matter from the water and reduce nutrient levels through biodeposition and assimilation. This review focusses on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a tool for enhancement of water quality in reservoirs. Native to the Ponto-Caspian region, this species has invaded many lakes and reservoirs across North America and Western Europe, where it occurs in very high densities. While purposeful introduction of a non-native species into new sites is socially unacceptable, we investigate the possible benefits of encouraging increased abundance of zebra mussels in sites where the species is already established. We estimate that the annual nitrogen and phosphorus input into a large UK reservoir (Grafham Water) could be assimilated into zebra mussel biomass by encouraging settlement onto 3075 m and 1400 m of commercial mussel ropes, respectively. While zebra mussel cultivation has an incredible capacity to push eutrophic systems towards a clear water state, there are many risks associated with encouraging an invasive species, even within sites where it has already established. The zebra mussel is a prominent biofouler of native unionid mussels and raw water pipes, it changes the physical characteristics of the places it inhabits, in sites low in phosphorus it can be responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms, it alters nutrient cycling and community structure and it can have negative impacts on amenity value. Increased propagule pressure from elevated numbers of veliger larvae in the water column may increase the risk

  18. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  19. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  20. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  1. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  2. Assessment of toxicity test endpoints for freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia).

    PubMed

    Fritts, Andrea K; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bradley, Megan; Liu, Na; Cope, W Gregory; Hammer, Edward; Bringolf, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if the viability of freshwater mussel larvae (glochidia) is an ecologically relevant endpoint for toxicity tests and to define the appropriate duration of those tests. The authors assessed 1) how viability (the shell closure response to sodium chloride) compares with infectivity (ability to attach to a host fish and successfully metamorphose to the juvenile stage), and 2) the decline of viability and infectivity over time after glochidia were released from female mussels. Glochidia of 7 mussel species were isolated from females, placed in water, and subsampled daily for 2 d to 5 d. Viability, when ≥90%, was generally a good predictor of infectivity; however, when viability was <90%, infectivity was often disproportionately low, especially for glochidia collected near the end of the brooding period. Viability and infectivity declined more rapidly in natural water and sediment compared to reconstituted water. Following 24-h exposure to a toxicant (sodium chloride or copper), infectivity of the viable glochidia did not differ among concentrations of toxicants. The results indicate that viability is a valid proxy for infectivity and an ecologically relevant endpoint for standard toxicity tests with freshwater mussels for any test duration with control viability >90%.

  3. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  4. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  5. Thiaminase activity in native freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Sweet, Stephanie; Galbraith, Heather S.; Honeyfield, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the Great Lakes has been attributed to elevated levels of thiaminase I enzyme activity in invasive prey species; however, few studies have investigated thiaminase activity in native prey species. Some of the highest levels of thiaminase activity have been measured in invasive dreissenid mussels with little understanding of background levels contributed by native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae). In this study, thiaminase activity was measured in two freshwater mussel species, Elliptio complanata and Strophitus undulatus, from the Delaware and Susquehanna River drainage basins located in north eastern United States. Thiaminase activity was also measured in gravid and non-gravid S. undulatus. Average thiaminase activity differed significantly between species (7.2 and 42.4 μmol/g/min, for E. complanata and S. undulatus respectively) with no differences observed between drainage basins. Gravid S. undulatus had significantly lower thiaminase activity (28.0 μmol/g/min) than non-gravid mussels (42.4 μmol/g/min). Our results suggest that a suite of factors may regulate thiaminase activity in freshwater mussels and that native freshwater mussel thiaminase activity is within the range observed for invasive dreissenids. These results add to our understanding of the complexities in identifying the ecological conditions that set the stage for thiamine deficiency.

  6. Mussel beds — amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Sabine

    1990-09-01

    The faunal assemblages of a mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis L.) and ambient sandflat were compared to study how a bioherm of suspension feeding organisms affects benthic communities in a tidal flat. During a survey of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea at the island of Sylt (North Sea), a total of 52 macrofaunal species and 44 meiobenthic plathelminth species were detected. They occupied different microhabitats in the mussel bed. 56% of the macrofauna species were dwelling in the sediment beneath the mussels and 42% were epibenthic or epiphytic. The latter were restricted in their occurrence to the mussel bed. Along a transect from the sandflat to the mussel bed the mean species densities of macrofauna did not differ significantly, while abundances were significantly lower in the mussel bed than in the sandflat. The composition of the assemblages shifted from a dominance of Polychaeta in the sandflat to Oligochaeta in the mussel bed. Surface filter-feeding polychaetes of the sandflat ( Tharyx marioni) were displaced by deposit feeding polychaetes under the mussel cover ( Capitella capitata, Heteromastus filiformis). The total meiobenthic density was lower and single taxa (Ostracoda, Plathelminthes, Nematoda) were significantly less abundant in the mud of the mussel bed. The plathelminth assemblage was dominated by grazing species ( Archaphanostoma agile), and differed in community structure from a sandflat aseemblage. An amensalistic relationship was found between the suspension-feeding mussels and suspension-feeding infauna, while deposit-feeders were enhanced. The presence of epibenthic microhabitats results in a variety of trophic groups co-occurring in a mussel bed. This is hypothesized as trophic group amelioration and described as an attribute of heterotrophic reefs.

  7. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  8. Zebra mussel induced mortality of unionids in firm substrata of western Lake Erie and a habitat for survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, D.W.; Smithee, R.D.; Longton, G.D.; Kovalak, W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine impacts of zebra mussel [Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771); Dreissenidae] infestation on unionids in firm substrata in western Lake Erie. Unionid mollusks were collected at a total of 15 stations on three offshore depth contours (2, 3, and 4 m) in 1983 (before zebra mussel infestation), in 1990 and 1993 (after zebra mussel infestation), and at one station on a nearshore 2-m depth contour and along one transect on a nearshore 1-m depth contour in 1993. Numbers of living unionids on substrata along offshore contours remained similar between 1983 and 1990 and then decreased from 97 individuals in 1990 to only five individuals in 1993. In addition, the number of species decreased from nine to four between 1990 and 1993. In contrast, on nearshore contours 85 living individuals representing nine species were found in 1993. About 48% of the living and 79% of the dead unionids at the two nearshore locations were covered with byssal threads of dreissenid mussels, but were not actively infested by mussels. The presence of living unionids on nearshore contours of western Lake Erie in 1993 indicates that survival of unionids in the presence of abundant zebra mussel populations can be possible in firm substrata and that these habitats can provide natural ''refugia'' for unionid populations. At present, we do not know what allows unionids to survive in the presence of zebra mussel colonization, but believe that water-level fluctuations and waves could contribute to the removal of mussels from unionids. This information could be of major concern in the mitigation of impacts of infestation on unionids in waters throughout North America.

  9. Differential dynamics of dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins between blue mussel and common cockle: a phenomenon originating from the complex toxin profile of Dinophysis acuta.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo

    2004-08-01

    Different toxin profiles of dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins have been reported before between blue mussel and other bivalve species, such as common cockle, razor clam, clams, etc. Comparison of toxins present in plankton in mussel growing areas and in cockle growing areas, respectively, showed there was no particular incidence of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) in plankton from mussel growing areas that could account for the higher percentage of DTX2 in relation to okadaic acid (OA) found in mussels; or of pectenotoxin-2 in cockle growing areas that could explain the higher levels of pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2sa) found in cockles. A detoxification experiment between mussels and cockles showed the higher percentage of DTX2 in mussels was due to slower elimination of this toxin in relation to OA; while the lower levels of PTX2sa were due to quicker elimination by mussels than by cockles. The slower elimination of DTX2 explains why in late summer and autumn this toxin gradually accumulate in mussels throughout the entire coast, while other bivalves species have a lower percentage of DTX2, very close to the 3:2 OA:DTX2 ratio found in natural plankton assemblages when Dinophysis acuta predominates. In the clam Donax spp., DTX2 concentration also tends to build up in relation to OA, this being made up predominantly by free DTX2 while esterified DTX2 is found only in trace levels (similarly to what is found in mussel for DTX2). We hypothesise that the esterified forms of OA and DTX2 are more easily eliminated than the free forms, by all shellfish species. The free forms are more difficult to eliminate. This is particularly notable in these two species that present a very low conversion of DTX2 into acyl esters. The high pool of free toxins is partially responsible for these two species (mussel and Donax clams) being the sentinel species for DSP contamination throughout the Portuguese coast. Esters of OA and DTX2 were found in a plankton sample where D. acuta was the

  10. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  11. Simulated effects of ground-water pumpage on stream-aquifer flow in the vicinity of federally protected species of freshwater mussels in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin (Subarea 4), southeastern Alabama, northwestern Florida, and southwestern Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albertson, Phillip N.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2002-01-01

    Simulation results indicate that ground-water withdrawal in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin during times of drought could reduce stream-aquifer flow and cause specific stream reaches to go dry. Of the 37 reaches that were studied, 8 reaches ranked highly sensitive to pumpage, 13 reaches ranked medium, and 16 reaches ranked low. Of the eight reaches that ranked high, seven contain at least one federally protected mussel species. Small tributary streams such as Gum, Jones, Muckalee, Spring, and Cooleewahee Creeks would go dry at lower pumping rates than needed to dry up larger streams. Other streams that were ranked high may go dry depending on the amount of upstream flow entering the reach; this condition is indicated for some reaches on Spring Creek. A dry stream condition is of particular concern to water and wildlife managers because adequate streamflow is essential for mussel survival.

  12. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  13. 77 FR 40375 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... the following species of freshwater mussels: Fat threeridge--Amblema neislerii Shinyrayed pocketbook... species, 14 fish species, 34 fresh-water mussel species, 2 snail species, 1 insect species, and 2...

  14. 78 FR 24432 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... mussels, 12 species of freshwater snails, and 3 species of terrestrial snails throughout Arkansas..., tag, release) 56 freshwater mussel species, 5 snail species, 7 fish species, and 1 species of...

  15. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  16. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  17. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  18. 76 FR 68500 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...) the following mussel species; Ovate clubshell (Pleurobema perovatum), Inflated heelsplitter (Potamilus inflatus), stirrup shell mussel (Quadrula stapes) and heavy pigtoe (Pleurobema taitianum) for the...

  19. 77 FR 7599 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... collecting scientific data and artificial propagation research, the following freshwater mussel species...) Orangefoot pimpleback (Plethobasus cooperianus) Ring pink mussel (Obovarua retusa) Rough pigtoe...

  20. Use of mussel casts from archaeological sites as paleoecological indicators: An example from CA-MRN-254, Marin County, Alta California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary; Starratt, Scott W.; Powell, Charles L.; Bieling, David G

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations at prehistoric site CA-MRN-254 at the Dominican University of California in Marin County, California, revealed evidence of Native American occupation spanning the past 1,800 years. A dominant source of food for the inhabitants in the San Francisco Bay area was the intertidal, quiet-water dwelling blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus), although rare occurrences of the open coast-dwelling California mussel (Mytilus californianus) suggest that this species was also utilized sporadically. On rare occasions, cultural horizons at this site contain abundant sediment-filled casts of the smaller mussel Modiolus sp. These casts were formed soon after death when the shells filled with sediment and were roasted along with living bivalve shellfish for consumption. Thin sections of these mussel casts display sedimentological and microbiological constituents that shed light on the paleoenvironmental conditions when they were alive. Fine-grained sediment and pelletal muds comprising these casts suggest that the mussels were collected in a low energy, inner bay environment. The rare presence of the diatoms Triceratium dubium and Thalassionema nitzschioides indicate more normal marine (35 psu) and possibly warmer conditions than presently exist in San Francisco Bay. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal associated with the mussel casts containing these diatoms correlates with a 600-year period of warming from ca. A.D. 700–1300, known as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Results of this mussel cast study demonstrate that they have great potential for providing paleoenvironmental information at this and other archaeological sites.

  1. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  2. Pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to determine pharmaceuticals in mussels.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Mireia; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva; Fontanals, Núria

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method based on pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction with a mixed-mode Oasis(®) MAX sorbent as cleanup, followed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for the determination of seven widely used pharmaceuticals in mussel species. The optimization of the pressurized liquid extraction and the solid-phase extraction parameters is described. The method provided extraction recoveries ranging from 61 to 90%, and limits of detection ranging from 2 to 50 ng/g (dry weight). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 15 and 19%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mussel samples from different locations. The analyses showed that salicylic acid was present in mussels at concentrations up to 177 ng/g (dry weight).

  3. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  4. Larvae of Chironomids (Insecta, Diptera) Encountered in the Mantle Cavity of Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.

    2005-02-01

    The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.

  5. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Erickson, Russell J; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Ivey, Christopher D; Brunson, Eric L; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20 degrees C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity.

  6. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  7. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing of the cold seep mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Sun, Jin; He, Li Sheng; Chen, Lian Guo; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-23

    Bathymodiolid mussels dominate hydrothermal vents, cold methane/sulfide-hydrocarbon seeps, and other sites of organic enrichment. Here, we aimed to explore the innate immune system and detoxification mechanism of the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons collected from a methane seep in the South China Sea. We sequenced the transcriptome of the mussels' gill, foot and mantle tissues and generated a transcriptomic database containing 96,683 transcript sequences. Based on GO and KEGG annotations, we reported transcripts that were related to the innate immune system, heavy metal detoxification and sulfide metabolic genes. Our in-depth analysis on the isoforms of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) that have different cellular location and potentially differential selectivity towards peptidoglycan (PGN) from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were differentially expressed in different tissues. We also reported a potentially novel form of metallothionein and the production of phytochelatin in B. platifrons, which has not been reported in any of its coastal relative Mytilus mussel species. Overall, the present study provided new insights into heavy metal and sulfide metabolism in B. platifrons and can be served as the basis for future molecular studies on host-symbiont interactions in cold seep mussels.

  8. Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (μg/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (μg/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

  9. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  10. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  11. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment. PMID:28005940

  12. Exposure-related effects of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A to glochidia from seven unionid mussel species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Glochidia viability was reduced in two of the six species exposed to 50 mg/L SDP and in four of the six species exposed to 100 mg/L SDP when compared to untreated control groups at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Regardless of sample time, concentrations of 200 and 300 mg/L of SDP and 300 mg/L of heat-deactivated SDP (positive control) substantially reduced glochidia viability in all species except, L. higginsii. Glochidia viability was only reduced for L. cardium exposed to FDP at concentrations ≥ 200 mg/L. After 24 hours of FDP exposure, differences in glochidia viability were only detected in M. nervosa that were exposed to 300 mg/L of heat-deactivated SDP. However, given the low viability in the control group, the results for M. nervosa should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Zebra mussels. The assault continues

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the past seven years, zebra mussel infestation has spread relentlessly, fouling up utility cooling intakes and other industrial operations that draw fresh water. The striped invader has flourished in all of the Great Lakes and most of the major river systems east of and including the Mississippi. It has also migrated much deeper into the South than experts anticipated and is making its way westward. Now biologists have turned up a separate, look-alike species they fear may be just as destructive. EPRI is continuing its work to improve control techniques and has published a comprehensive monitoring and control guide that outlines the best practices currently available for dealing with the mussel problem. This article reviews the results of this work.

  14. Making the Best of a Pest: The Potential for Using Invasive Zebra Mussel ( Dreissena Polymorpha) Biomass as a Supplement to Commercial Chicken Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlan, Claire; Rose, Paul; Aldridge, David C.

    2014-11-01

    Invasive non-native species frequently occur in very high densities. When such invaders present an economic or ecological nuisance, this biomass is typically removed and landfill is the most common destination, which is undesirable from both an economic and ecological perspective. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has invaded large parts of Europe and North America, and is routinely removed from raw water systems where it creates a biofouling nuisance. We investigated the suitability of dried, whole zebra mussels as a supplement to poultry feed, thus providing a more attractive end-use than disposal to landfill. Measurable outcomes were nutrient and energy composition analyses of the feeds and production parameters of the birds over a 14 day period. Zebra mussels were a palatable feed supplement for chickens. The mussel meal contained high levels of calcium (344.9 g kg-1), essential for egg shell formation, which was absorbed and retained easily by the birds. Compared with standard feed, a mussel-supplemented diet caused no significant effects on production parameters such as egg weight and feed conversion ratio during the study period. However, protein and energy levels in the zebra mussel feed were much lower than expected from the literature. In order for zebra mussels to be a viable long-term feed supplement for poultry, flesh would need to be separated from the shells in an economically viable way. If zebra mussels were to be used with the shells remaining, it seems that the resultant mussel meal would be more suitable as a calcium supplement.

  15. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  16. Epibiotic Diatoms Are Universally Present on All Sea Turtle Species

    PubMed Central

    Majewska, Roksana; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A.; Nel, Ronel; Paladino, Frank V.; Rojas, Lourdes; Zardus, John D.; Pinou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    The macro-epibiotic communities of sea turtles have been subject to growing interest in recent years, yet their micro-epibiotic counterparts are almost entirely unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that diatoms are epibionts for all seven extant species of sea turtle. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy, we inspected superficial carapace or skin samples from a single representative of each turtle species. We distinguished 18 diatom taxa from these seven individuals, with each sea turtle species hosting at least two diatom taxa. We recommend that future research is undertaken to confirm whether diatom communities vary between sea turtle species and whether these diatom taxa are facultative or obligate commensals. PMID:27257972

  17. The health status of mussels, Mytilus spp., in Ireland and Wales with the molecular identification of a previously undescribed haplosporidian.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S A; Morgan, E; Carlsson, J; Mackenzie, C; Wooton, E C; Rowley, A F; Malham, S; Culloty, S C

    2014-05-01

    Both wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids), are found along most of the Irish coastline. M. edulis is widespread along all Irish coasts and is the only mussel species present on both the east coast of Ireland and the Welsh coast in the Irish Sea. M. galloprovincialis and hybrids are found along the Irish coastline except for the east coast. Samples of Mytilus spp. were collected from twenty-four sites, encompassing all coasts of Ireland and the Welsh coast, at different times of the year and over several years (2008-2011). In total, 841 mussels were examined histologically to assess their health status and the presence of any parasites or commensals. Mussels from 14 of the 24 sites were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine which mytilid species were present. A range of parasites were observed, generally at low levels. The most diverse community of parasites was observed at a sheltered site with poor water quality. Of significance, a previously undescribed haplosporidian was detected in a single mussel sample in the Menai Strait, Wales, by PCR and was confirmed by direct sequencing and is most closely related to Minchina chitonis and a haplosporidian of the Florida marsh clam Cyrenoida floridana. While M. edulis were infected by a variety of micro- and macro-parasites, only trematodes were observed in M. galloprovincialis and hybrids. Habitat description and the environmental factors influencing the study sites, including water quality and exposure, were recorded.

  18. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    PubMed

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments.

  19. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  20. Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands)

    PubMed Central

    Troost, T. A.; Wijsman, J. W. M.; Saraiva, S.; Freitas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions fit the observations satisfactorily. Results indicate that food quality and the importance of detritus as a food source are site-specific as well as species-specific. Despite these differences in their calibrated parameter values, both species show a very similar functional response. Compared with other systems, however, the functional responses of mussels in the present study are clearly higher than those of mussels in other systems. This may be explained by the absence of intra-specific competition in the measurement set-up that was used, and therefore supports the idea that the generally small functional response of M. edulis is caused by intra-specific competition. PMID:20921054

  1. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  2. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    PubMed

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood.

  3. In situ assessment of genotoxicity using caged freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Westerfield, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a decline in mussel populations has been documented in many areas, particularly in contaminated environments. Mussels are particularly vulnerable to exposure to xenobiotics in sediment and/or water because of their modes of feeding and respiration and close association with sediments. Because of this potential for exposure, their apparent sensitivity to xenobiotics, and their ease in collection and handling, mussels are an excellent species for in situ biomonitoring. Recently the authors have adapted an electrophoretic assay for detecting DNA strand breakage in freshwater mussels. Using this assay DNA damage was quantified in selected tissues in two mussel species, Quadrula quadrula and Anodonta grandis, following subchronic laboratory exposures to lead and benzo[a]pyrene. Current experiments involve exposing mussels in situ in polyethylene cages and exposure racks in several environments containing genotoxic agents, including a fly ash settling pond and a site contaminated with mercury. Mussels will be exposed for 1 week to 3 months and sampled at 2 to 4week intervals. Upon removal mussels will be dissected, and mantle, adductor muscle, and foot tissue will be analyzed for DNA strand breakage and xenobiotic residues. These data will be compared with laboratory exposures to single compounds conducted over the same exposure durations.

  4. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  5. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials.

  6. Consequences of acclimation on the resistance to acute thermal stress: Proteomic focus on mussels from pristine site.

    PubMed

    Péden, Romain; Rocher, Béatrice; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; Poret, Agnès; Olivier, Stéphanie; Le Foll, Frank; Bultelle, Florence

    2016-10-01

    Climate change constitutes an additional threat for intertidal species that already have to cope with a challenging environment. The present study focuses on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and aims at investigating the importance of thermal acclimation in heat stress response. Microcosm exposures were performed with mussels submitted to an identical acute thermal stress following two thermal summer acclimations standing for present or future temperature conditions. Gill proteomes were analyzed by 2DE and 96 differentially expressed proteoforms were identified. Our results show that cell integrity appears to be maintained by the rise in molecular protective systems (i.e. Heat Shock Proteins), and by the reallocation of energy production via a switch to anaerobic metabolism and the setting up of alternative energy pathways. Finally, our results indicate that the response of mussels to acute thermal stress is conditioned by the acclimation temperature with an improved response in organisms acclimated to higher temperatures.

  7. PIT tags increase effectiveness of freshwater mussel recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurth, J.; Loftin, C.; Zydlewski, J.; Rhymer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Translocations are used increasingly to conserve populations of rare freshwater mussels. Recovery of translocated mussels is essential to accurate assessment of translocation success. We designed an experiment to evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags to mark and track individual freshwater mussels. We used eastern lampmussels (Lampsilis radiata radiata) as a surrogate for 2 rare mussel species. We assessed internal and external PIT-tag retention in the laboratory and field. Internal tag retention was high (75-100%), and tag rejection occurred primarily during the first 3 wk after tagging. A thin layer of nacre coated internal tags 3 to 4 mo after insertion, suggesting that long-term retention is likely. We released mussels with external PIT tags at 3 field study sites and recaptured them with a PIT pack (mobile interrogation unit) 8 to 10 mo and 21 to 23 mo after release. Numbers of recaptured mussels differed among study sites; however, we found more tagged mussels with the PIT-pack searches with visual confirmation (72-80%) than with visual searches alone (30-47%) at all sites. PIT tags offer improved recapture of translocated mussels and increased accuracy of posttranslocation monitoring. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  8. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  9. The Importance of Non-Native Prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the Declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: A Case Study at a Key European Staging and Wintering Site

    PubMed Central

    Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; Ławicki, Łukasz; Woźniczka, Adam; Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The European population of Greater Scaup Aythya marila has experienced an alarming, ~60% decline in numbers over the last two decades. The brackish lagoons of the Odra River Estuary (ORE) in the south-western Baltic Sea, represent an important area for the species during the non-breeding season in Europe. The lagoons regularly support over 20 000 Scaup, with peaks exceeding 100 000 (38%–70% of the population wintering in NW Europe and the highest number recorded in April 2011–105 700). In the ORE, Scaup feed almost exclusively on the non-native Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha. This mussel was present in the ORE already in the 19th century and continues to be superabundant. Using the results of 22 Scaup censuses (November to April 2002/2003 to 2013/2014) from the whole ORE (523 km2 of water), we show that Scaup flocks follow areas with the greatest area of occurrence and biomass of the Zebra Mussel, while areas with low mussel densities are ignored. The numbers of Scaup in the ORE are primarily related to the area of Zebra Mussel occurrence on the lagoon’s bottom (km2) in a non-linear fashion. Zebra Mussels were absolutely prevalent (97% of biomass) in the digestive tracts of birds unintentionally by-caught in fishing nets (n = 32). We estimate that Scaup alone consume an average of 5 400 tons of Zebra Mussels annually, which represents 5.6% of the total resources of the mussel in the ORE. Our results provide a clear picture of the strong dependence of the declining, migratory duck species on the non-native mussel, its primary food in the ORE. Our findings are particularly important as they can form the basis for the conservation action plan aimed at saving the north-western European populations of Scaup. PMID:26709707

  10. World mussel watch database. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1997-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is an internationally cooordinated system for systematic operational data collection and analysis. This contribution to GOOS is an attempt to determine the levels of contaminants in mussels and oysters collected worldwide and to compare the results with the long-term Mussel Watch programs of the United States and France. A comprehensive literature search of studies using any species of mussels and/or oysters worldwide to monitor the levels of trace metals and organic contaminants was conducted and the data compiled into the World Mussel Watch database. Data sources and statistics of the database are included. Results of the World Mussel Watch and the US and France Mussel Watch programs were compared and typical levels of some trace metals in uncontaminated mussels and oysters were calculated.

  11. Faunal structures associated with patches of mussels on East Asian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2002-04-01

    Aggregations of mussels harbor a variety of associated animals and make it possible for diverse species to coexist at the shore. Species composition and diversity of the associated fauna are controlled by the position of mussel beds or patches, e.g. tidal level, age structure of mussels, quality of ambient water and by mussel species. When patches of mussels were surrounded by algal growth, a difference in the species composition of the associated fauna was recognized between the patches and algal mats. Mechanisms promoting coexistence are discussed. Biodeposit production by mussels may affect the environment both within the bed and the ambient waters. Reducing sediments showing low Eh values caused by the accumulation of biodeposits was observed in calm waters where the polychaete Capitella capitata, an indicator for organic enrichment, occurred both in the intertidal mussel bed and the subtidal sandy bottom communities. In a shallow subtidal sandy bottom of the Gulf of Thailand, where heavy bioturbation by the spatangoid urchin Brissus latecarinatus was occurring, small patches of the mussel Modiolus metcalfi increased species diversity and equitability in this habitat. Species composition was different between mussel patches and pure sandy bottoms.

  12. Asymmetric coexistence: bidirectional abiotic and biotic effects between goose barnacles and mussels.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takashi; Tokeshi, Mutsunori

    2006-07-01

    1. Species coexistence depends on the net effect of interacting species, representing the sum of multiple interaction components that may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions. Consequently, for a comprehensive understanding of the compound nature of species interactions and coexistence, a mechanistic approach that allows a separate evaluation of each interaction component is required. 2. Two sessile filter-feeders, the goose barnacle Capitulum mitella and the mussel Septifer virgatus, coexist on moderately wave-exposed rocky shores in south-western Japan. In the upper intertidal, Capitulum positively influenced Septifer survivorship and growth through amelioration of thermal stress and of physical disturbance. On the other hand, these species are potential competitors as they have similar body sizes and modes of resource utilization. These opposite processes, facilitation and competition, are based on abiotic characteristics and biotic functions of the two species, respectively. 3. In order to quantify the bidirectional abiotic, biotic and net effects, a series of experimental manipulations was conducted involving the use of living neighbours with both abiotic and biotic effects, and artificial mimics to simulate abiotic effects without biotic effects. 4. Capitulum had strong positive abiotic effects on the mussel survivorship in most experimental periods, while the biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative, suggesting that the net effect of Capitulum on mussel survival was largely attributable to the abiotic effect. In contrast, a significantly negative biotic effect on the mussel growth rate was always present, though this was cancelled out by the larger, positive abiotic effect. In the case of Septifer, its abiotic and biotic effects on the survivorship of goose barnacles were negligible, while those on the growth rate showed temporal variation. 5. With respect to the relationship between species

  13. Zebra mussel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  14. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  15. Life support for aquatic species--past; present; future.

    PubMed

    Slenzka, K

    2002-01-01

    Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc. together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.

  16. A new species of pea crab of the genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from the date mussel Leiosolenus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae, Lithophaginae) from the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Meyer, Chistopher

    2016-01-01

    The pea crab genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Pinnotheridae) is currently only represented by one species, Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). A new species is now assigned to this genus, described from a date mussel Leiosolenus obesus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) collected in the Solomon Islands. Serenotheres janussp. n. differs from Serenotheres besutensis in possessing a conspicuously broader carapace, with the lateral margins of the dorsal lamellum distinctly produced and the posterolateral part deeply concave, the dorsal lamellum being highest at the median cleft, the rostrum is relatively more prominent, the surfaces of the anterolateral margin and hepatic region are less prominently pitted and eroded, the ischiomerus of the third maxilliped is relatively more rectangular, and the P2 merus is proportionately longer.

  17. A new species of pea crab of the genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) from the date mussel Leiosolenus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae, Lithophaginae) from the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Peter K. L.; Meyer, Chistopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pea crab genus Serenotheres Ahyong & Ng, 2005 (Pinnotheridae) is currently only represented by one species, Serenotheres besutensis (Serène, 1967). A new species is now assigned to this genus, described from a date mussel Leiosolenus obesus Carpenter, 1857 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae: Lithophaginae) collected in the Solomon Islands. Serenotheres janus sp. n. differs from Serenotheres besutensis in possessing a conspicuously broader carapace, with the lateral margins of the dorsal lamellum distinctly produced and the posterolateral part deeply concave, the dorsal lamellum being highest at the median cleft, the rostrum is relatively more prominent, the surfaces of the anterolateral margin and hepatic region are less prominently pitted and eroded, the ischiomerus of the third maxilliped is relatively more rectangular, and the P2 merus is proportionately longer. PMID:27843386

  18. Acute toxicity of NaCl and Na2SO4 mixtures to juveniles of a freshwater unionid mussel (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Native freshwater mussels are in serious global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Nearly 70% of the 300 species in North America are endangered, threatened, of special concern, or already extinct. Previous studies indicate that freshwater mussels are sensitiv...

  19. Genetic management guidelines for captive propagation of freshwater mussels (unionoidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.W.; Hallerman, E.M.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although the greatest global diversity of freshwater mussels (???300 species) resides in the United States, the superfamily Unionoidea is also the most imperiled taxon of animals in the nation. Thirty-five species are considered extinct, 70 species are listed as endangered or threatened, and approximately 100 more are species of conservation concern. To prevent additional species losses, biologists have developed methods for propagating juvenile mussels for release into the wild to restore or augment populations. Since 1997, mussel propagation facilities in the United States have released over 1 million juveniles of more than a dozen imperiled species, and survival of these juveniles in the wild has been documented. With the expectation of continued growth of these programs, agencies and facilities involved with mussel propagation must seriously consider the genetic implications of releasing captive-reared progeny. We propose 10 guidelines to help maintain the genetic resources of cultured and wild populations. Preservation of genetic diversity will require robust genetic analysis of source populations to define conservation units for valid species, subspecies, and unique populations. Hatchery protocols must be implemented that minimize risks of artificial selection and other genetic hazards affecting adaptive traits of progeny subsequently released to the wild. We advocate a pragmatic, adaptive approach to species recovery that incorporates the principles of conservation genetics into breeding programs, and prioritizes the immediate demographic needs of critically endangered mussel species.

  20. The mussel thread cuticle: A protective coating of an extensible bio-fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    Mussel holdfast threads have attracted much scientific scrutiny due to their impressive mechanical properties and underwater adhesion. One component of the byssus, however, has so far largely escaped study: the outer protective cuticle of the threads. Considering the rough environment this coating material is build to withstand, as well as the repeated strains it accommodates during wave absorption, further inspections are worthwhile. Here I report on my investigations of the mechanical properties of the mussel thread cuticle as well as its composition and assembly. The cuticle material from inter-tidal mussel species was found to display a unique combination of hardness and extensibility superior to manmade coatings. The mechanical properties were demonstrated to be attributable to the presence of deformable micro-particles in the cuticles limiting crack propagation and enhancing material damage tolerance. Evidence is furthermore presented indicating that the cross-linking chemistry of the cuticle is uniquely tailored to enhance the performance of the composite structure. Finally, studies were performed to introduce the unique cross-linking chemistry found in the cuticle in synthetic materials. As predicted, we found that the mussel thread cuticle is a material that deserves further study to elucidate the design principles underlying its unique mechanical properties. Design strategies discovered in these studies could potentially be applied in future synthetic coating materials with significant impact in the field of technology and medicine.

  1. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing of the cold seep mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yue Him; Sun, Jin; He, Li Sheng; Chen, Lian Guo; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Bathymodiolid mussels dominate hydrothermal vents, cold methane/sulfide-hydrocarbon seeps, and other sites of organic enrichment. Here, we aimed to explore the innate immune system and detoxification mechanism of the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons collected from a methane seep in the South China Sea. We sequenced the transcriptome of the mussels’ gill, foot and mantle tissues and generated a transcriptomic database containing 96,683 transcript sequences. Based on GO and KEGG annotations, we reported transcripts that were related to the innate immune system, heavy metal detoxification and sulfide metabolic genes. Our in-depth analysis on the isoforms of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) that have different cellular location and potentially differential selectivity towards peptidoglycan (PGN) from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were differentially expressed in different tissues. We also reported a potentially novel form of metallothionein and the production of phytochelatin in B. platifrons, which has not been reported in any of its coastal relative Mytilus mussel species. Overall, the present study provided new insights into heavy metal and sulfide metabolism in B. platifrons and can be served as the basis for future molecular studies on host-symbiont interactions in cold seep mussels. PMID:26593439

  2. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  3. Impact of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei on glyphosate concentration in water.

    PubMed

    Di Fiori, Eugenia; Pizarro, Haydée; dos Santos Afonso, María; Cataldo, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased dramatically during the past years around the world. Microbial communities are altered when glyphosate reaches water bodies. The freshwater golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has rapidly dispersed since it was introduced in Argentina two decades ago. Mussels alter aquatic conditions through their filtrating activity by increasing water clarity and nutrient recycling. We aim to evaluate the potential capacity of the golden mussel to reduce glyphosate concentration in water, in laboratory conditions. Firstly, the evasive response of mussels to glyphosate (10, 20, and 40 mg l⁻¹) was evaluated and a toxicity test was carried out for these concentrations. A three-week experiment was then performed to assess glyphosate variation under mussel presence for two mussel sizes. Finally, mussels' role on glyphosate concentration was evaluated considering different mussel parts (living organisms and empty shells) through another three-week experiment. Laboratory experiments were performed in triplicate using 2-l microcosms. An initial glyphosate concentration between 16 and 19 mg l⁻¹ was used, and when mussels or valvae were added, 20 organisms per aquaria were used. Samples were obtained at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21. Glyphosate decreased by 40% under large mussel presence in both experiments, and was reduced by 25% in empty shell treatments. We believe that part of the herbicide that disappears from the water column is adsorbed in valvae surface, while another proportion is being mineralized by microbial communities in shells' biofilm. The mechanisms by which living mussels increase glyphosate dissipation would be degradation, possibly mediated by bacteria associated to mussel's metabolism. Glyphosate half-life depended on mussel and valvae presence and varied with mussel size. L. fortunei presence (either alive or as empty valvae) alters glyphosate concentration in water. We provide preliminary

  4. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Waller, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  5. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  6. Comparative study of immune responses in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and the shallow-water mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged with Vibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eva; Figueras, António; Novoa, Beatriz; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Moreira, Rebeca; Bettencourt, Raul

    2014-10-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and the continental European coast Mytilus galloprovincialis are two bivalves species living in highly distinct marine habitats. Mussels are filter-feeding animals that may accumulate rapidly bacteria from the environment. Contact with microorganism is thus inevitable during feeding processes where gill tissues assume a strategic importance at the interface between the external milieu and the internal body cavities promoting interactions with potential pathogens during normal filtration and a constant challenge to their immune system. In the present study B. azoricus and M. galloprovincialis were exposed to Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus suspensions and to a mixture of these Vibrio suspensions, in order to ascertain the expression level of immune genes in gill samples, from both mussel species. The immune gene expressions were analyzed by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The gene expression results revealed that these bivalve species exhibit significant expression differences between 12 h and 24 h post-challenge times, and between the Vibrio strains used. V. splendidus induced the strongest gene expression level in the two bivalve species whereas the NF-κB and Aggrecan were the most significantly differentially expressed between the two mussel species. When comparing exposure times, both B. azoricus and M. galloprovincialis showed similar percentage of up-regulated genes at 12 h while a marked increased of gene expression was observed at 24 h for the majority of the immune genes in M. galloprovincialis. This contrasts with B. azoricus where the majority of the immune genes were down-regulated at 24 h. The 24 h post-challenge gene expression results clearly bring new evidence supporting time-dependent transcriptional activities resembling acute phase-like responses and different immune responses build-up in these two mussel species when challenged

  7. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  8. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  9. Biomarkers of environmental stress in gills of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra (Nuevo Gulf, Northern Patagonia).

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we assessed in gills of native ribbed mussels Aulacomya atra atra from three sites within Nuevo Gulf (Northern Patagonia) several biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid radicals (LR), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and metallothionein (MT). Furthermore, concentrations of main trace metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) were quantified in mussel tissue. Results showed significant induction of SOD, GST, MT and MDA, as well as, higher concentration of Fe, Al and Cd in winter than in summer. The high MDA content measured in mussels from Folías Wreck seemed to be caused by the very high levels of Fe that would come from the corrosion of the vessel. Mussels from the control site Punta Cuevas presented the lowest levels of Cd and the highest of Al in winter. Despite positive correlations were found between Al and GST and MT, no spatial differentiation was detected in those biomarkers. On the other hand, MT was only related to Al been most likely influenced by environmental variables than by the trace metals. It has to be highlighted that the relationship detected among water temperature, nutrients and antioxidant responses in gills is probably related to the fact that this tissue is in direct contact with water and it is sensitive to its fluctuations. Taking into account that mussel gill is a tissue actively proliferating and the first target of contaminants present in water, so that changes in its antioxidant system can provide an earlier warning signal than in other tissues.

  10. Across-shelf distribution of blue mussel larvae in the northern Gulf of Maine: consequences for population connectivity and a species range boundary.

    PubMed

    Yund, Philip O; Tilburg, Charles E; McCartney, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Studies of population connectivity have largely focused on along-shelf, as opposed to across-shelf, processes. We hypothesized that a discontinuity in across-shelf mixing caused by the divergence of the Eastern Maine Coastal Current (EMCC) from shore acts as an ecological barrier to the supply of mussel larvae to the coast. Existing data on the relative abundance of two congeneric blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus, were analysed to quantify the association of M. trossulus with the colder temperature signal of the EMCC and generate larval distribution predictions. We then sampled the across-shelf distribution of larvae along two transects during 2011. Larvae were identified using restriction digests of PCR amplicons from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Mytilus edulis larvae were consistently abundant on either the inshore and offshore transect ends, but not homogeneously distributed across the shelf, while M. trossulus larvae were less common throughout the study area. The divergence of the EMCC from shore appears to create a break in the connectivity of M. edulis populations by isolating those inshore of the EMCC from upstream larval sources. Across-shelf transport processes can thus produce connectivity patterns that would not be predicted solely on the basis of along-shelf processes.

  11. Dominance of blue mussels versus consumer-mediated enhancement of benthic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Peter; Wahl, Martin

    2004-03-01

    In the shallow subtidal of Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea), the blue mussel Mytilus edulis is the dominant competitor for space. Vertically suspended settlement substrata in the upper 6 m of the water column almost invariably become dominated by M. edulis within a few summer months. However, not all naturally available hard substrata bear mussel monocultures. In three in situ experiments we investigated the dominance of mussels and the influence of local consumers on establishment and dynamics of a benthic community: (a) the natural course of succession in the absence of benthic consumers was followed on vertically suspended settlement substrata, (b) settling plates were exposed to natural recruitment being either accessible or inaccessible to all benthic consumers, and (c) the three major local consumer species, viz. the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the starfish Asterias rubens and the periwinkle Littorina littorea, were enclosed separately in cages containing a settling panel to assess species-specific consumer effects on recruitment. The results illustrate that in this region of the Baltic Sea mussels do have the potential to dominate ungrazed substrata within a few weeks and that top-down effects (predation and grazing) may control community structure. While some species - mussels in particular - were suppressed by consumption, others seemed to benefit from the presence of consumers. Thus, barnacles and algae thrived when consumers were present. Blue mussels being the locally dominant competitor, the beneficial effects of consumers on barnacles and algae were presumably indirect ones through consumer-caused release from asymmetrical competition. The isolated effects of C. maenas, A. rubens and L. littorea, on recruitment differed in quality (positive vs. negative), quantity (strength of effect) and specificity. Barnacle recruitment was significantly reduced in the presence of both starfish and shore crabs. Diatom recruitment was significantly reduced by snails

  12. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water.

  13. Chlorine dioxide treatment for zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarik, D.; Byron, J.; Germer, M.

    1995-06-01

    Chlorine is recognized and commonly used biocide for power plant cooling water and service water treatment programs, including the control of zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide has recently become a popular method of zebra mussel control because of its economy, safety, environmental acceptability, and effectiveness when compared to other mussel control methods. This control technique was recently demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s Alma Generating Station on the east bank of the upper Mississippi River in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was assisted with EPRI Tailored Collaboration Program funds. The Dairyland Power Alam Generating Station consists of five generating units that utilize raw, untreated Mississippi River water for condenser, circulating, and service water supplies. The first units were built in 1947, with the final and largest unit being completed in 1960. Total station generating capacity is 200 MW. Because of recent increases in the zebra mussel density at the station intake, Dairyland Power selected the team of Nalco and Rio Linda to perform a chlorine dioxide treatment of the station`s new water systems to eradicate and control the mussels before their presence created operational difficulties. This paper will present the results of the treatment including treatment theory, design and construction of the treatment system, the method of chlorine dioxide generation, treatment concentration, analytical methods o monitoring chlorine dioxide generation, residuals and trihalomethane (THM) concentrations, protocol for monitoring treatment mortality, and the effects of chlorine dioxide and detoxification on other water chemistry parameters and equipment materials. The goal of this paper is to inform and assist users with establishing consistent and uniform practices for safely utilizing and monitoring chlorine dioxide in the eradication and control of zebra mussels.

  14. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  15. Perturbation induced changes in substrate use by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in sedimentary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wa Kangeri, Arno K.; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Barkman, Barbara R.; Donker, Jasper J. A.; Joppe, Daniel J.; Dankers, Norbert M. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    For sessile benthic marine organisms adhesion to a stable substrate is important for survival. Sedimentary systems, however, generally lack stable surfaces. How sessile species like the mussel, Mytilus edulis, are able to achieve stability in unstable sediments is not fully understood. An intertidal mussel bed in the tidal flats in the Western portion of the Dutch Wadden Sea was selected to investigate adhesion behavior of M. edulis. Sampling was conducted along a hydrodynamic gradient along the Front-edge, Center and Back-edge of a mussel bed. Mussels along the bed edges were characterized by adhesion to fine shell debris and high numbers of byssus threads. Mussels in the center of the bed were characterized by adhesion to shells of living conspecifics and relatively low numbers of byssus threads. An experimental investigation to isolate the role of perturbation on adhesion strategies was carried out under laboratory conditions. Experimental results show that under perturbed conditions mussels developed increased numbers of byssus threads relative to mussels left unperturbed. Additionally, mussels subjected to perturbation preferentially adhered more frequently to fine shell debris while unperturbed mussels adhered more frequently to conspecifics. Results show that differentiation in adhesion strategy is driven by physical perturbation and mediated by bed density. The results also suggest that adhesion by mussels in a sedimentary environment is a selective process in which larger shell fragments and shells of conspecifics are the preferred substrate.

  16. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  17. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors.

  18. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living' document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  19. Validation of the flooding dose technique to determine fractional rates of protein synthesis in a model bivalve species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ian D; Nicholls, Ruth; Malham, Shelagh K; Whiteley, Nia M

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, use of the flooding dose technique using (3)H-Phenylalanine is validated for measuring whole-animal and tissue-specific rates of protein synthesis in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (61mm shell length; 4.0g fresh body mass). Following injection, the phenylalanine-specific radioactivities in the gill, mantle and whole-animal free pools were elevated within one hour and remained elevated and stable for up to 6h following injection of (3)H-phenylalanine into the posterior adductor muscle. Incorporation of (3)H-phenylalanine into body protein was linear over time following injection and the non-significant intercepts for the regressions suggested incorporation into body protein occurred rapidly after injection. These results validate the technique for measuring rates of protein synthesis in mussels. There were no differences in the calculated rates following 1-6h incubation in gill, mantle or whole-animal and fractional rates of protein synthesis from the combined time course data were 9.5±0.8%d(-1) for the gill, 2.5±0.3%d(-1) for the mantle and 2.6±0.3%d(-1) for the whole-animal, respectively (mean values±SEM). The whole-animal absolute rate of protein synthesis was calculated as 18.9±0.6mg protein day(-1). The use of this technique in measuring one of the major components of maintenance metabolism and growth will provide a valuable and convenient tool in furthering our understanding of the protein metabolism and energetics of this keystone marine invertebrate and its ability to adjust and respond to fluctuations, such as that expected as a result of climate change.

  20. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  1. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  2. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  3. Differential metallothionein, reduced glutathione and metal levels in Perna perna mussels in two environmentally impacted tropical bays in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavradas, Raquel T; Rocha, Rafael C C; Bordon, Isabella C A C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Godoy, José M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    Mussel farming is an important economic activity in Brazil, and these organisms are consumed by the majority of the population in most coastal zones in the country. However, despite the increasing pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, little is known about the biochemical activity in mussels in response to metal exposure. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metal and metalloid exposure effects in Perna perna mussels, by determining metal levels, the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis, and oxidative stress, in the form of reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3 contaminated areas from the Guanabara Bay in comparison to a reference site, Ilha Grande Bay, both in summer and winter. Metal and metalloid concentrations were also compared to Brazilian and international guidelines, to verify potential health risks to human consumers. Mussels from all sampling sites were shown to be improper for human consumption due to metal contamination, including Ilha Grande Bay, which has previously been considered a reference site. Several statistically significant correlations and seasonal differences were observed between MT, GSH and metals and metalloids in both analyzed tissues. A Discriminant Canonical Analysis indicated that the digestive gland is a better bioindicator for environmental contamination by metals and metalloids in this species and offers further proof that MT variations observed are due to metal exposure and not oxidative stress, since GSH influence for both muscle tissue and the digestive glands was non-significant in this analysis. These results show that P. perna mussels are an adequate sentinel species for metal contamination with significant effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report metals, metalloids, MT and GSH levels in the muscle tissue of this species.

  4. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 x 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. Cardium was substituted for L. Higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  5. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 ?? 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. cardium was substituted for L. higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  6. Status of native freshwater mussels in Copper Creek, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanlon, S.D.; Petty, M.A.; Neves, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous freshwater mussel surveys conducted in Copper Creek showed a decline in the fauna from 1980 to 1998. In 2004 and 2005, we sampled 47 sites acquiring relative abundance estimates (measured in catch-per-unit-effort) to assess the current status of the mussel fauna relative to previous surveys. We also obtained absolute density estimates for 4 select sites for comparison with future and past surveys. Of the 25 mussel species reported from this and previous surveys, 16 were represented by living specimens, 5 are extant but may soon be extirpated, and 8 are likely extirpated from the creek. Presence-absence analysis showed a significant decline in species per site since 1980. Absolute density estimates (at Copper Creek river km 3.1) decreased significantly from 4.07 mussels/m2 in 1981 to 0.63 mussels/m2 in 2005. The cause of this faunal decline is likely due to several factors, including, most notably, the loss of riparian buffers. Nearly half of the stream banks in Copper Creek have inadequate riparian vegetation to provide even minimal sediment control. Precipitous declines of the Clinch River fauna (a likely source population for several species) may be another significant factor influencing the faunal decline in Copper Creek. Despite these declines, populations of several species may be in a state of recovery. Based on 18 comparable sites, average catch-per-unit-effort in 2005 was 25.16 mussels/hr, significantly higher than the 1998 survey (12.92 mussels/hr).

  7. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  8. Interspecific comparison of the mechanical properties of mussel byssus.

    PubMed

    Brazee, Shanna L; Carrington, Emily

    2006-12-01

    Byssally tethered mussels are found in a variety of habitats, including rocky intertidal, salt marsh, subtidal, and hydrothermal vents. One key to the survival of mussels in these communities is a secure attachment, achieved by the production of byssal threads. Although many studies have detailed the unique biomechanical properties of byssal threads, only a few prevalent species have been examined. This study assesses the variation in the mechanical properties of byssus in a broad range of mussel species from diverse environments, including intertidal and subtidal Mytilus edulis, Modiolus modiolus, Geukensia demissa, Bathymodiolus thermophilus, and Dreissena polymorpha. A tensometer was used to measure quasi-static and dynamic mechanical properties of individual threads, and several aspects of morphology were quantified. The results indicate that thread mechanical properties vary among mussel species, and several novel properties were observed. For example, of the species examined, D. polymorpha threads were the strongest, stiffest, least resilient, and fastest to recover after partial deformation. Threads of M. modiolus were characterized by the presence of two distinct yield regions prior to tensile failure. This comparative study not only provides insight into the ecological limitations and evolution of mussels, but also suggests new models for the design of novel biomimetic polymers.

  9. Reproductive traits of the cold-seep symbiotic mussel Idas modiolaeformis: gametogenesis and larval biology.

    PubMed

    Marylène Gaudron, Sylvie; Demoyencourt, Emile; Duperron, Sébastien

    2012-02-01

    We describe the first reproductive features of a chemosynthetic mussel collected at cold seeps from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Idas modiolaeformis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) is a hermaphroditic species in which production of male and female gametes likely alternates, a feature regarded as an adaptation to patchy and ephemeral habitats. By using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that bacterial symbionts, while present within the gills, are absent within acini that enclose female gametes and male gametes. This supports the hypothesis of environmental acquisition of symbionts in chemosynthetic mytilids. Prodissoconch I (PI) is relatively small compared to prodissoconch II (PII), suggesting a planktotrophic larval stage. Diameters of the two larval shells are in the range of sizes reported for mytilids, with a PII size between that of the shallow Mytilus edulis and that of the cold-seep mussel "Bathymodiolus" childressi.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in mussels from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, document the return to baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A

    2004-12-01

    Bioavailable hydrocarbons in the Exxon Valdez oil spill zone in Prince William Sound (PWS; AK, USA) shorelines were at or near background levels in 2002, as indicated by low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected from sites throughout PWS. Total PAH (TPAH) minus parent naphthalene concentrations in mussels collected in 1998 to 2002 from sites oiled in 1989 were at or near reference-site values. Both oiled and reference sites included locations associated with past human and industrial activity (HA). Inclusion of the unoiled HA sites in the range of reference sites that define prespill conditions is consistent with federal regulations. For the period from 1998 to 2002, the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for 218 mussel samples collected from 72 sites, including four HA sites that had been heavily oiled in 1989, is 54 ng/g dry weight (range, 2-1,190 ng/g). The maximum mussel TPAH concentrations are equivalent to a weathered-oil exposure dose to intertidal foragers that is one to three orders of magnitude less than the doses shown to cause sublethal effects in surrogate species. The geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 28 locations not oiled in 1989 and unaffected by human use (NHA sites) is 28 ng/g (range, 3-355 ng/g), whereas the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 14 locations not oiled in 1989 and affected by human use (HA sites) is 106 ng/g (range, 2-12,056 ng/g). The range of data for the unoiled HA and NHA sites defines the background of bioavailable PAHs to mussels on western PWS shorelines that would have prevailed if the oil spill had not occurred. The low PAH concentrations in mussels from sites known to have subsurface oil residues demonstrates the low bioavailability of these spill remnants and, thus, are a low additional risk to foraging wildlife. The present study shows continuous exposure from four- to six-ring PAHs originating at HA

  11. Restoration and colonization of freshwater mussels and fish in a southeastern United States tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, J.B.; Scott, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The French Broad River originates in North Carolina, flows west into Tennessee and at its confluence with the Holston River forms the Tennessee River. Douglas Dam, located on the French Broad River 52 km above its mouth, is operated primarily for peaking hydroelectric power and flood control. Prior to completion of the dam in 1943, the lower French Broad River contained about 53 species of freshwater mussels and 100 species of fish. By 1977, the fauna in the 52-km-long tailwater was reduced to 12 species of mussels and 42 native species of fish. Improvements in tailwater conditions occurred following initiation of minimum flows in 1987, and consistent reaeration of discharge in 1993. From 1988 to 2002, we sampled three sites (4, 28, and 39 km downstream of the dam) to monitor the fish assemblage. Each year since 1988, we have collected one or more additional species, indicating continued immigration. We collected 82 native and 9 exotic species of fish overall, but the maximum of 67 species in 1 year suggests that some species reside in the tailwater at low densities or all immigrants may not successfully colonize the tailwater. There is limited potential for most extirpated species of mussels to naturally recolonize the tailwater because source populations are isolated. Consequently, 19 754 adult mussels of 19 species were introduced between 1997 and 2000. Survival of translocated mussels has been high, and successful reproduction of at least one translocated species has occurred. Additionally, four mussel species are naturally colonizing the tailwater. Colonization and recruitment of additional mussel species is expected as populations of their host fishes increase. We believe that the improved conditions of the tailwater may allow for the re-establishment of sustaining populations of 30 mussel species of historic occurrence, but the continued operation of Douglas Dam as a peaking hydroelectric project will reduce the probability of successfully reintroducing some

  12. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  13. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  14. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  15. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  16. Mortality of unionid bivalves (Mollusca) associated with Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Masteller, Edwin C.

    1999-01-01

    Two exotic species of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) began to colonize bottom substrates in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie in 1990. By 1991, all native unionid (Unionidae) shells were infested by dreissenids. In 1990 and 1991, about 500 individual unionids of 15 species were collected: in 1992, 246 individuals of 12 species were collected; in 1993, 64 individuals of 6 species; in 1994, three individuals of three species; and in 1995, no unionids were found. In general, infestation indices of unionids were relatively low in 1990 and 1991, increased in 1992, and decreased in 1993. Mortality of unionids associated with infestation in the bay occurred in a shorter period of time (ca. two to three years) than has been documented in other water bodies. Observations in an area of Presque Isle not included in the present study, indicate that a small remnant population of unionids exists in the presence of heavily-colonized substrates by dreissenid mussels. Since other shallow-water areas of Lake Erie support infestation-free unionids in the presence of dreissenid mussels, it is hoped that some unionids will survive in Presque Isle Bay of Lake Erie.

  17. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  18. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James T; Wisniewski, Jason M; Shea, Colin P; Jackson, C Rhett

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  19. Estimation of Mussel Population Response to Hydrologic Alteration in a Southeastern U.S. Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Shea, Colin P.; Rhett Jackson, C.

    2011-07-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels ( Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  20. Sea Otters Homogenize Mussel Beds and Reduce Habitat Provisioning in a Rocky Intertidal Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gerald G.; Markel, Russell W.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Salomon, Anne K.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity) by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities. PMID:23717697

  1. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, J.T.; Wisniewski, J.M.; Shea, C.P.; Rhett, Jackson C.

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola- Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  2. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gerald G; Markel, Russell W; Martone, Rebecca G; Salomon, Anne K; Harley, Christopher D G; Chan, Kai M A

    2013-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass) and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity) by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  3. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually <3.0°C, sediments were up to 7.5°C cooler at one site in May, suggesting site-specific variation in the ability of sediments to act as thermal buffers. Sediment temperatures in the UMR exceeded those shown to cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  4. The bitterling-mussel coevolutionary relationship in areas of recent and ancient sympatry.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Martin; Polačik, Matej; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Spence, Rowena; Gaygusuz, Ozcan; Ercan, Ertan; Ondračková, Markéta; Smith, Carl

    2010-10-01

    Host-parasite relationships are often characterized by the rapid evolution of parasite adaptations to exploit their host, and counteradaptations in the host to avoid the costs imposed by parasitism. Hence, the current coevolutionary state between a parasite and its hosts is predicted to vary according to the history of sympatry and local abundance of interacting species. We compared a unique reciprocal coevolutionary relationship of a fish, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and freshwater mussels (Unionidae) between areas of recent (Central Europe) and ancient (Turkey) sympatry. Bitterling parasitize freshwater mussels by laying their eggs in the gills of mussel and, in turn, mussel larvae (glochidia) parasitize the fish. We found that all bitterling from both regions avoided one mussel species. Preferences among other mussel species tended to be related to local mussel abundance rather than duration of sympatry. Individual fish were not consistent in their oviposition choices, precluding the evolution of host-specific lineages. Mussels were demonstrated to have evolved strong defenses to bitterling parasitism in the area of ancient sympatry, but have no such defenses in the large areas of Europe where bitterling are currently invasive. Bitterling avoided glochidia infection irrespective of the duration of sympatry.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Marine organisms are known to adsorb and accumulate PAH's from water. Mussels due to their widespread distribution in coastal waters have been studied in many laboratory and field experiments for their responses to PAH exposures. The occurrence of PAH's has been studied also in fish. This report presents preliminary data for the PAH content in blue mussel and fish from the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Mussel and fish samples were collected from the Finnish Archipelago Sea during 1978-1979.

  6. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana )

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  7. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  8. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-08-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation.

  9. Enemies with benefits: parasitic endoliths protect mussels against heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Zardi, G. I.; Nicastro, K. R.; McQuaid, C. D.; Ng, T. P. T.; Lathlean, J.; Seuront, L.

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative aspects of species interactions can be context dependant and strongly affected by environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that, during periods of intense heat stress, parasitic phototrophic endoliths that fatally degrade mollusc shells can benefit their mussel hosts. Endolithic infestation significantly reduced body temperatures of sun-exposed mussels and, during unusually extreme heat stress, parasitised individuals suffered lower mortality rates than non-parasitised hosts. This beneficial effect was related to the white discolouration caused by the excavation activity of endoliths. Under climate warming, species relationships may be drastically realigned and conditional benefits of phototrophic endolithic parasites may become more important than the costs of infestation. PMID:27506855

  10. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago.

  11. 78 FR 48898 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... species of freshwater crayfish, 2 species of freshwater snails, and 43 species of freshwater mussels for... (Percina antesella), Conasauga logperch (Percina jenkinsi), snail darter (Percina tanasi), blackside...

  12. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships.

  13. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2015-08-14

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships.

  14. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2015-08-19

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships.

  15. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  16. The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, J.; Richer, Y.; Messer, R.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

  17. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    chapter provides background information including a history of the zebra mussel invasion in the U.S. and in the West, and details about the Colorado preventative management program and the Colorado-Big Thompson system. The chapter also includes a literature review of mussel dispersal models and economic studies that address control costs and preventative management for aquatic invasive species. Chapter 2 presents the methodological approach used to analyze the costs and benefits of preventative management in the Colorado-Big Thompson system and provides details of the bioeconomic simulation model used to predict invasion patterns and the net benefits of preventative management. Results of the analysis and sensitivity testing of model parameters are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 provides a summary of the analysis and conclusions. A discussion of the limitations of the model and areas for future research is presented in Chapter 5.

  18. Freshwater mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River, Virginia and Tennessee, USA: a featured collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipper, Carl E.; Beaty, Braven; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Jess W.; Krstolic, Jennifer Lynn; Ostby, Brett J.K.; Wolfe, William J.; Donovan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Clinch River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee is arguably the most important river for freshwater mussel conservation in the United States. This featured collection presents investigations of mussel population status and habitat quality in the Clinch River. Analyses of historic water- and sediment-quality data suggest that water column ammonia and water column and sediment metals, including Cu and Zn, may have contributed historically to declining densities and extirpations of mussels in the river's Virginia sections. These studies also reveal increasing temporal trends for dissolved solids concentrations throughout much of the river's extent. Current mussel abundance patterns do not correspond spatially with physical habitat quality, but they do correspond with specific conductance, dissolved major ions, and water column metals, suggesting these and/or associated constituents as factors contributing to mussel declines. Mussels are sensitive to metals. Native mussels and hatchery-raised mussels held in cages in situ accumulated metals in their body tissues in river sections where mussels are declining. Organic compound and bed-sediment contaminant analyses did not reveal spatial correspondences with mussel status metrics, although potentially toxic levels were found. Collectively, these studies identify major ions and metals as water- and sediment-quality concerns for mussel conservation in the Clinch River.

  19. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M

    1993-11-01

    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  20. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  1. An evaluation of freshwater mussel toxicity data in the derivation of water quality guidance and standards for copper.

    PubMed

    March, Ferrella A; Dwyer, F James; Augspurger, Tom; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Wang, Ning; Mebane, Christopher A

    2007-10-01

    The state of Oklahoma has designated several areas as freshwater mussel sanctuaries in an attempt to provide freshwater mussel species a degree of protection and to facilitate their reproduction. We evaluated the protection afforded freshwater mussels by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness-based 1996 ambient copper water quality criteria, the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model and the 2005 state of Oklahoma copper water quality standards. Both the criterion maximum concentration and criterion continuous concentration were evaluated. Published acute and chronic copper toxicity data that met American Society for Testing and Materials guidance for test acceptability were obtained for exposures conducted with glochidia or juvenile freshwater mussels. We tabulated toxicity data for glochidia and juveniles to calculate 20 species mean acute values for freshwater mussels. Generally, freshwater mussel species mean acute values were similar to those of the more sensitive species included in the U.S. EPA water quality derivation database. When added to the database of genus mean acute values used in deriving 1996 copper water quality criteria, 14 freshwater mussel genus mean acute values included 10 of the lowest 15 genus mean acute values, with three mussel species having the lowest values. Chronic exposure and sublethal effects freshwater mussel data available for four species and acute to chronic ratios were used to evaluate the criterion continuous concentration. On the basis of the freshwater mussel toxicity data used in this assessment, the hardness-based 1996 U.S. EPA water quality criteria, the 2005 Oklahoma water quality standards, and the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model might need to be revised to afford protection to freshwater mussels.

  2. An evaluation of freshwater mussel toxicity data in the derivation of water quality guidance and standards for copper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    March, F.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Augspurger, T.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.; Mebane, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The state of Oklahoma has designated several areas as freshwater mussel sanctuaries in an attempt to provide freshwater mussel species a degree of protection and to facilitate their reproduction. We evaluated the protection afforded freshwater mussels by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) hardness-based 1996 ambient copper water quality criteria, the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model and the 2005 state of Oklahoma copper water quality standards. Both the criterion maximum concentration and criterion continuous concentration were evaluated. Published acute and chronic copper toxicity data that met American Society for Testing and Materials guidance for test acceptability were obtained for exposures conducted with glochidia or juvenile freshwater mussels. We tabulated toxicity data for glochidia and juveniles to calculate 20 species mean acute values for freshwater mussels. Generally, freshwater mussel species mean acute values were similar to those of the more sensitive species included in the U.S. EPA water quality derivation database. When added to the database of genus mean acute values used in deriving 1996 copper water quality criteria, 14 freshwater mussel genus mean acute values included 10 of the lowest 15 genus mean acute values, with three mussel species having the lowest values. Chronic exposure and sublethal effects freshwater mussel data available for four species and acute to chronic ratios were used to evaluate the criterion continuous concentration. On the basis of the freshwater mussel toxicity data used in this assessment, the hardness-based 1996 U.S. EPA water quality criteria, the 2005 Oklahoma water quality standards, and the 2007 U.S. EPA water quality criteria based on the biotic ligand model might need to be revised to afford protection to freshwater mussels. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  3. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  4. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  5. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G

    2006-05-25

    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area.

  6. Zebra mussel beds: an effective feeding ground for Ponto-Caspian gobies or suitable shelter for their prey?

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Jarosław; Jermacz, Łukasz; Kakareko, Tomasz; Prądzynski, Daniel; Łodygowska, Małgorzata; Montowska, Karolina; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of the Ponto-Caspian invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) constitute a suitable habitat for macroinvertebrates, considerably increasing their abundance and providing effective antipredator protection. Thus, the overall effect of a mussel bed on particular predator species may vary from positive to negative, depending on both prey density increase and predator ability to prey in a structurally complex habitat. Alien Ponto-Caspian goby fish are likely to be facilitated when introduced into new areas by zebra mussels, provided that they are capable of utilizing mussel beds as habitat and feeding grounds. We ran laboratory experiments to find which prey (chironomid larvae) densities (from ca. 500 to 2,000 individuals m−2) in a mussel bed make it a more beneficial feeding ground for the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus (RG) and western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (WTG) compared to sandy and stone substrata (containing the basic prey density of 500 ind. m−2). Moreover, we checked how food availability affects habitat selection by fish. Mussel beds became more suitable for fish than alternative mineral substrata when food abundance was at least two times higher (1,000 vs. 500 ind. m−2), regardless of fish size and species. WTG was associated with mussel beds regardless of its size and prey density, whereas RG switched to this habitat when it became a better feeding ground than alternative substrata. Larger RG exhibited a stronger affinity for mussels than small individuals. WTG fed more efficiently from a mussel bed at high food abundances than RG. A literature review has shown that increasing chironomid density, which in our study was sufficient to make a mussel habitat an attractive feeding ground for the gobies, is commonly observed in mussel beds in the field. Therefore, we conclude that zebra mussels may positively affect the alien goby species and are likely to facilitate their establishment in novel areas, contributing to an

  7. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  8. Quantitative histopathology of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) exposed to the harmful dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    PubMed

    Carella, F; Sardo, A; Mangoni, O; Di Cioccio, D; Urciuolo, G; De Vico, G; Zingone, A

    2015-05-01

    Ostreopsis cf. ovata is a benthic dinoflagellate that produces palytoxin-like compounds that adversely affect both marine vertebrates and invertebrates and are reported to be responsible for human intoxication in aerosol form. In this work, a histopathological analysis accompanied by quantitative evaluation of tissue injury in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to O. cf. ovata cells under natural and experimental conditions, provided baseline data on the health status of the mussels in terms of defensive and regressive pathological changes. We recorded a total of 15 health parameters in the digestive system, muscle, kidney and gills in mussels exposed to O. cf. ovata both in the laboratory and at sea. Animals exposed to different concentrations of O. cf. ovata cells (300, 500 and 1000cellsml(-)(1)) for 48h showed activation of the inflammatory response, which increased with the cell concentration, mainly characterized by haemocyte aggregates actively enclosing the algae, while mussel mortality was also recorded in some cases. Moreover the use of image analysis for the evaluation of digestive tubule damage revealed a pronounced increase in the lumen in terms of its area, perimeter and circularity, with a shift in a high percentage of tubules from an adsorbing profile to an atrophic profile. Animals collected from the natural environment during a summer bloom of O. cf. ovata in the Gulf of Naples (Italy) showed comparable lesions in terms of types and severity. This is the first quantitative study assessing damage to the digestive epithelia in terms of lumen modifications in mussels exposed to O. cf. ovata. The presented methodology provides a new technique for automating the evaluation of epithelial tubule modifications. Our results highlight the importance of monitoring the presence of O. cf. ovata in this area, taking into account the effects on the residing marine species.

  9. Water and sediment quality factors affecting unionid mussel populations in the Clinch River, Virginia, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hassel, J.H Van; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Farris, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Clinch River contains a very diverse unionid mussel fauna of 45 species, including 21 endemics and 11 federally listed endangered species. Recent surveys indicate that the mussel fauna is in decline in several areas of the river. To study this problem, differences in unionid mussel species-distribution, density, size demography, physiological condition, and contaminant body burden were quantified at sixteen sites encompassing 200 miles of the Clinch River in Virginia. These differences were associated with corresponding site differences in physical habitat and water and sediment contamination attributable to point (STPS, small industries) and nonpoint (abandoned mine lands, agriculture) discharge sources. Some of the documented impacts have been severe enough to prevent successful recruitment into local populations of several unionid species for several years. Validation of these sources of impact will allow evaluation of specific watershed management options for the protection and enhancement of unionid mussel resources of the Clinch River.

  10. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia, and associated human health risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; El Megdiche, Yassine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Ameur, Walid Ben; Mekni, Sabrine; Bouabdallah, Sondes; Derouiche, Abdelkader; Touil, Soufiane; Cachot, Jérôme; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to measure PAHs concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and fish (Anguilla anguilla) from the Bizerte lagoon (north Tunisia), and evaluate their distribution and sources, in order to provide a baseline of the state of PAH contamination in this lagoon and assess their human health risk. For this purpose, several native mussel and fish specimens were collected and analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection for 15 EPA priority PAHs. PAHs levels in mussels and fish ranged from 107.4 to 430.7 ng g-1 dw and 114.5-133.7 ng g-1 dw, respectively. Naphthalene was the major component measured in mussels (31.5-272.6 ng g-1 dw) and fish (57.9-68.6 ng g-1 dw) and all specimens were classified as moderately contaminated. The PAHs composition pattern was similar for both species and was dominated by the presence of PAHs with 2- to 3-rings. The study of PAH ratios indicated a mixed petrogenic/pyrolytic origin. The health risks by consumption of these species was assessed and showed to present no threat to public health concerning PAH intakes. The results of this study would provide a useful aid for sustainable marine management in the region.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of predation, herbivory and surface rugosity on mussel recruitment.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, Peter S

    1990-06-01

    The predatory gastropod Nucella lapillus, commonly preys upon the mussel, Mytilus edulis, and is thought to control the distribution and abundance of mussels on the rocky shores of New England, USA. In this study, done in Maine, USA, not only the presence of Nucella lapillus but also the roughness of the experimental surface and the presence of the herbivorous gastropod, Littorina littorea, were manipulated. Four types of surfaces were used as recruitment substrata for mussels: smooth bare granite, aggregations of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, fiberglass resin castings of smooth bare granite and resin castings of aggregations of S. balanoides. To ensure that caged N. lapillus were not starving, barnacles were provided as alternative prey. Experiments showed no detectable effect of N. lapillus on the recruitment of M. edulis. Mussel recruitment was enhanced by surface rugosity and depressed by the activities of L. littorea. Analysis of covariance, using the number of algal species as the covariate, suggested that L. littorea reduced the number of newlyrecruited mussels by removing algae that provided recruitment sites, but no manipulations were done to test this conjecture. It is likely that previous reports of N. lapillus controlling mussel abundance are attributable to N. lapillus preying upon barnacles, which increase surface rugosity and enhance mussel recruitment. Review of literature on feeding preferences of N. lapillus supports this view. When handling times and prey availability are taken into account, Nucella shows a clear preference for barnacles over mussels.

  12. Bioactive compounds from marine mussels and their effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Grienke, Ulrike; Silke, Joe; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of marine mussels as popular seafood has increased steadily over the past decades. Awareness of mussel derived molecules, that promote health, has contributed to extensive research efforts in that field. This review highlights the bioactive potential of mussel components from species of the genus Mytilus (e.g. M. edulis) and Perna (e.g. P. canaliculus). In particular, the bioactivity related to three major chemical classes of mussel primary metabolites, i.e. proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, is evaluated. Within the group of proteins the focus is mainly on mussel peptides e.g. those obtained by bio-transformation processes, such as fermentation. In addition, mussel lipids, comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are discussed as compounds that are well known for prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Within the third group of carbohydrates, mussel polysaccharides are investigated. Furthermore, the importance of monitoring the mussel as food material in respect to contaminations with natural toxins produced by microalgae is discussed.

  13. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  14. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  15. Development and evaluation of methods to assess sublethal impacts of contaminants on freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.

    1995-12-31

    While a number of test methods have been used to evaluate the acute lethality of contaminants to freshwater mussels, far fewer techniques are available to measure chronic sublethal impacts. The authors selected respiration rate, ammonia excretion, glycogen stores and cholinesterase activity for evaluation as sublethal indicators of toxicity. Adults of three species, Utterbackia imbeciles, Elliptio icterina and Lampsilis teres, were sampled monthly to determine a baseline response for each of these measures as mussels experienced the changing seasons and reproductive cycle. Adaptations of assays developed for other mussel or animal species were made to maximize the response of some indicators.Differences based on mussel species and sex, and assayed tissue were measured. The potential use of these assays as indicators of contaminant stress was determined, as were personnel and material costs.

  16. Comparing and determining the causes of ribbed mussel nitrogen isotope signatures in three New England sub-watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geukensia demissa, the ribbed mussel, is a useful indicator of sources of nitrogen input into coastal watersheds as it possesses a slow tissue turnover rate and is a common salt marsh species. During the summer of 2016, we sampled ribbed mussels from three New England sub-watersh...

  17. Wide-band tracheids are present in almost all species of Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Mauseth, James D

    2004-02-01

    Wide-band tracheids (WBTs) have been found in seedlings of most species of cacti that have fibrous wood in their adult bodies. Consequently, this cell type is now known to be present in almost all cacti. Earlier studies of adult plants revealed WBTs to be present only in cacti with globose or short, broad bodies, whereas all species with large columnar or long slender bodies had fibrous wood without WBTs. However, even these species produce WBTs during the first several months after germination. In species with fibrous wood in their adult bodies (species with large or slender bodies), seedlings undergo a phase transition in wood morphogenesis after a few months and stop producing the juvenile (WBT) wood and begin producing adult (fibrous) wood. If adult plants have an intermediate size, the phase transition is delayed and the plant produces WBT wood for several years. Species with globose bodies repress the phase transition completely and never switch to producing adult (fibrous) wood. Because WBTs are so widespread, they probably originated only once in Cactaceae, not multiple times as suggested earlier, or there may have been just a single origin in the Cactaceae/Portulacaceae clade.

  18. Fluoranthene transport in mussel blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lazinsky, D.; Robinson, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The role of mussel (Mytilus edulis) blood plasma in fluoranthene transport was investigated using in vitro binding studies and invivo exposure studies. In vitro binding studies on fluoranthene-spiked plasma utilized dialysis, ultrafiltration and fluorescence quenching. A significant degree of fluoranthene binding was observed with all the methods; as much 99.7% of the fluoranthene was bound to plasma proteins. Conditional affinity constants (log K{sub a}), calculated using a single component complexation model, averaged 6.8 M{sup {minus}1} suggesting a moderate affinity interaction between fluoranthene and plasma proteins. Mussels were exposed in vivo to {sup 3}H-fluoranthene and blood and tissues were sampled at 0.5, 3.5, 7, 24, 72 h post exposure. The mussels removed an average of 90% of the fluoranthene from the seawater within the first 0.5 h of exposure. Body tissues rapidly accumulated fluoranthene. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose was present in the tissues by 0.5 h and this increased to 96% by 3.5 h of exposure. Within the blood, fluoranthene was mainly partitioned in the plasma. Plasma fluoranthene decreased to 50% within 3.5 h. The fluoranthene distribution remained relatively constant throughout the remainder of the 72 h exposure. Ultrafiltration of plasma exposed in vivo indicated that fluoranthene was not free, but bound to plasma proteins. The plasma protein concentrations fluctuated during exposure, but were virtually the same at 0.5 h and 72 h post exposure.

  19. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  20. Heavy metal determinations in algae, mussels and clams. Their possible employment for assessing the sea water quality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2003-05-01

    An empirical criterion for a possible classification of sea water quality is proposed. It is based on the knowledge of metal content in algae (Ulva Rigida) mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) and clams (Tapes Philippinarum), three species present in marine ecosystems. The elements considered are Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cr. The anatytical technique employed is Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The analytical procedure has been verified on three standard reference materials : Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, Ulva Lactuca BCR-CRM 279 and Mussel Tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, accuracy and precision are given : the former, expressed as retative error (e). and the latter, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), were in all cases lower than 6%.

  1. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  2. Modelling growth variability in longline mussel farms as a function of stocking density and farm design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosland, Rune; Bacher, Cédric; Strand, Øivind; Aure, Jan; Strohmeier, Tore

    2011-11-01

    Mussels ( Mytilus edulis) are commonly cultivated on artificial structures like rafts, poles or longlines to facilitate farming operations. Farm structures and dense mussel populations may result in water flow reduction and seston depletion and thus reduced individual mussel growth and spatial growth variability inside a farm. One of the challenges in mussel farming is thus to scale and configure farms in order to optimise total mussel production and individual mussel quality under different environmental regimes. Here we present a spatially resolved model for simulation of flow reduction, seston depletion and individual mussel growth inside a longline farm based on information about farm configuration (spacing between longlines, farm length and stocking density) and background environmental conditions (current speed, seston concentration and temperature). The model simulations are forced by environmental data from two fjords in south-western Norway and the farm configurations are defined within operational ranges. The simulations demonstrate spatial growth patterns at longlines under environmental settings and farm configurations where flow reduction and seston depletion have significant impacts on individual mussel growth. Longline spacing has a strong impact on the spatial distribution of individual growth, and the spacing is characterised by a threshold value. Below the threshold growth reduction and spatial growth variability increase rapidly as a consequence of reduced water flow and seston supply rate, but increased filtration due to higher mussel densities also contributes to the growth reduction. The spacing threshold is moderated by other farm configuration factors and environmental conditions. Comparisons with seston depletion reported from other farm sites show that the model simulations are within observed ranges. A demonstration is provided on how the model can guide farm configuration with the aim of optimising total farm biomass and individual

  3. Evidence of coprostanol estrogenicity to the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Lachance, B; Sunahara, G I; Sabik, H

    2001-01-01

    Coprostanol (5 beta (H)-cholestan-3 beta ol) is a reduced metabolite of cholesterol produced by micro-organisms found in the intestinal tract of mammals. This substance abounds in urban effluents and is accumulated by organisms living in the vicinity of municipal effluent outfalls. In an earlier study, freshwater mussels exposed to contaminated river water for 62 days accumulated large quantities of coprostanol (Cop) in their soft tissues (16 micrograms/g dry wt.). Moreover, these mussels were found to have elevated levels of vitellin in their hemolymphs, suggesting estrogenic effects. Although municipal wastewaters are known to contain other estrogenic compounds capable of inducing Vn synthesis in mussels, the estrogenic potential of coprostanol was singled out for examination. To this end, mussels were first injected with concentrations of coprostanol via the abductor muscle route, and allowed to stand in aerated water for 72 h at 15 degrees C. The levels of Vn in mussel hemolymph were assayed using the organic alkali-labile phosphate method. A competitive estradiol-binding assay was then devised to measure the ability of coprostanol to compete in the binding of fluorescein-labeled estradiol-albumin to cytosolic proteins. Coprostanol partially reversed the binding of labeled estradiol-albumin to cytosolic proteins with an EC50 of 1 mM. In addition, injections of coprostanol and estradiol-17 beta led to increased levels of vitellins in the hemolymph of treated mussels. Moreover, incubation of cop in gonad homogenate extracts in the presence of NADPH led to the formation of two compounds, as determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. One of these compounds appears to be the C17 oxidation product of coprostanol, whose polarity is similar to that of estradiol. The results present evidence that coprostanol is estrogenic to freshwater mussels.

  4. Standardization of the juvenile mussel bioassay: Dietary requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, L.W.; Klaine, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Optimizing a feeding regime is essential for establishing juvenile mussels (Utterbackia imbecillus) as a standard toxicity test organism. Although very little is known about their dietary requirements, these juveniles appear to derive adequate nourishment for survival and growth in batch culture from a diet of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus falcatus. However, results of previous studies have suggested that mussel diet in culture prior to exposure influences the sensitivity of these organisms to aqueous copper and cadmium exposure. Dietary components included three species of live algae (A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and Scenedesmus quadricauda) and a suspension of rehydrated, dried Spirulina sp. Less than 24-hr laboratory cultured juveniles were fed all four components or combinations of three algal species daily to determine which mixtures promoted maximal growth. Preliminary data showed growth of control mussels receiving no food was comparable to those organisms fed all four algal species in combination. The greatest increase in shell length of juvenile mussels over 6 days was obtained with the tri-algal combination of A. falcatus, C. vulgaris, and S. quadricauda. The mixture resulting in the least growth included A. falcatus, S. quadricauda, and dried Spirulina sp.

  5. Mussel byssus and biomolecular materials.

    PubMed

    Deming, T J

    1999-02-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins are remarkable materials that display an extraordinary capability to adhere to substrates underwater. Recent investigations from groups with quite diverse areas of expertise have made substantial progress in the identification of the genes and proteins that are involved in adhesive formation. These discoveries have led to the development of recombinant proteins and synthetic polypeptides that are able to reproduce the properties of mussel adhesives for applications in medicine and biotechnology.

  6. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dreissenid mussels have yet to be detected in the northwestern part of the United States and western Canada. Infestation of one of the jurisdictions within the mussel-free Pacific Northwest would likely have significant economic, soci­etal and environmental implications for the entire region. Understanding the biology and environmental tolerances of dreissenid mussels, and effectiveness of various man­agement strategies, is key to prevention.On November 4-5, 2015, the Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute and the Center for Lakes and Reservoirs at Portland State University, the US Geological Survey, and the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, convened a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The purpose of the workshop was to review dreissenid research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters, reassess those priorities, incorporate new information and emerging trends, and develop priorities to strategically focus research efforts on zebra and quagga mussels in the Pacific Northwest and ensure that future research is focused on the highest priorities. It is important to note that there is some repetition among dreissenid research priority categories (e.g., prevention, detection, control, monitoring, and biology).Workshop participants with research experience in dreissenid mussel biology and management were identified by a literature review. State and federal agency managers were also invited to the workshop to ensure relevancy and practicality of the work­shop outcomes. A total of 28 experts (see sidebar) in mussel biology, ecology, and management attended the workshop.

  7. Effects of temperature change on mussel, Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Zippay, Mackenzie L; Helmuth, Brian

    2012-09-01

    An increasing body of research has demonstrated the often idiosyncratic responses of organisms to climate-related factors, such as increases in air, sea and land surface temperatures, especially when coupled with non-climatic stressors. This argues that sweeping generalizations about the likely impacts of climate change on organisms and ecosystems are likely less valuable than process-based explorations that focus on key species and ecosystems. Mussels in the genus Mytilus have been studied for centuries, and much is known of their physiology and ecology. Like other intertidal organisms, these animals may serve as early indicators of climate change impacts. As structuring species, their survival has cascading impacts on many other species, making them ecologically important, in addition to their economic value as a food source. Here, we briefly review the categories of information available on the effects of temperature change on mussels within this genus. Although a considerable body of information exists about the genus in general, knowledge gaps still exist, specifically in our ability to predict how specific populations are likely to respond to the effects of multiple stressors, both climate and non-climate related, and how these changes are likely to result in ecosystem-level responses. Whereas this genus provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of climate change on natural and human-managed ecosystems, much work remains if we are to make predictions of likely impacts of environmental change on scales that are relevant to climate adaptation.

  8. Mussel attachment on rocky shores: the effect of flow on byssus production.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emily; Moeser, Gretchen M; Thompson, Sean B; Coutts, Laura C; Craig, Carrie A

    2008-12-01

    Mussels rely on a strong byssal attachment to persist in a range of habitats with differing rates of water flow. Recent studies, however, suggest that the ability of one mussel species to sense and respond adaptively to the flow in its environment is limited under even modest flow conditions because the process of byssal thread formation is disrupted. This study extends these findings to four mussel species, Mytilus trossulus, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus, and Modiolus modiolus. Collectively, the response of byssal thread formation decreased with rates of flow above ∼25 cm/s and the critical flow threshold was estimated to be <50 cm/s. How can mussels persist on shores where flow is an order of magnitude higher? Using a combination of techniques for measuring flow, velocity profiles were obtained above and within mussel aggregations in the laboratory and in the field. Flow was greatly reduced within mussel aggregations, ranging from 0.1% to 10% of free-stream velocity. These results suggest one key to the success of mussels in habitats with high rates of flow is the ability to form aggregations that ameliorate flows to a level that is conducive to byssal thread formation.

  9. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and < 1 to 35 zebra mussels/unionid, respectively. Zebra mussel infestation of unionids in the delta appears to be mitigated by dominant offshore currents, which limit densities of zebra mussel veligers in nearshore compared to offshore waters (13,600 vs. 28,000/m3, respectively). Glycogen concentrations in the tissues of a common and widespread species in the delta (Lampsilis siliquoidea) suggest that zebra mussels may be adversely affecting physiological condition of unionids in a portion of the Lake St. Clair delta. Physiological condition and community structure of unionids within the delta may also be influenced by differences in food quantity and quality resulting from the uneven distribution of water flowing from the St. Clair River. The delta likely supports the largest living unionid community in the lower Great Lakes and includes several species that have been listed as Endangered or Threatened in Canada and/or the state of Michigan, making it an important refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  10. Exposure of unionid mussels to electric current: Assessing risks associated with electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Cope, W.G.; Levine, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Electric current is routinely applied in freshwater for scientific sampling of fish populations (i.e., electrofishing). Freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) are distributed worldwide, but their recent declines in diversity and abundance constitute an imperilment of global significance. Freshwater mussels are not targeted for capture by electrofishing, and any exposure to electric current is unintentional. The effects of electric shock are not fully understood for mussels but could disrupt vital physiological processes and represent an additional threat to their survival. In a controlled laboratory environment, we examined the consequences of exposure to two typical electrofishing currents, 60-Hz pulsed DC and 60-Hz AC, for the survival of adult and early life stages of three unionid species; we included fish as a quality control measure. The outcomes suggest that electrical exposure associated with typical electrofishing poses little direct risk to freshwater mussels. That is, adult mussel survival and righting behaviors (indicators of sublethal stress) were not adversely affected by electrical exposure. Glochidia (larvae that attach to and become parasites on fish gills or fins) showed minimal immediate reduction in viability after exposure. Metamorphosis from glochidia to free-living juvenile mussels was not impaired after electric current simulated capture-prone behaviors (stunning) in infested host fish. In addition, the short-term survival of juvenile mussels was not adversely influenced by exposure to electric current. Any minimal risk to imperiled mussels must be weighed at the population level against the benefits gained by using the gear for scientific sampling of fish in the same waters. However, scientists sampling fish by electrofishing should be aware of mussel reproductive periods and processes in order to minimize the harmful effects to host fish, especially in areas where mussel conservation is a concern. ?? Copyright by the

  11. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment.

  12. Comprehensive mollusk acute toxicity database improves the use of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) models to predict toxicity of untested freshwater and endangered mussel species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models extrapolate acute toxicity data from surrogate test species to untested taxa. A suite of ICE models developed from a comprehensive database is available on the US Environmental Protection Agency’s web-based application, Web-I...

  13. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  14. Embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocide zinc pyrithione to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Granmo, Ke; Beiras, Ricardo

    2005-11-01

    The effects of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) were investigated in laboratory toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 7.7 nM for sea urchin embryos and 8 nM for mussel embryos. Toxic effects of Zpt on the larval growth of the sea urchin were detected at 0.5 nM. Predicted environmental concentrations of Zpt in pleasure craft harbours are higher than the predicted no effect concentrations for sea urchin and mussel embryos, indicating that Zpt may pose a threat to those species from exposure in the field.

  15. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  16. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J.

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  17. Mussel dynamics model: A hydroinformatics tool for analyzing the effects of different stressors on the dynamics of freshwater mussel communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A model for simulating freshwater mussel population dynamics is presented. The model is a hydroinformatics tool that integrates principles from ecology, river hydraulics, fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies the individual-based modelling approach for simulating population dynamics. The general model layout, data requirements, and steps of the simulation process are discussed. As an illustration, simulation results from an application in a 10 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River are presented. The model was used to investigate the spatial distribution of mussels and the effects of food competition in native unionid mussel communities, and communities infested by Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Simulation results were found to be realistic and coincided with data obtained from the literature. These results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of different stressors on long-term population dynamics, and consequently, may improve the current understanding of cause and effect relationships in freshwater mussel communities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the mussel Elliptio complanata identifies candidate stress-response genes and an abundance of novel or noncoding transcripts.

    PubMed

    Cornman, Robert S; Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather; Blakeslee, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Mussels are useful indicator species of environmental stress and degradation, and the global decline in freshwater mussel diversity and abundance is of conservation concern. Elliptio complanata is a common freshwater mussel of eastern North America that can serve both as an indicator and as an experimental model for understanding mussel physiology and genetics. To support genetic components of these research goals, we assembled transcriptome contigs from Illumina paired-end reads. Despite efforts to collapse similar contigs, the final assembly was in excess of 136,000 contigs with an N50 of 982 bp. Even so, comparisons to the CEGMA database of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated that ∼ 20% of genes remain unrepresented. However, numerous candidate stress-response genes were present, and we identified lineage-specific patterns of diversification among molluscs for cytochrome P450 detoxification genes and two saccharide-modifying enzymes: 1,3 beta-galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase. Less than a quarter of contigs had protein-level similarity based on modest BLAST and Hmmer3 statistical thresholds. These results add comparative genomic resources for molluscs and suggest a wealth of novel proteins and noncoding transcripts.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of the mussel Elliptio complanata identifies candidate stress-response genes and an abundance of novel or noncoding transcripts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornman, Robert S.; Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussels are useful indicator species of environmental stress and degradation, and the global decline in freshwater mussel diversity and abundance is of conservation concern. Elliptio complanata is a common freshwater mussel of eastern North America that can serve both as an indicator and as an experimental model for understanding mussel physiology and genetics. To support genetic components of these research goals, we assembled transcriptome contigs from Illumina paired-end reads. Despite efforts to collapse similar contigs, the final assembly was in excess of 136,000 contigs with an N50 of 982 bp. Even so, comparisons to the CEGMA database of conserved eukaryotic genes indicated that ∼20% of genes remain unrepresented. However, numerous candidate stress-response genes were present, and we identified lineage-specific patterns of diversification among molluscs for cytochrome P450 detoxification genes and two saccharide-modifying enzymes: 1,3 beta-galactosyltransferase and fucosyltransferase. Less than a quarter of contigs had protein-level similarity based on modest BLAST and Hmmer3 statistical thresholds. These results add comparative genomic resources for molluscs and suggest a wealth of novel proteins and noncoding transcripts.

  20. Heavy metals in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) in the Bergen Harbor area, Western Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, V.; Johannessen, P.J.; Maage, A.

    1996-12-31

    Heavy metal discharges to the marine environment are of great concern all over the world. Both essential (e.g., Fe, Zn, Cu) and non essential (e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb) metals are toxic to living organism when subjected to high concentration. Many heavy metals accumulate in organisms and some also accumulate in the food chain. The anthropogenic heavy metal outlets can in this way both reduce marine species diversity and ecosystem. Further, by consuming seafood, humans will be exposed to the metals with a potential danger to human health. Goldberg proposed to use marine mussels to monitor contamination levels of coastal waters. Since then marine mussels, especially the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), has been used widely as a surveillance organism. The blue mussel is regarded a suitable species for this purpose because it accumulates metals, it sessile, has a relatively long life span, is large enough for individual analysis, can tolerate a relatively wide range of temperature and salinity regimes, and can also synthesize the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, for metal detoxification. Furthermore, the blue mussel is a popular and tasteful food source and is suitable for culturing. The world-wide annual yield of mussels during the period 1988 to 1992 was about 1.3 million tons, of which about 0.5 million tons was Mytilus edulis. In Norway, the annual production was 77 tons in 1990. The interest of culturing mussels has increased in recent years, but the consumption of mussels has been hampered both by toxic algae and high levels of heavy metals. The latter is of special concern to those close to urban or industrial areas. This study investigated whether blue mussels in the Bergen Harbor area were contaminated with the heavy metals zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, and mercury, evaluating whether humans could eat them. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Population assessment and potential functional roles of native mussels in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.; Zigler, Steven J.; Rogala, James T.; Gray, Brian R.; Davis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    1. Despite a heightened global concern for native mussels, fundamental research on mussel ecology in large rivers is lacking. These gaps in knowledge about where mussels occur, and why, are limiting habitat restoration activities. 2. Large-scale systematic surveys for native mussels in three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River documented mussel communities composed of 16–23 species and ranging from 2.9–4.5 live mussels m-2 that were actively recruiting new cohorts into their populations (87–100% of the species were found as juveniles 5 years old). Estimates of mean tissue biomass and production in these reaches ranged from 2.1–3.1 g C m-2 and 0.4–0.6 g C m-2year-1, respectively. 3. Mussels filtered a significant amount of water (range, 0.05–0.07 m3m-2d-1) over a 480 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River — amounting to a filtration rate of 53.1 million m3day-1. The filtration rate of mussels as a percentage of river discharge ranged from 0.5–1.4% at high flows (5% exceedance), from 1.5–4.4% at moderate flows (50% exceedance) and from 4.4–12.2% during low flows (95% exceedance). 4. Collectively, these data suggest that native mussels play an integral role in this ecosystem by sequestering suspended materials that can be used by other benthic organisms.

  2. Quality assessment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis): comparison between commercial and wild types.

    PubMed

    De Witte, B; Devriese, L; Bekaert, K; Hoffman, S; Vandermeersch, G; Cooreman, K; Robbens, J

    2014-08-15

    This study compared species identity, microplastics, chemical and microbial contamination between consumption mussels and wild type mussels, collected at Belgian department stores and Belgian groynes and quaysides, respectively. Species identification based on genetic analysis showed a high number of Mytilus (M.) edulis compared to M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis/galloprovincialis hybrid mussels. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.6 to 5.1 fibres/10 g of mussel. A higher prevalence of orange fibres at quaysides is related to fisheries activities. Chemical contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls could be related to industrial activities and water turbidity, with maximum concentrations at the quayside of port Zeebrugge. The inverse was noted for Escherichia coli contamination, which was relatively low at Zeebrugge quayside with a total count of 3.9 × 10(2)CFU/100 g tissue, due to limited agricultural effluents. Results of this complementary analysis stress the importance of integrated monitoring and quality assessment.

  3. The influence of predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed in autumn and winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgerloh, G.; Herlyn, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1997-08-01

    Predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus was evaluated on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed on tidal flats of the German Wadden Sea. The mussel bed covered an area of 2 ha and showed a decrease in biomass of 40% in the most densely covered parts from August to January. Synchronously, the extent of the mussel bed was reduced, resulting in a decrease of average biomass of 98% over the whole mussel bed. From the beginning of August 1994 to mid January 1995, the average size of mussels increased from 10.7 to 20.3 mm. The P/B-ratio was 0.68 in August and 0.18 between September and November. Herring gulls and oystercatchers were the most important mussel predators. On average, 266 herring gulls and 63 oystercatchers were present on the mussel bed during one low tide; 34% of the herring gulls and 78% of the oystercatchers were observed to be feeding. Herring gulls fed at a rate of 4.2 mussels per minute and oystercatchers at a rate of 1.3 mussels per minute. While herring gulls took the most common mussel sizes (mean: 20 mm), oystercatchers searched for the largest mussels available (mean: 25 mm). Herring gulls consumed 13 mussels/m2 (0.3g AFDW) during one day and oystercatchers 1.7 mussels/m2 (0.1 g AFDW). Predation by birds was compensated by 33% of the production. The proportion removed by bird predation amounted to 10% of abundance and to 16% of biomass (including production). Oystercatchers were responsible for 1% of the reduction in abundance and for 3% of biomass. Removal was highest in the most common size classes of mussels, mainly caused by herring gulls. However, the highest proportion of mussels was eaten in the largest size classes, mainly by oystercatchers. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6035 00004

  4. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  5. Birds, seals and the suspension culture of mussels in Bantry Bay, a non-seaduck area in Southwest Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roycroft, D.; Kelly, T. C.; Lewis, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Concerns about the environmental impacts of mariculture have grown in recent years in response to the rapid expansion of the industry. The blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) is the main product of shellfish mariculture in the Northeast Atlantic and Baltic Sea, with approximately one third of the harvest cultured using suspended longlines within sheltered marine areas. The main aim of this study was to examine the interactions, and assess the impacts (if any) of mussel suspension culture on the seabird and seal community, employing a simultaneous study of culture and control sites. The study spanned a 20-month period (from November 2001 to August 2003) and encompassed six sites in Bantry Bay (Southwest Ireland). There was no significant difference in species richness between mussel and control sites. Similarly, species diversity did not significantly differ between the mussel and control sites although control sites were generally more diverse than mussel sites, the latter particularly dominated by large numbers of Laridae. Significantly higher numbers of Phalacrocoracidae, Laridae and Alcidae were recorded in mussel sites than in control sites. However, no significant difference was found between Gaviidae or common seal ( Phoca vitulina) numbers in mussel and control sites. Seasonal patterns of abundance were similar in mussel and control sites, with peak numbers of most species groups occurring in spring. Mussel suspension culture does not appear to have an adverse effect on the abundance of seabirds or common seals in this area. The safe perching platforms provided by suspension culture floats, combined with a number of other factors, contribute to an increased abundance of a number of seabird species, particularly Laridae. The possible interactions between vertebrate predators and mussel suspension aquaculture are discussed and possible explanations for the increased seabird abundance observed in these areas are offered.

  6. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin.

  7. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  8. Abundance of host fish and frequency of glochidial parasitism in fish assessed in field and laboratory settings and frequency of juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered from hatchery-held fish, central and southeastern Texas, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Stevens, Charrish L.; Echo-Hawk, Patricia D.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Moring, James B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 19 fish species collected at nine sites was submitted to the hatchery in 2013, and 14 of these species had juvenile mussels or glochidia that were recovered at the hatchery. The three most productive species, in terms of the average number of juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered, were longear sunfish, spotted bass, and largemouth bass, each of which averaged more than two juvenile mussels or glochidia recovered per individual.

  9. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  10. Amyloid β Oligomeric Species Present in the Lag Phase of Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Martin; Unuchek, Dmitry; Zhang, Bo; Gordeliy, Valentin; Willbold, Dieter; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is one of the main actors in AD pathogenesis. Aβ is characterized by its high tendency to self-associate, leading to the generation of oligomers and amyloid fibrils. The elucidation of pathways and intermediates is crucial for the understanding of protein assembly mechanisms in general and in conjunction with neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Our study focused on Aβ42 and its oligomeric assemblies in the lag phase of amyloid formation, as studied by sedimentation velocity (SV) centrifugation. The assembly state of Aβ during the lag phase, the time required by an Aβ solution to reach the exponential growth phase of aggregation, was characterized by a dominant monomer fraction below 1 S and a population of oligomeric species between 4 and 16 S. From the oligomer population, two major species close to a 12-mer and an 18-mer with a globular shape were identified. The recurrence of these two species at different initial concentrations and experimental conditions as the smallest assemblies present in solution supports the existence of distinct, energetically favored assemblies in solution. The sizes of the two species suggest an Aβ42 aggregation pathway that is based on a basic hexameric building block. The study demonstrates the potential of SV analysis for the evaluation of protein aggregation pathways. PMID:26024352

  11. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

  12. An overview of important ethnomedicinal herbs of Phyllanthus species: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Bharti; Verma, Nidhi; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.

  13. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.

  14. Intrinsic Variability in Shell and Soft Tissue Growth of the Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    PubMed Central

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1–66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  15. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Eckert, Nathan L; Bartsch, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  16. Zebra mussels affect benthic predator foraging success and habitat choice on soft sediments.

    PubMed

    Beekey, M A; McCabe, D J; Marsden, J E

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of zebra mussels ( Dreissena spp.) to North America has resulted in dramatic changes to the complexity of benthic habitats. Changes in habitat complexity may have profound effects on predator-prey interactions in aquatic communities. Increased habitat complexity may affect prey and predator dynamics by reducing encounter rates and foraging success. Zebra mussels form thick contiguous colonies on both hard and soft substrates. While the colonization of substrata by zebra mussels has generally resulted in an increase in both the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities, it is not well known how these changes affect the foraging efficiencies of predators that prey on benthic invertebrates. We examined the effect of zebra mussels on the foraging success of four benthic predators with diverse prey-detection modalities that commonly forage in soft substrates: slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus), brown bullhead ( Ameirus nebulosus), log perch ( Percina caprodes), and crayfish ( Orconectes propinquus). We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the impact of zebra mussels on the foraging success of predators using a variety of prey species. We also examined habitat use by each predator over different time periods. Zebra mussel colonization of soft sediments significantly reduced the foraging efficiencies of all predators. However, the effect was dependent upon prey type. All four predators spent more time in zebra mussel habitat than in either gravel or bare sand. The overall effect of zebra mussels on benthic-feeding fishes is likely to involve a trade-off between the advantages of increased density of some prey types balanced against the reduction in foraging success resulting from potential refugia offered in the complex habitat created by zebra mussels.

  17. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Eckert, Nathan L.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ~145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

  18. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  19. Predicting the spread of aquatic invaders: insight from 200 years of invasion by zebra mussels.

    PubMed

    Karatayev, Alexander Y; Burlakova, Lyubov E; Mastitsky, Sergey E; Padilla, Dianna K

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors controlling the introduction and spread of species is crucial to improving the management of both natural populations and introduced species. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is considered the most aggressive freshwater invader in the Northern Hemisphere, and is a convenient model system for invasion biology, offering one of the best aquatic examples for examining the invasion process. We used data on 553 of the 1040 glacial lakes in the Republic of Belarus that were examined for the presence of zebra mussels. We used these data to build, test, and construct modified models to predict the spread of this invader, including selection of important parameters that could limit the spread of this invader. In spite of 200 years of continuous invasion, by 1996, zebra mussels were found in only 16.8% of all lakes studied. Of those lakes without zebra mussels in 1996, 66% were predicted to be susceptible to invasion by zebra mussels in the future, and 33% were predicted to be immune to successful invasion due to their water chemistry. Eighty lakes free of zebra mussels in 1996 were reexamined from 1997 to 2008. Of these, zebra mussels successfully invaded an additional 31 lakes, all of which were classified initially as suitable for zebra mussels; none of the lakes previously classified as unsuitable were invaded. We used the Random Forests classification algorithm with 16 environmental variables to determine the most important factors that differed between invaded lakes and those lakes suitable for invasion that have not yet been invaded. Distance to the nearest infested lakes was found to be the most important variable, followed by the lake area, color, average depth, and concentration of chloride, magnesium, and bicarbonate. This study provides a useful approach for predicting the spread of an invader across a landscape with variable habitat suitability that can be applied to a variety of species and systems.

  20. Regulatory motifs are present in the ITS1 of some flatworm species.

    PubMed

    Van Herwerden, Lynne; Caley, M Julian; Blair, David

    2003-04-15

    Particular sequence motifs can act as transcription regulators. Because the total regulatory effects of such motifs can be related to their abundance, their presence might be expected at locations within the genome where sequences are repeated. Multiple repeats that vary in number among individuals occur within the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) in some species in three trematode genera: Paragonimus, Schistosoma and Dolichosaccus. In all of these genera we found in ITS1, sequences identical to known enhancer motifs. We also searched for, and identified, known regulatory motifs in published ITS1 sequences of other parasitic flatworms including Echinostoma spp. (Trematoda) and Echinococcus spp. (Cestoda) which lack multiple repeats in ITS1. We present three lines of evidence that this widespread occurrence of such motifs within the ITS1 of parasitic flatworms may indicate a functional role in regulating tissue- or stage-specific transcription of ribosomal genes. First, these motifs are identical to ones whose functional roles have been established using in vitro assays of transcriptional rates. Second, in all 18 species investigated here, between one and three different regulatory motifs were identified. In 14 of these 18 species, the probability that at least one of these motifs occurred because of the random assortment of bases within the regions investigated was 10% or less. In 12 of these 14 species, the probability was 5% or less. Third, the evolutionary divergence of flatworm species investigated is quite ancient. Therefore, the interspecific distribution of motifs observed here, in a rapidly evolving region such as ITS1, is unlikely to be attributable solely to shared evolutionary histories. These results, therefore, suggest a broader functional role for the ITS1 than previously thought.

  1. Declining Orangutan Encounter Rates from Wallace to the Present Suggest the Species Was Once More Abundant

    PubMed Central

    Meijaard, Erik; Welsh, Alan; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wich, Serge; Nijman, Vincent; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) currently occur at low densities and seeing a wild one is a rare event. Compared to present low encounter rates of orangutans, it is striking how many orangutan each day historic collectors like Alfred Russel Wallace were able to shoot continuously over weeks or even months. Does that indicate that some 150 years ago encounter rates with orangutans, or their densities, were higher than now? Methodology/Principal Findings We test this hypothesis by quantifying encounter rates obtained from hunting accounts, museum collections, and recent field studies, and analysing whether there is a declining trend over time. Logistic regression analyses of our data support such a decline on Borneo between the mid-19th century and the present. Even when controlled for variation in the size of survey and hunting teams and the durations of expeditions, mean daily encounter rates appear to have declined about 6-fold in areas with little or no forest disturbance. Conclusions/Significance This finding has potential consequences for our understanding of orangutans, because it suggests that Bornean orangutans once occurred at higher densities. We explore potential explanations—habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and disease—and conclude that hunting fits the observed patterns best. This suggests that hunting has been underestimated as a key causal factor of orangutan density and distribution, and that species population declines have been more severe than previously estimated based on habitat loss only. Our findings may require us to rethink the biology of orangutans, with much of our ecological understanding possibly being based on field studies of animals living at lower densities than they did historically. Our approach of quantifying species encounter rates from historic data demonstrates that this method can yield valuable information about the ecology and population density of species in the past, providing new insight into

  2. The zebra mussel: US utility implications. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, R.F. )

    1990-11-01

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling.

  3. Season-dependent effects of elevated temperature on stress biomarkers, energy metabolism and gamete development in mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Sokolova, I M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-02-01

    In coastal areas, sessile species can be severely affected by thermal stress associated to climate change. Presently, the effect of elevated temperature on metabolic, cellular and tissue-level responses of mussels was determined to assess whether the responses vary seasonally with seawater temperature and reproductive stage. Mussels were collected in fall, winter and summer, and (a) maintained at 16, 12, and 20 °C respectively or (b) subject to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (+1 °C per day; from 16 to 24 °C in fall, from 12 to 20 °C in winter and from 20 to 28 °C in summer) and further maintained at 24 °C (fall), 20 °C (winter) and 28 °C (summer) for the following 6 days. Temperature elevation induced membrane destabilization, lysosomal enlargement, and reduced the aerobic scope in fall and summer whereas in winter no significant changes were found. Changes at tissue-level were only evident at 28 °C. Gamete development was impaired irrespective of season. Since the threshold of negative effects of warming was close to ambient temperatures in summer (24 °C or above) studied mussel populations would be vulnerable to the global climate change.

  4. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Luiz L.; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C.; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L−1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L−1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg−1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals. PMID:26096277

  5. Persistent Contamination of Octopuses and Mussels with Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins during Spring Dinophysis Blooms in a Subtropical Estuary.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Luiz L; Lopes, Daiana; Bonilauri, Vanessa C; Uchida, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    This study investigates the occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) and their producing phytoplankton species in southern Brazil, as well as the potential for toxin accumulation in co-occurring mussels (Perna perna) and octopuses (Octopus vulgaris). During the spring in 2012 and 2013, cells of Dinophysis acuminata complex were always present, sometimes at relatively high abundances (max. 1143 cells L-1), likely the main source of okadaic acid (OA) in the plankton (max. 34 ng L-1). Dinophysis caudata occurred at lower cell densities in 2013 when the lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and PTX-2 seco acid were detected in plankton and mussel samples. Here, we report for the first time the accumulation of DSTs in octopuses, probably linked to the consumption of contaminated bivalves. Perna perna mussels were consistently contaminated with different DSTs (max. 42 µg kg-1), and all octopuses analyzed (n = 5) accumulated OA in different organs/tissues: digestive glands (DGs) > arms > gills > kidneys > stomach + intestine. Additionally, similar concentrations of 7-O-palmytoyl OA and 7-O-palmytoly dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) were frequently detected in the hepatopancreas of P. perna and DGs of O. vulgaris. Therefore, octopuses can be considered a potential vector of DSTs to both humans and top predators such as marine mammals.

  6. Transcriptional and cellular effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in experimentally exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Mezzelani, M; Gorbi, S; Fattorini, D; d'Errico, G; Benedetti, M; Milan, M; Bargelloni, L; Regoli, F

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to provide new insights on accumulation and possible adverse effects of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to an environmentally realistic concentration (0.5μg/L) of individual compounds, Acetaminophen (AMP), Diclofenac (DIC), Ibuprofen (IBU), Ketoprofen (KET) or Nimesulide (NIM). The measurement of drugs in mussel tissues was integrated with both functional alterations at cellular level and transcriptomic responses. Results indicated the capability of mussels to accumulate DIC and NIM, while AMP, IBU and KET were always below detection limit. A large panel of ecotoxicological biomarkers revealed the early onset of alterations induced by tested NSAIDs on immunological responses, lipid metabolism and DNA integrity. The gene transcription analysis through DNA microarrays, supported cellular biomarker results, with clear modulation of a large number of genes involved in the arachidonic acid and lipid metabolism, immune responses, cell cycle and DNA repair. The overall results indicated an ecotoxicological concern for pharmaceuticals in M. galloprovincialis, with transcriptional responses appearing as sensitive exposure biomarkers at low levels of exposure: such changes, however, are not always paralleled by corresponding functional effects, suggesting caution when interpreting observed effects in terms of perturbed cellular pathways. Fascinating similarities can also be proposed in the mode of action of NSAIDs between bivalves and vertebrate species.

  7. Evaluating the use of side-scan sonar for detecting freshwater mussel beds in turbid river environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jarrod; Brewer, Shannon K.; Long, James M.; Campbell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Side-scan sonar is a valuable tool for mapping habitat features in many aquatic systems suggesting it may also be useful for locating sedentary biota. The objective of this study was to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to identify freshwater mussel (unionid) beds and the required environmental conditions. We used side-scan sonar to develop a series of mussel-bed reference images by placing mussel shells within homogenous areas of fine and coarse substrates. We then used side-scan sonar to map a 32-km river reach during spring and summer. Using our mussel-bed reference images, several river locations were identified where mussel beds appeared to exist in the scanned images and we chose a subset of sites (n = 17) for field validation. The validation confirmed that ~60% of the sites had mussel beds and ~80% had some mussels or shells present. Water depth was significantly related to our ability to predict mussel-bed locations: predictive ability was greatest at depths of 1–2 m, but decreased in water >2-m deep. We determined side-scan sonar is an effective tool for preliminary assessments of mussel presence during times when they are located at or above the substrate surface and in relatively fine substrates excluding fine silt.

  8. Acute sensitivity of a broad range of freshwater mussels to chemicals with different modes of toxic action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Christopher D; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Alvarez, David; Hammer, Edward J; Bauer, Candice R; Augspurger, Tom; Raimondo, Sandy; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, are generally underrepresented in toxicity databases used for the development of ambient water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values. Acute 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of 5 species of juvenile mussels from 2 families and 4 tribes to 10 chemicals (ammonia, metals, major ions, and organic compounds) and to screen 10 additional chemicals (mainly organic compounds) with a commonly tested mussel species, fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea). In the multi-species study, median effect concentrations (EC50s) among the 5 species differed by a factor of ≤2 for chloride, potassium, sulfate, and zinc; a factor of ≤5 for ammonia, chromium, copper, and nickel; and factors of 6 and 12 for metolachlor and alachlor, respectively, indicating that mussels representing different families or tribes had similar sensitivity to most of the tested chemicals, regardless of modes of action. There was a strong linear relationship between EC50s for fatmucket and the other 4 mussel species across the 10 chemicals (r(2)  = 0.97, slope close to 1.0), indicating that fatmucket was similar to other mussel species; thus, this commonly tested species can be a good surrogate for protecting other mussels in acute exposures. The sensitivity of juvenile fatmucket among different populations or cultured from larvae of wild adults and captive-cultured adults was also similar in acute exposures to copper or chloride, indicating captive-cultured adult mussels can reliably be used to reproduce juveniles for toxicity testing. In compiled databases for all freshwater species, 1 or more mussel species were among the 4 most sensitive species for alachlor, ammonia, chloride, potassium, sulfate, copper, nickel, and zinc; therefore, the development of water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values for these chemicals should reflect the sensitivity of mussels. In

  9. Acute sensitivity of a broad range of freshwater mussels to chemicals with different modes of toxic action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Alvarez, David; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Augspurger, Tom; Raimondo, Sandy; Barnhart, M.Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater mussels, one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the world, are generally underrepresented in toxicity databases used for the development of ambient water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values. Acute 96-h toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of 5 species of juvenile mussels from 2 families and 4 tribes to 10 chemicals (ammonia, metals, major ions, and organic compounds) and to screen 10 additional chemicals (mainly organic compounds) with a commonly tested mussel species, fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea). In the multi-species study, median effect concentrations (EC50s) among the 5 species differed by a factor of ≤2 for chloride, potassium, sulfate, and zinc; a factor of ≤5 for ammonia, chromium, copper, and nickel; and factors of 6 and 12 for metolachlor and alachlor, respectively, indicating that mussels representing different families or tribes had similar sensitivity to most of the tested chemicals, regardless of modes of action. There was a strong linear relationship between EC50s for fatmucket and the other 4 mussel species across the 10 chemicals (r2 = 0.97, slope close to 1.0), indicating that fatmucket was similar to other mussel species; thus, this commonly tested species can be a good surrogate for protecting other mussels in acute exposures. The sensitivity of juvenile fatmucket among different populations or cultured from larvae of wild adults and captive-cultured adults was also similar in acute exposures to copper or chloride, indicating captive-cultured adult mussels can reliably be used to reproduce juveniles for toxicity testing. In compiled databases for all freshwater species, 1 or more mussel species were among the 4 most sensitive species for alachlor, ammonia, chloride, potassium, sulfate, copper, nickel, and zinc; therefore, the development of water quality criteria and other environmental guidance values for these chemicals should reflect the sensitivity of mussels. In

  10. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  11. Distribution of Unionid Mussels in Tributaries of the Lower Flint River, Southwestern Georgia: An Examination of Current and Historical Trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golladay, S. W.

    2005-05-01

    The historically diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels in the Flint River Basin has shown declines in abundance and distribution. The mid-reaches of the major tributaries of the Flint River contained one of the richest assemblages of mussels in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Declines in mussel assemblages accelerated following a recent severe drought (1999-2001). Following the drought, we surveyed mussel populations at selected sites in the major tributaries of the Flint River to determine whether declines in abundance and distribution are continuing. Many populations of common, rare, and endangered species were stable in their distribution (# taxa per site) but exhibited declines in abundance. One survey site in particular, on Spring Creek, contains a rich assemblage of mussels unique to the basin, and surveys from this site also suggest diminishing populations. Possible explanations for declines include poor water quality, loss or degradation of instream habitat, competition from the exotic Asiatic clam, and inadequate instream flows.

  12. Evidence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in chemosynthetic mussels from the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.; Thomsen, J.; Wilson, C.; McDonald, S.; Safe, S.

    1995-12-31

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls expression of various genes including cytochrome P450. Polynuclear aromatic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are agonists for the AhR in fish and mammalian species. Previously, a homologous AhR has not been identified in marine invertebrate species. Chemosynthetic mussels were collected from gas and petroleum seeps in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the presence of the AhR and the induction of the cytochrome P450 system. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the gill and hepatopancreas were elevated in the petroleum seep mussels relative to those from the gas seep. A nuclear AhR in the hepatopancreas was detected in both mussel populations after treatment with [{sup 3}H]-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) followed by sucrose density gradient analysis. Gel mobility shift assays using a labeled dioxin responsive element (DRE) oligonucleotide and tcdd-transformed mussel cytosol showed a retarded band which could be competed with excess unlabeled DRE. Results from gel shifts indicated specific binding of the tcdd-mussel AhR complex to its responsible element. Finally, PCR primers designed to amplify a 700 base pair region of the human AhR detected AhR mRNA in both mussel populations. The sequence of this PCR product is being determined. The presence of the AhR in marine invertebrates has important implications in the evolutionary age of the AhR.

  13. Comparison of histological, genetic, metabolomics, and lipid-based methods for sex determination in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Hines, Adam; Yeung, Wai Ho; Craft, John; Brown, Margaret; Kennedy, Jill; Bignell, John; Stentiford, Grant D; Viant, Mark R

    2007-10-15

    Omics technologies are increasingly being used to monitor organismal responses to environmental stressors. Previous studies have shown that species identification, an appreciation of life history traits, and organism phenotype (e.g., gender) are essential for the accurate interpretation of omics data from field samples. As marine mussels are increasingly being used in ecotoxicogenomics and monitoring, a technique to determine mussel gender throughout their annual reproductive cycle is urgently needed. This study examines four methods for sex determination in the two mussel species found in the United Kingdom, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, and their hybrid. Each of these methods-histology, a lipid-based assay, a new reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics-initially was evaluated using sexually mature ("ripe") mussels whose gender was clearly distinguishable using histology. The methods subsequently were tested on spawned ("spent") mussels. For ripe animals, all techniques yielded high classification accuracies: histology, 100%; RT-PCR, 94.6%; lipid analysis, 90.6%; and metabolomics, 89.5%. The gender of spent animals, however, could not be determined by histology (0%) or lipid analysis (55.6%), but RT-PCR (100%) and metabolomics (88.9%) both proved to be successful. In addition, the RT-PCR, metabolomics, and lipid-based methods identified animals of mixed sex. Our findings highlight the application of a novel RT-PCR method as a robust technique for gender determination of ripe and spent mussels.

  14. Coating Proteins: Structure and Cross-Linking in fp-1 from the Green Shell Mussel Perna canaliculus†‡

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Waite, J. Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The protein family known as fp-1 provides mussel byssus with a protective outer coating and has drawn much attention for its water resistant bioadhesive properties in vitro. A new fp-l isolated from the green shell mussel Perna canaliculus (pcfp-1) reveals a composition dominated by only four amino acids: 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (dopa), lysine, proline, and valine at ~20 mol % each. SDS–PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected size variants at 48 and 52 kDa in preparations of purified Pcfp-1. The N-terminal sequence enabled construction of oligonucleotide primers for PCR and RACE-derived cDNAs from which the complete sequence of four variants was deduced. pcfp-1 deviates from all known homologues in other mussels in several notable respects: its mass is half, most of its sequence is represented by 75 tandem repeats of a tetrapeptide, i.e., PY*VK, in which Y* is dopa, prolines are not hydroxylated, and thiolate cysteines are clustered in homologous sequences at both the amino and carboxy termini. Amino acids in the repeat sequence show a striking resemblance to proline-rich cell wall proteins with tandemly repeated PPVYK pentapeptides [Hong, J. C., Nagao, R. T., and Key, J. L. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8367–8376]. Cysteine plays a key role in cross-linking pcfp-1 by forming adducts with dopaquinone. Significant 5-S-cysteinyldopa and smaller amounts of 2-S-cysteinyldopa were detected in hydrolysates of the byssal threads of P. canaliculus. The cross-links could also be formed by oxidation of pcfp-1 in vitro using mushroom tyrosinase. Cysteinyldopa cross-links were present in trace amounts only in the byssus of other mussel species. PMID:16313194

  15. Microplastics are taken up by mussels (Mytilus edulis) and lugworms (Arenicola marina) living in natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Claessens, Michiel; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Janssen, Colin R

    2015-04-01

    We studied the uptake of microplastics under field conditions. At six locations along the French-Belgian-Dutch coastline we collected two species of marine invertebrates representing different feeding strategies: the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (filter feeder) and the lugworm Arenicola marina (deposit feeder). Additional laboratory experiments were performed to assess possible (adverse) effects of ingestion and translocation of microplastics on the energy metabolism (cellular energy allocation) of these species. Microplastics were present in all organisms collected in the field: on average 0.2 ± 0.3 microplastics g(-1) (M. edulis) and 1.2 ± 2.8 particles g(-1) (A. marina). In a proof of principle laboratory experiment, mussels and lugworms exposed to high concentrations of polystyrene microspheres (110 particles mL(-1) seawater and 110 particles g(-1) sediment, respectively) showed no significant adverse effect on the organisms' overall energy budget. The results are discussed in the context of possible risks as a result of the possible transfer of adsorbed contaminants.

  16. Behavioral responses of freshwater mussels to experimental dewatering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Lellis, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of flow alteration on freshwater ecosystems is critical for predicting species responses and restoring appropriate flow regimes. We experimentally evaluated the effects of 3 dewatering rates on behavior of 6 freshwater mussel species in the context of water-removal rates observed in 21 Atlantic Coast rivers. Horizontal movement differed significantly among species and dewatering rates, but a significant species × dewatering interaction suggested that these factors influence movement in complex ways. Species differences in movement were evident only in controls and under slow dewatering rates, but these differences disappeared at moderate and fast dewatering rates. Burrowing behavior did not differ with respect to species identity or dewatering rate. The proportion of individuals that became stranded did not differ among species, but most individuals became stranded under low and moderate dewatering, and all individuals became stranded under fast dewatering. Mortality after stranding differed strongly among species along a gradient from 25% inPyganodon cataracta to 92% in Alasmidonta marginata. Together, these results suggest that species behavior may differ under gradual dewatering, but all species in our study are poorly adapted for rapid dewatering. Most of the 21 rivers we assessed experienced dewatering events comparable to our moderate rate, and several experienced events comparable to our fast rate. Dewatering events that exceed the movement or survival capability of most mussel species can be expected to result in assemblage-wide impacts. Consequently, the rate of water level change may be important in refining target flow conditions for restoration.

  17. A historical assessment of coastal contamination in Birch Harbor, Maine based on the analysis of mussels collected in the 1940s and the Mussel Watch Program.

    PubMed

    Apeti, D A; Lauenstein, G G; Christensen, J D; Kimbrough, K; Johnson, W E; Kennedy, M; Grant, K G

    2010-05-01

    Coastal contamination in the 1940s was assessed based on analysis of canned blue mussels presumably collected from Birch Harbor, Maine, USA. Analytical results on legacy organic contaminants were compared to long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Mussel Watch (MW) monitoring data to estimate the degree of coastal contamination before World War II (WWII) when many synthetic organic compounds were first introduced into the environment. While dieldrin and chlordane were not detected in the canned mussels, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were present at lower concentrations relative to the more recent MW data. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected, and the later were significantly higher in canned mussels relative to the MW data (p<0.05). Furthermore, moving average analysis applied to the MW data depicted three-phased temporal trend patterns (increase-decrease-steady state) for virtually all contaminants indicating an overall increased coastal contamination in post WWII era.

  18. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  19. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living` document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  20. Comparative biology of zebra mussels in Europe and North America: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mackie, Gerald L.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Since the discovery of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Great Lakes in 1988 comparisons have been made with mussel populations in Europe and the former Soviet Union. These comparisons include: Population dynamics, growth and mortality rates, ecological tolerances and requirements, dispersal rates and patterns, and ecological impacts. North American studies, mostly on the zebra mussel and a few on a second introduced species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, have revealed some similarities and some differences. To date it appears that North American populations of zebra mussels are similar to European populations in their basic biological characteristics, population growth and mortality rates, and dispersal mechanisms and rates. Relative to European populations differences have been demonstrated for: (1) individual growth rates; (2) life spans; (3) calcium and pH tolerances and requirements; (4) potential distribution limits; and (5) population densities of veligers and adults. In addition, studies on the occurrence of the two dreissenid species in the Great Lakes are showing differences in their modes of life, depth distributions, and growth rates. As both species spread throughout North America, comparisons between species and waterbodies will enhance our ability to more effectively control these troublesome species.

  1. Detection of carotenoids present in blood of various animal species using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Younus, Ayesha; Saleem, Muhammad; Rashid, Imaad; Yaseen, Maria; Jabeen, Saher

    Raman spectroscopy is simple stable powerful diagnostic tool for body fluids, tissues and other biomolecules. Human blood possesses different kind of carotenoids that play a key role for protecting the cells from damaging by different viral and bacterial diseases. Carotenoids are antioxidative components which are capable to overcome the attack of different free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids are not prepared by human body, therefore it is recommended to eat carotenoids enrich vegetable foods. No standard data is available on the concentration of useful carotenoids component in non-vegetable consumed items. In present research work, Raman spectroscopy is used to compare various blood components like plasma, serum, carotenoids present in blood of different animal species like goat, sheep, cow and buffalo consumed by human. Especially beta carotene is investigated. The Raman shift ranges from 600-1700 cm-1 for samples. Different characteristic peaks of the blood components are found which are not characterized before in animal samples. Doctrate Student in Photonics Deparatment of Electrical Engineering.

  2. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  3. Investigation of the loss of byssus in Mytilus galloprovincialis from mussel farms in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Antonella; Malagoli, Davide; Ottaviani, Enzo

    2005-10-01

    A fungal infection has been found in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Adriatic Sea mussel farms. The infection ultimately results in the loss of the byssus, with serious consequences for mussel farming yield. The pathogen provokes the progressive destruction of the foot muscles, also damaging related structures such as the intra-organism part of the byssus apparatus, resulting in loss of the thread component. The affected health status of the animal is also sustained by modifications in the digestive gland structure, ranging from hyperactivity to extreme cell death in the tubula. At present, the identity of the harmful fungus is unknown.

  4. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    DOEpatents

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  5. Results of an in-situ mussel bioassay in the Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Houkal, D.; Rummel, B.; Shephard, B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological evaluation in the Puget Sound, Washington, an in situ bioassay using the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was conducted to determine the effect of sediment-borne chemicals on bioaccumulation and growth of shellfish. The assay included four sample stations from a contaminated embayment (Sinclair Inlet) and one station from a reference site (Holmes Harbor). At each station, 300 mussels were deployed 1 meter above the sediment surface and maintained for a period of 3 months. The length and total weight of each mussel was measured at the beginning of the exposure period and the length, total weight, tissue weight, and shell weight of each mussel was measured at the end of the exposure period. Composite tissue samples from 100 mussels were collected at the beginning and end of the exposure period and analyzed for semivolatile organic chemicals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, inorganic chemicals, organotin, and lipids. Water quality measurements (including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a) were made at each station every two weeks during the assay to characterize environmental factors influencing mussel bioaccumulation and growth. Weight growth was similar among stations in Sinclair Inlet, but was significantly greater in all Sinclair Inlet stations compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. Length growth was statistically indistinguishable among stations in Sinclair Inlet. Only one Sinclair Inlet station had a significantly greater length growth compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. The influence of water quality on mussel growth is presented. The correlation between sediment chemistry and bioaccumulation is discussed.

  6. In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy of the Gaseous Species Present in a Diamond Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morell, G.; Weiner, B. R.

    1998-01-01

    We interfaced a Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) system to the emission port of an FT-IR spectrometer, in order to study the gas phase species present during the deposition of diamond thin films. The implementation of the infrared (IR) emission technique in situ allowed the study of various carbon-containing species believed to be crucial in diamond film growth. The two IR-active vibrational fundamentals of methane, v(3)(f2) and v(4)(f2), were observed at three different filament temperatures: 1000, 1500 and 2000 C. However, the net signal of v(3) was emission, while that of v(4) was absorption. These results indicate that the v(4) fundamental is excited beyond equilibrium, while the v(3) fundamental remains mostly in the ground state. This is due to the small concentration of methane, the low energy of v(4) compared to v(3) or to the Hz vibrational mode, and symmetry considerations that forbid interaction among the four fundamentals of methane. Thus, the excitation of v(3) is more likely than its decay under HFCVD conditions, producing a non-equilibrium population. At a filament temperature of 2000 C, the v(3) (sigma(+)(3)) fundamental of acetylene and a band at 1328 cm-l also ascribed to acetylene (v5 (pi(U)) + v4) appear in net absorption. This correlates well with the onset of molecular hydrogen breaking by the filament, which occurs at temperatures around 2000 C and above. The hydrogen atoms produced in this heterogeneous reaction give rise to a chain of reactions that lead to acetylene, among other carbonaceous species.

  7. Byssogenesis in the juvenile pink heelsplitter mussel, Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Hai B; Hua, Dan; Ma, Xue Y; Jin, Wu; Zhuang, Yan B; Gu, Ruo B; Yuan, Xin H; Du, Xin W; Xu, Pao

    2015-11-01

    The North American pink heelsplitter (Potamilus alatus) differs from most freshwater mussels in China by the ability to secrete an ephemeral byssus during its juvenile stage. In the present study, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate this ephemeral byssal structure, and amino acid composition was analyzed and compared with that of other species. The results revealed that the byssus consists of a long byssal thread and a few adhesive plaques which are randomly set up along the thread and assembled by petioles. There is a thin but distinctive cuticle with a continuous homogeneous matrix surrounding the byssal thread. Structural variation occurred when the byssal thread was differentially stretched. Four-stranded helical primary fasciculi, which form a stable rope-like structure, become evident after removal of the cuticle. The primary fasciculi consist of bundles of hundreds of parallel secondary fasciculi, each measuring about 5 μm in diameter. All evidence indicates that the byssus of the pink heelsplitter has a significantly different macrostructure and microstructure than the permanent byssus of the marine mussel Mytilus. Byssogenesis ceases when juveniles exceed 30 mm in length, although it varies greatly even among juveniles of similar size. Byssus formation is influenced by substrate type. The unique characteristics of the byssus have important advantages for survival, transition, and aggregation during the early life history. This study not only provides first insight into the structure of the ephemeral byssus and its relationship to freshwater mussel development and growth, but also suggests possibilities for the synthesis of novel biopolymer materials particularly useful in freshwater ecosystems.

  8. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002-2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers.

  9. Redox proteomics in the mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, B; Tyther, R; Sheehan, D

    2006-07-01

    Pollutants (e.g. PAHs, metals) cause oxidative stress (OS) by forming reactive oxygen species. Redox proteomics provides a means for identifying protein-specific OS effects in Mytilus edulis. Groups of mussels were sampled from a clean site in Cork Harbour, Ireland and exposed to 1 mM H2O2 in holding tanks. Protein extracts of gill and digestive gland were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis and similar protein expression profiles were found. Effects of OS on disulphide bridge patterns were investigated in diagonal gels by separating proteins in non-reducing conditions followed by a second reducing dimension. Immunoprecipitation selected carbonylated and glutathionylated proteins. These methodologies can contribute to redox proteomic studies of pollutant responses in marine organisms.

  10. Advances and opportunities in assessing contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussel (unionidae) early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae, also referred to as freshwater pearly mussels, unionids, or naiades) are one of North America’s most endangered faunal groups. Near unanimity exists in characterizations of the imperilment of these ecologically, economically, and culturally important bivalve mollusks. Freshwater mussels are a renewable resource supporting a shell industry in the United States valued at $40–50 million annually [1]. In addition to being a food source for aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, this diverse fauna helps stabilize sediment [2] and provides critical nutrient and energy cycling in streams and lakes by filtering phytoplankton, bacteria, and particulate organic matter from the water column [3]. Thirty-five species of freshwater mussels are extinct [4], 70 species are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (www.fws.gov/endangered/wildlife.html), and nearly 180 species are identified as critically imperiled or vulnerable (www.natureserve.org/explorer). Declines in freshwater mussels are not unique to North America [5], but because the taxon reaches its greatest richness here, impacts are especially noteworthy.

  11. Variations of 210Po activity in mussel (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and its contribution to dose assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B.; Srisuksawad, K.; Kulsawat, W.

    2015-05-01

    The activities of 210Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from a mussel farming area in Samut Sakhon province during the period of 20122013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured for its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209Po as an internal tracer. The 210Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq/kg wet weight. The 210Po concentration was higher in smaller-sized (≤35 mm) and lower in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirmed that larger mussels have lower 210Po activities on a weight basis. The 210Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller-sized mussels (≤35 mm) and the higher in larger-sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210Po concentrations were interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 pSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for consumption.

  12. Influence of sediment presence on freshwater mussel thermal tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Median lethal temperature (LT50) data from water-only exposures with the early life stages of freshwater mussels suggest that some species may be living near their upper thermal tolerances. However, evaluation of thermal sensitivity has never been conducted in sediment. Mussels live most of their lives burrowed in sediment, so understanding the effect of sediment on thermal sensitivity is a necessary step in evaluating the effectiveness of the water-only standard method, on which the regulatory framework for potential thermal criteria currently is based, as a test of thermal sensitivity. We developed a method for testing thermal sensitivity of juvenile mussels in sediment and used the method to assess thermal tolerance of 4 species across a range of temperatures common during summer. Stream beds may provide a thermal refuge in the wild, but we hypothesized that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. We also evaluated the effects of 2 temperature acclimation levels (22 and 27°C) and 2 water levels (watered and dewatered treatments). We then compared results from the sediment tests to those conducted using the water-only standard methods. We also conducted water-only LT tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) for comparison with the juvenile life stage. We found few consistent differences in thermal tolerance between sediment and water-only treatments, between acclimation temperatures, between waterlevel treatments, among species, or between juvenile and glochidial life stages (LT50 range = 33.3-37.2°C; mean = 35.6°C), supporting our hypothesis that the presence of sediment alone does not alter thermal sensitivity. The method we developed has potential for evaluating the role of other stressors (e.g., contaminants) in a more natural and complex environment.

  13. Survival, growth and condition of freshwater mussels: effects of municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream.

  14. Use of carbonyl iron to induce iron loading in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Bootsma, N.; Macey, D.J.; Webb, J.; Talbot, V. )

    1990-02-01

    It is now recognized that in organisms such as marine mussels, the prior presence of one metal can be important in determining the ultimate toxicological response to a second challenge by a different metal species. Thus, for example, the presence of iron in the mussel Mytilus edulis profoundly affects the subsequent accumulation of zinc. To determine these synergistic (or indeed antagonistic) effects in an organism such as the mussel, it is important to be able to both load the animal rapidly, and ensure that the metal ends up in a form which is ultimately the same as that found in the animal in the natural environment. Unfortunately, considerable problems have arisen with the form in which iron has been loaded into mussels. Recently, carbonyl iron has been used to induce iron loading in rats. This form of iron is prepared by reacting elemental iron at high temperatures with carbon monoxide to form iron pentacarbonyl. This study was thus undertaken to determine whether carbonyl iron could be used for the rapid non-toxic iron loading of the mussel Mytilus edulis. Such loading could subsequently be used for the investigation of synergistic metal accumulation in mussels, a topic of considerable interest due to their use as marine pollution indicator organisms. Biochemical aspects of this tissue iron loading, including the isolation and characterization of the major metal-binding protein ferritin, have been reported previously.

  15. Survival, Growth and Condition of Freshwater Mussels: Effects of Municipal Wastewater Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  16. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk

    2016-11-01

    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  17. Drought-induced changes in flow regimes lead to long-term losses in mussel-provided ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Caryn C; Atkinson, Carla L; Julian, Jason P

    2015-03-01

    Extreme hydro-meteorological events such as droughts are becoming more frequent, intense, and persistent. This is particularly true in the south central USA, where rapidly growing urban areas are running out of water and human-engineered water storage and management are leading to broad-scale changes in flow regimes. The Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma, USA, has high fish and freshwater mussel biodiversity. However, water from this rural river is desired by multiple urban areas and other entities. Freshwater mussels are large, long-lived filter feeders that provide important ecosystem services. We ask how observed changes in mussel biomass and community composition resulting from drought-induced changes in flow regimes might lead to changes in river ecosystem services. We sampled mussel communities in this river over a 20-year period that included two severe droughts. We then used laboratory-derived physiological rates and river-wide estimates of species-specific mussel biomass to estimate three aggregate ecosystem services provided by mussels over this time period: biofiltration, nutrient recycling (nitrogen and phosphorus), and nutrient storage (nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon). Mussel populations declined over 60%, and declines were directly linked to drought-induced changes in flow regimes. All ecosystem services declined over time and mirrored biomass losses. Mussel declines were exacerbated by human water management, which has increased the magnitude and frequency of hydrologic drought in downstream reaches of the river. Freshwater mussels are globally imperiled and declining around the world. Summed across multiple streams and rivers, mussel losses similar to those we document here could have considerable consequences for downstream water quality although lost biofiltration and nutrient retention. While we cannot control the frequency and severity of climatological droughts, water releases from reservoirs could be used to augment stream flows and

  18. Drought-induced changes in flow regimes lead to long-term losses in mussel-provided ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Caryn C; Atkinson, Carla L; Julian, Jason P

    2015-01-01

    Extreme hydro-meteorological events such as droughts are becoming more frequent, intense, and persistent. This is particularly true in the south central USA, where rapidly growing urban areas are running out of water and human-engineered water storage and management are leading to broad-scale changes in flow regimes. The Kiamichi River in southeastern Oklahoma, USA, has high fish and freshwater mussel biodiversity. However, water from this rural river is desired by multiple urban areas and other entities. Freshwater mussels are large, long-lived filter feeders that provide important ecosystem services. We ask how observed changes in mussel biomass and community composition resulting from drought-induced changes in flow regimes might lead to changes in river ecosystem services. We sampled mussel communities in this river over a 20-year period that included two severe droughts. We then used laboratory-derived physiological rates and river-wide estimates of species-specific mussel biomass to estimate three aggregate ecosystem services provided by mussels over this time period: biofiltration, nutrient recycling (nitrogen and phosphorus), and nutrient storage (nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon). Mussel populations declined over 60%, and declines were directly linked to drought-induced changes in flow regimes. All ecosystem services declined over time and mirrored biomass losses. Mussel declines were exacerbated by human water management, which has increased the magnitude and frequency of hydrologic drought in downstream reaches of the river. Freshwater mussels are globally imperiled and declining around the world. Summed across multiple streams and rivers, mussel losses similar to those we document here could have considerable consequences for downstream water quality although lost biofiltration and nutrient retention. While we cannot control the frequency and severity of climatological droughts, water releases from reservoirs could be used to augment stream flows and

  19. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  20. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  1. Freshwater mussel shells as environmental chronicles: Geochemical and taphonomic signatures of mercury-related extirpations in the North Fork Holston River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.E.; Kowalewski, M.; Neves, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Schreiber, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized freshwater mussel shells to assess mercury (Hg) contamination in the North Fork Holston River that extirpated (caused local extinctions of) a diverse mussel fauna. Shells (n = 366) were collected from five sites situated upstream (two sites), just below (one site), and downstream (two sites) of the town of Saltville, Virginia, where Hg was used to produce chlorine and caustic soda from 1950 to 1972. Shell samples were used to test the (1) utility of geochemical signatures of shells for assessing the spatial variation in Hg levels in the river relative to the contamination source and (2) value of taphonomy (postmortem shell alteration) for distinguishing sites that differ in extirpation histories. Geochemical signatures of 40 shells, analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, indicated a strong longitudinal pattern. All shells from the two upstream sites had low Hg concentrations (<5-31 ??g/kg), shells directly below Saltville had variable, but dramatically higher concentrations (23-4637 ??g/kg), and shells from the two downstream sites displayed intermediate Hg levels (<5-115 ??g/kg) that declined with distance from Saltville. Two pre-industrial shells, collected at Saltville in 1917, yielded very low Hg estimates (5-6 ??g/kg). Hg signatures were consistent among mussel species, suggesting that Hg concentrations were invariant to species type; most likely, highly variable Hg levels, both across sites and through time, overwhelmed any interspecific differences in Hg acquisition. Also, a notable postmortem incorporation of Hg in mussel shells seemed unlikely, as the Hg content was not correlated with shell taphonomy (r = 0.18; p = 0.28). The taphonomic analysis (n = 366) showed that the degree of shell alteration reliably distinguished sites with different extirpation histories. At Saltville, where live mussels have been absent for at least 30 years, shells were most heavily altered and fragmented. Conversely, fresh-looking shells abounded

  2. Invasive dreissenid mussels and round gobies: a benthic pathway for the trophic transfer of microcystin.

    PubMed

    Poste, Amanda E; Ozersky, Ted

    2013-09-01

    In the present preliminary study, the authors identify 2 pathways through which invasive dreissenid mussels can transfer microcystin to higher trophic levels: either directly, through consumption by benthivorous fish such as the round goby; or indirectly, through their biodeposits, which are an important food source for benthic invertebrates. The results suggest that dreissenid mussels represent a potentially important benthic pathway for the food web transfer of microcystin.

  3. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  4. Determination of Polonium-210 in Mussels from the Adria Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylyku, Elida; Bode, Kozeta; Fisnka, Kujtim; Cfarku, Florinda

    2010-01-01

    The important role played by alpha radioactive nuclides in the marine radiation environment is already evident. The dominant contribution made by natural fall-out nuclide Polonium-210 to the alpha radioactivity of most marine organisms is very important. The common mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is selected as unique bio monitor species to be analyzed. Samples are collected at the Adria Sea along the Albanian coast. A radiochemical procedure followed by alpha spectrometry measurement of 210Po is performed. The standard solution of 209Po is used as a yield tracer. Thin sources for alpha spectrometry measurements are prepared by spontaneous deposition of polonium on to silver disks from weakly acid solutions. The value of specific activity of 210Po vary between 200 to 400 Bq/kg dry and are in good agreement with the results found for 210Po in mussels from other countries in the Adria Sea.

  5. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  6. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2015-08-01

    For blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, one major constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. The modified DEB model was validated with experimental data from different locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production in the Baltic Sea are located in the Little Belt area, the Great Belt, the southern Kattegat and the Limfjorden according to the prevailing salinity regimes. The new model can be used for supporting site selection of new mussel nutrient extraction cultures in the Baltic Sea that suffers from high eutrophication symptoms or as part of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture production. The model can also be used to predict the effects of salinity changes on mussel populations e.g. in climate change studies.

  7. Subtidal and intertidal mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Wadden Sea: diversity differences of associated epifauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saier, Bettina

    2002-04-01

    In 1997 and 1998, surveys were performed to compare species composition, abundance and diversity of non-attached epifauna (>1 mm) in low intertidal and adjacent shallow subtidal zones of three mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.) near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. The community structure was similar when compared within tidal zones: no significant differences in species numbers and abundances were recorded between locations and between years. A comparison between tidal zones, however, revealed higher diversity, species densities and total species numbers in the subtidal (per 1,000 cm2: H '=2.0±0.16; 12 ±1 species density; 22 species) than the intertidal zone (per 1,000 cm2: H '=0.7±0.27; 6±2 species density; 19 species). Abundances significantly dropped with increasing submergence from 2,052 (±468) m-2 to 1,184 (±475) m-2. This was mainly due to significantly higher densities of both juvenile periwinkles, Littorina littorea, and crabs, Carcinus maenas, in intertidal mussel beds. However, many less dominant species were significantly more abundant in subtidal mussel beds. This study revealed that in the non-attached epifaunal community of mussel beds the tidal level effect within metres was strong, whilst the spatial variability in a much wider (kilometre) range but the same tidal level was negligible. The high epifaunal diversity in the subtidal zone suggests that the protective measures for mussel beds against the effects of mussel fishery should be extended from the intertidal to the subtidal zone, if the integrity of the mussel bed community in the Wadden Sea National Park is to be maintained.

  8. 77 FR 70456 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...) bat species, one(1) freshwater fish species, twelve (12) fresh-water mussel species, one (1) snake... authorization to conduct presence/absence surveys for the following freshwater fish species: Etowah...

  9. Assessment of the fitness of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Moonkoo; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-12-15

    In December 2007, >150km of the West coast of Korea were heavily polluted by crude oil leaked from the oil tanker Hebei Spirit, leading to mass mortality of bivalve mollusks on the intertidal areas. Two years after, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from two impacted sites to investigate sub-lethal effects of the oil spill. Tissue content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hemocyte parameters, reproductive status and energetic reserves were analyzed. PAHs in tissues of mussels as well as hemocyte parameters were not different between impacted and control sites. Energetic reserves were altered in mussels from the impacted sites. Glycogen content remained low at polluted sites, whatever the season. Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill, mussels then presented altered energetic metabolism. Further investigations are thus warranted to monitor the sustainability of mussel populations on the oil spilled West coast of Korea.

  10. Genetic Variation Underlying Protein Expression in Eggs of the Marine Mussel Mytilus edulis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Diz, Angel P.; Dudley, Edward; MacDonald, Barry W.; Piña, Benjamin; Kenchington, Ellen L. R.; Zouros, Eleftherios; Skibinski, David O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the genetic basis of gene expression variation is central to attempts to understand the causes of evolutionary change. Although there are many transcriptomics studies estimating genetic variance and heritability in model organisms such as humans there is a lack of equivalent proteomics studies. In the present study, the heritability underlying egg protein expression was estimated in the marine mussel Mytilus. We believe this to be the first such measurement of genetic variation for gene expression in eggs of any organism. The study of eggs is important in evolutionary theory and life history analysis because maternal effects might have profound effects on the rate of evolution of offspring traits. Evidence is presented that the egg proteome varies significantly between individual females and that heritability of protein expression in mussel eggs is moderate to high suggesting abundant genetic variation on which natural selection might act. The study of the mussel egg proteome is also important because of the unusual system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance in mussels whereby different mitochondrial genomes are transmitted independently through female and male lineages (doubly uniparental inheritance). It is likely that the mechanism underlying this system involves the interaction of specific egg factors with sperm mitochondria following fertilization, and its elucidation might be advanced by study of the proteome in females having different progeny sex ratios. Putative identifications are presented here for egg proteins using MS/MS in Mytilus lines differing in sex ratio. Ontology terms relating to stress response and protein folding occur more frequently for proteins showing large expression differences between the lines. The distribution of ontology terms in mussel eggs was compared with those for previous mussel proteomics studies (using other tissues) and with mammal eggs. Significant differences were observed between mussel eggs and mussel tissues but

  11. Novel antifouling agent-zinc pyrithione: stress induction and genotoxicity to the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Marcheselli, Marco; Azzoni, Paola; Mauri, Marina

    2011-03-01

    The anti-fouling biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) was recently demonstrated to be more persistent than expected in the coastal environment, and to have a potential for bioaccumulation. We investigated the occurrence of adverse effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis when exposed to non-lethal concentrations of the contaminant (0.2 and 0.4μM ZnPT), through the use of a battery of biomarkers from the molecular to the individual level. In particular, the expression of HSP27, HSP60, HSP70 and the presence of genotoxic damage were investigated in the gills and digestive gland of mussels by means of Western blot and TUNEL procedures, respectively. In addition, a stress on stress response test was performed in order to highlight a possible general stress conditions in the exposed bivalves. A concentration of 0.2μM ZnPT was found sufficient to trigger a marked stress response in gills and digestive gland, and a concentration-dependent HSP expression was highlighted. Moreover, at the tested concentrations, ZnPT was found able to induce genotoxic effects, as demonstrated by an amplified DNA fragmentation (up to +37% of TUNEL positive cells in comparison to the control group) and by an increased frequency of apoptotic cells (up to +5%) in the tissues of the exposed mussels. In addition, the stress on stress response test demonstrated a heavily decreased tolerance to anoxic conditions in mussels exposed to the higher tested concentration of the biocide (LT(50)=5.4 days) compared to the control individuals (LT(50)=10.7 days). Multivariate analyses highlighted a strong correspondence between the observed biological effects in M. galloprovincialis, HSP over-expression and DNA damage in the gills and digestive gland, and the bioaccumulation levels of the biocide. Data presented here indicate the need for further investigations on the ZnPT effects on the key species of marine coastal communities, with the aim of obtaining the necessary information for a sound risk

  12. Processing of mussel adhesive protein analog thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Patz, T.; Narayan, R. J.; Menegazzo, N.; Mizaikoff, B.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Messersmith, P. B.; Stamatin, I.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2005-07-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins are a new class of biologically-derived materials that possess unique biocompatibility, bioactivity, and adhesion properties. We have demonstrated successful thin film growth of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl- L-alanine modified poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (DOPA modified- PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymer, a mussel adhesive protein analog, using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. We have demonstrated that the main functional groups of the mussel adhesive protein analog are present in the transferred film. The effect of increasing of chain length of the mussel adhesive protein analog on film structure was also examined. These novel polymer thin films could have numerous medical and technological applications if their thin film properties are similar to what is found in bulk. This is the first report of successful MAPLE deposition of this material as thin films.

  13. Differential involvement of mussel hemocyte sub-populations in the clearance of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria-Giovanna; Li, Hui; Jouvet, Lionel B P; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A; Parrinello, Nicolo; Cammarata, Matteo; Roch, Philippe

    2008-12-01

    Mussels are filter-feeders living in a bacteria-rich environment. We have previously found that numerous bacterial species are naturally present within the cell-free hemolymph, including several of the Vibrio genus, whereas the intra-cellular content of hemocytes was sterile. When bacteria were injected into the circulation of the mussel, the number of living intra-hemocyte bacteria dramatically increased in less than an hour, suggesting intense phagocytosis, then gradually decreased, with no viable bacteria remaining 12h post-injection for Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 24h for Vibrio splendidus and more than 48 h for Vibrio anguillarum. The total hemocyte count (THC) was dramatically lowered by the bacterial injections, as quantified by flow cytometry. V. splendidus induced the strongest decreases with -66% 9h post-injection of living bacteria and -56% 3h post-injection of heat-killed bacteria. Flow cytometry was used to identify three main sub-populations of hemocytes, namely hyalinocytes, small granulocytes and large granulocytes. When THC was minimal, i.e. within the first 9h post-injection, proportions of the three cell categories varied dramatically, suggesting differential involvement according to the targets, but small granulocytes remained the majority. According to a decrease in their number followed by an increase (+90% at 12h with living V. splendidus), hyalinocytes also appeared to be involved as cellular effectors of antibacterial immunity, despite possessing little capacity for phagocytosis and not containing antimicrobial peptides.

  14. Elemental fingerprinting of mussel shells to predict population sources and redistribution potential in the Gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    Sorte, Cascade J B; Etter, Ron J; Spackman, Robert; Boyle, Elizabeth E; Hannigan, Robyn E

    2013-01-01

    As the climate warms, species that cannot tolerate changing conditions will only persist if they undergo range shifts. Redistribution ability may be particularly variable for benthic marine species that disperse as pelagic larvae in ocean currents. The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, has recently experienced a warming-related range contraction in the southeastern USA and may face limitations to northward range shifts within the Gulf of Maine where dominant coastal currents flow southward. Thus, blue mussels might be especially vulnerable to warming, and understanding dispersal patterns is crucial given the species' relatively long planktonic larval period (>1 month). To determine whether trace elemental "fingerprints" incorporated in mussel shells could be used to identify population sources (i.e. collection locations), we assessed the geographic variation in shell chemistry of blue mussels collected from seven populations between Cape Cod, Massachusetts and northern Maine. Across this ∼500 km of coastline, we were able to successfully predict population sources for over two-thirds of juvenile individuals, with almost 80% of juveniles classified within one site of their collection location and 97% correctly classified to region. These results indicate that significant differences in elemental signatures of mussel shells exist between open-coast sites separated by ∼50 km throughout the Gulf of Maine. Our findings suggest that elemental "fingerprinting" is a promising approach for predicting redistribution potential of the blue mussel, an ecologically and economically important species in the region.

  15. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ruhmann, Emma K.; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in <170 days at 9 ppm and 12 ppm, however water with >15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced

  16. Controlling populations of invasive pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) through citizen science and environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Laura; Dopico, Eduardo; Devlo-Delva, Floriaan; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-09-15

    Early detection of dangerous exotic species is crucial for stopping marine invasions. The New Zealand pygmy mussel Xenostrobus securis is a problematic species in coasts of temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. In this study we have controlled a population of this invader that recently expanded in a north Iberian estuary with both a participatory approach involving researchers and citizens, and employing a sensitive eDNA-based tool to monitor the population expansion in the estuary. Results demonstrate successful eradication of pygmy mussels in the outer part of the estuary with citizen science and the practical utility of eDNA for controlling biological invasions.

  17. Chemical and ancillary data associated with bed sediment, young of year Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) tissue, and mussel (Mytilus edulis and Geukensia demissa) tissue collected after Hurricane Sandy in bays and estuaries of New Jersey and New York, 2013–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Deshpande, Ashok D.; Blazer, Vicki; Galbraith, Heather S.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Colella, Kaitlyn; Deetz, Anna C.; Fisher, Irene J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Sharack, Beth; Summer, Lisa; Timmons, DeMond; Trainor, John J.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Samson, Jennifer; Reilly, Timothy J.; Focazio, Michael J.

    2015-09-09

    Twenty three PCB congeners, 9 PBDE congeners, and 20 OCPs were detected in composite mussel samples collected throughout the study area. The co-eluting PCB congeners 153 and 132, PBDE 47, 99, and 100, and p,p’-DDE were detected in samples from each site. The highest median concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs were present in mussels from Raritan Bay, N.Y., whereas the highest median concentrations of OCPs were present in mussels from Fire Island Inlet, N.Y., and Shark River, N.J. Mytilus edulis (blue mussels) and Geukensia demissa (ribbed mussels) were thin-sectioned and aged. The blue mussels collected ranged in age from 4 to 13 years, and the ribbed mussels ranged in age from 3 to 12 years.

  18. Hemocyte responses of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to nano-TiO2 and seawater acidification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xizhi; Lin, Daohui; Ning, Ke; Sui, Yanming; Hu, Menghong; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-11-01

    With increasing production from nanotechnology industries, nanomaterials are inevitably released into the aquatic environment, thereby posing a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Thus, concerns have been raised on the potential ecotoxicological effect of nanoparticle. Furthermore, the ecotoxicological consequences caused by the interaction of nanoparticles with other environmental stresses, such as seawater acidification on marine animals, have not been evaluated. In particular, whether acidification enhances the susceptibility to nanoparticles in bivalves needs to be evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of low pH and nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) on some immune parameters of hemocytes in the mussel Mytilus coruscus by flow cytometry under six combinations of two pH values (7.3 and 8.1) and three nano-TiO2 concentrations (0, 2.5, and 10mgL(-1)) for 14 d. Afterward, the mussels were shifted to normal conditions without nano-TiO2 at pH 8.1 for 7 d further to test their recovery from the multiple stresses. Total hemocyte count (THC), phagocytosis (Pha), esterase (Est), and lysosomal content (Lyso) decreased under low pH and high nano-TiO2 concentration conditions, whereas hemocyte mortality (HM) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased with nano-TiO2 concentrations under low pH conditions. The interactive effects between pH and nano-TiO2 were observed at the latter part of the exposure experiment (7 and 14 d) in most hemocyte parameters. Nano-TiO2 influenced the immune functions of mussel more severely than low pH. Slight recovery from the combined stresses was observed for HM, THC, Pha, and Lyso, but significant carry-over effects of nano-TiO2 and low pH were still observed. This study demonstrated that both low pH and high concentration of nano-TiO2 had negative effects on mussels, and these effects still acted for some time even though the mussels were already out of such stressors.

  19. DNA adducts in marine mussel and fresh water fishes living in polluted and unpolluted environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurelec, B.; Checko, M.; Krca, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.C. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX )

    1988-09-01

    {sup 32}P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in the digestive gland of marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites near Rovinj, Northern Adriatic, revealed that majority of adducts are caused by natural environmental factors rather than by man-made chemicals. The only pollutant-specific adducts were observed in a mussel exposed to seawater experimentally polluted with aminofluorene, and in a population of mussel living at a site heavily polluted with a waste waters of an oil refinery. Fresh water fish species Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama and Rutilus pigus virgo living in a polluted Sava River, Yugoslavia, or in its unpolluted tributary Korana River, have induced in their livers qualitatively identical and quantitatively similar DNA adducts. These DNA adducts had a species-specific patterns and their appearance was seasonally-dependent.

  20. Mercury concentrations in Quagga Mussels, Dreissena bugensis, from Lakes Mead, Mohave and Havasu.

    PubMed

    Mueting, Sara A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2010-04-01

    The recent invasion of the Dressenid species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, into Lakes Mead, Mohave and Havasu has raised questions about their ability to alter contaminant cycling. Mussels were collected from 25 locations in the three lakes. The overall average was 0.036 +/- 0.016 microg g(-1) Hg dry wt. The range of the three lakes was from 0.014-0.093 microg g(-1) Hg dry wt. There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations among the three lakes (F = 0.07; p = 0.794). From this baseline data of contaminants in quagga mussels from the lower Colorado River, this species may be used to biomonitor lake health.

  1. Comparative morphology of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel sperm: Light and electron microscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, G.K.; Black, M.G.; Edwards, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Adult zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels were induced to release large quantities of live spermatozoa by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Sperm were photographed alive using phase-contrast microscopy and were fixed subsequently with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide for eventual examination by transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The sperm of both genera are of the ect-aquasperm type. Their overall dimensions and shape allow for easy discrimination at the light and scanning electron microscopy level. Transmission electron microscopy of the cells reveals a barrel-shaped nucleus in zebra mussel sperm and an elongated nucleus in quagga mussel sperm. In both species, an acrosome is cradled in a nuclear fossa. The ultrastructure of the acrosome and axial body, however, is distinctive for each species. The structures of the midpiece are shown, including a unique mitochondrial "skirt" that includes densely packed parallel cristae and extends in a narrow sheet from the mitochondria.

  2. New Concerns Emerge as Zebra Mussel Spreads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Martha L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the Zebra Mussel invasion of North American inland waterways. Discusses United States Army Corps of Engineers operations that may facilitate or be affected by the spread of Zebra Mussels, the threat to native clams, chemical and mechanical control methods, natural solutions, and ongoing research. (MCO)

  3. Evaluation of methods for assessing physiological biomarkers of stress in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Andrea K.; Peterson, James T.; Hazelton, Peter D.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussel populations are highly susceptible to environmental alterations because of their diminished numbers and primarily sessile behaviors; nonlethal biomonitoring programs are needed to evaluate the health of populations prior to mass mortality events. Our objectives were to determine (i) which biochemical parameters in freshwater mussel hemolymph could be consistently quantified, (ii) how hemolymph parameters and tissue glycogen respond to a thermal stress gradient (25, 30, and 35 °C), and (iii) the effects of tissue and hemolymph extraction on long-term growth and survival of smaller- and larger-bodied mussel species. Glucose exhibited elevated expression in both species with increasing water temperature. Two transaminase enzymes had elevated expression in the 30 °C treatment. The effects of hemolymph extraction and tissue biopsies were evaluated with a large-bodied species, Elliptio crassidens, and a smaller species, Villosa vibex. Individuals were monitored for 820 to 945 days after one of four treatments: hemolymph extraction, tissue biopsy, tissue and hemolymph extraction, and control. Hemolymph extraction and tissue biopsy adversely affected survival of V. vibex, suggesting that these extraction methods may add some risk of reduced survival to smaller-bodied species. Survival of E. crassidens was not impaired by any of the treatments, supporting the use of these techniques in nonlethal biomonitoring programs for larger-bodied mussel species.

  4. Biochemical characterization of lysozymes present in egg white of selected species of anatid birds.

    PubMed

    D'Surney, S J; deKloet, S R

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of lysozyme from the egg white of several representative species of waterfowl is described. The purified lysozymes were analyzed to determine the type and molecular weight of each enzyme. All enzymes found in duck egg whites were found to be of the c-type. In contrast all true geese, and the mute swan species as well as the northern blackneck screamer contain lysozyme g in their egg white.

  5. Occurrence, seasonality and infectivity of Vibrio strains in natural populations of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alejandro; Costa, María del; Forn-Cuni, Gabriel; Balseiro, Pablo; Chamorro, Rubén; Dios, Sonia; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2014-02-19

    Widespread and large-scale mortalities of bivalve molluscs significantly affect their production. A number of pathogens have been identified as the primary causes of death in oysters or clams, especially bacteria of the genus Vibrio. We evaluated the occurrence, seasonality and infectivity of Vibrio strains associated with natural mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) populations. In particular, different isolates of V. splendidus and V. aestuarianus were analysed because they were associated with major oyster mortalities in areas where mussels are cultured without presenting mortalities. The presence of both Vibrio spp. was analysed bimonthly in mussels, water, sediment, plankton and other associated fauna from 2 sites in Galicia (NW Spain), the region with the highest mussel production in Europe. Environmental factors were also considered. The pathogenicity of different Vibrio isolates was analysed by performing experimental infections in mussels with strains isolated from the field. Results showed that Vibrio populations were mainly influenced by changes in water temperature and salinity. V. splendidus was dominant during the warm months and V. aestuarianus was predominant throughout the cold season. The sediment was the most important natural reservoir for bacteria. Experimental infections showed the extreme resistance of mussels to bacterial pathogens. Isolates of V. splendidus and V. aestuarianus were only moderately pathogenic for mussels in intramuscular infections and bath infections, and mortalities only occurred when animals were infected with a high bacterial concentration in adverse environmental conditions (hypoxia and 25°C). Although the pathogenicity of the Vibrio strains isolated from the wild was low for mussels, their potential risk for other bivalves cannot be ignored.

  6. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    PubMed

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  7. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies.

  8. Troponin-like regulation in muscle thin filaments of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Bivalvia: Mytiloida).

    PubMed

    Vyatchin, Ilya G; Shevchenko, Ulyana V; Lazarev, Stanislav S; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S

    2015-10-01

    Muscles of bivalve molluscs have double calcium regulation--myosin-linked and actin-linked. While the mechanism of myosin-linked regulation is sufficiently studied, there is still no consensus on the mechanism of actin-linked regulation. Earlier we showed a high degree of Ca2+-sensitivity of thin filaments from the adductor muscle of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Mytiloida). In order to elucidate the nature of this regulation, we isolated the fraction of minor proteins from the mussel thin filaments, which confers Ca2+-sensitivity to reconstituted actomyosin-tropomyosin. Proteins of this fraction, ABP-19, ABP-20, and ABP-28, were chromatographically purified and identified. According to the results of mass spectrometry and Western blot analysis, as well as by their functional properties, these mussel actin-binding proteins appeared to correspond to the troponin components from the skeletal muscles of vertebrates (TnC, TnI and TnT). The reconstituted mussel troponin complex confers to actomyosin-tropomyosin more than 80% Ca2+-sensitivity. The in vivo molar ratio of actin/tropomyosin/troponin was calculated to be 7:1:0.5, i.e., the content of troponin in mussel thin filaments is two times lower than in thin filaments of skeletal muscles of vertebrates. These data demonstrate that troponin-like regulation found in the catch muscle of the mussel C. grayanus is present at least in two suborders of bivalves: Pectinoida and Mytiloida.

  9. Nonlethal evaluation of the physiological health of unionid mussels: Method for biopsy and glycogen analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Damschen, E.D.; Rada, R.G.; Monroe, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    In long-lived unionid mussels, many short-term measures of growth are of limited value. Changes in physiological condition may be an early indication of stress, because the increased energy demand associated with stress often results in a depletion of glycogen reserves, the principal storage form of carbohydrates in unionid mussels. Our goal was to nonlethally extract tissue from freshwater mussels and then to develop a rapid and dependable method for the analysis of glycogen in the tissue extracts. A biopsy technique was developed to remove between 5 and 10 mg of food tissue in Amblema plicata plicata. The survival rate did not differ between biopsied and non-biopsied mussels during a 581-d observation period, demonstrating that the biopsy technique will allow nonlethal evaluation of the physiological condition of individual mussels through measurement of changes in contaminant, genetic, and biochemical indicators in tissue. We also modified the standard alkaline digestion and phenol-sulfuric acid analysis of glycogen for use on the small samples of biopsied tissue and to reduce analysis time and cost. We present quality control data, including method detection limits and estimates of precision and bias. The modified analytical method is rapid and accurate and has a method detection limit of 0.014 mg glycogen. Glycogen content in the biopsied samples was well above the method detection limit; it ranged from 0.09 to 0.36 mg, indicating that the method should be applicable to native mussels.

  10. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land.

  11. Influence of parasitism in controlling the health, reproduction and PAH body burden of petroleum seep mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Eric N.; Barber, Robert D.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II; Ford, Susan E.

    1999-12-01

    Petroleum seep mussels are often exposed to high hydrocarbon concentrations in their natural habitat and, thus, offer the opportunity to examine the relationship between parasitism, disease and contaminant exposure under natural conditions. This is the first report on the histopathology of cold-seep mussels. Seep mussels were collected by submersible from four primary sites in the Gulf of Mexico, lease blocks Green Canyon (GC) 184, GC-234, GC-233, and Garden Banks 425 in 550-650 m water depth. Five types of parasites were identified in section: (1) gill "rosettes" of unknown affinity associated with the gill bacteriocytes, (2) gill "inclusions" similar to chlamydia/rickettsia inclusions, (3) extracellular gill ciliates, (4) body "inclusions" that also resemble chlamydial/rickettsial inclusions, and (5) Bucephalus-like trematodes. Comparison to shallow-water mytilids demonstrates that: (1) both have similar parasite faunas; (2) seep mytilids are relatively heavily parasitized; and (3) infection intensities are extremely high in comparison to shallow-water mytilids for Bucephalus and chlamydia/rickettsia. In this study, the lowest prevalence for chlamydia/rickettsia was 67%. Prevalences of 100% were recorded from three populations. Bucephalus prevalence was ⩾70% in three of 10 populations. The parasite fauna was highly variable between populations. Some important parasites were not observed in some primary sites. Even within primary sites, some important parasites were not observed in some populations. Bucephalus may exert a significant influence on seep mussel population dynamics. Forty percent of the populations in this study are severely reproductively compromised by Bucephalus infection. Only a fraction of petroleum seep mussel populations are maintaining the entire beta-level population structure of this species. Variation in two parasites, gill ciliates and Bucephalus, explained most of the variation in PAH body burden between mussel populations. PAHs are

  12. Microsporidian species known to infect humans are present in aquatic birds: implications for transmission via water?

    PubMed

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Nowosad, Andrzej; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2006-07-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic and environmental transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing conventional and molecular techniques for examining feces from 570 free-ranging, captive, and livestock birds demonstrated that 21 animals shed microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans, including Encephalitozoon hellem (20 birds; 3.5%) and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (1 bird; 0.2%). Of 11 avian species that shed E. hellem and E. intestinalis, 8 were aquatic birds (i.e., common waterfowl). The prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl (8.6%) was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other birds (1.1%) (P < 0.03); waterfowl fecal droppings contained significantly more spores (mean, 3.6 x 10(5) spores/g) than nonaquatic bird droppings contained (mean, 4.4 x 10(4) spores/g) (P < 0.003); and the presence of microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans in fecal samples was statistically associated with the aquatic status of the avian host (P < 0.001). We demonstrated that a single visit of a waterfowl flock can introduce into the surface water approximately 9.1 x 10(8) microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans. Our findings demonstrate that waterborne microsporidian spores of species that infect people can originate from common waterfowl, which usually occur in large numbers and have unlimited access to surface waters, including waters used for production of drinking water.

  13. Hydrological Controls on Water Chemistry that Supports Freshwater Mussel Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Native freshwater mussel species ranges and population sizes have been declining throughout N. America. Due to their sedentary nature, adult mussels are vulnerable to both local habitat changes (often associated with land-use changes, contaminants, and biological invaders) and to climate changes that can alter river flow regimes, bed stability, and water chemistry. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between water chemistry and hydrological events in rivers that support native mussel populations. USGS ion concentration and water quality (pH, temperature, conductivity) data were used to calculate saturation indices for aragonite. For some sites, electrical conductivity was highly correlated with calcium and bicarbonate concentrations and could be used to estimate concentrations when ion chemistry was not measured. Continuous water quality data from datasondes could thus be used to evaluate saturation indices for aragonite on a daily basis for 10-15 year periods. For the Delaware River, which has relatively few carbonate rocks in its watershed, tributary aragonite saturation tended to reflect local geological conditions. The lower main stem of the river integrates the water chemistry of the basin and also responds to climatic conditions. The lower Delaware supports aragonite precipitation approximately 50 days per year, with considerable inter-annual variability. During most years, aragonite precipitation could occur during both the spring and late summer periods, but years with heavy spring rains rather than snowmelt shifts aragonite precipitation to late summer periods. In 2011 when several major tropical storms hit the Delaware basin, streamflow was too dilute for aragonite precipitation for most of the summer period. These data suggest that hydrological changes associated with climatic changes may influence the water chemistry and affect the suitability of some rivers as mussel habitat.

  14. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed Central

    Roesijadi, G

    1986-01-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl2. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP20 and HgBP10 following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP20 represents the primary mercury-binding species. These exist as dimers which can be dissociated into subunits by treatment with 1% 2-mercaptoethanol. Further purification of HgBP20 by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography resulted in the resolution of three major mercury-binding protein peaks; analysis of two of these showed that both had similar amino acid compositions with 26% half-cystine, 16% glycine, and very low levels of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine (0.3-0.5%), histidine (0.4%), methionine (about 0.5%), and leucine (about 1%). These are similar to the compositions of proteins reported as mussel thioneins by others. Separation of HgBP20 by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins. PMID:3709464

  15. Electric utility Zebra Mussel Control technology conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L. ); Mussalli, Y.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This Conference on Zebra Mussel Control technology was held on October 22--23, 1991 in Itasca (Chicago), Illinois. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI Zebra Mussel Task Force and hosted by Commonwealth Edison Company to bring together representatives of utilities, manufacturers, researches, and consultants. Nineteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to the following topics: Overview and Control Strategy, Monitoring and Non-Chemical Control Technology, and Chemical Control Technology. A half-day workshop/panel discussion devoted to the same topics was conducted at the second day of the formal presentations. More than 160 people attended this Conference. This report contains technical papers and summaries of the workshop/panel sessions. Of these 19 papers, there are 4 papers related to overview and control strategy, 7 papers related to monitoring and non-chemical control technology, and 8 papers related to chemical control technology.

  16. Distribution and elimination of (/sup 14/C)octachlorostyrene in cod (Gadus morhua), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebrigtsen, K.; Solbakken, J.E.; Norheim, G.; Nafstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were given a single oral dose of 100 microCi/kg b.w. of (/sup 14/C)octachlorostyrene ((/sup 14/C)OCS) in peanut oil. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) was exposed to (/sup 14/C)OCS in water. The distribution and elimination of the compound was studied by liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiography. The highest degree of radioactivity in the cod and rainbow trout was measured in the liver and the visceral fat, respectively. The degree of radioactivity in the brain of cod exceeded that of the rainbow trout by a factor between 2 and 4 at all survival times. In addition to bile excretion of (/sup 14/C)OCS-derived radioactivity, a possible excretion over the intestinal mucosa was suggested. The rate of elimination was slow in both species, and substantial amounts of radioactivity remained in the tissues 90 d after administration. In the blue mussel, the highest degree of radioactivity was found in the hepatopancreas. Substantial amounts of radioactivity were present in the mussel tissues 60 d after administration.

  17. Assessment of the genotoxic potential along the Danube River by application of the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussels: The Joint Danube Survey 3.

    PubMed

    Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Liška, Igor; Gačić, Zoran; Paunović, Momir; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the level of genotoxic pollution along the Danube River by measuring the level of DNA damage in the haemocytes of freshwater mussels of Unio sp. (Unio pictorum/Unio tumidus) and Sinanodonta woodiana. The comet assay was used for the assessment of DNA damage. The research was performed on 34 out of 68 sites analysed within the Joint Danube Survey 3 - the world's biggest river research expedition of its kind in 2013. During research, 2285 river kilometres were covered with an average distance of 68 km between the sites. The complex data set on concentrations of various substances present in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment on investigated sites gave the opportunity to identify the groups of xenobiotics which mostly affect the studied biomarker - DNA damage. The highest levels of DNA damage were recorded in the section VI (Panonnian Plain), which is under the impact of untreated wastewater discharges. Both positive and negative influences of the large tributaries on the level of genotoxicity in the Danube River were evident. Significant correlation in response was detected between the studied species of freshwater mussels. The level of DNA damage in mussels correlated with concentrations of compounds from the group of hazardous priority substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), persistent organic pollutants (dioxins) and emerging pollutants (Oxazepam, Chloridazon-desphenyl).

  18. Abstracts of Presentation: Aquatic Species Program Annual Review Meeting, Golden, Colorado, 24-25 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The goal of the aquatic species program is to produce gasoline and diesel fuels from microalgae grown in saline waters of the desert southwest. Microalgae are known to accumulate lipids in large quantities and can thrive in high salinity water which currently has no other use.

  19. Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    After exposure, the mussels were consolidated into wire mesh cages and placed in the Black River for a 27-28 day postexposure period, after which time survival of mussels was assessed. Of the 1,170 mussels tested in the study, 3 were confirmed dead and 5 were not recovered and treated as mortalities in the analysis. The effect and interactions of species, SDP exposure concentration, and SDP exposure duration were analyzed and did not affect mussel survival (p > 0.98). The results from this study indicate that SDP exposure at the maximum approved open-water concentration of 100 mg/L for up to 3 times the maximum approved open-water exposure duration of 8 hours (in other words for 24 hours of exposure) is unlikely to reduce survival of subadult or adult mussels.

  20. Detection of dibenzothiophene in mussel, Mytilus edulis, as a marker of pollution by organosulfur compounds in a marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, S.; Izumi, T.; Ogata, M.

    1983-11-01

    Organosulfur compounds are minor components of crude oil and of some fuel oils. Although the quantity of these compounds depends on the source of production, generally it ranges from 0.002 to nearly 30% in crude oil, found as sulfur containing hydrocarbons. Mussels are a well-known biological monitor of marine pollutants which scientists call ''the mussel watch''. But few reports have been published on organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compound contamination in field mussel samples. In the present study, the authors identified several organosulfur compounds through GC-MS, and measured the levels of DBT through GC-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), in both mussels and in water of the environment. The calculated concentration ratio of DBT in mussels to that in water ranged up to 500 in the field sample and 800 or higher after and experimental exposure. The estimated biological half-life or DBT from field mussel samples was about 9 days in clean sea water.

  1. Specific expression of antimicrobial peptide and HSP70 genes in response to heat-shock and several bacterial challenges in mussels.

    PubMed

    Cellura, Cinzia; Toubiana, Mylène; Parrinello, Nicolò; Roch, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Defensin, mytilin and myticin are antimicrobial peptides (AMP) involved in mussel innate immunity. Their in vitro antibacterial activity is different according to the targeted bacterial species. To determine if this specificity is correlated to different regulations of gene expressions, adult mussels were challenged in vivo with either Vibrio splendidus LGP32, Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or by heat shock. RNAs were isolated from circulating hemocytes and AMP mRNAs were quantified by Q-PCR using 28S rRNA as housekeeping gene. In addition, HSP70 gene expression was also quantified as representing non-specific response to stress. In naïve mussels, the three AMP mRNAs were present in dramatically different quantities. Compared to defensin, myticin was expressed 300-fold more and mytilin 30-fold more. HSP70 was found expressed 80-fold more than defensin. AMP genes were differentially regulated according to the challenging bacteria, M. lysodeikticus being the only one inducing down-regulation. Such variations in mRNA quantities were observed immediately after challenging, lasting less than 24h. Only V. anguillarum effect was observed later, between 12h and 3 days post-challenge. Compared to their background expression in naïve mussels, the major effect of V. splendidus was the decrease of mytilin and myticin mRNAs, V. anguillarum mainly increased both mytilin and HSP70 mRNAs, whereas M. lysodeikticus almost suppressed defensin mRNA. As expected, heat shock increased HSP70 mRNA, but also myticin mRNA. Consequently, AMP genes responded specifically to the challenges, confirming that at least some of the innate immune mechanisms are specifically orientated.

  2. Biochemical characterization of lysozymes present in egg white of selected species of anatid birds.

    PubMed

    D'Surney, S J; deKloet, S R

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of lysozyme from the egg white of several representative species of waterfowl is described. The purified lysozymes were analyzed in order to determine the type and molecular weight of each enzyme. All enzymes found in duck egg whites were found to be of the c-type. In contrast all true geese, the Mute Swan as well as the Northern Blackneck Screamer contain lysozyme g in their egg white.

  3. Modeling spatial distribution of the Unionid mussels and the core-satellite hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Hooi-Ling; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Koh, Hock Lye

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the spatial distribution patterns of the various species of the Unionid mussels as functions of their respective life-cycle characteristics. Computer simulations identify two life-cycle characteristics as major factors governing the abundance of a species, namely the movement range of their fish hosts and the success rate of the parasitic larval glochidia in finding fish hosts. Core mussels species have fish hosts with large movement range to disperse the parasitic larval glochidia to achieve high levels of abundance. Species associated with fish host of limited movement range require high success rate of finding fish host to achieve at least an intermediate level of abundance. Species with low success rate of finding fish hosts coupled with fish hosts having limited movement range exhibit satellite species characteristics, namely rare in numbers and sparse in distributions.

  4. The Impact of Extreme Flooding on Mussel and Microbial Nutrient Dynamics at the Water-Sediment Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bril, J.; Just, C. L.; Newton, T.; Young, N.; Parkin, G.

    2009-12-01

    Labeled by the National Academy of Engineering as one of fourteen grand challenges for engineering, the management of the nitrogen cycle has become an increasingly difficult obstacle for sustainable development. In an effort to improve nitrogen cycle management practices, we are attempting to expand on the limited scientific knowledge of how aquatic environments are affected by increasing human- and climate-induced changes. To accomplish this, we are using freshwater mussels as a sentinel species to indicate how natural processes within large river systems may be altered by human activity. Freshwater mussels have been referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’ because they exert control over food resources and alter habitats for other organisms. Also, mussels and bacteria play a major role in nutrient cycling in large river systems by cycling nutrients taken up by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Under ‘normal’ environmental conditions, mussels appear to process nitrogen more rapidly than denitrifying bacteria. However, substantial deposition of carbon-rich sediment resulting from extreme flooding may increase bacterial nitrogen cycling rates and subsequently alter overall denitrification rates. We hypothesize that intense depositions of particulate matter from recent extreme floods in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) have altered the freshwater mussel and microbial food webs through physical and chemical means. This work will be done in a 1200-m reach of the UMRB near Buffalo, Iowa. The reach contains a healthy and diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels. A historic flood event during May-July 2008 coincided with intense spring cultivation and nutrient application activities in the heavily farmed landscape of the Upper Midwest and resulted in a significant pulse of agricultural contaminants to the UMRB. This led scientists to predict an almost unprecedented delivery of sediment and nutrients to the mussel bed, the broader Mississippi River, and ultimately

  5. Three STATs are involved in the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the triangle sail mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun-Jia; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Ying-Hao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhao, Li-Juan; Lin, Li; Chai, Lian-Qin; Wei, Shun; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2017-02-16

    Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies, which focus on the functional difference between various STATs in the same species of invertebrate, are limited. In the present study, three STATs (HcSTAT1, HcSTAT2 and HcSTAT3) were identified in triangle shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HcSTAT1 and HcSTAT3 were clustered with Homo sapiens STAT5, and HcSTAT2 was clustered with Pinctada fucata STAT and Crassostea gigas STAT6. All three STATs could be detected in all tested tissues (hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, mantle and foot), and were induced expression when challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Aeromonas hydrophilia in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. HcSTAT1 regulated the expression of HcDef, HcWAP, HcThe and HcTNF. The expression of HcWAP and HcTNF was down-regulated in HcSTAT2-RNAi mussel. And HcSTAT3 affected the expression of HcTNF. The study is the first report of different functions in antibacterial immune responses between STATs in mollusks.

  6. Mussel foot protein-1 (mcfp-1) interaction with titania surfaces†

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Lu, Qingye; Masic, Admir

    2012-01-01

    Marine mussels utilize a variety of DOPA-rich proteins for purposes of underwater adhesion, as well as for creating hard and flexible surface coatings for their tough and stretchy byssal fibers. In the present study, moderately strong, yet reversible wet adhesion between the protective mussel coating protein, mcfp-1, and amorphous titania was measured with a surface force apparatus (SFA). In parallel, resonance Raman spectroscopy was employed to identify the presence of bidentate DOPA–Ti coordination bonds at the TiO2–protein interface, suggesting that catechol–TiO2 complexation contributes to the observed reversible wet adhesion. These results have important implications for the design of protective coatings on TiO2. PMID:23100857

  7. Electromyogram as a measure of heavy metal toxicity in fresh water and salt water mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, G.W. III |; McCoy, A.A. |

    1996-02-01

    The response of bivalves to heavy metals and other toxins has usually been determined by observing valve position. Since mussels close their valves to avoid noxious stimuli, experimental delivery of chemicals ins uncertain. To obtain constant results plastic spacers can be employed to hold the valves apart. This obviates valve position as an index of response and some other method is required. Electromyography of intact mussels is one such index, giving a simple, effective, and quantitative measurement of activity. Experiments are reported in this article on the effects of added mercury on salt water and fresh water species.

  8. Effects of current velocity on byssal thread production in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Effect of current velocity on byssal thread production by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) was investigated. Number of threads produced by samples of 20 mussels at 25{degrees}C exposed to currents velocities of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.27 m/s were counted over 21 days. Mussels were removed from current daily and number of new threads counted over a period of 21 days after which mussels were removed and their shell length measured. Increased current velocity significantly elevated rates of byssal thread production between 0.1 m/s and 0.2 m/s. velocities of 0.27 m/s suppressed production. Suppression may be due to agitation, interfering with the mussels ability to successfully produce a byssal thread. Mean byssal thread number in a newly formed byssal complex after 21 days exposure was 52.5, 63.8, 73.3 and 60.4 at current velocities of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.27 m/s respectively. Some of these results are consistent with observations made on the intertidal bivalve Mytilus edulis, others conflict. Results support contention that characteristics of byssal attachment may vary between freshwater and marine species.

  9. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  10. Invasive blue mussels threaten regional scale genetic diversity in mainland and remote offshore locations: the need for baseline data and enhanced protection in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jonathan P A; Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Westfall, Kristen M; Wenne, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Human-mediated biological transfers of species have substantially modified many ecosystems with profound environmental and economic consequences. However, in many cases, invasion events are very hard to identify because of the absence of an appropriate baseline of information for receiving sites/regions. In this study, use of high-resolution genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) highlights the threat of introduced Northern Hemisphere blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) at a regional scale to Southern Hemisphere lineages of blue mussels via hybridization and introgression. Analysis of a multispecies SNP dataset reveals hotspots of invasive Northern Hemisphere blue mussels in some mainland New Zealand locations, as well as the existence of unique native lineages of blue mussels on remote oceanic islands in the Southern Ocean that are now threatened by invasive mussels. Samples collected from an oil rig that has moved between South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand were identified as invasive Northern Hemisphere mussels, revealing the relative ease with which such non-native species may be moved from region to region. In combination, our results highlight the existence of unique lineages of mussels (and by extension, presumably of other taxa) on remote offshore islands in the Southern Ocean, the need for more baseline data to help identify bioinvasion events, the ongoing threat of hybridization and introgression posed by invasive species, and the need for greater protection of some of the world's last great remote areas.

  11. Drought responses of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in coastal plain tributaries of the Flint River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagnon, P.M.; Golladay, S.W.; Michener, W.K.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    During extreme drought conditions, mussel survival and habitat conditions were monitored weekly at nine locations representing a gradient in stream size in the lower Flint River basin, Georgia, USA. Cumulative unionid mortality ranged from 13 to 93% among sites, and was associated with low flow velocity (below 0.01 m/s) and dissolved oxygen concentrations below 5 mg/L. Species assemblages demonstrated differential mortality under declining dissolved oxygen conditions. Riffle and medium-large stream mussel assemblages had greater mortality than generalist assemblages under reduced dissoloved oxygen (DO < 5 mg/L). Mussel community composition at medium-sized sites shifted toward greater dominance of generalist species and lower proportions of riffle and medium-large stream species. At other sites, community structure changed little, likely due to the dominance of drought-resilient species in small streams and less detrimental changes in stream habitat conditions in large streams. Low flow conditions and severe drought adversely affected mussel distributions and assemblages, particularly in high diversity, medium-sized streams.

  12. Physical and chemical constraints limit the habitat window for an endangered mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Cara; Prestegaard, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective conservation and restoration strategies for freshwater pearly mussels requires identification of environmental constraints on the distributions of individual mussel species. We examined whether the spatial distribution of the endangered Alasmidonta heterodon in Flat Brook, a tributary of the upper Delaware River, was constrained by water chemistry (i.e., calcium availability), bed mobility, or both. Alasmidonta heterodon populations were bracketed between upstream reaches that were under-saturated with respect to aragonite and downstream reaches that were saturated for aragonite during summer baseflow but had steep channels with high bed mobility. Variability in bed mobility and water chemistry along the length of Flat Brook create a “habitat window” for A. heterodon defined by bed stability (mobility index ≤1) and aragonite saturation (saturation index ≥1). We suggest the species may exist in a narrow biogeochemical window that is seasonally near saturation. Alasmidonta heterodon populations may be susceptible to climate change or anthropogenic disturbances that increase discharge, decrease groundwater inflow or chemistry, and thus affect either bed mobility or aragonite saturation. Identifying the biogeochemical microhabitats and requirements of individual mussel species and incorporating this knowledge into management decisions should enhance the conservation and restoration of endangered mussel species.

  13. Highly divergent mussel lineages in isolated Indonesian marine lakes

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Knegt, Bram; Maas, Diede L.; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Abdunnur; Suyatna, Iwan; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine lakes, with populations in landlocked seawater and clearly delineated contours, have the potential to provide a unique model to study early stages of evolution in coastal marine taxa. Here we ask whether populations of the mussel Brachidontes from marine lakes in Berau, East Kalimantan (Indonesia) are isolated from each other and from the coastal mangrove systems. We analyzed sequence data of one mitochondrial marker (Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI)), and two nuclear markers (18S and 28S). In addition, we examined shell shape using a geometric morphometric approach. The Indonesian populations of Brachidontes spp. harbored four deeply diverged lineages (14–75% COI corrected net sequence divergence), two of which correspond to previously recorded lineages from marine lakes in Palau, 1,900 km away. These four lineages also showed significant differences in shell shape and constitute a species complex of at least four undescribed species. Each lake harbored a different lineage despite the fact that the lakes are separated from each other by only 2–6 km, while the two mangrove populations, at 20 km distance from each other, harbored the same lineage and shared haplotypes. Marine lakes thus represent isolated habitats. As each lake contained unique within lineage diversity (0.1–0.2%), we suggest that this may have resulted from in situdivergence due to isolation of founder populations after the formation of the lakes (6,000–12,000 years before present). Combined effects of stochastic processes, local adaptation and increased evolutionary rates could produce high levels of differentiation in small populations such as in marine lake environments. Such short-term isolation at small spatial scales may be an important contributing factor to the high marine biodiversity that is found in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. PMID:27761314

  14. Highly divergent mussel lineages in isolated Indonesian marine lakes.

    PubMed

    Becking, Leontine E; de Leeuw, Christiaan A; Knegt, Bram; Maas, Diede L; de Voogd, Nicole J; Abdunnur; Suyatna, Iwan; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    Marine lakes, with populations in landlocked seawater and clearly delineated contours, have the potential to provide a unique model to study early stages of evolution in coastal marine taxa. Here we ask whether populations of the mussel Brachidontes from marine lakes in Berau, East Kalimantan (Indonesia) are isolated from each other and from the coastal mangrove systems. We analyzed sequence data of one mitochondrial marker (Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI)), and two nuclear markers (18S and 28S). In addition, we examined shell shape using a geometric morphometric approach. The Indonesian populations of Brachidontes spp. harbored four deeply diverged lineages (14-75% COI corrected net sequence divergence), two of which correspond to previously recorded lineages from marine lakes in Palau, 1,900 km away. These four lineages also showed significant differences in shell shape and constitute a species complex of at least four undescribed species. Each lake harbored a different lineage despite the fact that the lakes are separated from each other by only 2-6 km, while the two mangrove populations, at 20 km distance from each other, harbored the same lineage and shared haplotypes. Marine lakes thus represent isolated habitats. As each lake contained unique within lineage diversity (0.1-0.2%), we suggest that this may have resulted from in situdivergence due to isolation of founder populations after the formation of the lakes (6,000-12,000 years before present). Combined effects of stochastic processes, local adaptation and increased evolutionary rates could produce high levels of differentiation in small populations such as in marine lake environments. Such short-term isolation at small spatial scales may be an important contributing factor to the high marine biodiversity that is found in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

  15. Effects of metals on {alpha}-amylase activity in the digestive gland of the green mussel, Perna viridis L.

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.; Teo, L.H.; Sin, Y.M.

    1996-04-01

    A number of digestive enzymes in the green mussel, Perna viridis L., have been reported, and {alpha}-amylase is believed to have a higher activity than the others. Small plankton, on which the green mussel feeds, may supply plenty of starch and glycogen. They may be an important source of nutrients for the green mussel and the ability of the latter to make good use of them depends mainly on the activities of amylase. The effect of heavy metals on amylase activity is also important as the ability of the mussel`s digestive gland to accumulate these metals is well known. High concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead, have been observed in the water around Singapore. The in vitro inhibition of some metals on the activities of digestive enzymes from the green mussel has been observed, but kinetic properties of the inhibition and the in vivo inhibition of the heavy metals on digestive enzymes are little understood. In the present study, in vitro inhibition of four metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Hg) on the activity of {alpha}-amylase from the digestive gland of the green mussel will be compared. Their effects on the K{sub M} and V{sub max} values of {alpha}-amylase will also be compared. Finally, lead is either added to the food or water, to see how it affects the activity of {alpha}-amylase and how this effect acts in combination with starvation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  17. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10-64% for dioxin and 20-47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions.

  18. Original involvement of antimicrobial peptides in mussel innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Mitta, G; Vandenbulcke, F; Roch, P

    2000-12-15

    Recently, the existence and extended diversity of antimicrobial peptides has been revealed in two mussel species. These molecules are classified into four groups according to common features of their primary structure: defensins, mytilins, myticins and mytimycin. In Mytilus galloprovincialis, gene structure reveals synthesis as precursors in circulating hemocytes. Synthesised even in absence of challenge, the precursors mature and the peptides are stored in granules as active forms. The different peptides are engaged in the destruction of bacteria inside phagocytes, before being released into hemolymph to participate in systemic responses. Such involvement in anti-infectious responses is unique, and apparently more related to those of mammalian phagocytes than to those of insects.

  19. Changes in the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna of the Bear Creek system of Northwest Alabama and Northeast Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Garner, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Drastic reductions in diversity and abundance of mussel populations are documented in many systems. Bear Creek, located in northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi, has seen changes to its fauna, possibly the result of impoundment, channelization, wastewater discharge, and sedimentation from such sources such as strip mining, agriculture, and silviculture. The most obvious influences have been impoundment of the lowermost 32 km of Bear Creek by Pickwick Reservoir of Tennessee River, the construction of four dams within the system, construction of a 29-km-long channel designed to limit flooding, and bank destabilization. Mussels are absent from much of the system and faunal composition has apparently been altered where mussels persist, based on comparison to limited previous studies. The most notable changes are the loss of Cumberlandian species diversity and the apparent increase in Ohioan species diversity. We sampled 40 stations in the Bear Creek system and report 32 mussel species live or fresh dead, including 3 Cumberlandian species, and 2 others weathered dead. Fourteen of these species were not reported in two earlier studies. During this study the most depauperate populations were upstream of Bear Creek km 41.0 and in tributaries. No mussels were collected immediately downstream of dams, and diversity gradually increased downstream from the lowermost main channel dam until 28 species occurred together in a free-flowing reach shortly before entering Pickwick Reservoir. One weathered dead zebra mussel, Dreisenna polymorpha, was also collected, representing a new tributary record. The population of Epioblasma brevidens in Bear Creek is the only population of that species known in the lower Tennessee River system, and the population of Lexingtonia dolabelloides, another new tributary record, is one of only two populations of that species known downstream of Paint Rock River.

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene absorption and exposure pathways in the green mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Chow, Alex T S

    2002-02-01

    The absorption efficiency (AE) of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, in the green mussel Perna viridis was measured under different biological and food conditions (body size, food quantity, and food species). Uptake of BaP from the aqueous phase by different species of phytoplankton and green mussels was also experimentally quantified. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was then used to separate the exposure pathways of BaP accumulation in the green mussels. Our results demonstrated that the AE of BaP in the green mussels ranged between 17 and 47%. Body size did not significantly affect the AE of BaP in the mussels. The AEs increased with a decrease in food availability, largely as a result of lengthening the gut passage of chemicals. The AEs differed by up to 2.3 times (17-39%) among the different food diets tested (four phytoplankton diets and one sediment diet). The BaP associated with the sediment was assimilated least efficiently. The difference in gut passage also appeared to account partially for the difference in AEs observed among different food types. No correlation between the AE and the distribution of BaP in the cytoplasm of phytoplankton cells was found. The concentration factor of BaP measured in four different marine phytoplankton species was in the range of 10(4)-5 x 10(4) (L/kg). The calculated uptake rate constant of BaP in the green mussels was 6.37 L/g/d, and the efficiency of absorption of BaP from the aqueous phase was 6.6 to 8.8%. The model calculation indicated that under most circumstances, >56% of BaP in mussels can indeed be derived from the uptake from the aqueous phase. However, the relative importance of aqueous and dietary exposure can be affected by the variation of AE, mussel's ingestion rate, and concentration of BaP in ingested food particles.

  1. Oleosin Isoforms of High and Low Molecular Weights Are Present in the Oil Bodies of Diverse Seed Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzen, Jason T. C.; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Chan, Kwai-Lan; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Oleosins are unique and major proteins localized on the surface of oil bodies in diverse seed species. We purified five different oleosins (maize [Zea mays L.] KD 16 and KD 18, soybean [Glycine max L.] KD 18 and KD 24, and rapeseed [Brassica campestris L.] KD 20), and raised chicken antibodies against them. These antibodies were used to test for immunological cross-reactivity among oleosins from diverse seed species. Within the same seed species, antibodies raised against one oleosin isoform did not cross-react with the other oleosin isoform (i.e. between maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18, and between soybean oleosins KD 18 and KD 24). However, the respective antibodies were able to recognize oleosins from other seed species. Where interspecies cross-reactivity occurred, the results suggest that there are at least two immunologically distinct isoforms of oleosins present in diverse seed species, one of lower Mr, and another one of higher Mr. This suggestion is also supported by the relative similarities between the amino acid sequence of a small portion of rapeseed oleosin KD 20 and those of maize oleosins KD 16 and KD 18. In maize kernel, there was a tissue-specific differential presentation of the three oleosins, KD 16, KD 18, and KD 19, in the oil-storing scutellum, embryonic axis, and aleurone layer. The phylogenetic relationship between the high and low Mr isoforms within the same, and among diverse, seed species is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:16667830

  2. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Radionuclides in Peconic River fish, mussels, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, A; Rosson, R; Lahr, J; Garcia, R; Kahn, B

    2001-12-01

    For regulatory oversight and quality control of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) actions, fish, mussels, and sediments were analyzed from the Peconic River system on Long Island, NY, downstream of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as from control locations. The analyses were for photon-emitting radionuclides (notably 60Co and 137Cs), uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sediments were cored in 4 sections to 0.37 m depth, whole fish were analyzed, and mussels were separated into flesh and shells. Radioisotopes of the cited elements were detected in sediment, some of the fish contained 137Cs, 241Am, and uranium, and mussel flesh contained 137Cs and uranium. All of the 60Co, 233U, and enriched uranium, and some of the 137Cs and 241Am, can most likely be attributed to Brookhaven National Laboratory. The other radionuclides (and some of the 137Cs and 241Am) are believed to have either fallout or nature as their origin. The New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) evaluated the radiological data in terms of adverse health implications due to consumption of fish with the levels of reported radioactivity. The NYSDOH determined that the added radiation doses likely to result from eating this fish are a small fraction of the radiation dose that normally results from radionuclides present in the body from natural sources.

  4. Gender-Associated Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy in Somatic Tissues of the Endangered Freshwater Mussel Unio crassus (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Implications for Sex Identification and Phylogeographical Studies.

    PubMed

    Mioduchowska, Monika; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Zając, Katarzyna; Zając, Tadeusz; Sell, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Some bivalve species possess two independent mitochondrial DNA lineages: maternally (F-type) and paternally (M-type) inherited. This phenomenon is called doubly uniparental inheritance. It is generally agreed that F-type mtDNA is typically present in female somatic and gonadal tissues as well as in male somatic tissues, whereas the M-type mtDNA occurs only in male germ line and gonadal tissue. In the present study, the mtDNA heteroplasmy (for both F and M genomes) in male somatic tissues of Unio crassus (Philipsson, 1788), species threatened with extinction, has been confirmed. Taking advantage from the presence of Mcox1 marker only in male somatic tissues, we developed a new method of sex identification in this endangered species, using nondestructive tissue sampling. Probability of correct sex identification was estimated at 97.5%. The present study is the first report on gender-associated mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in male somatic tissues of thick-shelled river mussel and first approach to U. crassus sex identification at molecular level. Our study also confirmed the utility of paternally inherited Mcox1 gene fragment as a complementary molecular tool for resolving phylogeographical relationships among populations of thick-shelled river mussel.

  5. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ecotoxicological characterization of seawater, sediment, and mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Gulf of Rijeka, the Adriatic Sea, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Nevenka; Fafandel, Maja; Piskur, Vanda

    2007-04-01

    The pattern of spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater, sediment, and mussels, potential toxicity of different matrices, and mussel anoxic survival from six sampling sites of the Gulf of Rijeka, the Adriatic Sea, Croatia was examined. The total concentrations of 10 PAHs vary from below detection limit to 305 ng/L in seawater, from 213 to 695 microg/kg dry weight in sediment and from 49.2 to 134 ng/g wet weight in mussel tissue. Combustion is the principal source of PAH contamination in seawater and sediment samples. Sediment samples are distinguished from the majority of seawater and mussel samples by the presence of high molecular weight PAHs, whereas mussels from majority of sampling sites tend to accumulate PAHs of lower molecular weight. The PAH dynamic between different matrices is complex and site specific. Toxicity of seawater and sediment organic extract is correlated with PAH content, indicating that PAHs are the predominant toxic compounds. There is no correlation between toxicity of mussel biological fluids and toxicity of seawater and sediment, or between toxicity of mussel biological fluid and PAH content in mussel, seawater, or sediment. There is a positive correlation between potential toxicity of mussel biological fluids and reduction of anoxic survival time. Mussel anoxic survival is influenced by the presence of complex mixture of toxic contaminants, not only PAHs. The relationship between PAH contents in different marine matrices and their ability to affect mussels revealed specific interactions between an organism and complex mixture of toxic contaminants present in the marine environment.

  7. Biogenic gradients in algal density affect the emergent properties of spatially self-organized mussel beds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Weerman, Ellen J; Gupta, Rohit; Herman, Peter M J; Olff, Han; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-07-06

    Theoretical models highlight that spatially self-organized patterns can have important emergent effects on the functioning of ecosystems, for instance by increasing productivity and affecting the vulnerability to catastrophic shifts. However, most theoretical studies presume idealized homogeneous conditions, which are rarely met in real ecosystems. Using self-organized mussel beds as a case study, we reveal that spatial heterogeneity, resulting from the large-scale effects of mussel beds on their environment, significantly alters the emergent properties predicted by idealized self-organization models that assume homogeneous conditions. The proposed model explicitly considers that the suspended algae, the prime food for the mussels, are supplied by water flow from the seaward boundary of the bed, which causes in combination with consumption a gradual depletion of algae over the simulated domain. Predictions of the model are consistent with properties of natural mussel patterns observed in the field, featuring a decline in mussel biomass and a change in patterning. Model analyses reveal a fundamental change in ecosystem functioning when this self-induced algal depletion gradient is included in the model. First, no enhancement of secondary productivity of the mussels comparing with non-patterns states is predicted, irrespective of parameter setting; the equilibrium amount of mussels is entirely set by the input of algae. Second, alternate stable states, potentially present in the original (no algal gradient) model, are absent when gradual depletion of algae in the overflowing water layer is allowed. Our findings stress the importance of including sufficiently realistic environmental conditions when assessing the emergent properties of self-organized ecosystems.

  8. Application of mussels as biosamplers for characterization of faecal pollution in coastal recreational waters.

    PubMed

    Roslev, P; Bukh, A S; Iversen, L; Sønderbo, H; Iversen, N

    2010-01-01

    Sources of faecal pollution in coastal recreational waters may be identified by analysing different host associated microorganisms or molecular markers. However, the microbial targets are often present at low numbers in moderately impacted waters, and often exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in waters with fluctuating faecal loads. This patchy occurrence can limit successful detection of relevant targets in microbial source tracking studies. In this study, we explored the possibility for using the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biosampler for accumulation of faecal bacteria relevant for microbial source tracking. Non-contaminated blue mussels were transferred to three coastal recreational waters affected by faecal pollution of unknown origin. Molecular markers associated with animal and human waste were targeted by PCR and compared in seawater and mussel samples. The results demonstrated that transplanted mussels in simple enclosures accumulated and retained elevated levels of molecular markers associated with different types of faecal pollution. The targets included a novel putative human associated E. coli subgroup B2 VIII clone, and animal and human associated markers in enterococci (esp, M19, M66, M90, and M91). Human (sewage) associated markers including esp and M66 were sometimes not detectable in seawater samples despite known wastewater contamination, whereas the markers were detectable in mussels. We suggest that transplanted mussels should be considered as potential biosamplers in studies focusing on identifying source of faecal pollution in low or moderately impacted recreational waters. Bioaccumulation of molecular markers in mussels for several days may represent the water quality better than traditional grab samples from the water column.

  9. Estimating Survival and Recruitment in a Freshwater Mussel Population Using Mark-recapture Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villella, R.F.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    We used a mark-recapture method and model averaging to estimate apparent survival, recruitment and rate of population growth in a native freshwater mussel population at a site on the Cacapon River, which is a tributary to the Potomac River. Over 2200 Elliptio complanata, E. fisheriana and Lampsilis cariosa were uniquely tagged over a period of 4 y. Recapture probabilities were higher in spring and summer than in winter except for L. cariosa which had a low probability of recapture regardless of time of year. All three species had high annual adult survival rates (>90%) with lower estimated survival of small (???55 mm) mussels (43%-69%). The variation in apparent survival over time was similar for all three species. This suggests that whatever environmental variables affect survival of mussels in this site affected all three species the same. Recruitment rates were low (1-4%) for both E. complanata and L. cariosa, with E. fisheriana having several periods of high (15-23%) recruitment. Distribution within the site was affected by both downstream and upstream movement, though movement rates were generally <1%. Average population growth rates for E. complanata (?? = 0.996, SE = 0.053), L. cariosa (?? = 0.993, SE = 0.076) and E. fisheriana (?? = 1.084, SE = 0.276) indicated static populations. Population growth rate approximating 1.0 suggests this site supports a stable freshwater mussel population through a life history strategy of low but constant recruitment and high annual adult survival.

  10. Evaluation of a nonlethal technique for determining sex of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, S.; Layzer, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The shells of most North American freshwater mussel species are not sexually dimorphic. During the brooding period, gravid females can be identified by inspection of marsupial gills; however, it is difficult to separate nongravid females from males in species lacking sexual dimorphism. The ability to differentiate males from females throughout the year would assist mussel conservation and research. Our objective was to test the accuracy and safety of a method to determine the sex of live mussels. We used a syringe to extract ???0.2 mL of gonadal fluid from 67 Elliptio dilatata and 65 Actinonaias ligamentina. The fluid was stained and examined microscopically for developing gametes. This method was safe and effective for determining the sex of mussels. After 1 y, survival was indistinguishable between test and control groups for both species. We sacrificed 4 to 7 E. dilatata and A. ligamentina at 3-mo intervals and examined histological sections of gonads. Sex assigned from examination of gonadal fluid and histological sections agreed in most cases (E. dilatata: 100%, A. ligamentina: 89%). ?? 2008 by The North American Benthological Society.

  11. Stravation tolerance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (n=30), were held without food at 5{degrees}, 15{degrees}, or 25{degrees}C and examined daily for mortality. Further samples of 210 mussels at each test temperature were periodically subsampled (n=10) throughout the starvation period. Tissues and shells of sampled specimens were dried to a constant weight. Zebra mussels held at 25{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 166 days of starvation while mussels at 15{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 545 days. A mortality of 60% was recorded in mussels after 524 days at 5{degrees}C. Dry shell weight (DSW) of starving zebra mussels at 25{degrees}C remained constant; at 15{degrees}C, DSW increased, likely due to deposition of new shell without increase in length. At 5{degrees}C DSW decreased possibly due to the high solubility of shell calcium carbonate at this low temperature. Dry tissue weight (DTW) decreased linearly during starvation at all test temperatures with the rate of DTW loss increasing at higher holding temperatures. Estimated percent tissue biomass reductions in a 20 mm long starved individual were 73.8% after 132 days at 25{degrees}C, 68.9% after 545 days at 15{degrees}C and 61.6% after 516 days at 5{degrees}C. When DTW loss rates were converted to O{sub 2} consumption rates (O{sub 2}), the O{sub 2} of a 20 mm long mussel was estimated to be 22.2% of prestarvation O{sub 2} at 25{degrees}C, 11.0% at 15{degrees}C and 10.2% at 5{degrees}C. Major reduction in metabolic demand in starving zebra mussels at low temperatures allows overwintering without appreciable loss of organic energy stores.

  12. Radium-226 accumulation in Florida freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.M.; Leeper, D.A.; Streubert, M.; Baker, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Selected lakes in Hillsborough County, Florida have been hydrologically augmented with groundwater to offset stage declines caused by excessive pumping of the Floridan Aquifer. Augmentation water can be relatively rich in 226Ra (>5 decays per minute [dpm] L-1). We measured 226Ra activities in shells and soft tissues of adult bivalve molluscs (Elliptio cf. buckleyi) from groundwater-augmented and nonaugmented lakes to assess bioaccumulation of 226Ra by mussels. Mussels from augmented lakes displayed higher 226Ra in both shells and tissues than did mussels from nonaugmented lakes. Within a sample, 226Ra activity in Elliptio tissues was higher than the value measured in shells. Highest activities were found in a composite mussel sample (n = 6) from an augmented lake; soft tissue activity was 619 ?? 33 dpm g-1 dry weight and shell activity was 147 ?? 7 dpm g-1 g dry weight. Large mussels displayed greater activities in soft tissues and shells than did small mussels. We transplanted animals from a nonaugmented lake into a groundwater-augmented water body. 226Ra activity in dry tissue rose from 32 ?? 1 to 196 ?? 2 dpm g-1 within 2 months. When 226Ra-rich mussels (232 ?? 2 dpm g-1) from the augmented lake were transferred to the nonaugmented lake, they showed no significant 226Ra loss over the 69-d experiment. Large Elliptio mussels concentrated 226Ra in their soft tissues to levels about 1,000 to 25,000 times concentrations in lake water. Pumping of groundwater in Florida for residential, agricultural, and industrial use contributes dissolved 226Ra to some surface water bodies, where it can be bioaccumulated by bivalve molluscs. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  13. Polyphosphate present in DNA preparations from fungal species of Collectotrichum inhibits restriction endonucleases and other enzymes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    During the development of a procedure for the isolation of total genomic DNA from filamentous fungi (Rodriguez, R. J., and Yoder, 0. C., Exp. Mycol. 15, 232-242, 1991) a cell fraction was isolated which inhibited the digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes. After elimination of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids, the active compound was purified by gel filtration to yield a single fraction capable of complete inhibition of restriction enzyme activity. The inhibitor did not absorb uv light above 220 nm, and was resistant to alkali and acid at 25°C and to temperatures as high as 100°C. More extensive analyses demonstrated that the inhibitor was also capable of inhibiting T4 DNA ligase and TaqI DNA polymerase, but not DNase or RNase. Chemical analyses indicated that the inhibitor was devoid of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids but rich in phosphorus. A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, metachromatic shift of toluidine blue, and gel filtration indicated that the inhibitor was a polyphosphate (polyP) containing approximately 60 phosphate molecules. The mechanism of inhibition appeared to involve complexing of polyP to the enzymatic proteins. All species of Colletotrichum analyzed produced polyP equivalent in chain length and concentration. A modification to the original DNA extraction procedure is described which eliminates polyP and reduces the time necessary to obtain DNA of sufficient purity for restriction enzyme digestion and TaqI polymerase amplification.

  14. Effect of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on food-chain transfer of PCBs in Saginaw Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hoof, P.L. Van; Hsieh, J.L.; Eadie, B.J.; Lansing, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The recent invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has significantly impacted the water quality of the Great Lakes. Relatively little is known about the influence of zebra mussels on contaminant cycling, and transfer to higher trophic organisms. Due to its high filtering rate and ability to rapidly establish large populations, Dreissena could potentially alter the flow of energy through the food web. In addition, this species has demonstrated a large capacity for accumulating lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Thus, zebra mussels could contribute to enhanced contaminant biomagnification by serving as an additional food-chain link either through direct transfer (ingestion by fish or ducks), and/or indirectly by funneling contaminants out of the pelagic zone down to benthic invertebrates. In order to determine if zebra mussels are enhancing biomagnification of PCBs in a Saginaw Bay food web, two years of field collections of various components (water, sediment, algae, zooplankton, zebra mussel, zebra mussel feces, gammarid amphipods, fish) were analyzed for their PCB congener content. Trophic levels will be characterized using stable isotope ratios of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, whereas carbon sources will be identified using {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C ratios.

  15. Spatial and temporal relationships among watershed mining, water quality, and freshwater mussel status in an eastern USA river.

    PubMed

    Zipper, Carl E; Donovan, Patricia F; Jones, Jess W; Li, Jing; Price, Jennifer E; Stewart, Roger E

    2016-01-15

    The Powell River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee, USA, drains a watershed with extensive coal surface mining, and it hosts exceptional biological richness, including at-risk species of freshwater mussels, downstream of mining-disturbed watershed areas. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of watershed mining disturbance; their relationship to water quality change in the section of the river that connects mining areas to mussel habitat; and relationships of mining-related water constituents to measures of recent and past mussel status. Freshwater mussels in the Powell River have experienced significant declines over the past 3.5 decades. Over that same period, surface coal mining has influenced the watershed. Water-monitoring data collected by state and federal agencies demonstrate that dissolved solids and associated constituents that are commonly influenced by Appalachian mining (specific conductance, pH, hardness and sulfates) have experienced increasing temporal trends from the 1960s through ~2008; but, of those constituents, only dissolved solids concentrations are available widely within the Powell River since ~2008. Dissolved solids concentrations have stabilized in recent years. Dissolved solids, specific conductance, pH, and sulfates also exhibited spatial patterns that are consistent with dilution of mining influence with increasing distance from mined areas. Freshwater mussel status indicators are correlated negatively with dissolved solids concentrations, spatially and temporally, but the direct causal mechanisms responsible for mussel declines remain unknown.

  16. Mate locating and access behaviour of the parasitic pea crab, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae, an important parasite of the mussel Perna canaliculus

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Oliver; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Pea crabs are globally ubiquitous symbionts in the marine environment that cause serious economic impact in the aquaculture production of several major bivalve species. However, little is known about their host-parasite interactions, especially the mating behaviour of these parasites that could prove useful for controlling their infestation in aquaculture. In this study, the mate location behaviour of male New Zealand pea crabs, Nepinnotheres novaezelandiae (Filhol, 1885), was observed when dwelling in its preferred host, the commercially important green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus. Given the cryptic behaviour of the male crabs, a novel trapping system was developed to determine whether male crabs would exit their mussel hosts in response to an upstream female crab. The presence of receptive female crabs placed upstream successfully attracted 60% of male crabs from their host over 24 h. Observations of the nocturnal mate-finding behaviour of male crabs were made in darkness using infrared video recordings. Males spent on average 49 min on empty hosts and never left a mussel containing a female conspecific once found, spending 200 min on average to gain entry to the mussel. Male crabs were often observed stroking the mantle edge of the mussel whilst attempting to gain entry, successfully increasing mussel valve gape during entry from 3.7 to 5.5 mm. A pheromone-based mate location system is likely used by this crab to greatly reduce the risks associated with the location of females. PMID:25786327

  17. Spatial variability in growth-increment chronologies of long-lived freshwater mussels: Implications for climate impacts and reconstructions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Bryan A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Blundon, Brett W.; Raggon, Mark F.; Zima, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of historical variability in river ecosystems are often lacking, but long-lived freshwater mussels could provide unique opportunities to understand past conditions in these environments. We applied dendrochronology techniques to quantify historical variability in growth-increment widths in valves (shells) of western pearlshell freshwater mussels (Margaritifera falcata). A total of 3 growth-increment chronologies, spanning 19 to 26 y in length, were developed. Growth was highly synchronous among individuals within each site, and to a lesser extent, chronologies were synchronous among sites. All 3 chronologies negatively related to instrumental records of stream discharge, while correlations with measures of water temperature were consistently positive but weaker. A reconstruction of stream discharge was performed using linear regressions based on a mussel growth chronology and the regional Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Models based on mussel growth and PDSI yielded similar coefficients of prediction (R2Pred) of 0.73 and 0.77, respectively, for predicting out-ofsample observations. From an ecological perspective, we found that mussel chronologies provided a rich source of information for understanding climate impacts. Responses of mussels to changes in climate and stream ecosystems can be very site- and process-specific, underscoring the complex nature of biotic responses to climate change and the need to understand both regional and local processes in projecting climate impacts on freshwater species.

  18. Changes in benthos associated with mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) farms on the west-coast of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Thomas A; Nickell, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, as a means of food production, is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. This expansion includes mussels (family Mytilidae) where production currently stands at 1.5 million tonnes per annum. Mussel culture is frequently perceived as having little environmental impact yet mussel biodeposits and shell debris accumulate around the production site and are linked to changes in the benthos. To assess the extent and nature of changes in benthos associated with mussel farming grab and video sampling around seven mussel farms was conducted. Grab samples were analysed for macrofauna and shell-hash content whilst starfish were counted and the shell-hash cover estimated from video imaging. Shell-hash was patchily distributed and occasionally dominated sediments (maximum of 2116 g per 0.1 m(2) grab). Mean shell-hash content decreased rapidly at distances >5 m from the line and, over the distance 1-64 m, decreased by three orders of magnitude. The presence of shell-hash and the distance-from-line influenced macrofaunal assemblages but this effect differed between sites. There was no evidence that mussel farming was associated with changes in macrobenthic diversity, species count or feeding strategy. However, total macrofaunal count was estimated to be 2.5 times higher in close proximity to the lines, compared with 64 m distance, and there was evidence that this effect was conditional on the presence of shell-hash. Starfish density varied considerably between sites but, overall, they were approximately 10 times as abundant close to the mussel-lines compared with 64 m distance. There was no evidence that starfish were more abundant in the presence of shell-hash visible on the sediment surface. In terms of farm-scale benthic impacts these data suggest that mussel farming is a relatively benign way of producing food, compared with intensive fish-farming, in similar environments.

  19. Changes in Benthos Associated with Mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) Farms on the West-Coast of Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Wilding, Thomas A.; Nickell, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, as a means of food production, is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. This expansion includes mussels (family Mytilidae) where production currently stands at 1.5 million tonnes per annum. Mussel culture is frequently perceived as having little environmental impact yet mussel biodeposits and shell debris accumulate around the production site and are linked to changes in the benthos. To assess the extent and nature of changes in benthos associated with mussel farming grab and video sampling around seven mussel farms was conducted. Grab samples were analysed for macrofauna and shell-hash content whilst starfish were counted and the shell-hash cover estimated from video imaging. Shell-hash was patchily distributed and occasionally dominated sediments (maximum of 2116 g per 0.1 m2 grab). Mean shell-hash content decreased rapidly at distances >5 m from the line and, over the distance 1–64 m, decreased by three orders of magnitude. The presence of shell-hash and the distance-from-line influenced macrofaunal assemblages but this effect differed between sites. There was no evidence that mussel farming was associated with changes in macrobenthic diversity, species count or feeding strategy. However, total macrofaunal count was estimated to be 2.5 times higher in close proximity to the lines, compared with 64 m distance, and there was evidence that this effect was conditional on the presence of shell-hash. Starfish density varied considerably between sites but, overall, they were approximately 10 times as abundant close to the mussel-lines compared with 64 m distance. There was no evidence that starfish were more abundant in the presence of shell-hash visible on the sediment surface. In terms of farm-scale benthic impacts these data suggest that mussel farming is a relatively benign way of producing food, compared with intensive fish-farming, in similar environments. PMID:23874583

  20. Influence of pathogenic bacteria species present in the postpartum bovine uterus on proteome profiles.

    PubMed

    Ledgard, A M; Smolenski, G A; Henderson, H; Lee, R S F

    2015-01-01

    In the first 2-3 weeks after parturition >90% of dairy cows will have some form of uterine infection. Uterine contamination with pathogens, such as Trueperella (formerly Arcanobacterium) pyogenes increases the risk of developing more severe endometritis, which can reduce conception rates. In this study, we compared the uterine proteome of cows infected with Trueperella pyogenes with that of uninfected cows, using 2D gel electrophoresis, and identified annexins A1 and A2 (ANXA1 and ANXA2), apolipoprotein A-1, calprotectin (S100A9), cathelicidin, enolase 1 (ENO1), peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), serine dehydratase (SDS) and serine protease inhibitors (SERPIN) B1, B3 and B4 proteins as differing in abundance in endometritis. Subsequently, levels of ten of these proteins were monitored in uterine samples collected from a herd of lactating, dairy cows at 15 and 42 days post-partum (DPP). The levels were compared with the cytology scores of the samples and the bacterial species isolated from the uterus. Cathelicidin, PGLYRP1, SERPINB1 and S100A9 levels at 15DPP showed strong positive correlations (r=0.78, 0.80, 0.79, and 0.68 respectively; P<0.001) with % of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). When compared with other bacterial pathogens identified, Streptococcus agalactiae and Truperella pyogenes induced increased expression of the indicator proteins, suggesting that these organisms may adversely affect the subsequent ability of the cow to conceive. Interestingly, there was no difference in the proportion of cows pregnant at 6 and 17 weeks after start of mating between the cows with high or low %PMN.

  1. Biochemical biomarkers and metals in Perna perna mussels from mariculture zones of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Luis Alberto; Seibert, Edson Luiz; Zanette, Juliano; Fiedler, Haidi Dalida; Curtius, Adilson José; Ferreira, Jaime Fernando; Alves de Almeida, Eduardo; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2010-07-01

    The activity of cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione-S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT) was evaluated in the gill and digestive glands of the Perna perna mussel transplanted to three non-contaminated mariculture zones under the influence of distinct physical-chemical characteristics. Differences among sites for ChE, GST and CAT activities in gill, as well as ChE, GST and G6PDH activity in digestive gland of mussels, were found and possibly related to differences in physicochemical characteristics of the sites and/or biological status of the mussels. Mussels that were transplanted to another, more urbanized site (Ponta do Lessa) with similar physicochemical characteristics to one of the farming sites (Sambaqui), was also chosen to evaluate biomarker responses to pollution. Activities of ChE, GST and GR in the digestive glands and CAT in the gills were higher in the polluted site. GR was the only biomarker to be unaltered in different farming sites, but induced in the pollution site. The trace metal concentrations in the mussels were low and unlikely to cause the changes observed in the biomarker levels. The present study strongly suggests that monitoring programs should compare sites with similar physicochemical characteristics when using a complementary biomarker approach. In addition, the baselines for the biomarkers and metal used in the present study can serve as a reference for the monitoring of these mariculture zones in future monitoring programs employing P. perna.

  2. Comparison of population genetic patterns in two widespread freshwater mussels with contrasting life histories in western North America.

    PubMed

    Mock, K E; Brim Box, J C; Chong, J P; Furnish, J; Howard, J K

    2013-12-01

    We investigate population genetic structuring in Margaritifera falcata, a freshwater mussel native to western North America, across the majority of its geographical range. We find shallow rangewide genetic structure, strong population-level structuring and very low population diversity in this species, using both mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite data. We contrast these patterns with previous findings in another freshwater mussel species group (Anodonta californiensis/A. nuttalliana) occupying the same continental region and many of the same watersheds. We conclude that differences are likely caused by contrasting life history attributes between genera, particularly host fish requirements and hermaphroditism. Further, we demonstrate the occurrence of a 'hotspot' for genetic diversity in both groups of mussels, occurring in the vicinity of the lower Columbia River drainage. We suggest that stream hierarchy may be responsible for this pattern and may produce similar patterns in other widespread freshwater species.

  3. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  4. Reducing risks of maintenance dredging on freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew C; Payne, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    In response to proposed dredging in a 122-km reach of the Big Sunflower River, Mississippi, we studied freshwater mussels (family: Unionidae) using qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative (0.25 m(2) total substratum removal) methods in 1987, 1993, 1994, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Our objectives were to identify important mussel resources, to devise methods for minimizing dredging risks, and to identify habitat improvement features. Approximately 60% of the fauna was located on two high-density shoals characterized by extreme dominance of the commercially valuable threeridge (Amblema plicata). Shallow nearshore and main channel areas comprised approximately 10 and 88% of the aquatic habitat in the project area; however, these areas were of less importance for mussels and supported densities of approximately 5 and 0.5 individuals/m(2), respectively. Throughout the project area the mussel fauna exhibited little or no evidence of recent recruitment, dominance of relatively few species (either A. plicata, or the bank climber Plectomerus dombeyanus), and low species diversity (H') and evenness. No federally listed endangered or threatened mussels were found, although the pyramid pigtoe (Pleurobema pyramidatum), a species listed as endangered in Mississippi, was collected in and upstream of the project area. Two other state-listed species, Plethobasus cyphyus (sheepnose) and Quadrula cylindrica (rabbitsfoot), were only found on gravelly shoals upriver of the project area. Maintenance plans were redesigned to minimize environmental damage; a hydraulic cutterhead dredge will be used in most of the mainstem to reduce risk to nearshore habitats. High-density assemblages on four shoals will not be dredged and 150 and 100 m buffer zones will be left immediately up and downriver. Enhancements for aquatic biota will be created with gravel substratum and wing dams.

  5. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher.

  6. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2011-09-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

  7. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis Bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  8. Low frequency sound as a control measure for zebra mussel fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Donskoy, D.M.; Ludyanskiy, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    The study of the effect of acoustic energy on zebra mussels first began in the Soviet Union over 30 years ago, where researchers indicated the feasibility of reducing Dreissena fouling, in particular on cooling systems. However, these studies were discontinued due to the successful use of chlorination and the relatively low level of technology at that time in the Soviet Union. Interest in the use of acoustic energy as a control measure has been revived, and the three major approaches are: (1) cavitation, (2) sound treatment, and (3) sound treatment. The objective of the present paper is to determine the feasibility and effectivensss of low frequency sound techniques to fight zebra mussel fouling. A number of experiments were performed, and the results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that low frequency sound can be an effective means of control of zebra mussel fouling.

  9. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  10. Accumulation of cadmium from the dissolved and particulate phases by the freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T.

    1995-12-31

    The primary objective of the current study was to quantify cadmium accumulation by Elliptio complanata from suspended particulates relative to the dissolved phase. Results obtained from this study suggest that particle physico-chemical properties and their associated cadmium concentrations may play a role in cadmium bioaccumulation by E. complanata. This accumulation of cadmium is due to direct uptake from the particulate phase and/or accumulation of dissolved cadmium which has leached off particles. The importance of the particulate phase in cadmium uptake is related to the type of particle to which mussels are exposed. No significant cadmium bioaccumulation was observed when mussels consumed Cd-contaminated kaolinite or illite clay particles. Significant uptake was observed by mussels exposed to Cd-contaminated montmorillonite clay particles at high bound cadmium levels; however, the dissolved phase accounted for all observed Cd accumulation, suggesting that equilibrium partitioning into the aqueous phase represented the key route of cadmium uptake from clay particles. Cadmium uptake did not occur when mussels were exposed to natural sediment particles containing low organic carbon concentrations, but significant bioaccumulation was observed when mussels consumed Cd-contaminated sediments with relatively high organic carbon contents. Dissolved cadmium concentrations present in sediment suspensions with low and high organic carbon contents were similar, suggesting that the particulate phase was the source of cadmium uptake. These results indicate that particle processing and selective feeding behaviors by filter-feeding bivalves may play a key role in determining the relative importance of dissolved and particulate phases in cadmium bioaccumulation.

  11. Biomarker responses in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) in the Klaipeda-Būtinge area (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Barsiene, Janina; Lehtonen, Kari K; Koehler, Angela; Broeg, Katja; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Lang, Thomas; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Syvokiene, Janina; Dedonyte, Veronika; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Repecka, Rimantas; Vuontisjärvi, Heta; Kopecka, Justyna

    2006-01-01

    During the EU project BEEP a battery of biomarkers was applied in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected at three locations off the Lithuanian coast (Baltic Sea) in June and September 2001 and 2002. The elevated biomarker responses in specimens sampled in September 2001 were apparently related to the extensive dredging activities in the Klaipeda port area and subsequent dumping of contaminated sediments. High concentrations of organic pollutants (organochlorines and PBDEs) were also measured in the tissues of both indicator species. In addition, response levels of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity as well as concentrations of PAH metabolites in the bile of flounder showed elevations in 2002 after an oil spill in the Būtinge oil terminal in November 2001. In flounder, biomarker measurements 10 months after the spill indicated recovery processes but in mussels a high level of genotoxicity could still be observed 22 months later. The present study illustrates the usefulness of the multi-biomarker approach in the detection of biological effects of pollution in this region of the Baltic Sea.

  12. Conservation genetics of North American freshwater mussels Amblema and Megalonaias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvey, M.; Lydeard, C.; Pyer, D.L.; Hicks, K.M.; Brim-Box, J.; Williams, J.D.; Butler, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Freshwater bivalves are among the most endangered groups of organisms in North America. Efforts to protect the declining mussel fauna are confounded by ambiguities associated with recognition of distinct evolutionary entities or species. This, in part, is due to the paucity of reliable morphological characters for differentiating taxa. We have employed allozymes and DNA sequence data to search for diagnosably distinct evolutionary entities within two problematic genera of unionid mussels, Amblema and Megalonaias. Within the genus Amblema three species are recognized based on our DNA sequence data for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and allozyme data (Amblema neislerii, A. plicata, and A. elliotti). Only one taxonomically distinct entity is recognized within the genus Megalonaias—M. nervosa. Megalonaias boykiniana of the Apalachicolan Region is not diagnosable and does not warrant specific taxonomic status. Interestingly, Megalonaias from west of the Mississippi River, including the Mississippi, exhibited an allozyme and mtDNA haplotype frequency shift suggestive of an east-west dichotomy. The results of this study eliminate one subspecies of Amblema and increase the range of A. plicata. This should not affect the conservation status of “currently stable” assigned to A. plicata by Williams et al. (1993). The conservation status of A. elliotti needs to be reexamined because its distribution appears to be limited to the Coosa River System in Alabama and Georgia.

  13. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  14. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... planning an FY13 strategy to minimize the spread of quagga mussels from the Colorado River and a framework for working beyond FY13. Priorities for minimizing the spread of these mussels will be discussed....

  15. Assimilation of cadmium, chromium, and zinc by the green mussel Perna viridis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.; Wang, W.X.

    2000-06-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum have been frequently used as biomonitors of coastal contamination in subtropical and tropical waters, yet the physiological processes controlling metal uptake in these bivalves are unknown. Assimilation efficiency (AE) is an important physiological parameter quantifying metal bioavailability from ingested food. The authors determined the AEs of Cd, CR, and Zn in these bivalves feeding on five species of phytoplankton and one natural section. The influences of the cytoplasmic distribution of metals in the algal cells and the digestive physiology of bivalves on metal AEs were also examined. Among the three metals, Zn was generally assimilated at the highest efficiency, i.e., 21 to 36% in the mussels and 29 to 59% in the clams. Cr was the least assimilated metal, with AEs being 10 to 16% in the mussels and 11 to 24% in the clams. The AEs of Cd and Zn in the clams were 1.8 to 4.7 and 1.1 to 1.9 times higher, respectively, than the AEs in the mussels. Assimilation efficiencies of Cr were, however, comparable between the mussels and the clams. A positive significant relationship between the metal AE and the percent of metals in the algal cytoplasm was found only for Cd in the clams, suggesting that Cd fractionation in the algal cells influenced its assimilation. No significant relationship, however, was found for other metals in both bivalves. A significant relationship between Cr-assimilation efficiency and gut passage time (GPT) was documented in the mussels, indicating a higher assimilation when Cr was retained longer in the gut. There was also significant correlation of metal AEs among the three metals, which were probably subjected to the same digestive pathway in the bivalves. Their study demonstrated that both the green mussels and the clams were able to accumulate metals from ingested food source, and food quality appeared to have different effects on metal assimilation in different bivalve

  16. The effects of elevated water temperature on native juvenile mussels: implications for climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are a diverse but imperiled fauna and may be especially sensitive to increasing water temperatures because many species already may be living near their upper thermal limits. We tested the hypothesis that elevated water temperatures (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) adversely affected the survival and physiology of 2-mo-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis siliquoidea, and Megalonaias nervosa) in 28-d laboratory experiments. The 28-d LT50s (lethal temperature affecting 50% of the population) ranged from 25.3 to 30.3°C across species, and were lowest for L. abrupta and L. siliquoidea. Heart rate of L. siliquoidea was not affected by temperature, but heart rate declined at higher temperatures in L. abrupta and M. nervosa. However, for both of these species, heart rate also declined steadily during the experiment and a strong temperature × time interaction was detected. Juvenile growth was low for all species in all treatments and did not respond directly to temperature, but growth of some species responded to a temperature × time interaction. Responses to thermal stress differed among species, but potential laboratory artifacts may limit applicability of these results to real-world situations. Environmentally relevant estimates of upper thermal tolerances in native mussels are urgently needed to assess the extent of assemblage changes that can be expected in response to global climate change.

  17. Scorched mussels (Brachidontes spp., Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from the tropical and warm-temperate southwestern Atlantic: the role of the Amazon River in their speciation.

    PubMed

    Trovant, Berenice; Basso, Néstor G; Orensanz, José María; Lessa, Enrique P; Dincao, Fernando; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2016-03-01

    Antitropicality is a distribution pattern where closely related taxa are separated by an intertropical latitudinal gap. Two potential examples include Brachidontes darwinianus (south eastern Brazil to Uruguay), considered by some authors as a synonym of B. exustus (Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean), and B. solisianus, distributed along the Brazilian coast with dubious records north of the intertropical zone. Using two nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA) and one mitochondrial gene (mtDNA COI), we aimed to elucidate the phylogeographic and phylogenetic relationships among the scorched mussels present in the warm-temperate region of the southwest Atlantic. We evaluated a divergence process mediated by the tropical zone over alternative phylogeographic hypotheses. Brachidontes solisianus was closely related to B. exustus I, a species with which it exhibits an antitropical distribution. Their divergence time was approximately 2.6 Ma, consistent with the intensification of Amazon River flow. Brachidontes darwinianus, an estuarine species is shown here not to be related to this B. exustus complex. We suspect ancestral forms may have dispersed from the Caribbean to the Atlantic coast via the Trans-Amazonian seaway (Miocene). The third species, B rodriguezii is presumed to have a long history in the region with related fossil forms going back to the Miocene. Although scorched mussels are very similar in appearance, their evolutionary histories are very different, involving major historical contingencies as the formation of the Amazon River, the Panama Isthmus, and the last marine transgression.

  18. Health status and bioremediation capacity of wild freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) exposed to sewage water pollution in a glacial Patagonian lake.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Bieczynski, Flavia; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Deleterious effects on health and fitness are expected in mussels chronically exposed to sewage water pollution. Diplodon chilensis inhabiting SMA, an area affected by untreated and treated sewage water, shows increased hemocyte number and phagocytic activity, while bacteriolytic and phenoloxidase activities in plasma and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes are lower compared to mussels from an unpolluted area (Yuco). There are not differences in cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and total oxygen scavenging capacity between SMA and Yuco mussels' hemocytes. Energetic reserves and digestive gland mass do not show differences between groups; although the condition factor is higher in SMA than in Yuco mussels. Gills of SMA mussels show an increase in mass and micronuclei frequency compared to those of Yuco. Mussels from both sites reduce bacterial loads in polluted water and sediments, improving their quality with similar feeding performance. These findings suggest that mussels exposed to sewage pollution modulate physiological responses by long-term exposure; although, gills are sensitive to these conditions and suffer chronic damage. Bioremediation potential found in D. chilensis widens the field of work for remediation of sewage bacterial pollution in water and sediments by filtering bivalves.

  19. Subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothionein response and oxidative damage in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium-based quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Durigon, Emerson Giuliani; Bebianno, Maria João

    2016-06-01

    The environmental health impact of metal-based nanomaterials is of emerging concern, but their metabolism and detoxification pathways in marine bioindicator species remain unclear. This study investigated the role of subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothioneins (MTs) response and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation - LPO) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in comparison with its dissolved counterpart. Mussels were exposed to QDs and dissolved Cd for 21 days at 10 μg Cd L(-1) followed by a 50 days depuration. Higher Cd concentrations were detected in fractions containing mitochondria, nucleus and lysosomes, suggesting potential subcellular targets of QDs toxicity in mussel tissues. Tissue specific metabolism patterns were observed in mussels exposed to both Cd forms. Although MT levels were directly associated with Cd in both forms, QDs subcellular partitioning is linked to biologically active metal (BAM), but no increase in LPO occurred, while in the case of dissolved Cd levels are in the biologically detoxified metal (BDM) form, indicating nano-specific effects. Mussel gills showed lower detoxification capability of QDs, while the digestive gland is the major tissue for storage and detoxification of both Cd forms. Both mussel tissues were unable to completely eliminate the Cd accumulated in the QDs form (estimated half-life time>50 days), highlighting the potential source of Cd and QDs toxicity for human and environmental health. Results indicate tissue specific metabolism patterns and nano-specific effects in marine mussel exposed to QDs.

  20. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Michelle R; Bartsch, Lynn A; Richardson, William B; Vallazza, Jon M; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 - 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 - 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 - 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of

  1. Exposure of marine mussels Mytilus spp. to polystyrene microplastics: Toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; González Fernández, Carmen; Hégaret, Hélène; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly; Frère, Laura; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Sussarellu, Rossana; Fabioux, Caroline; Guyomarch, Julien; Albentosa, Marina; Huvet, Arnaud; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The effects of polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS; mix of 2 and 6 μm; final concentration: 32 μg L(-1)) alone or in combination with fluoranthene (30 μg L(-1)) on marine mussels Mytilus spp. were investigated after 7 days of exposure and 7 days of depuration under controlled laboratory conditions. Overall, fluoranthene was mostly associated to algae Chaetoceros muelleri (partition coefficient Log Kp = 4.8) used as a food source for mussels during the experiment. When micro-PS were added in the system, a fraction of FLU transferred from the algae to the microbeads as suggested by the higher partition coefficient of micro-PS (Log Kp = 6.6), which confirmed a high affinity of fluoranthene for polystyrene microparticles. However, this did not lead to a modification of fluoranthene bioaccumulation in exposed individuals, suggesting that micro-PS had a minor role in transferring fluoranthene to mussels tissues in comparison with waterborne and foodborne exposures. After depuration, a higher fluoranthene concentration was detected in mussels exposed to micro-PS and fluoranthene, as compared to mussels exposed to fluoranthene alone. This may be related to direct effect of micro-PS on detoxification mechanisms, as suggested by a down regulation of a P-glycoprotein involved in pollutant excretion, but other factors such as an impairment of the filtration activity or presence of remaining beads in the gut cannot be excluded. Micro-PS alone led to an increase in hemocyte mortality and triggered substantial modulation of cellular oxidative balance: increase in reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes and enhancement of anti-oxidant and glutathione-related enzymes in mussel tissues. Highest histopathological damages and levels of anti-oxidant markers were observed in mussels exposed to micro-PS together with fluoranthene. Overall these results suggest that under the experimental conditions of our study micro-PS led to direct toxic effects at tissue, cellular and

  2. Adhesion beyond the interface: Molecular adaptations of the mussel byssus to the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIller, Dusty Rose

    The California mussel, Mytilus californianus, adheres robustly in the high-energy and oxidizing intertidal zone with a fibrous holdfast called the byssus using 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (Dopa)-containing adhesive mussel foot proteins (mfps). There are many supporting roles to mussel adhesion that are intimately linked and ultimately responsible for mussel byssus's durable and dynamic adhesion. This dissertation explores these supporting mechanisms, including delivery of materials underwater, iron binding, friction, and antioxidant activity. As the outermost covering of the byssus, the cuticle deserves particular attention for its supporting roles to adhesion including the high stiffness and extensibility of the M. californianus byssal cuticle, which make it one of the most energy tolerant materials known. The cuticle's matrix-granule composite structure contributes to its toughness by microcracking between its harder granules and softer matrix. We investigated delivery of cuticular material underwater, cohesion of cuticle proteins, and surface damage mitigation by cuticle protein-based coacervates. To investigate underwater material delivery, we made cuticle matrix mimics by coacervating a key cuticular protein, Mytilus californianus foot protein 1, mfp-1, with hyaluronic acid. These matrix mimics coacervated over a wide range of solution conditions, delivered concentrated material, settled on and coated surfaces underwater. Because the granules are composed of mfp-1 condensed with iron, we used the surface forces apparatus to investigate the effects of iron on the cohesion of mfp-1 from two different species of mussels and found that subtle sequence variations modulate cohesion. Using the coacervate matrix mimics and, modeling the granules as a hard surface (mica), we investigated the wear protection of coacervated mfp-1/HA to mica under frictional shear and found that preventing wear depends critically on the presence of Dopa groups. In addition to cuticle

  3. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon M.; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 – 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance

  4. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 – 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance

  5. Reversing Present Day Northern Plains Ecosystem Water Supply Stressors Resulting from the Near Extinction of Three Keystone Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. R.

    2006-05-01

    Near-extinction of three keystone species (the beaver, the bison, and the prairie dog) had a measurable negative influence on the local and regional climate, and water availability in the Northern Great Plains ecosystem compared to pre-contact conditions. Restoration of these three keystone species may have a significant positive influence by increasing the recharge rate to the aquifers and raising soil moisture due to the sharp hooves and wallows of the bison, prairie dog burrows, and beaver dams providing avenues of ingress. Predictions 1) The recharge of the aquifer will be greater where these three keystone species are present because of the prairie dog burrows, buffalo hooves and wallows, and beaver dams in comparison to the control area; 2) The entire ecosystem will be rejuvenated where the three species are permitted to return; 3) The microclimate changes caused by this reintroduction will stimulate an observable, measurable improvement in water supply when allowed to proceed to near pre-contact conditions. Next Steps 1) Inventory research area containing bison, prairie dog, and beaver versus control plot. (keystone species absent). 2) Measure the soil moisture, water table, water influx rates. 3) Monitor changes over time. 4) Later phase manipulation: Beaver re-introduction into severely damaged riparian area. 5) Link to Northern Plains NEON Initiative. Current Activity 1. Candidate study locations on Standing Rock reservation have been selected and evaluated for suitability, both as study site with beaver activity and a control site with beaver absent. 2. Research mentor identified and selected. Dr. Carol Johnston of South Dakota State University, Director of the Center for Biocomplexity Studies has graciously agreed to oversee my research project 3. Review of previous work is nearing completion. 4. Tribal Agency personnel currently involved with research related to the three keystone species have been interviewed and information obtained from them

  6. Characterization of the mechanical properties of tough biopolymer fibres from the mussel byssus of Aulacomya ater.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, O P; Torres, F G; Grande, C J

    2008-07-01

    Byssus fibres are tough biopolymer fibres produced by mussels to attach themselves to rocks. In this communication, we present the mechanical properties of the byssus from the South American mussel Aulacomya ater which have not been previously reported in the literature. The mechanical properties of the whole threads were assessed by uniaxial tensile tests of dry and hydrated specimens. Elastoplastic and elastomeric stress-strain curves were found for byssal threads from A. ater in the dry and hydrated state, respectively. The results obtained from mechanical tests were modelled using linear, power-law-type and Mooney-Rivlin relationships. These methods for dealing with tensile measurements of mussel byssus have the potential to be used with other stretchy biomaterials.

  7. Mussel-inspired transformation of CaCO3 to bone minerals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjin; Park, Chan Beum

    2010-09-01

    We report a mussel-inspired route to create carbonated bone hydroxyapatite from CaCO(3) vaterite microspheres. When catechol-containing dopamine, a biomimetic small molecule of mussel adhesive proteins, was incorporated during the mineralization of CaCO(3), the oxidative polymerization of dopamine stabilized the formation of spherical vaterite, the most unstable phase among CaCO(3) crystalline structures. Thus-formed vaterite microspheres were readily transformed to carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals when incubated in a simulated body fluid at human body temperature. We found that dopamine not only stabilized the vaterite phase but also influenced the level of conversion to carbonated hydroxyapatites. Considering that carbonated hydroxyapatites are highly bioresorbable, similar to natural bone and dentin, the synthesis of a mussel-inspired hybrid material showing good in vitro bone bioactivity should present a new prospect for future applications in the treatment of bone defects and bone degenerative diseases.

  8. Uptake and elimination of (9-/sup 14/C)phenanthrene in the turkey wing mussel (Arca zebra)

    SciTech Connect

    Solbakken, J.E.; Knap, A.H.; Searle, C.E.; Palmork, K.H.

    1983-04-01

    Turkey wing mussels of both sexes were collected from Harrington Sound, Bermuda and dosed after a week-long acclimation period with (9-/sup 14/C)phenanthrene (714 MBq/mmol). They were transferred into 8 liters of seawater containing 8 ..mu..g of labelled phenanthrene. Results show that the accumulation of labelled phenanthrene in the turkey wing mussel was very low compared to that found in other species. In the hepatopancreas, the uptake of phenanthrene based on the water concentration was only 4% of the corresponding value found in the calico clam (Macrocallista maculata) inhabiting the same area. In comparison, the uptake of phenanthrene in a temperate mollusc such as the horse mussel (Modiola modiolus) was also considerably higher than in the turkey wing (approx. 4 times). It therefore seems likely that these are due to species variations rather than environmental variations between subtropical and temperate areas. (JMT)

  9. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: implications for salinization of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Patricia L

    2011-06-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L⁻¹ (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO₃ L⁻¹). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO₃ L⁻¹) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L⁻¹) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L⁻¹). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L⁻¹). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk.

  10. NESTEDNESS IN RIVERINE FRESHWATER MUSSEL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pattern of nestedness, where species present at less diverse sites are subsets of species present in locations with higher species richness, is often found in ecological communities. The pattern may indicate the mechanism by which the communities are structured and can be us...

  11. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  12. Partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water and particles compared to bioaccumulation in mussels: a harbour case.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Steller, Sean; Leonard, Jim; Langille, Morgan A; Tremblay, Diane

    2005-03-01

    Water and particles from three sites located in Halifax Harbour, near and further away from combined municipal sewage effluents (CMSE) were analysed for parental and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (par and alkPAH). Bioavailability of PAH was compared for inter-tidal mussels collected at the same sites in April and November. The PAH fingerprint determined over 9 sampling times covering a period of 19 months differed more between phases (water and particles) and seasons, than between sites. In the spring, more alkPAH associated with diesel and gasoline were detected in the soluble phase, along with more bioaccumulation of alkPAH in inter-tidal mussels. A broader number of parPAH were detected in mussels collected in the fall. The mean sum of dissolved alkPAH concentrations was higher in water at the site closer to raw CMSE than at the other two sites and particles of that site. However, lowest bioconcentration factors (BCF) were determined in mussels of this more contaminated site. Similar biota-particle accumulation factors (BPAF) were determined for parPAH in mussels from the three sites, all lower than the BCF of alkPAH. The study indicates that sewage treatment plants will reduce the amount of parPAH especially larger than fluoranthene and pyrene from being deposited in the harbour; that alk naphthalenes and fluorenes present in water will continue to be discharged; that the disturbance of sediments can make particle-bound PAH available to mussels.

  13. Assimilation efficiency of organic contaminants from algae by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenstein, T.A.; Bruner, K.A.; Fisher, S.W.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    A high percent of hydrophobic contaminants in the Great Lakes are particulate bound. Due to large populations and its high filtering capacity, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, has the potential to re-direct contaminants from the water column by removal of contaminated particles, including algae. Throughout a season, zebra mussels feed on a variety of algal species. To determine if there are algal species differences in assimilation efficiency of contaminants, the percent assimilation efficiency (%AE) of three PCB congeners and DDE from three algae species were investigated using pulse-chase methodology. Results suggest no species difference in %AE for hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) from the algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii. The mean %AE of HCBP from C. vulgaris was 60.9 (SE = {+-} 4.1), as compared to 68.6 (SE = {+-} 2.9) from C. rheinhardtii. Results from additional compounds and algal species will be discussed. The results of this study will allow them to refine the mechanism of contaminant uptake in aquatic filter feeders and assess the effect of zebra mussels on contaminant cycling in the Great lakes.

  14. Newly documented host fishes for the eastern elliptio mussel (Elliptio complanata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.

    2013-01-01

    The eastern elliptio (Elliptio complanata) is a common, abundant and ecologically important freshwater mussel that occurs throughout the Atlantic Slope drainage in the United States and Canada. Previous research has shown E. complanata glochidia to be host fish generalists, parasitizing yellow perch (Perca flavescens), banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae), and seven centrarchid species. Past laboratory studies have been conducted in the Midwest and glochidia sources typically included lakes the Great Lakes basin or were unreported. The objective of this study was to identify host fishes for E. complanata from streams in the Mid-Atlantic region. We used artificial laboratory infections to test host suitability of 38 fish and two amphibian species with E. complanata glochidia from the Chesapeake Bay drainage. Glochidia successfully metamorphosed into juvenile mussels on five fish species: American eel (Anguilla rostrata), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout (S. namaycush), mottled sculpin (C. bairdii), and slimy sculpin (C. cognatus). American eel was the most effective host, yielding the highest overall metamorphosis success (percentage of attached glochidia that transformed into juvenile mussels;{greater than or equal to}0.90) and producing 13.2 juveniles per fish overall. No juvenile E. complanata metamorphosed on other fish species tested, including many previously identified host fishes reported in the literature. Reasons for discrepancies in published host fish could include geographic variation in host use across the species' range, differences in host use between lentic and lotic populations, or poorly resolved taxonomy within the genus Elliptio.

  15. Conservation status of freshwater mussels in Europe: state of the art and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Sousa, Ronaldo; Geist, Juergen; Aldridge, David C; Araujo, Rafael; Bergengren, Jakob; Bespalaya, Yulia; Bódis, Erika; Burlakova, Lyubov; Van Damme, Dirk; Douda, Karel; Froufe, Elsa; Georgiev, Dilian; Gumpinger, Clemens; Karatayev, Alexander; Kebapçi, Ümit; Killeen, Ian; Lajtner, Jasna; Larsen, Bjørn M; Lauceri, Rosaria; Legakis, Anastasios; Lois, Sabela; Lundberg, Stefan; Moorkens, Evelyn; Motte, Gregory; Nagel, Karl-Otto; Ondina, Paz; Outeiro, Adolfo; Paunovic, Momir; Prié, Vincent; von Proschwitz, Ted; Riccardi, Nicoletta; Rudzīte, Mudīte; Rudzītis, Māris; Scheder, Christian; Seddon, Mary; Şereflişan, Hülya; Simić, Vladica; Sokolova, Svetlana; Stoeckl, Katharina; Taskinen, Jouni; Teixeira, Amílcar; Thielen, Frankie; Trichkova, Teodora; Varandas, Simone; Vicentini, Heinrich; Zajac, Katarzyna; Zajac, Tadeusz; Zogaris, Stamatis

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater mussels of the Order Unionida provide important ecosystem functions and services, yet many of their populations are in decline. We comprehensively review the status of the 16 currently recognized species in Europe, collating for the first time their life-history traits, distribution, conservation status, habitat preferences, and main threats in order to suggest future management actions. In northern, central, and eastern Europe, a relatively homogeneous species composition is found in most basins. In southern Europe, despite the lower species richness, spatially restricted species make these basins a high conservation priority. Information on freshwater mussels in Europe is unevenly distributed with considerable differences in data quality and quantity among countries and species. To make conservation more effective in the future, we suggest greater international cooperation using standardized protocols and methods to monitor and manage European freshwater mussel diversity. Such an approach will not only help conserve this vulnerable group but also, through the protection of these important organisms, will offer wider benefits to freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Comparative analysis of riverscape genetic structure in rare, threatened and common freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Zanatta, David T; Wilson, Chris C.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) are highly imperiled with many species on the verge of local extirpation or global extinction. This study investigates patterns of genetic structure and diversity in six species of freshwater mussels in the central Great Lakes region of Ontario, Canada. These species vary in their conservation status (endangered to not considered at risk), life history strategy, and dispersal capabilities. Evidence of historical genetic connectivity within rivers was ubiquitous across species and may reflect dispersal abilities of host fish. There was little to no signature of recent disturbance events or bottlenecks, even in endangered species, likely as a function of mussel longevity and historical population sizes (i.e., insufficient time for genetic drift to be detectable). Genetic structure was largely at the watershed scale suggesting that population augmentation via translocation within rivers may be a useful conservation tool if needed, while minimizing genetic risks to recipient sites. Recent interest in population augmentation via translocation and propagation may rely on these results to inform management of unionids in the Great Lakes region.

  17. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P. B.; Israelachvili, J. N.; Waite, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications.

  18. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  19. Sediment, land use, and freshwater mussels: Prospects and problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brim-Box, J.; Mossa, J.

    1999-01-01

    The decline in freshwater mussel populations in many river basins throughout North America has been attributed, in part, to land-use modifications that cause changes in sediment regimes. However, the specific associations that mussels have with stream sediments are poorly understood, making it difficult to assess the impacts of changes in sedimentation rates on unionid mussels. Both bed and suspended materials, and concomitant changes in channel form associated with changes in sediment supply, may affect mussels in numerous ways at various stages in their life cycle. Considerable debate and uncertainty remains regarding the strength of associations between sediments and mussels, including whether increased sedimentation is a cause of recent mussel declines. It is important to be aware of appropriate procedures for sampling and analyzing fluvial sediments, and the nature of sediment sources, to adequately assess relationships between unionid mussels and fluvial sediments.

  20. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  1. Non-invasive method to obtain DNA from freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, W.F.; Grobler, P.J.; Neves, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether DNA could be isolated from tissues obtained by brush-swabbing the mantle, viscera and foot, mantle-clips and swabbed cells were obtained from eight Quadrula pustulosa (Lea, 1831). DNA yields from clips and swabbings were 447.0 and 975.3 ??g/??L, respectively. Furthermore, comparisons of sequences from the ND-1 mitochondrial gene region showed a 100% sequence agreement of DNA from cells obtained by clips and swabs. To determine the number of swabs needed to obtain adequate yields of DNA for analyses, the visceras and feet of 5 Q. pustulosa each were successively swabbed 2, 4 and 6 times. DNA yields from the 2, 4 and 6 swabbed mussel groups were 399.4, 833.8 and 852.6 ng/??L, respectively. ND-1 sequences from the lowest yield still provided 846-901 bp for the ND-1 region. Nevertheless, to ensure adequate DNA yield from cell samples obtained by swabbing, we recommend that 4 swab-strokes of the viscera and foot be obtained. The use of integumental swabbing for collection of cells for determination of genetic relationships among freshwater mussels is noninvasive, when compared with tissue collection by mantle-clipping. Therefore, its use is recommended for freshwater mussels, especially state-protected or federally listed mussel species.

  2. Simulated effects of host fish distribution on juvenile unionid mussel dispersal in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daraio, J.A.; Weber, L.J.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Larval mussels (Family Unionidae) are obligate parasites on fish, and after excystment from their host, as juveniles, they are transported with flow. We know relatively little about the mechanisms that affect dispersal and subsequent settle