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Sample records for mutant epidermal growth

  1. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  2. Mutant p53 amplifies Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor family signaling to promote mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yallowitz, Alisha; Li, Dun; Lobko, Antony; Nemajerova, Alice; Marchenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB2/Her2 and EGFR/ErbB1/Her1) often modulates the transcriptional program involved in promoting mammary tumorigenesis. In humans, more than 70% of ErbB2-positive sporadic breast cancers harbor p53 mutations, which correlate with poor prognosis. Also, the extremely high incidence of ErbB2-positive breast cancer in women with p53 germ-line mutations (Li-Fraumeni Syndrome) suggests the key role of mutant p53 specifically in ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. To examine the role of mutant p53 during ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis we introduced a mutant p53 R172H allele into a (MMTV)-ErbB2/Neu mouse model. We show in heterozygous p53 mice that mutp53 R172H is a more potent activator of ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis than simple loss of p53. The more aggressive disease in mutant p53 animals was reflected by earlier tumor onset, increased mammary tumor multiplicity, and shorter survival. We provide molecular evidence that mutant p53 amplifies ErbB2 and EGFR signaling to promote the expansion of mammary stem cells and induce cancer cell proliferation. This study therefore identifies mutant p53 as an essential player in ErbB2 and EGFR-mediated breast cancer and indicates the potential translational importance of targeting mutant p53 in this subset of breast cancer patients. PMID:25573952

  3. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-02-15

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction.

  4. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate.Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction. PMID:9461530

  5. Loss of Mig6 accelerates initiation and progression of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor-driven lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan K.; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Linnoila, Ilona; Cultraro, Constance M.; Giannakou, Andreas; Nemati, Roxanne; Zhang, Xu; Webster, Joshua D.; Ritt, Daniel; Ghosal, Sarani; Hoschuetzky, Heinz; Simpson, R. Mark; Biswas, Romi; Politi, Katerina; Morrison, Deborah K.; Varmus, Harold E.; Guha, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain drive lung adenocarcinoma. We have previously identified MIG6, an inhibitor of ERBB signaling and a potential tumor suppressor, as a target for phosphorylation by mutant EGFRs. Here we demonstrate that Mig6 is a tumor suppressor for the initiation and progression of mutant EGFR-driven lung adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Mutant EGFR-induced lung tumor formation was accelerated in Mig6-deficient mice, even with Mig6 haploinsufficiency. We demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of MIG6 at Y394/395 in EGFR-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines is associated with an increased interaction of MIG6 with mutant EGFR, which may stabilize EGFR protein. MIG6 also fails to promote mutant EGFR degradation. We propose a model whereby increased tyrosine phosphorylation of MIG6 decreases its capacity to inhibit mutant EGFR. Nonetheless, the residual inhibition is sufficient for Mig6 to delay mutant EGFR-driven tumor initiation and progression in mouse models. PMID:25735773

  6. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP selectively regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor by ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chaeuk; Yoo, Geon; Kim, Tackhoon; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Choong-Sik; Cha, Hye Rim; Park, Yeon Hee; Moon, Jae Young; Jung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ju Ock; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Myoungrin; Park, Dong Il; Lim, Dae-Sik; Jang, Kang Won; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-10-14

    Somatic mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a decisive factor for the therapeutic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma. The stability of mutant EGFR is maintained by various regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a Hsp70/Hsp90 co-chaperone and exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The high-affinity Hsp90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively regulates their client proteins. CHIP also works with its own E3 ligase activity independently of Hsp70/Hsp90. Here, we investigated the role of CHIP in regulating EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma and also evaluated the specificity of CHIP's effects on mutant EGFR. In HEK 293T cells transfected with either WT EGFR or EGFR mutants, the overexpression of CHIP selectively decreased the expression of certain EGFR mutants (G719S, L747_E749del A750P and L858R) but not WT EGFR. In a pull-down assay, CHIP selectively interacted with EGFR mutants and simultaneously induced their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The expressions of mutant EGFR in PC9 and H1975 were diminished by CHIP, while the expression of WT EGFR in A549 was nearly not affected. In addition, CHIP overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and xenograft's tumor growth of EGFR mutant cell lines, but not WT EGFR cell lines. EGFR mutant specific ubiquitination by CHIP may provide a crucial regulating mechanism for EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that CHIP can be novel therapeutic target for overcoming the EGFR TKI resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can we define the optimal sequence of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Park, Keunchil

    2017-03-01

    The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquired T790M mutation (EGFR). In the present review, we will discuss the evolving treatment landscape of EGFRm NSCLC. The LUX-Lung 7 study demonstrated superior progression-free survival, time-to-treatment failure, and objective response rate with afatinib versus gefitinib, but no significant overall survival improvement in TKI-naïve EGFRm NSCLC patients. In EGFRm NSCLC patients harboring T790M after treatment with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, third-generation EGFR TKIs showed robust efficacy with tolerable toxicity. The updated results of phase I studies have demonstrated encouraging activity of first-line osimertinib in patients with EGFRm NSCLC. Following progression with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, osimertinib was recently approved for the treatment of EGFR NSCLC. Encouraging early results with osimertinib have sparked interest in first-line treatment of EGFRm NSCLC, and head-to-head comparison studies of third-generation versus first-generation EGFR TKIs are being developed.

  8. Exome sequencing deciphers a germline MET mutation in familial epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tode, Naoki; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Sakakibara, Tomohiro; Hirano, Taizou; Inoue, Akira; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Tamada, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Koarai, Akira; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niihori, Tetsuya; Aoki, Yoko; Nakayama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Watanabe, Akira; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2017-03-13

    Lung cancer accompanied by somatic activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, which is associated with a significant clinical response to the targeted therapy, is frequently found in never-smoking Asian women with adenocarcinoma. Although this implies genetic factors underlying the carcinogenesis, the etiology remains unclear. To gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms, we sequenced the exomes in the peripheral-blood DNA from six siblings, four affected and two unaffected siblings, of a kindred with familial EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in MET proto-oncogene, p.Asn375Lys, in all four affected siblings. Combined with somatic loss of heterozygosity for MET, the higher allele frequency in a Japanese sequencing database supports a causative role of the MET mutation in EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Functional assays showed that the mutation reduces the binding affinity of MET for its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, and damages the subsequent cellular processes including proliferation, clonogenicity, motility, and tumorigenicity. The MET mutation was further observed to abrogate the ERBB3-mediated AKT signal transduction, which is shared downstream by EGFR. These findings provide an etiological view that the MET mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of EGFR-mutant lung cancer because it generates oncogenic stress that induces compensatory EGFR activation. The identification of MET in a kindred with familial EGFR-mutant lung cancer is insightful to explore the pathogenic mechanism of not only familial, but also sporadic EGFR-mutant lung cancer by underscoring MET-related signaling molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Oncogenic Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Mutant Alleles Is Enhanced by the T790M Drug Resistance Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Godin-Heymann, Nadia; Bryant, Ianthe; Rivera, Miguel N.; Ulkus, Lindsey; Bell, Daphne W.; Riese, David J.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Haber, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) characterize a subset of non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with extraordinary sensitivity to targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). A single secondary EGFR mutation, T790M, arising in cis with the primary activating mutation, confers acquired resistance to these drugs. However, the T790M mutation is also detected in the absence of drug selection, suggesting that it may provide a growth advantage. We show here that although T790M alone has only a modest effect on EGFR function, when combined with the characteristic activating mutations L858R or del746–750, it results in a dramatic enhancement of EGFR activity. The double mutants show potent ligand-independent receptor autophosphorylation associated with altered cellular phenotypes, soft agar colony formation, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. The significant gain-of-function properties of these double mutants may explain their initial presence before drug selection and their rapid selection as the single drug resistance mutation during therapy with gefitinib/erlotinib, and suggests that they may contribute to the adverse clinical course of TKI-resistant NSCLC. PMID:17671201

  10. Sensitivity of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants to Hsp90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Soga, S; Beebe, K; Lee, M-J; Kim, Y S; Trepel, J; Neckers, L

    2007-09-17

    The mature epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) neither associates with nor requires the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Mutations in EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 confer Hsp90 chaperone dependence. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), these mutations are associated with enhanced sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors in vitro and with clinical response in vivo. Although less prevalent, insertions in EGFR exon 20 have also been described in NSCLC. These mutations, however, confer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. In NSCLC, exon 20 insertions have also been identified in the EGFR family member ErbB2. Here, we examined the sensitivity of exon 20 insertion mutants to an Hsp90 inhibitor currently in the clinic. Our data demonstrate that both EGFR and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants retain dependence on Hsp90 for stability and downstream-signalling capability, and remain highly sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition. Use of Hsp90 inhibitors should be considered in NSCLC harbouring exon 20 insertions in either EGFR or ErbB2.

  11. Epidermal growth factor impairs palatal shelf adhesion and fusion in the Tgf-β 3 null mutant.

    PubMed

    Barrio, M Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Paradas-Lara, Irene; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Catón, Javier; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    The cleft palate presented by transforming growth factor-β3 (Tgf-β3) null mutant mice is caused by altered palatal shelf adhesion, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and cell death. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1) and muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1) is modified in the palates of these knockout mice, and the cell proliferation defect is caused by the change in EGF expression. In this study, we aimed to determine whether this change in EGF expression has any effect on the other mechanisms altered in Tgf-β3 knockout mouse palates. We tested the effect of inhibiting EGF activity in vitro in the knockout palates via the addition of Tyrphostin AG 1478. We also investigated possible interactions between EGF, Tgf-β1 and Msx-1 in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures. The results show that the inhibition of EGF activity in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures improves palatal shelf adhesion and fusion, with a particular effect on cell death, and restores the normal distribution pattern of Msx-1 in the palatal mesenchyme. Inhibition of TGF-β1 does not affect either EGF or Msx-1 expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Congestive Heart Failure During Osimertinib Treatment for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kano, Hirohisa; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2017-08-15

    We herein report a case of congestive heart failure which developed during osimertinib treatment. A 78-year-old woman presented with mild exertional dyspnea three weeks after starting osimertinib for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer. She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure caused by the osimertinib. In contrast to trastuzumab, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody that often causes cardiac dysfunction, the causal relationship between osimertinib and cardiotoxicity has so far received little attention and thus remains unclear. However, it inhibits HER2 in addition to mutant EGFR, thereby potentially causing cardiotoxicity.

  13. A phase I clinical trial with monoclonal antibody ch806 targeting transitional state and mutant epidermal growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Andrew M.; Lee, Fook-Thean; Tebbutt, Niall; Herbertson, Rebecca; Gill, Sanjeev S.; Liu, Zhanqi; Skrinos, Effie; Murone, Carmel; Saunder, Timothy H.; Chappell, Bridget; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Poon, Aurora M. T.; Hopkins, Wendie; Smyth, Fiona E.; MacGregor, Duncan; Cher, Lawrence M.; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Ritter, Gerd; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Murphy, Roger; Burgess, Antony W.; Hoffman, Eric W.; Johns, Terrance G.; Old, Lloyd J.

    2007-01-01

    An array of cell-surface antigens expressed by human cancers have been identified as targets for antibody-based therapies. The great majority of these antibodies do not have specificity for cancer but recognize antigens expressed on a range of normal cell types (differentiation antigens). Over the past two decades, our group has analyzed thousands of mouse monoclonal antibodies for cancer specificity and identified a battery of antibodies with limited representation on normal human cells. The most tumor-specific of these antibodies is 806, an antibody that detects a unique epitope on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is exposed only on overexpressed, mutant, or ligand-activated forms of the receptor in cancer. In vitro immunohistochemical specificity analysis shows little or no detectable 806 reactivity with normal tissues, even those with high levels of wild-type (wt)EGFR expression. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that 806 specifically targets a subset of EGFR expressed on tumor cells, and has significant anti-tumor effects on human tumor xenografts, primarily through abrogation of signaling pathways. The present clinical study was designed to examine the in vivo specificity of a chimeric form of mAb 806 (ch806) in a tumor targeting/biodistribution/pharmacokinetic analysis in patients with diverse tumor types. ch806 showed excellent targeting of tumor sites in all patients, no evidence of normal tissue uptake, and no significant toxicity. These in vitro and in vivo characteristics of ch806 distinguish it from all other antibodies targeting EGFR. PMID:17360479

  14. Anti-synthetic peptide antibody reacting at the fusion junction of deletion-mutant epidermal growth factor receptors in human glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, P.A.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Fuller, G.N.; Archer, G.E.; Friedman, H.S.; Kwatra, M.M.; Bigner, S.H.; Bigner, D.D. ); Wong, A.J. ); Vogelstein, B. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors have investigated human gliomas that amplify and rearrange the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, with generation of an in-frame deletion mutation of 802 nucleotides in the external domain. This in-frame deletion mutation generates a local amino acid sequence at the fusion junction of what normally were distant polypeptide sequences in the intact epidermal growth factor receptor. This 14-amino acid peptide was chemically synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and used as an immunogen in rabbits. The elicited antibody reacted specifically with the fusion peptide in ELISA. The anti-fusion junction peptide antibody was purified by passage of the antiserum over a peptide affinity column with acidic elution. The purified antibody selectively bound the glioma deletion mutant as compared to the intact epidermal growth factor receptor as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation with gel electrophoresis, and binding experiments using radioiodinated antibody. These data indicate that it is feasible to generate site-specific anti-peptide antibodies that are highly selective for mutant proteins in human tumors. The anti-peptide antibody described here, and other mutation site-specific antibodies, should be ideal candidates for tumor immunoimaging and immunotherapy.

  15. Chemically induced conditional rescue of the reduced epidermal fluorescence8 mutant of Arabidopsis reveals rapid restoration of growth and selective turnover of secondary metabolite pools.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N; Donohoe, Bryon S; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

    2014-02-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3'H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3'H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant's growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant.

  16. Next-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor -mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee-Seng; Cho, Byoung-Chul; Soo, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    Since the discovery of sensitizing EGFR mutations as a predictive marker of sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the field of targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been revolutionized. Patients harbouring these sensitizing mutations treated with EGFR TKI have derived significant clinical outcome when compared with standard platinum based chemotherapy doublets. However disease progression invariably occurs at a median of about 9-13 months from initiation treatment, if acquired resistance commonly due to the development of EGFR T790M mutation. A novel class of "third generation" EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Early phase clinical data suggest the third generation EGFR TKIs such as osimertinib, rociletinib, and HM61713 are highly efficacious and well tolerated. Another promising class of EGFR TKI such as AZD3759 has been designed to penetrate blood brain barrier to treat brain metastases and leptomeningeal disease and has showed promising responses in patients with brain metastases. Acquired resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs has been reported including EGFR C797S. Given its non-invasive nature, plasma ctDNA is being explored as a possible approach to detect T790M mutation and to also inform on novel molecular mechansims of tertiary resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs. An understanding of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKIs will greatly aid in the development of the next generation of EGFR TKIs.

  17. Impact of clinical parameters and systemic inflammatory status on epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients readministration with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Rau, Kun-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Su, Mao-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chen, Hung-Chen; Chang, Ya-Chun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-11-08

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) readministration to lung cancer patients is common owing to the few options available. Impact of clinical factors on prognosis of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR-TKI readministration after first-line EGFR-TKI failure and a period of TKI holiday remains unclear. Through this retrospective study, we aimed to understand the impact of clinical factors in such patients. Of 1386 cases diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2013, 80 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who were readministered TKIs after failure of first-line TKIs and intercalated with at least one cycle of cytotoxic agent were included. We evaluated clinical factors that may influence prognosis of TKI readministration as well as systemic inflammatory status in terms of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR). Baseline NLR and LMR were estimated at the beginning of TKI readministration and trends of NLR and LMR were change amount from patients receiving first-Line TKIs to TKIs readministration. Median survival time since TKI readministration was 7.0 months. In the univariable analysis, progression free survival (PFS) of first-line TKIs, baseline NLR and LMR, and trend of LMR were prognostic factors in patients receiving TKIs readministration. In the multivariate analysis, only PFS of first-line TKIs (p < 0.001), baseline NLR (p = 0.037), and trend of LMR (p = 0.004) were prognostic factors. Longer PFS of first-line TKIs, low baseline NLR, and high trend of LMR were good prognostic factors in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving TKI readministration.

  18. Nexus of signaling and endocytosis in oncogenesis driven by non-small cell lung cancer-associated epidermal growth factor receptor mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byung Min; Tom, Eric; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and aberrant EGFR signaling as a result of receptor overexpression and/or mutation occurs in many types of cancer. Tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that harbor EGFR kinase domain mutations exhibit oncogene addiction to mutant EGFR, which confers high sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As patients invariably develop resistance to TKIs, it is important to delineate the cell biological basis of mutant EGFR-induced cellular transformation since components of these pathways can serve as alternate therapeutic targets to preempt or overcome resistance. NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants are constitutively-active and induce ligand-independent transformation in nonmalignant cell lines. Emerging data suggest that a number of factors are critical for the mutant EGFR-dependent tumorigenicity, and bypassing the effects of TKIs on these pathways promotes drug resistance. For example, activation of downstream pathways such as Akt, Erk, STAT3 and Src is critical for mutant EGFR-mediated biological processes. It is now well-established that the potency and spatiotemporal features of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, as well as the specific pathways activated, is determined by the nature of endocytic traffic pathways through which the active receptors traverse. Recent evidence indicates that NSCLC-associated mutant EGFRs exhibit altered endocytic trafficking and they exhibit reduced Cbl ubiquitin ligase-mediated lysosomal downregulation. More recent work has shown that mutant EGFRs undergo ligand-independent traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment, a behavior that plays a key role in Src pathway activation and oncogenesis. These studies are beginning to delineate the close nexus between signaling and endocytic traffic of EGFR mutants as a key driver of oncogenic processes. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the links

  19. Spatiotemporal variation of leaf epidermal cell growth: a quantitative analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and triple cyclinD3 mutant plants.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Joanna; Michalski, Marek; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2012-04-01

    The epidermis of an expanding dicot leaf is a mosaic of cells differing in identity, size and differentiation stage. Here hypotheses are tested that in such a cell mosaic growth is heterogeneous and changes with time, and that this heterogeneity is not dependent on the cell cycle regulation per se. Shape, size and growth of individual cells were followed with the aid of sequential replicas in expanding leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and triple cyclinD3 mutant plants, and combined with ploidy estimation using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Relative growth rates in area of individual epidermal cells or small cell groups differ several fold from those of adjacent cells, and change in time. This spatial and temporal variation is not related to the size of either the cell or the nucleus. Shape changes and growth within an individual cell are also heterogeneous: anticlinal wall waviness appears at different times in different wall portions; portions of the cell periphery in contact with different neighbours grow with different rates. This variation is not related to cell growth anisotropy. The heterogeneity is typical for both the wild type and cycD3. Growth of leaf epidermis exhibits spatiotemporal variability.

  20. Structure-Guided Development of Covalent and Mutant-Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines to Target T790M Drug Resistance in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Engel, Julian; Smith, Steven; Lategahn, Jonas; Tumbrink, Hannah L; Goebel, Lisa; Becker, Christian; Hennes, Elisabeth; Keul, Marina; Unger, Anke; Müller, Heiko; Baumann, Matthias; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Günther, Georgia; Hengstler, Jan G; Rauh, Daniel

    2017-09-28

    Reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors prompt a beneficial clinical response in non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating mutations in EGFR. However, resistance mutations, particularly the gatekeeper mutation T790M, limit this efficacy. Here, we describe a structure-guided development of a series of covalent and mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors that effectively target the T790M mutant. The pyrazolopyrimidine-based core differs structurally from that of aminopyrimidine-based third-generation EGFR inhibitors and therefore constitutes a new set of inhibitors that target this mechanism of drug resistance. These inhibitors exhibited strong inhibitory effects toward EGFR kinase activity and excellent inhibition of cell growth in the drug-resistant cell line H1975, without significantly affecting EGFR wild-type cell lines. Additionally, we present the in vitro ADME/DMPK parameters for a subset of the inhibitors as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice for a candidate with promising activity profile.

  1. Activity of panitumumab alone or with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel J; Bush, Tammy; Ogbagabriel, Selam; Belmontes, Brian; Juan, Todd; Plewa, Cherylene; Van, Gwyneth; Johnson, Carol; Radinsky, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations cause hyperresponsiveness to ligand and hypersensitivity to small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, little is known about how these mutations respond to antibodies against EGFR. We investigated the activity of panitumumab, a fully human anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, in vitro in mutant EGFR-expressing non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and in vivo with chemotherapy in xenograft models. Mutant EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells (NCI-H1975 [L858R+T790M] and NCI-H1650 [Delta746-750]) and CHO cells were treated with panitumumab before EGF stimulation to assess the inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation. Established tumors were treated with panitumumab (25, 100, or 500 mug/mouse twice a week) alone or with docetaxel (10 or 20 mg/kg once a week) or cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg once a week). Antitumor activity and levels of proliferation markers were analyzed. Treatment of mutant EGFR-expressing CHO and NSCLC cells with panitumumab inhibited ligand-dependent autophosphorylation. In NCI-H1975 and NCI-H1650 xenografts, treatment with panitumumab alone or with cisplatin inhibited tumor growth compared with control (P < 0.0003). With panitumumab plus docetaxel, enhanced antitumor activity was seen in both xenografts versus panitumumab alone. Panitumumab treatment alone decreased Ki-67 and phospho- mitogen-activated protein kinase (pMAPK) staining in both xenografts compared with control. Docetaxel enhanced panitumumab activity in NCI-H1650 xenografts (decreased Ki-67 and pMAPK staining by >60%) when compared with either agent alone. Panitumumab inhibits ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation, tumor growth, and markers of proliferation alone or with docetaxel in NSCLC cell lines that express clinically observed EGFR kinase domain mutations, including the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant T790M mutation.

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor derived peptide vaccination to prevent lung adenocarcinoma formation: An in vivo study in a murine model of EGFR mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ebben, Johnathan D; Lubet, Ronald A; Gad, Ekram; Disis, Mary L; You, Ming

    2016-11-01

    The ability to prevent disease is the holy grail of medicine. For decades, efforts have been made to extend the successes seen with vaccination against infectious diseases to cancer. In some instances, preventive vaccination against viruses (prototypically HPV) has successfully prevented tumorigenesis and will make a major impact on public health in the decades to come. However, the majority of cancers that arise are a result of genetic mutation within the host, or non-viral environmental exposures. We present compelling evidence that vaccination against an overexpressed self-tumor oncoprotein has the potential to prevent tumor development. Vaccination against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) using a multipeptide vaccine in a preventive setting decreased EGFR-driven lung carcinogenesis by 76.4% in a mouse model of EGFR-driven lung cancer. We also demonstrate that anti-EGFR vaccination primes the development of a robust immune response in vivo. This study provides proof of concept for the first time that targeting tumor drivers in a preventive setting in lung cancer using peptide vaccination can inhibit tumorigenesis and may provide useful clinical insights into the development of strategies to vaccinate against EGFR in populations where EGFR-mutant disease is highly prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Twice weekly pulse and daily continuous-dose erlotinib as initial treatment for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung cancers and brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Kathryn C; Kris, Mark G; Riely, Gregory J; Ni, Ai; Beal, Kathryn; Daras, Mariza; Hayes, Sara A; Young, Robert J; Rodriguez, Christopher R; Ahn, Linda; Pao, William; Yu, Helena A

    2017-09-21

    In a phase 1 study of pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib, no patient had disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). This expansion cohort of the phase 1 study tested the same regimen in a cohort of individuals with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers with untreated brain metastases. Patients had not received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or radiation for brain metastases. All received 1200 mg of erlotinib on days 1 and 2 and 50 mg on days 3 to 7 weekly. The primary endpoints were the overall and CNS response rates (according to version 1.1 of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Between May 2015 and August 2016, 19 patients were enrolled. Forty-two percent of the patients had target brain lesions, and the median size of the target brain lesions was 13 mm. Overall, 14 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51%-89%) had partial responses. The response rate in brain metastases was 75%. The overall median progression-free survival was 10 months (95% CI, 7 months to not reached). Only 3 patients (16%) had CNS progression. To date, 4 patients required CNS radiation at some time during their course. The adverse events (any grade) seen in 10% or more of the patients were rash, diarrhea, nausea, an increase in alanine aminotransferase, and fatigue. Pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib produced a 74% overall response rate and a 75% response rate in brain metastases in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers and untreated brain metastases. CNS control persisted even after progression elsewhere. Although this regimen did not improve progression-free survival or delay the emergence of EGFR T790M, it prevented progression in the brain and could be useful in situations in which CNS control is critical. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M

    PubMed Central

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS: A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. RESULTS: We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid

  5. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M.

    PubMed

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-11-26

    To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed

  6. Loss of BRCA1 leads to an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mammary epithelial cells, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition prevents estrogen receptor-negative cancers in BRCA1-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Women who carry a BRCA1 mutation typically develop "triple-negative" breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2/neu. In contrast to ER-positive tumors, TNBCs frequently express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previously, we found a disproportionate fraction of progenitor cells in BRCA1 mutation carriers with EGFR overexpression. Here we examine the role of EGFR in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in the emergence of BRCA1-related tumors and as a potential target for the prevention of TNBC. Methods Cultures of MECs were used to examine EGFR protein levels and promoter activity in response to BRCA1 suppression with inhibitory RNA. EGFR was assessed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to subpopulations of MECs was examined by Scatchard analysis. The responsiveness of MECs to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib was assessed in vitro in three-dimensional cultures and in vivo. Mouse mammary tumor virus-Cre recombinase (MMTV-Cre) BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- mice were treated daily with erlotinib or vehicle control, and breast cancer-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Inhibition of BRCA1 in MECs led to upregulation of EGFR with an inverse correlation of BRCA1 with cellular EGFR protein levels (r2 = 0.87) and to an increase in cell surface-expressed EGFR. EGFR upregulation in response to BRCA1 suppression was mediated by transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive MECs expressed higher levels of EGFR than ALDH1-negative MECs and were expanded two- to threefold in the BRCA1-inhibited MEC population. All MECs were exquisitely sensitive to EGFR inhibition with erlotinib in vitro. EGFR inhibition in MMTV-Cre BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- female mice starting at age 3 months increased

  7. Chemically Induced Conditional Rescue of the Reduced Epidermal Fluorescence8 Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals Rapid Restoration of Growth and Selective Turnover of Secondary Metabolite Pools1[C][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Im; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Chapple, Clint; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse and important secondary metabolites including lignin and flavonoids. The reduced epidermal fluorescence8 (ref8) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is defective in a lignin biosynthetic enzyme p-coumaroyl shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H), exhibits severe dwarfism and sterility. To better understand the impact of perturbation of phenylpropanoid metabolism on plant growth, we generated a chemically inducible C3′H expression construct and transformed it into the ref8 mutant. Application of dexamethasone to these plants greatly alleviates the dwarfism and sterility and substantially reverses the biochemical phenotypes of ref8 plants, including the reduction of lignin content and hyperaccumulation of flavonoids and p-coumarate esters. Induction of C3′H expression at different developmental stages has distinct impacts on plant growth. Although early induction effectively restored the elongation of primary inflorescence stem, application to 7-week-old plants enabled them to produce new rosette inflorescence stems. Examination of hypocotyls of these plants revealed normal vasculature in the newly formed secondary xylem, presumably restoring water transport in the mutant. The ref8 mutant accumulates higher levels of salicylic acid than the wild type, but depletion of this compound in ref8 did not relieve the mutant’s growth defects, suggesting that the hyperaccumulation of salicylic acid is unlikely to be responsible for dwarfism in this mutant. PMID:24381065

  8. Exploratory cohort study and meta-analysis of BIM deletion polymorphism in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Si; Yu, Hui; Wang, Huijie; Zhao, Xinmin; Zhao, Xintai; Wu, Xianghua; Qiao, Jie; Chang, Jianhua; Wang, Jialei

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations might develop primary and secondary resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) is a key modulator of apoptosis triggered by EGFR-TKIs. The recent studies have indicated that some patients with positive EGFR mutations were refractory to EGFR-TKIs if they harbored a BIM deletion polymorphism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether BIM polymorphism predicts treatment efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in Chinese NSCLC patients. A cohort of advanced NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations and treated with EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib) were recruited. We drew peripheral blood to determinate BIM deletion status and then compared patients' clinical outcomes according to the BIM deletion status. Additionally, we electronically searched eligible cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to pool event risk. The exploratory cohort study included 140 patients. Patients with and without the BIM deletion polymorphism had similar objective response rates (ORRs, 48.5 vs 63.0%, P=0.16), disease control rate (DCR, 93.9 vs 97.0%, P=0.60) and adverse reactions. Similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were noted in overall population (P=0.27 for PFS and P=0.61 for OS) and prespecified patient subgroups. The meta-analysis included 10 eligible cohort studies involving 1,317 NSCLC patients. It showed the positive BIM deletion was associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio =1.45; P=0.02). Nonsignificant differences existed for ORR, DCR and OS. The expanded meta-analysis results demonstrated the positive BIM deletion predicts shorter PFS in NSCLC patients after treatment with EGFR-TKIs while other clinical measures do not. A large multicenter well-designed cohort study involving other concurrent genetic alterations is warranted.

  9. Update on recent preclinical and clinical studies of T790M mutant-specific irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lee, Jih-Hsiang; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-03

    The first- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (1/2G EGFR-TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib have all been approved as standard first-line treatments for advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer. The third-generation (3G) EGFR-TKIs have been developed to overcome the EGFR T790M mutation, which is the most common mechanism of acquired resistance to 1/2G EGFR-TKI treatment. This resistance mutation develops in half of the patients who respond to 1/2G EGFR-TKI therapy. The structures of the novel 3G EGFR-TKIs are different from those of 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Particularly, 3G EGFR-TKIs have lower affinity to wild-type EGFR, and are therefore associated with lower rates of skin and gastrointestinal toxicities. However, many of the adverse events (AEs) that are observed in patients receiving 3G EGFR-TKIs have not been observed in patients receiving 1/2G EGFR-TKIs. Although preclinical studies have revealed many possible mechanisms for these AEs, the causes of some AEs remain unknown. Many mechanisms of resistance to 3G EGFR-TKI therapy have also been reported. Here, we have reviewed the recent clinical and preclinical developments related to novel 3G EGFR-TKIs, including osimertinib, rociletinib, olmutinib, EGF816, and ASP8273.

  10. Signaling pathways modulating dependence of lung cancer on mutant epidermal growth factor receptor and mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wannesson, Luciano; Viteri, Santiago; Costa, Carlota; Karachaliou, Niki; Molina-Vila, Miguel Angel; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A new era in lung cancer targeted therapy arrived with the discovery of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose tyrosine kinase activity can be selectively blocked by small molecule pharmaceuticals referred as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This was the starting point for a less toxic and more effective treatment strategy for a disease that has historically presented as chemorefractory and highly lethal. In spite of this progress, only 80% of the patients treated with this class of compounds will obtain a clinical benefit, of variable magnitude and duration, with remaining patients being primarily refractory to the treatment. Moreover, responding tumors will eventually develop acquired resistance to TKIs and progress to more advanced stages. In this review we summarize the current knowledge with regard to the mechanisms leading to tumor regression and the modifiers of this primary response that determine significant variability in sensitivity of tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations, ranging from complete remission to primary refractoriness. We also analyze the mechanisms of secondary resistance and the strategies the scientific community is exploring in order to overcome these barriers.

  11. High-grade glioma formation results from postnatal pten loss or mutant epidermal growth factor receptor expression in a transgenic mouse glioma model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingxia; Clarke, Laura; Scheidenhelm, Danielle K; Qian, Baoping; Tong, Amanda; Sabha, Nesrin; Karim, Zia; Bock, Nicholas A; Reti, Robert; Swoboda, Rolf; Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Lavoie, Jean-Francois; Bajenaru, M Livia; Shannon, Patrick; Herlyn, Dorothee; Kaplan, David; Henkelman, R Mark; Gutmann, David H; Guha, Abhijit

    2006-08-01

    High-grade gliomas are devastating brain tumors associated with a mean survival of <50 weeks. Two of the most common genetic changes observed in these tumors are overexpression/mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII and loss of PTEN/MMAC1 expression. To determine whether somatically acquired EGFRvIII expression or Pten loss accelerates high-grade glioma development, we used a previously characterized RasB8 glioma-prone mouse strain, in which these specific genetic changes were focally introduced at 4 weeks of age. We show that both postnatal EGFRvIII expression and Pten inactivation in RasB8 mice potentiate high-grade glioma development. Moreover, we observe a concordant loss of Pten and EGFR overexpression in nearly all high-grade gliomas induced by either EGFRvIII introduction or Pten inactivation. This novel preclinical model of high-grade glioma will be useful in evaluating brain tumor therapies targeted to the pathways specifically dysregulated by EGFR expression or Pten loss.

  12. Molecular determinants of drug-specific sensitivity for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 and 20 mutants in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsigelny, Igor F; Wheler, Jennifer J; Greenberg, Jerry P; Kouznetsova, Valentina L; Stewart, David J; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-03-20

    We hypothesized that aberrations activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via dimerization would be more sensitive to anti-dimerization agents (e.g., cetuximab). EGFR exon 19 abnormalities (L747_A750del; deletes amino acids LREA) respond to reversible EGFR kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Exon 20 in-frame insertions and/or duplications (codons 767 to 774) and T790M mutations are clinically resistant to reversible/some irreversible TKIs. Their impact on protein function/therapeutic actionability are not fully elucidated.In our study, the index patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbored EGFR D770_P772del_insKG (exon 20). A twenty patient trial (NSCLC cohort) (cetuximab-based regimen) included two participants with EGFR TKI-resistant mutations ((i) exon 20 D770>GY; and (ii) exon 19 LREA plus exon 20 T790M mutations). Structural modeling predicted that EGFR exon 20 anomalies (D770_P772del_insKG and D770>GY), but not T790M mutations, stabilize the active dimer configuration by increasing the interaction between the kinase domains, hence sensitizing to an agent preventing dimerization. Consistent with predictions, the two patients harboring D770_P772del_insKG and D770>GY, respectively, responded to an EGFR antibody (cetuximab)-based regimen; the T790M-bearing patient showed no response to cetuximab combined with erlotinib. In silico modeling merits investigation of its ability to optimize therapeutic selection based on structural/functional implications of different aberrations within the same gene.

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel conformationally constrained inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor threonine⁷⁹⁰ → methionine⁷⁹⁰ mutant.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shaohua; Zhang, Lianwen; Xu, Shilin; Luo, Jinfeng; Lu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhang; Xu, Tianfeng; Liu, Yingxue; Tu, Zhengchao; Xu, Yong; Ren, Xiaomei; Geng, Meiyu; Ding, Jian; Pei, Duanqing; Ding, Ke

    2012-03-22

    The EGFR(T790M) mutant contributes approximately 50% to clinically acquired resistance against gefitinib or erlotinib. However, almost all the single agent clinical trials of the second generation irreversible EGFR inhibitors appear inadequate to overcome the EGFR(T790M)-related resistance. We have designed and synthesized a series of 2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidinyl derivatives as novel EGFR inhibitors. The most potent compounds, 2q and 2s, inhibited the enzymatic activities of wild-type and mutated EGFRs, with IC(50) values in subnanomolar ranges, including the T790M mutants. The kinase inhibitory efficiencies of the compounds were further validated by Western blot analysis of the activation of EGFR and downstream signaling in cancer cells harboring different mutants of EGFR. The compounds also strongly inhibited the proliferation of H1975 non small cell lung cancer cells bearing EGFR(L858R/T790M), while being significantly less toxic to normal cells. Moreover, 2s displayed promising anticancer efficacy in a human NSCLC (H1975) xenograft nude mouse model.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of azole-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (AzDPPYs) as potent T790M mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhendong; Jin, Yue; Ge, Yang; Wang, Changyuan; Zhang, Jianbin; Tang, Zeyao; Peng, Jinyong; Liu, Kexin; Li, Yanxia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    A series of novel azole-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives (AzDPPYs) were synthesized and biologically evaluated as potent EGFR(T790M) inhibitors. Among these analogues, the most active inhibitor 6e not only displayed high activity against EGFR(T790M/L858R) kinase (IC50=3.3nM), but also was able to repress the replication of H1975 cells harboring EGFR(T790M) mutation at a concentration of 0.118μmol/L. In contrast to the lead compound rociletinib, 6e slightly reduces the key EGFRT790M-minduced drug resistance. Significantly, inhibitor 6e demonstrates high selectivity (SI=299.3) for T790M-containing EGFR mutants over wild type EGFR, hinting that it will cause less side effects.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  16. Whole organ, venation and epidermal cell morphological variations are correlated in the leaves of Arabidopsis mutants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Rubio-Díaz, Silvia; Dhondt, Stijn; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaquín; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2011-12-01

    Despite the large number of genes known to affect leaf shape or size, we still have a relatively poor understanding of how leaf morphology is established. For example, little is known about how cell division and cell expansion are controlled and coordinated within a growing leaf to eventually develop into a laminar organ of a definite size. To obtain a global perspective of the cellular basis of variations in leaf morphology at the organ, tissue and cell levels, we studied a collection of 111 non-allelic mutants with abnormally shaped and/or sized leaves, which broadly represent the mutational variations in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf morphology not associated with lethality. We used image-processing techniques on these mutants to quantify morphological parameters running the gamut from the palisade mesophyll and epidermal cells to the venation, whole leaf and rosette levels. We found positive correlations between epidermal cell size and leaf area, which is consistent with long-standing Avery's hypothesis that the epidermis drives leaf growth. In addition, venation parameters were positively correlated with leaf area, suggesting that leaf growth and vein patterning share some genetic controls. Positional cloning of the genes affected by the studied mutations will eventually establish functional links between genotypes, molecular functions, cellular parameters and leaf phenotypes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. CrkII signals from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras.

    PubMed Central

    Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H

    1996-01-01

    A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor–Resistant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kadoaki; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Michor, Franziska; Pao, William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose EGFR-mutant lung cancer was first described as a new clinical entity in 2004. Here, we present an update on new controversies and conclusions regarding the disease. Methods This article reviews the clinical implications of EGFR mutations in lung cancer with a focus on epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Results The discovery of EGFR mutations has altered the ways in which we consider and treat non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients whose metastatic tumors harbor EGFR mutations are expected to live longer than 2 years, more than double the previous survival rates for lung cancer. Conclusion The information presented in this review can guide practitioners and help them inform their patients about EGFR mutations and their impact on the treatment of NSCLC. Efforts should now concentrate on making EGFR-mutant lung cancer a chronic rather than fatal disease. PMID:23401451

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2004-08-01

    Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

  20. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-05

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations.

  1. Kinetics of epidermal growth factor in saliva.

    PubMed

    Ino, M; Ushiro, K; Ino, C; Yamashita, T; Kumazawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) stimulates the growth and differentiation of various tissues. We measured EGF levels in saliva (n = 128), urine (n = 94), and serum (n = 99) with radioimmunoassay in order to study the kinetics of hEGF in saliva of normal subjects and patients with oral disease. Salivary EGF levels showed an apparent diurnal rhythm related to the taking of meals. Urinary and serum EGF levels showed no obvious diurnal rhythm. There was no significant correlation between salivary and urinary EGF levels, nor between salivary and serum EGF levels. Salivary EGF levels were significantly lower in the younger group (0-9 years old, 3.06 +/- 0.32 ng/ml, p < 0.05) than in the elder group (10-79 years old, 4.78 +/- 3.5 ng/ml), but did not correlate with age in the elder group. There was no significant difference between males and females between EGF levels in saliva, urine or serum. The relative proportion of EGF levels in submandibular gland saliva, parotid saliva, and whole saliva was 1:6:4. The positive rate of immunohistochemical EGF showed no significant differences between submandibular gland, parotid gland, sublingual gland or minor salivary gland. Salivary EGF levels were markedly low in patients with oral inflammations (stomatitis aphthosa, or peritonsillar abscess) or head and neck tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, oral cavity, hypopharynx or larynx). These findings may be significant pathophysiologically. Low salivary EGF levels may reduce the capacity of oral mucosal defense mechanisms to fight against injury by physiochemical agents.

  2. Epidermal Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production Is Required for Permeability Barrier Homeostasis, Dermal Angiogenesis, and the Development of Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E.; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf−/− mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis. PMID:18688025

  3. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  4. In vitro effect of radiation, antibody to epidermal growth factor receptor and Docetaxel in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells with mutant P53 and over-expressed EGFR.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Ustun, Hasan; Castro, Juan; Friesland, Signe; Ghaderi, Mehran; Lundgren, Jan; Turesson, Ingela; Lewin, Freddi

    2009-02-01

    Radiotherapy is the most frequently used and cheapest treatment both for curative and palliative purposes in HNSCC. Despite advances in technology and intensive treatments with radiation, only half of the patients are cured. New therapeutic approaches focusing on the molecular mechanism that mediate tumour cell growth or cell death in combination with radiotherapy have been suggested. The effects of radiation, antibody to EGFR and Docetaxel as single treatment or in combinations on HNSCC cells were investigated. The established HNSCC cells with mutant (mt) P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR was used as the in vitro model. Gene expression profile, cell cycle progression and cell death were used as the indication of treatment outcome. With c-DNA microarray of well-characterised functional genes, massive changes in the genes expression of HNSCC were detected. The alterations of gene expression profiles do not have any correlation neither on tumour cell growth nor cell death. HNSCC cells with mt P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR did not response to radiation, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody and their combination therapy. Effective treatment could be obtained from single therapy with Docetaxel. No additive effects on cell cycle arrest or cell death were seen in the combination of Docetaxel to anti-EGFR antibody, radiation or anti-EGFR antibody + radiation. The c-DNA microarray analysis does not indicate any specific target or treatment effects of HNSCC with mt P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR. Single therapy, target at microtubules might be the most suitable treatment modulation in this tumour type.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation enhances expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lin, Paul-Yann; Lung, Jr-Hau; Li, Ya-Chin; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been demonstrated to have a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, the correlation between EGFR mutations and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated in lung cancer cell lines and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues. VEGF levels were significantly increased in culture medium of lung cancer cells and NSCLC tissues with EGFR mutations (H1650 vs. A549, P=0.0399; H1975 vs. A549, P<0.0001). Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion, E746-A750; exon 21 missense mutation, L858R) and wild-type EGFR genes were established. Significantly increased expression of VEGF and stronger inhibitory effects of gefitinib to VEGF expression were observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells (exon 19 deletion vs. wild-type EGFR, P=0.0005). The results of the present study may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and VEGF expression in lung cancer, and may assist with further development of targeted therapy for NSCLC in the future.

  6. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in bladder cancer and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, J. K.; Cook, S.; Chambers, P.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder tissue using a standard radioimmunoassay technique. Tumour samples had much higher TGF-alpha levels compared with EGF and TGF-alpha levels in malignant tissue were significantly higher than in benign bladder samples. There was, in addition, a difference in mean EGF levels from 'normal' bladder samples from non-tumour bearing areas of bladder in patients with bladder cancer compared with 'normal' bladder tissue obtained at the time of organ retrieval surgery. Levels of EGF and TGF-alpha did not correlate with levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) as determined by a radioligand binding method but levels of TGF-alpha > 10 ng gm-1 of tumour tissue did correlate with EGFR positivity defined using immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that TGF-alpha is the likely ligand for EGFR in bladder tumours. PMID:8605103

  7. Coregulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Levels and Locations: Quantitative Analysis of HER2 Overexpression Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Opresko, Lee; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2003-03-01

    Elevated expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is know to alter cell signalilng and behavioral responses implicated in tumor progression. However, multiple diverse mechanisms may be involved in these overall effects, including signaling by HER2 itself, modulation of signalilng by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and modification of trafficking dynamics for both EGFR and HER2. Continued....

  8. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation.

  9. Is there a role for epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Edurne; Taus, Álvaro; Casadevall, David

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a world-wide annual incidence of around 1.3 million. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and survival remains poor. However, relevant advances have occurred in recent years through the identification of biomarkers that predict for benefit of therapeutic agents. This is exemplified by the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR mutant patients. These drugs have also shown efficacy in unselected populations but this point remains controversial. Here we have reviewed the clinical data that demonstrate a small but consistent subgroup of EGFR wild-type patients with NSCLC that obtain a clinical benefit from these drugs. Moreover, we review the biological rationale that may explain this benefit observed in the clinical setting. PMID:26266101

  10. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  11. Requirement of Stat3 but not Stat1 activation for epidermal growth factor receptor- mediated cell growth In vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Grandis, J R; Drenning, S D; Chakraborty, A; Zhou, M Y; Zeng, Q; Pitt, A S; Tweardy, D J

    1998-01-01

    Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamous epithelial cells, which produce elevated levels of TGF-alpha, and was enhanced by the addition of exogenous TGF-alpha. Targeting of Stat3 using antisense oligonucleotides directed against the translation initiation site, resulted in significant growth inhibition. In addition, cells stably transfected with dominant negative mutant Stat3 constructs failed to proliferate in vitro. In contrast, targeting of Stat1 using either antisense or dominant-negative strategies had no effect on cell growth. Thus, TGF-alpha/EGFR-mediated autocrine growth of transformed epithelial cells is dependent on activation of Stat3 but not Stat1. PMID:9769331

  12. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor in precursor lesions to gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, M. I.; Osborn, M.; Linehan, J.; Sanidas, E.; Brito, M. J.; Jankowski, J.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), its related peptide transforming growth factor (TGF-alpha) and their common receptor (EGFR) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation in the gastrointestinal epithelium and may play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the immunohistochemical expression and topographic distribution of these peptides using Western blot analysis in gastric carcinoma precursor lesions and in non-cancer tissue. We observed: (i) increased and extended expression of TGF-alpha in normal mucosa and hyperplasia in carcinoma fields compared with non-cancer controls; (ii) increased expression of EGFR in intestinal metaplasia (IM) from carcinoma fields compared with controls; (iii) EGF expression was not detected in normal mucosa and only weakly in IM; (iv) coexpression of TGF-alpha/EGFR and EGF/EGFR was higher in intestinal metaplasia in carcinoma fields than in non-cancer controls. We conclude that altered expression of TGF-alpha/EGFR is associated with morphological changes during gastric carcinogenesis. In this regard increased expression of TGF-alpha is a very early event which is subsequently followed by up-regulation of EGFR and this has important biological and clinical implications. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:7819044

  13. Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor stimulate clusterin gene expression in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gutacker, C; Klock, G; Diel, P; Koch-Brandt, C

    1999-01-01

    Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is an extracellular glycoprotein that might exert functions in development, cell death and lipid transport. Clusterin gene expression is elevated at sites of tissue remodelling, such as differentiation and apoptosis; however, the signals responsible for this regulation have not been identified. We use here the clusterin gene as a model system to examine expression in PC12 cells under the control of differentiation and proliferation signals produced by nerve growth factor (NGF) and by epidermal growth factor (EGF) respectively. NGF induced clusterin mRNA, which preceded neurite outgrowth typical of neuronal differentiation. EGF also activated the clusterin mRNA, demonstrating that both proliferation and differentiation signals regulate the gene. To localize NGF- and EGF-responsive elements we isolated the clusterin promoter and tested it in PC12 cell transfections. A 2.5 kb promoter fragment and two 1.5 and 0.3 kb deletion mutants were inducible by NGF and EGF. The contribution to this response of a conserved activator protein 1 (AP-1) motif located in the 0.3 kb fragment was analysed by mutagenesis. The mutant promoter was not inducible by NGF or EGF, which identifies the AP-1 motif as an element responding to both factors. Binding studies with PC12 nuclear extracts showed that AP-1 binds to this sequence in the clusterin promoter. These findings suggest that NGF and EGF, which give differential gene regulation in PC12 cells, resulting in neuronal differentiation and proliferation respectively, use the common Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/AP-1 signalling pathway to activate clusterin expression. PMID:10215617

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors in the canine antrum

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.P.; Gates, T.S.; Boehmer, C.G.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    In this study we localized receptor binding sites for /sup 125/I-human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) in the antrum of the adult canine stomach. High levels of specific /sup 125/I-hEGF binding sites were observed over the mucosa and muscularis mucosa, whereas specific binding sites were not detectable over the submucosa, external circular and longitudinal muscle or myenteric neurons. These results are in agreement with previous studies which indicated that EGF stimulates the proliferation of cultured epithelial cells and inhibits gastric acid secretion. This suggests that EGF may be a useful therapeutic agent in the healing of gastric ulcers.

  15. Astrocyte Mitogen Inhibitor Related to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel

    1988-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-characterized polypeptide hormone with diverse biological activities, including stimulation of astrocyte division. A soluble astrocyte mitogen inhibitor, immunologically related to the EGF receptor, is present in rat brain. Injury to the brain causes a time-dependent reduction in the levels of this inhibitor and the concomitant appearance of EGF receptor on the astrocyte surface. Intracerebral injection of antibody capable of binding the inhibitor caused the appearance of numerous reactive astrocytes. EGF receptor-related inhibitors may play a key role in the control of glial cell division in both normal and injured brain.

  16. Production of human epidermal growth factor using adenoviral based system

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Babak; Shahosseini, Zahra; Baniasadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth factor involved in cell growth and differentiation, is a small polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 6 kDa known to be present in a number of different mammalian species. Experimental studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that the topical application of EGF accelerates the rate of epidermal regeneration of partial-thickness wounds and second-degree burns. Due to its commercial applications, Human EGF (hEGF) has been cloned in several forms. In the present study, adenoviral based expression system was used to produce biologically active recombinant hEGF. The presence of secreted recombinant hEGF was confirmed by a dot blot and its expression level was determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Moreover, biological activity of secreted hEGF was evaluated by a proliferation assay performed on A549 cells. For production of hEGF in a secretory form, a chimeric gene coding for the hEGF fused to the signal peptide was expressed using adenoviral based method. This method enables the production of hEGF at the site of interest and moreover it could be used for cell proliferation and differentiation assays in tissue engineering research experiments instead of using commercially available EGF. PMID:27051431

  17. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  18. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  19. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Gotoh, Akito; Eguchi, Takanori; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP. PMID:23492901

  20. The xipotl Mutant of Arabidopsis Reveals a Critical Role for Phospholipid Metabolism in Root System Development and Epidermal Cell Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José; Ramírez-Pimentel, Gabriel; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Sánchez-Calderon, Lenin; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; González-Ortega, Emmanuel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2004-01-01

    Phosphocholine (PCho) is an essential metabolite for plant development because it is the precursor for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in plant cell membranes. The main step in PCho biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is the triple, sequential N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine, catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine:phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT). In screenings performed to isolate Arabidopsis mutants with altered root system architecture, a T-DNA mutagenized line showing remarkable alterations in root development was isolated. At the seedling stage, the mutant phenotype is characterized by a short primary root, a high number of lateral roots, and short epidermal cells with aberrant morphology. Genetic and biochemical characterization of this mutant showed that the T-DNA was inserted at the At3g18000 locus (XIPOTL1), which encodes PEAMT (XIPOTL1). Further analyses revealed that inhibition of PCho biosynthesis in xpl1 mutants not only alters several root developmental traits but also induces cell death in root epidermal cells. Epidermal cell death could be reversed by phosphatidic acid treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that molecules produced downstream of the PCho biosynthesis pathway play key roles in root development and act as signals for cell integrity. PMID:15295103

  1. The xipotl mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a critical role for phospholipid metabolism in root system development and epidermal cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; López-Bucio, José; Ramírez-Pimentel, Gabriel; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Sánchez-Calderon, Lenin; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; González-Ortega, Emmanuel; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2004-08-01

    Phosphocholine (PCho) is an essential metabolite for plant development because it is the precursor for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is the major lipid component in plant cell membranes. The main step in PCho biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is the triple, sequential N-methylation of phosphoethanolamine, catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine:phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT). In screenings performed to isolate Arabidopsis mutants with altered root system architecture, a T-DNA mutagenized line showing remarkable alterations in root development was isolated. At the seedling stage, the mutant phenotype is characterized by a short primary root, a high number of lateral roots, and short epidermal cells with aberrant morphology. Genetic and biochemical characterization of this mutant showed that the T-DNA was inserted at the At3g18000 locus (XIPOTL1), which encodes PEAMT (XIPOTL1). Further analyses revealed that inhibition of PCho biosynthesis in xpl1 mutants not only alters several root developmental traits but also induces cell death in root epidermal cells. Epidermal cell death could be reversed by phosphatidic acid treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that molecules produced downstream of the PCho biosynthesis pathway play key roles in root development and act as signals for cell integrity.

  2. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing the active conformation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ise, Nobuyuki; Omi, Kazuya; Miwa, Kyoko; Honda, Hideo; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Goishi, Katsutoshi

    2010-04-09

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for its function in cellular growth control. Although many antibodies against EGFR have been developed and used to analyze its regulation and function, it is not yet easy to analyze activated EGFR specifically. Activated EGFR has been mainly detected by its phosphorylation state using anti-phospho-EGFR and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. In the present study, we have established novel monoclonal antibodies which recognize the activated EGFR independently of its phosphorylation. Our antibodies detected active state of EGFR in immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, by recognizing the epitopes which are exposed through the conformational change induced by ligand-binding. Furthermore, we found that our antibodies preferentially detected the conformation of constitutively active EGFR mutants found in lung cancer cell lines. These results indicate that our antibodies may become novel research and diagnostic tools for detecting and analyzing the conformation of active EGFR in various cells and tissues.

  3. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. In this paper, we present a comprehensive pathway map of EGFR signaling and other related pathways. The map reveals that the overall architecture of the pathway is a bow-tie (or hourglass) structure with several feedback loops. The map is created using CellDesigner software that enables us to graphically represent interactions using a well-defined and consistent graphical notation, and to store it in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). PMID:16729045

  4. Role for the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Bichsel, Kyle J.; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460

  5. A dominant negative mutation suppresses the function of normal epidermal growth factor receptors by heterodimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Kashles, O; Yarden, Y; Fischer, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that defective receptors can function as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the action of wild-type receptors. This causes various diminished responses in cell culture and developmental disorders in murine embryogenesis. Here, we describe a model system and a potential mechanism underlying the dominant suppressing response caused by defective epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. We used cultured 3T3 cells coexpressing human wild-type receptors and an inactive deletion mutant lacking most of the cytoplasmic domain. When expressed alone, EGF was able to stimulate the dimerization of either wild-type or mutant receptors in living cells as revealed by chemical covalent cross-linking experiments. In response to EGF, heterodimers and homodimers of wild-type and mutant receptors were observed in cells coexpressing both receptor species. However, only homodimers of wild-type EGF receptors underwent EGF-induced tyrosine autophosphorylation in living cells. These results indicate that the integrity of both receptor moieties within receptor dimers is essential for kinase activation and autophosphorylation. Moreover, the presence of mutant receptors in cells expressing wild-type receptors diminished the number of high-affinity binding sites for EGF, reduced the rate of receptor endocytosis and degradation, and diminished biological signalling via EGF receptors. We propose that heterodimerization with defective EGF receptors functions as a dominant negative mutation suppressing the activation and response of normal receptors by formation of unproductive heterodimers. Images PMID:1705006

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Enhances Expression of Cadherin-5 in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Paul-Yann; Li, Ya-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been shown to play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between EGFR mutations and cadherin-5 (CDH5), which is an angiogenic factor, in lung cancer cells. Increased expression CDH5 is observed in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations. Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion E746-A750, and exon 21 missense mutation L858R) and wild type EGFR genes are established. A significantly higher expression of CDH5 is observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells and mouse xenografts. Further studies show that expression of CDH5 is decreased after the inhibition of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutation. In addition, mutant EGFR genes potentiates angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, which is inhibited by CDH5 siRNA, and potentiates migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Our study shows that mutant EGFR genes are associated with overexpression of CDH5 through increased phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways. Our result may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and CDH5 expression in lung cancer and aid further development of target therapy for NSCLC in the future.

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Enhances Expression of Cadherin-5 in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Paul-Yann; Li, Ya-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been shown to play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between EGFR mutations and cadherin-5 (CDH5), which is an angiogenic factor, in lung cancer cells. Increased expression CDH5 is observed in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations. Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion E746-A750, and exon 21 missense mutation L858R) and wild type EGFR genes are established. A significantly higher expression of CDH5 is observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells and mouse xenografts. Further studies show that expression of CDH5 is decreased after the inhibition of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutation. In addition, mutant EGFR genes potentiates angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, which is inhibited by CDH5 siRNA, and potentiates migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Our study shows that mutant EGFR genes are associated with overexpression of CDH5 through increased phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways. Our result may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and CDH5 expression in lung cancer and aid further development of target therapy for NSCLC in the future. PMID:27362942

  8. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient.

  9. Epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor production is required for permeability barrier homeostasis, dermal angiogenesis, and the development of epidermal hyperplasia: implications for the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R

    2008-09-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf(-/-) mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis.

  10. Inhibiting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a widely distributed cell surface receptor that responds to several extracellular signaling molecules through an intracellular tyrosine kinase, which phosphorylates target enzymes to trigger a downstream molecular cascade. Since the discovery that EGFR mutations and amplifications are critical in a number of cancers, efforts have been under way to develop and use targeted EGFR inhibitors. These efforts have met with some spectacular successes, but many patients have not responded as expected, have subsequently developed drug-resistant tumors, or have suffered serious side effects from the therapies to date. CCR Investigators are studying EGFR from multiple vantage points with the goal of developing even better strategies to defeat EGFR-related cancers.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Henry Q; Abbruzzese, James L

    2002-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in tumor development and maintenance. It is a cell surface molecule that mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to cytoplasm. Elevated expression of EGFR or its ligand correlates with worse prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, blockade of EGFR activity would provide a novel strategy for the treatment of cancer. Two classes of EGFR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have been described. The preclinical activity of these EGFR inhibitors and phase I clinical data are summarized in this article. A phase II trial of the EGFR inhibitor IMC-C225 in combination with gemcitabine for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is discussed. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  13. The epidermal growth factor receptor family: Biology driving targeted therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wieduwilt, M. J.; Moasser, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbBs) plays essential roles in regulating cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration. The ErbB receptors carry out both redundant and restricted functions in mammalian development and in the maintenance of tissues in the adult mammal. Loss of regulation of the ErbB receptors underlies many human diseases, most notably cancer. Our understanding of the function and complex regulation of these receptors has fueled the development of targeted therapeutic agents for human malignancies in the last 15 years. Here we review the biology of ErbB receptors, including their structure, signaling, regulation, and roles in development and disease, then briefly touch on their increasing roles as targets for cancer therapy. PMID:18259690

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ciardiello, F

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-driven autocrine growth pathway has been implicated in the development and progression of the majority of the most common human epithelial cancers, making the blockade of this growth pathway a promising anticancer therapeutic strategy. Different approaches have been developed to block EGFR activation and/or function in cancer cells. In the past 15 years, various anti-EGFR blocking monoclonal antibodies (MAb), recombinant proteins containing transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) or EGF fused to toxins, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been generated and their biological and potentially therapeutic properties characterised. One of these agents, MAb IMC-C225, a chimeric human-mouse IgG1 MAb, is the first anti-EGFR agent to enter phase II to III clinical trials in patients with cancer. Several small compounds that block the ligand-induced activation of the EGFR tyrosine kinase have been developed. Among these EGFR-TKIs, various quinazoline-derived agents have been synthesised and have shown promising activity as anticancer agents in preclinical models. ZD1839 ('Iressa'), an anilinoquinazoline, is an orally active, selective EGFR-TKI which is currently under clinical evaluation in phase II to III clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preclinical data for ZD1839 strongly support the possibility of potentiating the antitumour activity of conventional chemotherapy with agents that selectively block the EGFR.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Fate Is Controlled by Hrs Tyrosine Phosphorylation Sites That Regulate Hrs Degradation▿

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Kathryn A.; Visser Smit, Gina D.; Place, Trenton L.; Winistorfer, Stanley; Piper, Robert C.; Lill, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is an endosomal protein essential for the efficient sorting of activated growth factor receptors into the lysosomal degradation pathway. Hrs undergoes ligand-induced tyrosine phosphorylation on residues Y329 and Y334 downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. It has been difficult to investigate the functional roles of phosphoHrs, as only a small proportion of the cellular Hrs pool is detectably phosphorylated. Using an HEK 293 model system, we found that ectopic expression of the protein Cbl enhances Hrs ubiquitination and increases Hrs phosphorylation following cell stimulation with EGF. We exploited Cbl's expansion of the phosphoHrs pool to determine whether Hrs tyrosine phosphorylation controls EGFR fate. In structure-function studies of Cbl and EGFR mutants, the level of Hrs phosphorylation and rapidity of apparent Hrs dephosphorylation correlated directly with EGFR degradation. Differential expression of wild-type versus Y329,334F mutant Hrs in Hrs-depleted cells revealed that one or both tyrosines regulate ligand-dependent Hrs degradation, as well as EGFR degradation. By modulating Hrs ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and protein levels, Cbl may control the composition of the endosomal sorting machinery and its ability to target EGFR for lysosomal degradation. PMID:17101784

  16. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  17. Growth activity of epidermal cells from different parts of human body.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jia-ke; Sheng, Zhi-yong; Ma, Zhong-feng; Yang, Hong-ming; Liu, Qiang; Liang, Li-ming

    2007-08-20

    Most epidermal cells used in skin tissue engineering are obtained from the skins of fetuses or prepuces, which can not be widely used in culturing and transplanting autologous epidermis for patients with extensive burn wounds. To solve the problem, in this study, we cultured epidermal cells from different parts of human body in vitro, and detected their growth activity. Normal epidermal cells obtained from the prepuce, scalp, and axilla of male patients, were cultured and passaged. Their growth characteristics including adherent rate and growth activity were compared. Data were analyzed by homogeneity test of variance. In primary culture, the growth of epidermal cells from the prepuce was significantly faster than that of the epidermal cells from the scalp and axilla. In the cells obtained from the prepuce, 80% confluence was achieved on day 12, while on day 16 and day 20 in the cells from the scalp and axilla, respectively. However, no significant difference was detected in their growth and proliferation in the second passage. Although the growth of epidermal cells obtained from the scalp and axilla is slower than that from the prepuce in primary culture, stable cell line can be established and used in preparation of auto-epidermal grafts for patients with extensive burn wounds. Therefore, the scalp and axillary skin should be considered as important sources of epidermal cells other than the prepuce.

  18. Epidermal homeostasis: the role of the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor systems.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Stephanie R; Thumiger, Susan P; Werther, George A; Wraight, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    GH and IGF-I and -II were first identified by their endocrine activity. Specifically, IGF-I was found to mediate the linear growth-promoting actions of GH. It is now evident that these two growth factor systems also exert widespread activity throughout the body and that their actions are not always interconnected. The literature highlights the importance of the GH and IGF systems in normal skin homeostasis, including dermal/epidermal cross-talk. GH activity, sometimes mediated via IGF-I, is primarily evident in the dermis, particularly affecting collagen synthesis. In contrast, IGF action is an important feature of the dermal and epidermal compartments, predominantly enhancing cell proliferation, survival, and migration. The locally expressed IGF binding proteins play significant and complex roles, primarily via modulation of IGF actions. Disturbances in GH and IGF signaling pathways are implicated in the pathophysiology of several skin perturbations, particularly those exhibiting epidermal hyperplasia (e.g., psoriasis, carcinomas). Additionally, many studies emphasize the potential use of both growth factors in the treatment of skin wounds; for example, burn patients. This overview concerns the role and mechanisms of action of the GH and IGF systems in skin and maintenance of epidermal integrity in both health and disease.

  19. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  20. Aqueous stability of human epidermal growth factor 1-48.

    PubMed

    Senderoff, R I; Wootton, S C; Boctor, A M; Chen, T M; Giordani, A B; Julian, T N; Radebaugh, G W

    1994-12-01

    Human epidermal growth factor 1-48 (hEGF 1-48, Des(49-53)hEGF) is a single chain polypeptide (48 amino acids; 3 disulfide bonds; 5445 Da) possessing a broad spectrum of biologic activity including the stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue growth. In this study, three primary aqueous degradation products of hEGF 1-48 were isolated using isocratic, reverse phase/ion-pair HPLC. The degradation products were characterized using amino acid sequencing, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, isoelectric focusing, and degradation kinetics. Results indicate that hEGF 1-48 degrades via oxidation (Met21), deamidation (Asn1), and succinimide formation (Asp11). The relative contribution of each degradation pathway to the overall stability of hEGF 1-48 changes as a function of solution pH and storage condition. Succinimide formation at Asp11 is favored at pH < 6 in which aspartic acid is present mostly in its protonated form. Deamidation of Asn1 is favored at pH > 6. The relative contribution of Met21 oxidation is increased with decreasing temperature, storage as a frozen solution (-20 degrees C), and exposure to fluorescent light.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  2. Epidermal growth factor and its receptors in human pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.F.; Pan, G.Z.; Hou, X.; Liu, T.H.; Chen, J.; Yanaihara, C.; Yanaihara, N. )

    1990-05-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in oncogenesis and progression of malignant tumors is a subject of vast interest. In this study, radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay of EGF were established. EGF contents in malignant and benign pancreatic tumors, in normal pancreas tissue, and in culture media of a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line were determined. EGF receptor binding studies were performed. It was shown that EGF contents in pancreatic carcinomas were significantly higher than those in normal pancreas or benign pancreatic tumors. EGF was also detected in the culture medium of a pancreatic carcinoma cell line. The binding of 125I-EGF to the pancreatic carcinoma cells was time and temperature dependent, reversible, competitive, and specific. Scatchard analysis showed that the dissociation constant of EGF receptor was 2.1 X 10(-9) M, number of binding sites was 1.3 X 10(5) cell. These results indicate that there is an over-expression of EGF/EGF receptors in pancreatic carcinomas, and that an autocrine regulatory mechanism may exist in the growth-promoting effect of EGF on tumor cells.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation in developing rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Cybulsky, A V; Goodyer, P R; McTavish, A J

    1994-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding increases in late-gestational rat kidney and then falls toward basal adult levels postnatally during the 1st wk. We report that the increase in EGF binding is accompanied by an increase in EGF receptor (EGFR) protein and activation of EGFR tyrosine kinase. Multiple proteins were endogenously tyrosine phosphorylated in kidney membranes from fetal rats, and the phosphorylation pattern was similar in rats ranging from 16 to 21 days of gestation. Tyrosine phosphorylation was, however, almost undetectable in 12-wk adult rat kidneys (controls). Among the phosphoproteins in fetal kidney, a prominent 170-kDa protein was identified as EGFR. Endogenous tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR (reflecting receptor activation) was 30-fold higher in fetal kidney membranes than in adult (3- to 7-fold higher when adjusted for differences in EGF binding or EGFR protein content). The EGFR substrate, phospholipase C-gamma 1, was tyrosine phosphorylated in fetal kidneys but not adult, and a greater proportion was membrane-associated in fetal kidneys, consistent with activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1. Thus EGFR tyrosine kinase activity is increased in late-gestational rat kidney. Induction and activation of EGFR may mediate perinatal renal cell growth and development.

  4. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Aronowitz, Eric; Funato, Kosuke; Tabar, Viviane; Havlicek, David; Fan, Fan; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector. The data demonstrates that single, local delivery of an anti-EGFR antibody by an AAVrh.10 vector coding for cetuximab (AAVrh.10Cetmab) reduces GBM tumor growth and increases survival in xenograft mouse models of a human GBM EGFR-expressing cell line and patient-derived GBM. AAVrh10.CetMab-treated mice displayed a reduction in cachexia, a significant decrease in tumor volume and a prolonged survival following therapy. Adeno-associated-directed delivery of a gene encoding a therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be an effective strategy to treat GBM. PMID:27711187

  5. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, a v-Jun target gene, induces oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu-ling; Bottoli, Ivan; Goller, Martin; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    Jun is a transcription factor belonging to the activator protein 1 family. A mutated version of Jun (v-Jun) transduced by the avian retrovirus ASV17 induces oncogenic transformation in avian cell cultures and sarcomas in young galliform birds. The oncogenicity of Jun probably results from transcriptional deregulation of v-Jun-responsive target genes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a growth-related v-Jun target, a homolog of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). HB-EGF is strongly expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by v-Jun. HB-EGF expression is not detectable or is marginal in nontransformed CEF. Using a hormone-inducible Jun-estrogen receptor chimera, we found that HB-EGF expression is correlated with v-Jun activity. In this system, induction of v-Jun is followed within 1 hr by elevated levels of HB-EGF. In CEF infected with various Jun mutants, HB-EGF expression is correlated with the oncogenic potency of the mutant. Constitutive expression of HB-EGF conveys to CEF the ability to grow in soft agar and to form multilayered foci of transformed cells on a solid substrate. These observations suggest that HB-EGF is an effector of Jun-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:10318950

  6. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Angela L; Knelson, Erik H; Blobe, Gerard C

    2017-02-07

    High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low Schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival. HBEGF protein is expressed only in stromal compartments of human neuroblastoma specimens, with tissue from high-stage disease containing very little stroma or HBEGF expression. In 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE2, and SH-SY5Y), soluble HBEGF is sufficient to promote neuroblast differentiation and decrease proliferation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin derivatives further enhance HBEGF-induced differentiation by forming a complex with the epidermal growth factor receptor, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and up-regulation of the inhibitor of DNA binding transcription factor. These data support a role for loss of HBEGF in the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.-Gaviglio, A. L., Knelson, E. H., Blobe, G. C. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

  7. Development of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor OSI-774.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Viktor; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2003-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor involved in the regulation of a complex array of essential biological processes such as cell proliferation and survival. Dysregulation of the EGFR signaling network has been frequently reported in multiple human cancers and has been associated with the processes of tumor development, growth, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Inhibition of the EGFR was associated with antitumor effects in preclinical models. On the basis of these data, therapeutics targeting the EGFR were explored in clinical trials. OSI-774 is a small-molecule selective inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase. In preclinical studies, OSI-774 inhibited the phosphorylation of the EGFR in a dose-dependent and concentration-dependent manner resulting in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. In in vivo studies, this agent caused tumor growth inhibition and showed synergistic effects when combined with conventional chemotherapy. Subsequent single-agent phase I studies and phase I studies in combination with chemotherapy showed that the agent has a good safety profile and induced tumor growth inhibition in a substantial number of patients with a variety of different solid tumors. Preliminary reports from phase II studies confirmed the excellent tolerability of OSI-774 and showed encouraging preliminary activity. Phase III studies have either been completed or are ongoing in several tumor types such as lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. In summary, OSI-774 is a novel inhibitor of the EGFR tyrosine kinase that has shown promising activity in initial studies and is currently undergoing full development as an anticancer drug.

  8. Third-Generation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tristan A; O'Kane, Grainne M; Vincent, Mark David; Leighl, Natasha B

    2017-01-01

    Sensitizing mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) predict response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and both first- and second-generation TKIs are available as first-line treatment options in patients with advanced EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer. Eventual resistance develops with multiple mechanisms identifiable both upon repeat biopsy and in plasma circulating tumor DNA. The T790M gatekeeper mutation is responsible for almost 60% of cases. A number of third-generation TKIs are in clinical development, and osimertinib has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with EGFR T790M mutant lung cancer after failure of initial EGFR kinase therapy. Resistance mechanisms are being identified to these novel agents, and the treatment landscape of EGFR-mutant lung cancer continues to evolve. The sequence of EGFR TKIs may change in the future and combination therapies targeting resistance appear highly promising.

  9. Dynamic tracing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in urinary circulating DNA in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Qin; Xue, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Song-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Wukong

    2017-02-01

    The mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor are detected in gastric cancer, indicating its suitability as a target for receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as a marker for clinical outcome of chemotherapeutic treatments. However, extraction of quality tumor tissue for molecular processes remains challenging. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical relevance of urinary cell-free DNA as an alternative tumor material source used specifically for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Therefore, 120 gastric cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 100 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The gastric patients also received epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor treatment for a serial monitoring study. Paired primary tumor specimens were obtained with blood and urine samples, which were taken at a 1-month interval for a duration of 12 months. We found that urinary cell-free DNA yielded a close agreement of 92% on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to primary tissue at baseline, and of 99% epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status when compared to plasma samples at different time points. Thus, our data suggest that urinary cell-free DNA may be a reliable source for screening and monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in the primary gastric cancer.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  11. Modeling the epidermal growth factor -- epidermal growth factor receptor l2 domain interaction: implications for the ligand binding process.

    PubMed

    Jorissen, Robert N; Treutlein, Herbert R; Epa, V Chandana; Burgess, Antony W

    2002-06-01

    Signaling from the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is triggered by the binding of ligands such as EGF or transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and subsequent receptor dimerization. An understanding of these processes has been hindered by the lack of structural information about the ligand-bound, dimerized EGF receptor. Using an NMR-derived structure of EGF and a homology model of the major ligand binding domain of the EGF receptor and experimental data, we modeled the binding of EGF to this EGF receptor fragment. In this low resolution model of the complex, EGF sits across the second face of the EGF receptor L2 domain and EGF residues 10-16, 36-37, 40-47 bind to this face. The structural model is largely consistent with previously published NMR data describing the residues of TGF-alpha which interact strongly with the EGF receptor. Other EGF residues implicated in receptor binding are accounted by our proposal that the ligand binding is a two-step process with the EGF binding to at least one other site of the receptor. This three-dimensional model is expected to be useful in the design of ligand-based antagonists of the receptor.

  12. Saccharin and cyclamate inhibit binding of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L S

    1981-01-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit. PMID:6262753

  13. Epidermal growth factor deficiency associated with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Kasayama, S; Ohba, Y; Oka, T

    1989-01-01

    The production of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the submandibular gland and its circulating level were studied in diabetic mice. In genetically diabetic (C57BL/KsJ db/db) mice, EGF concentrations in the submandibular gland and plasma were reduced to 13% and 30% of the control levels, respectively. In streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice, they were reduced to 18% and 20% of controls, respectively, 5 weeks after the drug injection. Furthermore, levels of submandibular prepro-EGF mRNA in these diabetic mice were decreased almost in parallel with the glandular EGF concentrations, while there was no change in the levels of submandibular beta-actin mRNA and kidney prepro-EGF mRNA. In addition, histological examination of the submandibular glands indicated that the size of the granular convoluted tubules, which produce EGF, was substantially reduced in the diabetic mice. Insulin administration to streptozotocin-treated mice almost completely reversed the decrease in EGF content in the submandibular gland, substantially elevated the level of the glandular prepro-EGF mRNA and plasma EGF concentration, and increased the size of the granular convoluted tubules in the gland. These results indicate that EGF deficiency occurs in diabetes mellitus and that insulin may be important in maintaining the normal level of EGF in the submandibular gland and plasma. Images PMID:2477846

  14. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  15. The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E.D.; Meek, J.

    1984-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the role(s) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo during murine development, we have examined the /sup 125/I-EGF binding characteristics of EGF-receptors in membrane preparations of tissues from the 12th day of gestation to parturition. Using autoradiography, the earliest time that we could detect EGF-receptors was on trophoblast cells cultured for 3 days as blastocyst outgrowths. Trophoblast eventually forms a large portion of the placenta, where EGF-receptors have long been recognized. We measured the number and affinity of EGF-receptors on tissues dissected from conceptuses from the 12th day of gestation in order to identify a stage when tissues may be most sensitive to EGF. Whereas the number of EGF receptors increases during gestation for all tissues examined, the affinity of the receptors declines for carcass and placenta and remains relatively unchanged for brain and liver. This suggests that EGF may function differently throughout development. Our hypothesis is that EGF (or its embryonic equivalent) initially stimulates proliferation in embryonic cells and then stimulates differentiation as the tissues mature. In the adult, its main role could be to stimulate tissue repair after damage.

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Awani; Ido, Liyana J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR) has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions. PMID:27605519

  17. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Regulates Hematopoietic Regeneration Following Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Phuong L.; Himburg, Heather A.; Helms, Katherine; Russell, J. Lauren; Fixsen, Emma; Quarmyne, Mamle; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Deoliviera, Divino; Sullivan, Julie M.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.; Chute, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms which regulate HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury are not well understood. We identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be highly enriched in the bone marrow (BM) serum of mice bearing deletion of Bak and Bax in Tie2+ cells (Tie2Cre;Bak1−/−;Baxfl/− mice), which displayed radioprotection of the HSC pool and 100% survival following lethal dose total body irradiation (TBI). BM HSCs from wild type mice expressed functional EGFR and systemic administration of EGF promoted the recovery of the HSC pool in vivo and the improved survival of mice following TBI. Conversely, administration of erlotinib, an EGFR antagonist, significantly decreased both HSC regeneration and mice survival following TBI. VavCre;EGFRfl/+ mice also demonstrated delayed recovery of BM stem/progenitor cells following TBI compared to VavCre;EGFR+/+ mice. Mechanistically, EGF reduced radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs and mediated this effect via repression of the proapoptotic protein, PUMA. EGFR signaling regulates HSC regeneration following myelosuppressive injury. PMID:23377280

  19. Argos inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by ligand sequestration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daryl E; Nappi, Valerie M; Reeves, Gregory T; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-08-26

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has critical functions in development and in many human cancers. During development, the spatial extent of EGFR signalling is regulated by feedback loops comprising both well-understood activators and less well-characterized inhibitors. In Drosophila melanogaster the secreted protein Argos functions as the only known extracellular inhibitor of EGFR, with clearly identified roles in multiple stages of development. Argos is only expressed when the Drosophila EGFR (DER) is activated at high levels, and downregulates further DER signalling. Although there is ample genetic evidence that Argos inhibits DER activation, the biochemical mechanism has not been established. Here we show that Argos inhibits DER signalling without interacting directly with the receptor, but instead by sequestering the DER-activating ligand Spitz. Argos binds tightly to the EGF motif of Spitz and forms a 1:1 (Spitz:Argos) complex that does not bind DER in vitro or at the cell surface. Our results provide an insight into the mechanism of Argos function, and suggest new strategies for EGFR inhibitor design.

  20. Epidermal growth factor prevents prepartum luteolysis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, M. L.; Aisemberg, J.; Billi, S.; Farina, M. G.; Meiss, R.; McCann, S.; Rettori, V.; Villalón, M.; Franchi, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that intrauterine (i/u) administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF 500 ng) on day (d) 21 of pregnancy delayed 19.0 ± 0.6 h the onset of labor. Progesterone (P) is secreted by ovarian corpora lutea (CL) throughout gestation in the rat. Prepartum CL regression due to increased uterine cyclooxygenase I and prostaglandin F2α results in P withdrawal followed by labor. The aims of the present work were (i) to study whether EGF delayed-onset of labor was mediated by a mechanism that prevented CL regression; (ii) to determine amniotic fluid (AF) EGF in pregnant rats. Rats on d21 of pregnancy received i/u EGF (500 ng) and were killed 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h later. Control AF from rats on d13 and 18–22 of pregnancy was obtained. EGF decreased uterine prostaglandin F2α synthesis 8 h after treatment. Twelve hours after EGF injection, P reached its highest serum level and uterine cyclooxygenase I expression was undetectable. CL from rats killed 8 and 12 h after EGF were similar to those from rats on d13 of pregnancy, when serum P is maximum. EGF in AF increased throughout gestation, reached a maximum on d21, and decreased before the onset of labor. We suggest that the effect of EGF on the onset of labor was mediated by an early effect on the uterus that prevented prepartum CL regression. PMID:15911754

  1. Computational modeling reveals molecular details of epidermal growth factor binding

    PubMed Central

    Mayawala, Kapil; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2005-01-01

    Background The ErbB family of receptors are dysregulated in a number of cancers, and the signaling pathway of this receptor family is a critical target for several anti-cancer drugs. Therefore a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of receptor activation is critical. However, despite a plethora of biochemical studies and recent single particle tracking experiments, the early molecular mechanisms involving epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding and EGF receptor (EGFR) dimerization are not as well understood. Herein, we describe a spatially distributed Monte Carlo based simulation framework to enable the simulation of in vivo receptor diffusion and dimerization. Results Our simulation results are in agreement with the data from single particle tracking and biochemical experiments on EGFR. Furthermore, the simulations reveal that the sequence of receptor-receptor and ligand-receptor reaction events depends on the ligand concentration, receptor density and receptor mobility. Conclusion Our computer simulations reveal the mechanism of EGF binding on EGFR. Overall, we show that spatial simulation of receptor dynamics can be used to gain a mechanistic understanding of receptor activation which may in turn enable improved cancer treatments in the future. PMID:16318625

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kharmate, Geetanjali; Hosseini-Beheshti, Elham; Caradec, Josselin; Chin, Mei Yieng; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa cells or PCa patient serum contains EGFR. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize EGFR in exosomes derived from PCa cells, LNCaP xenograft and PCa patient serum. Exosomes were isolated from conditioned media of different PCa cell lines; LNCaP xenograft serum as well as patient plasma/serum by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Exosomes were confirmed by electron microscopy, expression of exosomal markers and NanoSight™ analysis. EGFR expression was determined by western blot analysis and ELISA. This study demonstrates that exosomes may easily be derived from PCa cell lines, serum obtained from PCa xenograft bearing mice and clinical samples derived from PCa patients. Presence of exosomal EGFR in PCa patient exosomes may present a novel approach for measuring of the disease state. Our work will allow to build on this finding for future understanding of PCa exosomes and their potential role in PCa progression and as minimal invasive biomarkers for PCa. PMID:27152724

  3. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Ping; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation. These EGFR aberrations over-activate downstream pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK and AKT-PI3K-mTOR pathways. These pathways then activate many biological outputs that are beneficial to cancer cell proliferation, including their chronic initiation and progression through the cell cycle. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate EGFR signal transduction, including the EGFR structure and its mutations, ligand binding and EGFR dimerization, as well as the signaling pathways that lead to G1 cell cycle progression. We focus on the induction of CYCLIN D expression, CDK4/6 activation, and the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins (CDKi) by EGFR signaling pathways. We also discuss the successes and challenges of EGFR-targeted therapies, and the potential for their use in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors. PMID:28513565

  4. Distribution and release of epidermal growth factor in man.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, J W; Bielanski, W; Konturek, S J; Bogdal, J; Oleksy, J

    1989-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is localised in man to salivary and Brunner's glands. It is present in large concentrations in saliva and duodenal contents but the mechanisms of its release have been little studied. This study carried out on four groups of healthy subjects was designed to determine the distribution and the release of immunoreactive EGF (IR-EGF) in salivary, gastric, duodenal, and pancreatic secretions. Under basal conditions, the concentrations of IR-EGF in salivary, gastric, duodenal and pancreatic secretions were; 2.7 (0.4), 0.42 (0.12), 21 (5) and 8.5 (1.2) ng/ml, respectively. Chewing of Parafilm* significantly increased salivary but not gastric or duodenal EGF output while atropinisation led to the reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output without affecting the increment in EGF release induced by chewing. Cigarette smoking caused a marked reduction in basal salivary and duodenal EGF output. Infusion of pentagastrin increased salivary and duodenal EGF output and this was blocked by the addition of somatostatin. Injection of secretin lead to an increase in pancreatic output of EGF. We conclude that in man the major sources of EGF are salivary glands, duodenum, and pancreas and that the release of EGF remains under neurohormonal control. PMID:2806986

  5. Epidermal growth factor-stimulated protein phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.A.; Sisk, R.B.; Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a 6-fold increase in the phosphorylation state of a cytosolic protein (pp36, M/sub r/ = 36,000, pI = 5.5) in hepatocytes isolated from fasted, male, Wistar rats. Stimulation of /sup 32/P incorporation is observed as early as 1 min following treatment of hepatocytes with EGF and is still present at 30 min after exposure to the growth factor. The phosphate incorporated into pp36 in response to EGF is located predominantly in serine but not tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of pp36 does not occur in response to insulin or to agents which specifically activate the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (S/sub p/ -cAMPS), protein kinase C (PMA) or Ca/sup 2 +//calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (A23187) in these cells. Prior treatment of hepatocytes with the cAMP analog, S/sub p/-cAMPS, or ADP-ribosylation of N/sub i/, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, does not prevent EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of pp36. However, as seen in other cell types, pretreatment of hepatocytes with PMA abolishes all EGF-mediated responses including phosphorylation of pp36. These results suggest that EGP specifically activates an uncharacterized, serine protein kinase in hepatocytes that is distal to the intrinsic EGF receptor tyrosine protein kinase. The rapid activation of this kinase suggests that it may play an important role in the early response of the cell to EGF.

  6. Addressing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shoko; Kanda, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have significantly improved the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR activating mutations. However, nearly all EGFR-mutant NSCLC tumors eventually acquire resistance to the currently used EGFR-TKIs and subsequently progress clinically. Acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is thus a huge issue in the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC at present. On one hand, T790M second-site mutation has been recognized as a key mechanism of EGFR-TKI resistance, and third generation EGFR-TKIs such as osimertinib and rociletinib have been developed to overcome tumor cells harboring the T790M mutation. On the other hand, combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy is also expected as another strategy for preventing the acquired resistance to current EGFR-TKIs and prolonging the survival benefits by EGFR-TKIs. Here, we review updated strategies for preventing or overcoming acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.

  7. Abi-1 forms an epidermal growth factor-inducible complex with Cbl: role in receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tanos, Barbara E; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2007-07-01

    The Abl-interactor (Abi) proteins are involved in the regulation of actin polymerization and have recently been shown to modulate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis. Here we describe the identification of a novel complex between Abi-1 and the Cbl ubiquitin ligase that is induced by stimulation with EGF. Notably, an Abi-1 mutant lacking the SH3 domain (DeltaSH3) fails to interact with Cbl and inhibits EGFR internalization. We show that expression of the Abi-1DeltaSH3 mutant inhibits Cbl accumulation at the plasma membrane after EGF treatment. We have previously shown that the oncogenic Abl tyrosine kinase inhibits EGFR internalization. Here we report that the oncogenic Abl kinase disrupts the EGF-inducible Abi-1/Cbl complex, highlighting the importance of Abl kinases and downstream effectors in the regulation of EGFR internalization. Thus, our work reveals a new role for oncogenic Abl tyrosine kinases in the regulation of the Abi-1/Cbl protein complex and uncovers a role for the Abi-1/Cbl complex in the regulation of EGFR endocytosis.

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor degradation: an alternative view of oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Andreas; Pils, Dietmar; Krainer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling is related to many human malignancies. Besides overexpression and gain of function mutations, the escape from negative regulation through an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor stability has evolved as yet another key factor contributing to enhanced receptor activity. Intensive research over the past years has provided considerable evidence concerning the molecular mechanisms which provide epidermal growth factor receptor degradation. c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination, endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, endosomal sorting and lysosomal degradation have become well-investigated cornerstones. Recent findings on the interdependency of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport in multivesicular body sorting, stress the topicality of receptor tyrosine kinase downregulation. Here, we review the degradation pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor, following the receptor from ligand binding to the lysosome and illustrating different modes of oncogenic deregulation.

  9. Tumor penetration of gefitinib (Iressa), an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    McKillop, David; Partridge, Elizabeth A; Kemp, John V; Spence, Mike P; Kendrew, Jane; Barnett, Sharon; Wood, Phillippa G; Giles, Petrina B; Patterson, Andrew B; Bichat, Francis; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Stephens, Trevor C

    2005-04-01

    The relative distribution of gefitinib-related material in nude mice bearing s.c. human tumor xenografts and in an orthotopic rat lung tumor model was investigated following oral administration (50 mg/kg) of [14C]-gefitinib. Selected tissue samples were monitored for radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting, whereas plasma and tumor extracts were assayed for gefitinib and its major metabolites (M523595 and M537194) by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Tissue distribution was also determined by whole body autoradiography. Gefitinib was extensively distributed into the tissues of tumor-bearing mice and unchanged gefitinib was shown to account for most of the tumor radioactivity. Concentrations of gefitinib in mouse s.c. tumor xenografts were similar to skin concentrations and substantially greater (up to 12-fold based on area under the concentration-time curve) than plasma. Concentrations of gefitinib-related material in an orthotopic rat lung tumor were similar to those in healthy lung tissue and were much higher than corresponding blood levels. Following treatment of breast cancer patients with oral gefitinib (Iressa) 250 mg/d for > or = 14 days, gefitinib concentrations (mean, 7.5 microg/g, 16.7 micromol/L) in breast tumor tissue were 42 times higher than plasma, confirming the preferential distribution of gefitinib from blood into tumor tissue in the clinical situation. These gefitinib tumor concentrations are considerably higher than those reportedly required in vitro to achieve complete inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation in both epidermal growth factor receptor mutant (0.2 micromol/L) and wild-type cells (2 micromol/L).

  10. Evidence for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced intermolecular autophosphorylation of the EGF receptors in living cells.

    PubMed Central

    Honegger, A M; Schmidt, A; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1990-01-01

    In response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase of EGF receptor is activated, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular substrate proteins, including the EGF receptor molecule itself. To test the mechanism of EGF receptor autophosphorylation in living cells, we established transfected cell lines coexpressing a kinase-negative point mutant of EGF receptor (K721A) with an active EGF receptor mutant lacking 63 amino acids from its carboxy terminus. The addition of EGF to these cells caused tyrosine phosphorylation of the kinase-negative mutant by the active receptor molecule, demonstrating EGF receptor cross-phosphorylation in living cells. After internalization the kinase-negative mutant and CD63 have separate trafficking pathways. This limits their association and the extent of cross-phosphorylation of K721A by CD63. The coexpression of the kinase-negative mutant together with active EGF receptors in the same cells suppressed the mitogenic response toward EGF as compared with that in cells that express active receptors alone. The presence of the kinase-negative mutant functions as a negative dominant mutation suppressing the response of active EGF receptors, probably by interfering with EGF-induced signal transduction. It appears, therefore, that crucial events of signal transduction occur before K721A and active EGF receptors are separated by their different endocytic itineraries. Images PMID:2164634

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression as a Target for Auger Electron Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    proportion of estrogen receptor-negative and hormone-resistant breast cancers. Our objective is to construct a human epidermal growth factor (hEGF...61 5 INTRODUCTION Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in a high proportion of estrogen receptor-negative and...Lac Iq promotor induced by isopropyl-b- D -thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The DNA sequence of the final hEGF-CH1 construct was confirmed (FUi. 2). BamHJ

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Parmar, Amanda; Roux, Emmanuelle; Balbis, Alejandro; Dumas, Victor; Chevalier, Stephanie; Posner, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Using proteomics and immunofluorescence, we demonstrated epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced recruitment of extrinsic V1 subunits of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) to rat liver endosomes. This was accompanied by reduced vacuolar pH. Bafilomycin, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation as indicated by a decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and kinase activity. There was no corresponding inhibition of EGF-induced Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Chloroquine, a neutralizer of vacuolar pH, mimicked bafilomycin effects. Bafilomycin did not inhibit the association of mTORC1 with Raptor nor did it affect AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Rather, the intracellular concentrations of essential but not non-essential amino acids were decreased by bafilomycin in EGF-treated primary rat hepatocytes. Cycloheximide, a translation elongation inhibitor known to augment intracellular amino acid levels, prevented the effect of bafilomycin on amino acids levels and completely reversed its inhibition of EGF-induced mTORC1 activation. In vivo administration of EGF stimulated the recruitment of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to endosomes and lysosomes. This was inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Our results suggest a role for vacuolar acidification in EGF signaling to mTORC1. PMID:22689575

  13. MICAL-like1 mediates epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Zeid, Nancy; Pandjaitan, Rudy; Sengmanivong, Lucie; David, Violaine; Le Pavec, Gwenaelle; Salamero, Jean; Zahraoui, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Small GTPase Rabs are required for membrane protein sorting/delivery to precise membrane domains. Rab13 regulates epithelial tight junction assembly and polarized membrane transport. Here we report that Molecule Interacting with CasL (MICAL)-like1 (MICAL-L1) interacts with GTP-Rab13 and shares a similar domain organization with MICAL. MICAL-L1 has a calponin homology (CH), LIM, proline rich and coiled-coil domains. It is associated with late endosomes. Time-lapse video microscopy shows that green fluorescent protein–Rab7 and mcherry-MICAL-L1 are present within vesicles that move rapidly in the cytoplasm. Depletion of MICAL-L1 by short hairpin RNA does not alter the distribution of a late endosome/lysosome-associated protein but affects the trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of MICAL-L1 leads to the accumulation of EGFR in the late endosomal compartment. In contrast, knocking down MICAL-L1 results in the distribution of internalized EGFR in vesicles spread throughout the cytoplasm and promotes its degradation. Our data suggest that the N-terminal CH domain associates with the C-terminal Rab13 binding domain (RBD) of MICAL-L1. The binding of Rab13 to RBD disrupts the CH/RBD interaction, and may induce a conformational change in MICAL-L1, promoting its activation. Our results provide novel insights into the MICAL-L1/Rab protein complex that can regulate EGFR trafficking at late endocytic pathways. PMID:21795389

  14. Topography of human placental receptors for epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V; Ramani, N; Chegini, N; Stadig, B K; Carman, F R; Woost, P G; Schultz, G S; Cook, C L

    1985-02-10

    These studies were undertaken to determine whether term human placental microvillus plasma membranes, which are exposed to maternal blood, and basolateral plasma membranes, which are in close proximity to fetal blood capillaries, contain receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF). These two highly purified membranes bound 125I-EGF with similar affinity (apparent dissociation constants, 0.07-0.12 nM, but the total number of available receptors was greater in microvillus (8.2 pmol/mg protein) compared to basolateral (4.9 pmol/mg protein) plasma membranes. Detailed characterization of 125I-EGF binding to these membranes revealed numerous similarities as well as differences. The two membranes contained two major (155 and 140 kDa) and at least three minor (115, 175, and 210 kDa) specific 125I-EGF binding proteins. The 115-kDa protein was only found in basolateral plasma membranes. The 155-kDa protein was predominantly labeled in microvillus, whereas the 140-kDa protein was labeled predominantly in basolateral plasma membranes. The addition of protease inhibitors did not alter the multiple 125I-EGF binding proteins pattern found in these membranes. EGF stimulated phosphorylation of 140- and 155-kDa proteins in both microvillus and basolateral plasma membranes. However, the 155-kDa protein was phosphorylated to a greater extent in microvillus, whereas both 140- and 155-kDa proteins were phosphorylated equally in basolateral plasma membranes. Light and electron microscope autoradiographic studies revealed that 125I-EGF preferentially associated with microvillus plasma membranes. The data demonstrates the presence of EGF receptors in outer cell membranes of syncytiotrophoblasts and suggests that maternal EGF may influence syncytiotrophoblast function by binding to receptors in microvillus plasma membranes, while fetal EGF may also influence syncytiotrophoblast function but via receptors in basolateral plasma membranes.

  15. [Epidermal growth factor during pregnancy- a predictor of fetal growth retardation?].

    PubMed

    Huter, O; Kölle, D; Brezinka, C; Artner-Dworzak, E

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) in urine was measured at 4-week intervals in 83 women referred for suspected intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); 138 women with normal singleton pregnancies and newborns of normal weight served as controls. Of the 83 women, 30 delivered babies with weight below the 10th percentile after week 37. During pregnancy these women had shown significantly lower EGF levels than women who delivered normal-weight babies. However, due to the wide distribution of individual EGF data, no clear clinical cut-off point between normal and IUGR values could be established.

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor in glioma: signal transduction, neuropathology, imaging, and radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Burma, Sandeep; Zhao, Dawen; Habib, Amyn A

    2010-09-01

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is common in cancer. Increased expression of wild type and mutant EGFR is a widespread feature of diverse types of cancer. EGFR signaling in cancer has been the focus of intense investigation for decades primarily for two reasons. First, aberrant EGFR signaling is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, and therefore, the mechanisms of EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling are of interest. Second, the EGFR signaling system is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. EGFR gene amplification and overexpression are a particularly striking feature of glioblastoma (GBM), observed in approximately 40% of tumors. GBM is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system in adults. In approximately 50% of tumors with EGFR amplification, a specific EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII, also known as EGFR type III, de2-7, Delta EGFR) can be detected. This mutant is highly oncogenic and is generated from a deletion of exons 2 to 7 of the EGFR gene, which results in an in-frame deletion of 267 amino acids from the extracellular domain of the receptor. EGFRvIII is unable to bind ligand, and it signals constitutively. Although EGFRvIII has the same signaling domain as the wild type receptor, it seems to generate a distinct set of downstream signals that may contribute to an increased tumorigenicity. In this review, we discuss recent progress in key aspects of EGFR signaling in GBM, focusing on neuropathology, signal transduction, imaging of the EGFR, and the role of the EGFR in mediating resistance to radiation therapy in GBM.

  17. Differential Effects of Myopathy-Associated Caveolin-3 Mutants on Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brauers, Eva; Dreier, Agnes; Roos, Andreas; Wormland, Berthold; Weis, Joachim; Krüttgen, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Caveolin-3 is an important scaffold protein of cholesterol-rich caveolae. Mutations of caveolin-3 cause hereditary myopathies that comprise remarkably different pathologies. Growth factor signaling plays an important role in muscle physiology; it is influenced by caveolins and cholesterol-rich rafts and might thus be affected by caveolin-3 dysfunction. Prompted by the observation of a marked chronic peripheral neuropathy in a patient suffering from rippling muscle disease due to the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation and because TrkA is expressed by neuronal cells and skeletal muscle fibers, we performed a detailed comparative study on the effect of pathogenic caveolin-3 mutants on the signaling and trafficking of the TrkA nerve growth factor receptor and, for comparison, of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We found that the R26Q mutant slightly and the P28L strongly reduced nerve growth factor signaling in TrkA-transfected cells. Surface biotinylation experiments revealed that the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation markedly reduced the internalization of TrkA, whereas the P28L did not. Moreover, P28L expression led to increased, whereas R26Q expression decreased, epidermal growth factor signaling. Taken together, we found differential effects of the R26Q and P28L caveolin-3 mutants on growth factor signaling. Our findings are of clinical interest because they might help explain the remarkable differences in the degree of muscle lesions caused by caveolin-3 mutations and also the co-occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in the R26Q caveolinopathy case presented. PMID:20472890

  18. Salt tolerance, salt accumulation, and ionic homeostasis in an epidermal bladder-cell-less mutant of the common ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Agarie, Sakae; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Yumi; Baumann, Kathleen; Sunagawa, Haruki; Kondo, Ayumu; Ueno, Osamu; Nakahara, Teruhisa; Nose, Akihiro; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    The aerial surfaces of the common or crystalline ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism species, are covered with specialized trichome cells called epidermal bladder cells (EBCs). EBCs are thought to serve as a peripheral salinity and/or water storage organ to improve survival under high salinity or water deficit stress conditions. However, the exact contribution of EBCs to salt tolerance in the ice plant remains poorly understood. An M. crystallinum mutant lacking EBCs was isolated from plant collections mutagenized by fast neutron irradiation. Light and electron microscopy revealed that mutant plants lacked EBCs on all surfaces of leaves and stems. Dry weight gain of aerial parts of the mutant was almost half that of wild-type plants after 3 weeks of growth at 400 mM NaCl. The EBC mutant also showed reduced leaf succulence and leaf and stem water contents compared with wild-type plants. Aerial tissues of wild-type plants had approximately 1.5-fold higher Na(+) and Cl(-) content than the mutant grown under 400 mM NaCl for 2 weeks. Na(+) and Cl(-) partitioning into EBCs of wild-type plants resulted in lower concentrations of these ions in photosynthetically active leaf tissues than in leaves of the EBC-less mutant, particularly under conditions of high salt stress. Potassium, nitrate, and phosphate ion content decreased with incorporation of NaCl into tissues in both the wild type and the mutant, but the ratios of Na(+)/K(+) and Cl(-)/NO(3)(-)content were maintained only in the leaf and stem tissues of wild-type plants. The EBC mutant showed significant impairment in plant productivity under salt stress as evaluated by seed pod and seed number and average seed weight. These results clearly show that EBCs contribute to succulence by serving as a water storage reservoir and to salt tolerance by maintaining ion sequestration and homeostasis within photosynthetically active tissues of M. crystallinum.

  19. Endothelial thrombomodulin induces Ca2+ signals and nitric oxide synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor kinase and calmodulin kinase II.

    PubMed

    David-Dufilho, Monique; Millanvoye-Van Brussel, Elisabeth; Topal, Gokce; Walch, Laurence; Brunet, Annie; Rendu, Francine

    2005-10-28

    Endothelial membrane-bound thrombomodulin is a high affinity receptor for thrombin to inhibit coagulation. We previously demonstrated that the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex restrains cell proliferation mediated through protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1. We have now tested the hypothesis that thrombomodulin transduces a signal to activate the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS3) and to modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with thrombin or a mutant of thrombin that binds to thrombomodulin and has no catalytic activity on PAR-1. Thrombin and its mutant dose dependently activated NO release at cell surface. Pretreatment with anti-thrombomodulin antibody suppressed NO response to the mutant and to low thrombin concentration and reduced by half response to high concentration. Thrombin receptor-activating peptide that only activates PAR-1 and high thrombin concentration induced marked biphasic Ca2+ signals with rapid phosphorylation of PLC(beta3) and NOS3 at both serine 1177 and threonine 495. The mutant thrombin evoked a Ca2+ spark and progressive phosphorylation of Src family kinases at tyrosine 416 and NOS3 only at threonine 495. It activated rapid phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent NO synthesis and phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and calmodulin kinase II. Complete epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition only partly reduced the activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 and NOS3. Prestimulation of thrombomodulin did not affect NO release but reduced Ca2+ responses to thrombin and histamine, suggesting cross-talks between thrombomodulin and G protein-coupled receptors. This is the first demonstration of an outside-in signal mediated by the cell surface thrombomodulin receptor to activate NOS3 through tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. This signaling may contribute to thrombomodulin function in thrombosis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  20. Rapid and delayed effects of epidermal growth factor on gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Soler, C; Soley, M

    1993-01-01

    Most reports on the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on gluconeogenesis have indicated that such effects depend on the substrate used and are only observable after a lag time of 30-40 min. Recently, an immediate and transient effect of EGF on glucose synthesis was described in a perfused liver system. Here we extend the study of the effect of EGF on gluconeogenesis to isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats. The delayed effect of EGF on gluconeogenesis was studied by adding the substrate 40 min after the peptide. Under these conditions EGF increased glucose synthesis from pyruvate, decreased it when the substrate was lactate or glycerol and did not modify gluconeogensis from fructose or dihydroxyacetone. EGF did not affect the metabolic flux through glycolysis, determined as the production of lactate+pyruvate from 30 mM glucose. Furthermore, EGF did not modify the metabolic flux through pyruvate kinase, determined as the production of lactate+pyruvate from 1 mM dihydroxyacetone. The differing effects of EGF on gluconeogenesis depending on the substrate used can be explained by the effects of EGF on the cytosolic redox state (measured as the lactate/pyruvate ratio). About 20 min after the addition of EGF, the mitochondrial redox state (measured as the 3-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratio) decreased. This effect of EGF was blocked by ammonium, which also abolished the effect of the peptide on gluconeogenesis. Thus the effect of EGF at the mitochondrial level appears to be necessary for its effects on gluconeogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that the delayed effects of EGF on gluconeogenesis are secondary to the effects of the peptide at both the mitochondrial and cytosolic levels. In addition to these delayed effects, we observed that EGF rapidly and transiently stimulated glucose synthesis from lactate, decreased the cytosolic redox state and increased oxygen consumption. All of these rapid effects required the presence of extracellular calcium

  1. Multiple requirements for SHPTP2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A M; Hausdorff, S F; O'Reilly, A M; Freeman, R M; Neel, B G

    1996-01-01

    Using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined SHPTP2's function in growth factor signaling. Overexpression of catalytically inactive SHPTP2 (PTP2CS) but not catalytically inactive SHPTP1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and Elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of 293 cells. An SHPTP2 mutant with both C-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (PTP2YF) was also without effect; moreover, PTP2YF rescued PTP2CS-induced inhibition of EGF-induced Elk-1 transactivation. PTP2CS did not inhibit transactivation by activated Ras, suggesting that SHPTP2 acts upstream of or parallel to Ras. Neither PTP2CS nor PTP2YF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Elk-1 transactivation. Thus, protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity, but not tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHPTP2, is required for the immediate-early responses to EGF but not to PDGF. To determine whether SHPTP2 is required later in the cell cycle, we assessed S-phase entry in NIH 3T3 cells microinjected with anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein encoding both SH2 domains (GST-SH2). Microinjection of anti-SHPTP2 antibodies prior to stimulation inhibited EGF- but no PDGF- or serum-induced S-phase entry. Anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or GST-SH2 fusion protein could inhibit EGF-induced S-phase entry for up to 8 h after EGF addition. Although MAP kinase activation was detected shortly after EGF stimulation, no MAP kinase activation was detected around the restriction point. Therefore, SHPTP2 is absolutely required for immediate-early and late events induced by some, but not all, growth factors, and the immediate-early and late signal transduction pathways regulated by SHPTP2 are distinguishable. PMID:8622663

  2. Cell growth and differentiation in Arabidopsis epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Guimil, Sonia; Dunand, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Plant epidermal cells are morphologically diverse, differing in size, shape, and function. Their unique morphologies reflect the integral function each cell performs in the organ to which it belongs. Cell morphogenesis involves multiple cellular processes acting in concert to create specialized shapes. The Arabidopsis epidermis contains numerous cell types greatly differing in shape, size, and function. Work on three types of epidermal cells, namely trichomes, root hairs, and pavement cells, has made significant progress towards understanding how plant cells reach their final morphology. These three cell types have highly distinct morphologies and each has become a model cell for the study of morphological processes. A growing body of knowledge is creating a picture of how endoreduplication, cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle transport, and small GTPase signalling, work in concert to create specialized shapes. Similar mechanisms that determine cell shape and polarity are shared between these cell types, while certain mechanisms remain specific to each.

  3. Effects of population growth on the success of invading mutants.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Peter; Smith, Cassandra E R; Garrod, Matthew; Galla, Tobias

    2017-03-18

    Understanding if and how mutants reach fixation in populations is an important question in evolutionary biology. We study the impact of population growth has on the success of mutants. To systematically understand the effects of growth we decouple competition from reproduction; competition follows a birth-death process and is governed by an evolutionary game, while growth is determined by an externally controlled branching rate. In stochastic simulations we find non-monotonic behaviour of the fixation probability of mutants as the speed of growth is varied; the right amount of growth can lead to a higher success rate. These results are observed in both coordination and coexistence game scenarios, and we find that the 'one-third law' for coordination games can break down in the presence of growth. We also propose a simplified description in terms of stochastic differential equations to approximate the individual-based model.

  4. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  5. Frequency of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Smokers with Lung Cancer Without Pulmonary Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Yuji; Ito-Nishii, Shizuka; Izumi, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Touge, Hirokazu; Kodani, Masahiro; Makino, Haruhiko; Yanai, Masaaki; Tanaka, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Araki, Kunio; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Shimizu, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a smoking-related disease, and is categorized into the emphysema and airway dominant phenotypes. We examined the relationship between emphysematous changes and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The medical records for 250 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were categorized into the emphysema or non-emphysema group. Wild-type EGFR was detected in 136 (54%) and mutant EGFR in 48 (19%). Emphysematous changes were observed in 87 (36%) patients. EGFR mutation was highly frequent in the non-emphysema group (p=0.0014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that emphysema was an independent risk factor for reduced frequency of EGFR mutation (Odds Ratio=3.47, p=0.005). Our data showed a relationship between emphysematous changes and EGFR mutation status. There might be mutually exclusive genetic risk factors for carcinogenesis and development of emphysematous changes. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Structural alterations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in human gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, A J; Ruppert, J M; Bigner, S H; Grzeschik, C H; Humphrey, P A; Bigner, D S; Vogelstein, B

    1992-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is amplified in 40% of malignant gliomas, and the amplified genes are frequently rearranged. We have characterized the genetic alterations associated with these rearrangements in five malignant gliomas. In one tumor the rearrangement resulted in the deletion of most of the extracytoplasmic domain of the receptor, resulting in a hybrid mRNA between new sequences and the truncated EGFR sequence. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein from this tumor was remarkably similar to that described for several viral erbB oncogenes. Four other tumors were noted to have internal deletions of the EGFR gene. These rearrangements brought about in-frame deletions affecting either of two cysteine-rich domains in the extracytoplasmic portion of the molecule. The clonal nature of these alterations, and the fact that identical alterations were seen in more than one tumor, suggests a role for these mutant receptor proteins in tumorigenesis. Further, these studies document the existence of tumor-specific cell surface molecules resulting from somatic mutation. Images PMID:1557402

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de; Miranda de Goes, Alfredo; Nathanson, Michael H.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and real time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.

  8. H-Ras Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Epithelial Na+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-Ha; Song, Sung-Hee; Cook, David I.; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of small G-proteins of the Ras family in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-activated cellular signalling pathway that downregulates activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). We found that H-Ras is a key component of this EGF-activated cellular signalling mechanism in M1 mouse collecting duct cells. Expression of a constitutively active H-Ras mutant inhibited the amiloride-sensitive current. The H-Ras-mediated signalling pathway that inhibits activity of ENaC involves c-Raf, and that the inhibitory effect of H-Ras on ENaC is abolished by the MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. The inhibitory effect of H-Ras is not mediated by Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin protein ligase that regulates the abundance of ENaC at the cell surface membrane, or by a negative effect of H-Ras on proteolytic activation of the channel. The inhibitory effects of EGF and H-Ras on ENaC, however, were not observed in cells in which expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) had been knocked down by siRNA. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of EGF on ENaC-dependent Na+ absorption is mediated via the H-Ras/c-Raf, MEK/ERK signalling pathway, and that Cav-1 is an essential component of this EGF-activated signalling mechanism. Taken together with reports that mice expressing a constitutive mutant of H-Ras develop renal cysts, our findings suggest that H-Ras may play a key role in the regulation of renal ion transport and renal development. PMID:25774517

  9. A Modified Extraction Method of Circulating Free DNA for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Haihua; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Lu, Yachao; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Wenying; Huang, Gang; Zhu, Guanshan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma is promising to be a surrogate for tumor tissue DNA. However, not all epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in tumor tissue DNA has been detected in matched cfDNA, at least partly due to inefficient cfDNA extraction method. The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient plasma cfDNA extraction protocol. Materials and Methods The yield of plasma cfDNA extracted by our modified phenol-chloroform (MPC) method from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients was compared with that by QIAamp MinElute Virus Spin kit (Qiagen kit) as control, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were used to quantify the plasma cfDNA extracted. Both Mutant-enriched PCR (ME-PCR) coupled sequencing and DxS EGFR mutation test kit were used to evaluate the impact of extraction method on EGFR mutation analysis. Results MPC method extracted more plasma cfDNA than Qiagen kit method (p=0.011). The proportion of longer fragment (≥202 bp) in cfDNA extracted by MPC method was significantly higher than by Qiagen kit method (p=0.002). In the sequencing maps of ME-PCR products, a higher mutant peak was observed on plasma cfDNA extracted by MPC method than by Qiagen kit method. In DxS EGFR mutation test kit results, plasma cfDNA extracted by MPC method contained more tumor-origin DNA than by Qiagen kit method. Conclusion An improved plasma cfDNA extraction method of MPC is provided, which will be beneficial for EGFR mutation analysis for patients with NSCLC. PMID:22187243

  10. Nuclear transportation of exogenous epidermal growth factor receptor and androgen receptor via extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Ingram, Alistair; Al Saleh, Hassan A; Platko, Khrystyna; Gabriel, Kathleen; Kapoor, Anil; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Majeed, Fadwa; Qureshi, Talha; Al-Nedawi, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a central role in the progression of several human malignancies. Although EGFR is a membrane receptor, it undergoes nuclear translocation, where it has a distinct signalling pathway. Herein, we report a novel mechanism by which cancer cells can directly transport EGFR to the nucleus of other cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). The transported receptor is active and stimulates the nuclear EGFR pathways. Interestingly, the translocation of EGFR via EVs occurs independently of the nuclear localisation sequence that is required for nuclear translocation of endogenous EGFR. Also, we found that the mutant receptor EGFRvIII could be transported to the nucleus of other cells via EVs. To assess the role of EVs in the regulation of an actual nuclear receptor, we studied the regulation of androgen receptor (AR). We found that full-length AR and mutant variant ARv7 are secreted in EVs derived from prostate cancer cell lines and could be transported to the nucleus of AR-null cells. The EV-derived AR was able to bind the androgen-responsive promoter region of prostate specific antigen, and recruit RNA Pol II, an indication of active transcription. The nuclear-translocated AR via EVs enhanced the proliferation of acceptor cells in the absence of androgen. Finally, we provide evidence that nuclear localisation of AR could occur in vivo via orthotopically-injected EVs in male SCID mice prostate glands. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the nuclear translocation of nuclear receptors via EVs, which significantly extends the role of EVs as paracrine transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of Ubiquitination in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: growth factor signaling, epidermal growth factor, tyrosine protein kinase, tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, monoubiquitination, polyubiquitination, site-directed mutagenesis, transfection, expression vector, cDNA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western…

  12. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of Ubiquitination in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: growth factor signaling, epidermal growth factor, tyrosine protein kinase, tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, monoubiquitination, polyubiquitination, site-directed mutagenesis, transfection, expression vector, cDNA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western…

  13. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  14. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  15. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, Angela; Brignone, Maria Stefania; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Petrini, Stefania; Caramia, Martino; Veroni, Caterina; Minnone, Gaetana; Bernardo, Antonietta; Franciolini, Fabio; Pessia, Mauro; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara Corinna; Ambrosini, Elena

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in the MLC1 gene, which encodes a protein expressed in brain astrocytes, are the leading cause of MLC, a rare leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema, subcortical cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation. Although recent studies indicate that MLC1 protein is implicated in the regulation of cell volume changes, the exact role of MLC1 in brain physiology and in the pathogenesis of MLC disease remains to be clarified. In preliminary experiments, we observed that MLC1 was poorly expressed in highly proliferating astrocytoma cells when compared with primary astrocytes, and that modulation of MLC1 expression influenced astrocyte growth. Because volume changes are key events in cell proliferation and during brain development MLC1 expression is inversely correlated to astrocyte progenitor proliferation levels, we investigated the possible role for MLC1 in the control of astrocyte proliferation. We found that overexpression of wild type but not mutant MLC1 in human astrocytoma cells hampered cell growth by favoring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation and by inhibiting EGF-induced Ca(+) entry, ERK1/2 and PLCγ1 activation, and calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channel function, all molecular pathways involved in astrocyte proliferation stimulation. Interestingly, MLC1 did not influence AKT, an EGFR-stimulated kinase involved in cell survival. Moreover, EGFR expression was higher in macrophages derived from MLC patients than from healthy individuals. Since reactive astrocytes proliferate and re-express EGFR in response to different pathological stimuli, the present findings provide new information on MLC pathogenesis and unravel an important role for MLC1 in other brain pathological conditions where astrocyte activation occurs.

  16. USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jakub; de la Vega, Michelle; Fletcher, Sarah J.; McFarlane, Cheryl; Greene, Michelle K.; Smyth, Andrew W.; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Johnston, James A.; Scott, Christopher J.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Burrows, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of ‘CaaX’ motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of transferrin, an archetypal substrate for clathrin mediated endocytosis, and that USP17 depletion impedes plasma membrane recruitment of the machinery required for clathrin mediated endocytosis. Thus, our data reveal that USP17 is necessary for epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin endocytosis via clathrin coated pits, indicate this is mediated via the regulation of the recruitment of the components of the endocytosis machinery and suggest USP17 may play a general role in receptor endocytosis. PMID:25026282

  17. Role of mucosal prostaglandins and DNA synthesis in gastric cytoprotection by luminal epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Piastucki, I; Dembinski, A; Radecki, T; Dembinska-Kiec, A; Zmuda, A; Gregory, H

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the effect of epidermal growth factor and prostaglandins (PGE2 or PGI2), applied topically to gastric mucosa, on gastric secretion and formation of ASA-induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Epidermal growth factor given topically in non-antisecretory doses prevented dose-dependently the formation of ASA-induced ulcers without affecting prostaglandin generation but with a significant rise in DNA synthesis in the oxyntic mucosa. The anti-ulcer effect of topical prostaglandins was also accompanied by an increase in DNA synthesis. This study indicates that topical epidermal growth factor, like PGE2 or PGI2, is cytoprotective and that this cytoprotection is not mediated by the inhibition of gastric secretion or prostaglandin formation but related to the increase in DNA synthesis in oxyntic mucosa. PMID:7030877

  18. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in normal human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, S. A.; Elder, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Acid soluble proteins from 23 samples of normal human gastrointestinal mucosa derived from four normal adult organ donors were extracted and subjected to specific radiommunoassays for transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and urogastrone epidermal growth factor (URO-EGF). All tissues were found to contain immunoreactive TGF alpha and levels ranged from 57 to 4,776 pg-1 wet weight of tissue. Although levels varied between tissue donors, the distribution of TGF alpha throughout the gastrointestinal tract appeared similar in all cases. URO-EGF levels were much lower (0-216 pg g-1 wet weight). TGF alpha levels in extracts of gastrointestinal mucosa from a 7-year-old female donor were higher and the observed distribution was markedly different from adult levels. URO-EGF was not detected in mucosal or submucosal tissue extracts from this patient. Further studies in juveniles are indicated. PMID:2803941

  19. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  20. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  1. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K; Meldolesi, J; Beguinot, L

    1991-01-01

    Mutant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (obtained by substitution of one, two or three C-terminal autophosphorylable tyrosine residues with phenylalanine residues or by deletion of the C-terminal 19 amino acids, including the distal tyrosine) were expressed in mouse NIH-3T3 fibroblast clones at densities comparable (less than 25% difference) with those in control clones expressing the wild-type receptor. Total EGF-induced phosphorylation of the mutated receptors was not appreciably changed with respect to controls, whereas autophosphorylation at tyrosine residues was decreased, especially in the double and the triple mutants. In the latter mutant, expression of the EGF-receptor-activated lipolytic enzyme phospholipase C gamma was unchanged, whereas its tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the growth factor was lowered to approx. 25% of that in the controls. In all of the cell clones employed, the accumulation of inositol phosphates induced by treatment with fetal calf serum varied only slightly, whereas the same effect induced by EGF was consistently lowered in those lines expressing mutated receptors. This decrease was moderate for those receptors missing only the distal tyrosine (point and deletion mutants), intermediate in the dual mutants and almost complete in the triple mutants. Likewise, increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations [( Ca2+]i) induced by fibroblast growth factor were approximately the same in all of the clones, whereas those induced by EGF were decreased in the mutants, again in proportion to the loss of the phosphorylable C-terminal tyrosine residues. The same trend occurred with membrane hyperpolarization, an effect secondary to the increase in [Ca2+]i via the activation of Ca2(+)-dependent K+ channels. We conclude that C-terminal autophosphorylable tyrosine residues play a positive role in the regulation of transmembrane signalling at the EGF receptor. The stepwise decrease in signal generation observed in single, double and triple

  2. Phospholipase C-epsilon augments epidermal growth factor-dependent cell growth by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sanguk; Hong, Won-Pyo; Choi, Jang Hyun; Yi, Kye Sook; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2008-01-04

    The down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is critical for the termination of EGF-dependent signaling, and the dysregulation of this process can lead to oncogenesis. In the present study, we suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of EGF receptor down-regulation by phospholipase C-epsilon. The overexpression of PLC-epsilon led to an increase in receptor recycling and decreased the down-regulation of the EGF receptor in COS-7 cells. Adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2) was identified as a novel binding protein that associates with the PLC-epsilon RA2 domain independently of Ras. The interaction of PLC-epsilon with AP2 was responsible for the suppression of EGF receptor down-regulation, since a perturbation in this interaction abolished this effect. Enhanced EGF receptor stability by PLC-epsilon led to the potentiation of EGF-dependent growth in COS-7 cells. Finally, the knockdown of PLC-epsilon in mouse embryo fibroblast cells elicited a severe defect in EGF-dependent growth. Our results indicated that PLC-epsilon could promote EGF-dependent cell growth by suppressing receptor down-regulation.

  3. Cytokinin production by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and selected mutants.

    PubMed

    García de Salamone, I E; Hynes, R K; Nelson, L M

    2001-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is through the production of plant growth regulators. Five plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains produced the cytokinin dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR) in pure culture. Cytokinin production by Pseudomonas fluorescens G20-18, a rifampicin-resistant mutant (RIF), and two TnphoA-derived mutants (CNT1, CNT2), with reduced capacity to synthesize cytokinins, was further characterized in pure culture using immunoassay and thin layer chromatography. G20-18 produced higher amounts of three cytokinins, isopentenyl adenosine (IPA), trans-zeatin ribose (ZR), and DHZR than the three mutants during stationary phase. IPA was the major metabolite produced, but the proportion of ZR and DHZR accumulated by CNT1 and CNT2 increased with time. No differences were observed between strain G20-18 and the mutants in the amounts of indole acetic acid synthesized, nor were gibberellins detected in supernatants of any of the strains. Addition of 10(-5) M adenine increased cytokinin production in 96- and 168-h cultures of strain G20-18 by approximately 67%. G20-18 and the mutants CNT1 and CNT2 may be useful for determination of the role of cytokinin production in plant growth promotion by PGPR.

  4. Growth factor control of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity via an intramolecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Cerione, R A

    1988-02-15

    The mechanism by which the protein kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is activated by binding of growth factor was investigated. Detergent-solubilized receptor in monomeric form was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and both its kinase and autophosphorylation activities monitored. In a low ionic strength medium and with MnCl2 as an activator, the activity of the monomeric receptor was EGF-independent. However, with 0.25 M ammonium sulfate present, the MnCl2-stimulated kinase activity was strikingly EGF-dependent. In contrast, the kinase activity expressed in the presence of MgCl2 showed growth factor control in the absence of added salt. Under the conditions of these experiments there was apparently little tendency for growth factor to induce aggregation of the receptor, indicating that the allosteric activation of the receptor kinase by EGF occurred via an intramolecular mechanism. Whereas detergent-solubilized receptor was the subject of these studies, the kinase activity of cell surface receptors might also be controlled by an intramolecular mechanism. These results indicate that an individual receptor molecule has the potential to function as a transmembrane signal transducer.

  5. Genetic evidence that Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase is a signal enhancer of the epidermal growth factor receptor in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Cheng-Kui; Yu, Wen-Mei; Azzarelli, Biagio; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    By using both genetic and biochemical approaches, we have investigated the physiological role of Shp-2, a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase with two Src homology 2 domains, in signaling pathways downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). In previous studies, a targeted deletion mutation in the SH2-N domain of Shp-2 was introduced into the murine Shp-2 locus, which resulted in embryonic lethality of homozygous mutant (Shp-2−/−) mice at midgestation. By aggregating Shp-2−/− embryonic stem cells with wild-type embryos, we created Shp-2−/−/wild-type chimeric animals. Most chimeras had open eyelids at birth and abnormal skin development, a phenotype characteristic of mice with mutations in EGF-R signaling components. In genetic crosses, a heterozygous Shp-2 mutation dominantly enhanced the phenotype of a weak mutant allele of EGF-R (wa-2), resulting in distinctive growth retardation, developmental defects in the skin, lung, and intestine, and perinatal mortality that are reminiscent of EGF-R knockout mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that signal propagation proximal to the EGF-R upon EGF stimulation was significantly attenuated in wa-2 fibroblast cells, which was exacerbated by the additional Shp-2 mutation. Thus, we provide biological evidence here that protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 acts to enhance information flow from the EGF-R in mouse growth and development. PMID:10411909

  6. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression as a Target for Auger Electron Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    perfused rat liver: ligand and receptor dynamics. J . Cell Biol. 1984; 98: 2148-2159. 5. Fisher DA, Salido EC, Barajas L. Epidermal growth factor and the...Appendices .................................... .................................------------------------------------------------------ 21 Preprint 1. Wang J ...tumor uptake. Cancer Biother. and Radiopharm. (in press) 2002. Reprint 2. Wang J , Chen P, Su Z-F et al. Amplified delivery of indium- 111 to EGFR

  8. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  9. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with /sup 14/C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the /sup 14/C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of /sup 14/C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  10. Phosphorylation and Activation of RhoA by ERK in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, cell motility, and cytokinesis. In addition to the canonical GTPase cycle, recent findings have suggested that phosphorylation further contributes to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Indeed, RhoA is phosphorylated on serine 188 (188S) by a number of protein kinases. We have recently reported that Rac1 is phosphorylated on threonine 108 (108T) by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we provide evidence that RhoA is phosphorylated by ERK on 88S and 100T in response to EGF stimulation. We show that ERK interacts with RhoA and that this interaction is dependent on the ERK docking site (D-site) at the C-terminus of RhoA. EGF stimulation enhanced the activation of the endogenous RhoA. The phosphomimetic mutant, GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E, when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, displayed higher GTP-binding than wild type RhoA. Moreover, the expression of GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E increased actin stress fiber formation in COS-7 cells, which is consistent with its higher activity. In contrast to Rac1, phosphorylation of RhoA by ERK does not target RhoA to the nucleus. Finally, we show that regardless of the phosphorylation status of RhoA and Rac1, substitution of the RhoA PBR with the Rac1 PBR targets RhoA to the nucleus and substitution of Rac1 PBR with RhoA PBR significantly reduces the nuclear localization of Rac1. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylates RhoA on 88S and 100T in response to EGF, which upregulates RhoA activity. PMID:26816343

  11. How to train your inhibitor: Design strategies to overcome resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Milik, Sandra N; Lasheen, Deena S; Serya, Rabah A T; Abouzid, Khaled A M

    2017-07-18

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) stands out as a key player in the development of many cancers. Its dysregulation is associated with a vast number of tumors such as non-small-cell lung cancer, colon cancer, head-and-neck cancer, breast and ovarian cancer. Being implicated in the development of a number of the most lethal cancers worldwide, EGFR has long been considered as a focal target for cancer therapies, ever since the FDA approval of "Gefitinib" in 2003 and up to the last FDA approved small molecule EGFR kinase inhibitor "Osimertinib" in 2015. Studies are still going on to find more efficient EGFR inhibitors due to the continuous emergence of resistance to the current inhibitors. Cancerous cells resist EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) through various mechanisms, the most commonly reported ones are the T790M mutation and HER2 amplification. Therefore, tackling EGFR TKIs-resistant tumors through a multi-targeting approach comprising a dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor that is also capable of inhibiting the mutant T790M EGFR is anticipated to overcome drug resistance. In this review, we will survey the structural aspects of EGFR family and the structure-activity relationship of representative dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitors. To follow, we will discuss the structural aspects of the mutation-driven resistance and various design strategies to overcome it. Finally, we will review the SAR of exemplary irreversible dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitors that can overcome the mutation-driven resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Development of the Second and Third Generation Irreversible Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiwei; Du, Yongli

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who carrying non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with activating mutations in EGFR initially respond well to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, which were located the active site of the EGFR kinase and designed to act as competitive inhibitors of combining with the ATP. However, patients who were treated with the erlotinib and gefitinib will relapse because of the emergence of drug-resistant mutations, with T790M mutations accounting for approximately 60% of all resistance. In order to overcome drug resistance, Pharmaceutical chemistry experts recently devoted great endeavors to the development of second-generation irreversible selective inhibitors which covalently modify Cys797 or Cys773 at the ATP binding cleft. Nevertheless, these inhibitors have not reached ideal effect of experts in patients with T790M positive mutation and apparently because of the dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild type EGFR. A novel class of 'third generation' EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Herein, we provides an overview of the second and third generation inhibitors currently approved, in clinical trial and also encompasses novel structures of discovery. This review mainly focuses on drug resistance, their mechanisms of action, development of structure-activity relationships and binding modes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  14. Structure-Activity Relationship of Indole-Tethered Pyrimidine Derivatives that Concurrently Inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Angiokinases.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiho; Yoo, Jakyung; Kwon, Ara; Kim, Doran; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Bong-Yong; Suh, Wonhee; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents have been widely investigated in combination with standard chemotherapy or targeted cancer agents for better management of advanced cancers. Therapeutic agents that concurrently inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases could be useful alternatives to combination therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of an indole derivative of pazopanib using a bioisosteric replacement strategy, which was designated MKP101. MKP101 inhibited not only the epidermal growth factor receptor with an IC50 value of 43 nM but also inhibited angiokinases as potently as pazopanib. In addition, MKP101 effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial proliferation, tube formation, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and proliferation of HCC827, an epidermal growth factor receptor-addicted cancer cell line. A docking model of MKP101 and the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor was generated to predict its binding mode, and validated by synthesizing and evaluating MKP101 derivatives. Additionally, a study of structure-activity relationships of indolylamino or indolyloxy pyrimidine analogues derived from MKP101 demonstrated that selectivity for epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 depends on the position of substituents on pyrimidine and the type of link between pyrimidine and the indole moiety. We believe that this study could provide a basis for developing angiokinase inhibitors having high affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor, from the pyrimidine scaffold.

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship of Indole-Tethered Pyrimidine Derivatives that Concurrently Inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Angiokinases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiho; Yoo, Jakyung; Kwon, Ara; Kim, Doran; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Bong-Yong; Suh, Wonhee; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents have been widely investigated in combination with standard chemotherapy or targeted cancer agents for better management of advanced cancers. Therapeutic agents that concurrently inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases could be useful alternatives to combination therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of an indole derivative of pazopanib using a bioisosteric replacement strategy, which was designated MKP101. MKP101 inhibited not only the epidermal growth factor receptor with an IC50 value of 43 nM but also inhibited angiokinases as potently as pazopanib. In addition, MKP101 effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial proliferation, tube formation, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and proliferation of HCC827, an epidermal growth factor receptor-addicted cancer cell line. A docking model of MKP101 and the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor was generated to predict its binding mode, and validated by synthesizing and evaluating MKP101 derivatives. Additionally, a study of structure-activity relationships of indolylamino or indolyloxy pyrimidine analogues derived from MKP101 demonstrated that selectivity for epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 depends on the position of substituents on pyrimidine and the type of link between pyrimidine and the indole moiety. We believe that this study could provide a basis for developing angiokinase inhibitors having high affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor, from the pyrimidine scaffold. PMID:26401847

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involvement in successful growth hormone (GH) signaling in GH transduction defect.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Eirini; Rojas-Gil, Andrea Paola; Karvela, Alexia; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transduction defect (GHTD) is a growth disorder with impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation mediated by overexpression of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS), which causes increased growth hormone receptor (GHR) degradation. This study investigated the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the restoration of normal GH signaling in GHTD. Protein expression, cellular localization and physical contact of proteins of the GH and EGF signaling pathways were studied by Western immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. These were performed in fibroblasts of one GHTD patient (P) and one control child (C) at the basal state and after induction with human GH (hGH) 200 μg/L (GH200), either with or without silencing of CIS mRNA, and after induction with hGH 1000 μg/L (GH1000) or 50 ng/mL EGF. The membrane availability of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and the activated EGFR (pEGFR) was increased in P only after simultaneous GH200 and silencing of CIS mRNA or with GH1000, whereas this occurred in C after GH200 alone. After EGF induction, the membrane localization of GHR, STAT3 and that of EGFR were increased in P more than in C. In conclusion, in GHTD, the EGFR seems to participate in successful GH signaling, but induction of GHTD fibroblasts with a higher dose of hGH is needed. The EGF/EGFR pathway, in contrast to the GH/GHR pathway, seems to function normally in P and is more primed compared to C. The involvement of the EGFR in successful GH signaling may explain the catch-up growth seen in the Ps when exogenous hGH is administered.

  17. P2X7R suppression promotes glioma growth through epidermal growth factor receptor signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingqin; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Jinhua; Liang, Yi; Li, Xue; Xiang, Jianbo; Wang, Lili; Guo, Guangkuo; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-06-01

    P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been shown to mediate an anticancer effect via apoptosis in different types of cancer. However, whether P2X7R exerts a promoting or suppressive effect on brain glioma is still a controversial issue and its underlying mechanism remains unknown. We showed here that P2X7R suppression exerted a pro-growth effect on glioma through directly promoting cells proliferation and pro-angiogenesis, which was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. The P2X7R was markedly downregulated by cells exposure to the P2X7R antagonist, brilliant blue G (BBG), moreover, the cells proliferation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of EGFR or p-EGFR protein was significantly upregulated. By constructing C6 cells with reduced expression of P2X7R using shRNA, we also demonstrated strong upregulation in cells proliferation and EGFR/p-EGFR expression. However, this effect of BBG was reversed in the presence of gefitinib or suramin. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography perfusion showed that the BBG or P2X7R shRNA promoted the tumor growth by about 40% and 50%, respectively, and significantly increased angiogenesis. Nissl and Ki-67 staining also confirmed that BBG or P2X7R shRNA notably increased the tumor growth. More importantly, either BBG or P2X7R shRNA could markedly upregulated the expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF in glioma cells. In conclusion, P2X7R suppression exerts a promoting effect on glioma growth, which is likely to be related to upregulated EGFR, HIF-1α and VEGF expression. These findings provide important clues to the molecular basis of anticancer effect of targeting purinergic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Essential role of c-Cbl in amphiregulin-induced recycling and signaling of the endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Baldys, Aleksander; Göoz, Monika; Morinelli, Thomas A; Lee, Mi-Hye; Raymond, John R; Luttrell, Louis M; Raymond, John R

    2009-02-24

    The intracellular processing of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) has been studied meticulously, with the former resulting in EGFR degradation and the latter in EGFR recycling to the plasma membrane. However, little is known about how other EGF family growth factors affect the trafficking of the EGFR. Additionally, although both EGF and TGF-alpha have been shown to effectively induce initial c-Cbl (ubiquitin ligase)-mediated ubiquitination of the EGFR, limited information is available regarding the role of c-Cblin the trafficking and signaling of recycling EGFR. Thus, in this study, we investigated the roles of c-Cblin endogenous EGFR trafficking and signaling after stimulation with amphiregulin (AR). We demonstrated that a physiological concentration of AR induced recycling of the endogenous EGFR to the plasma membrane, which correlated closely with transient association of the EGFR with c-Cbl and transient EGFR ubiquitination. Most importantly, we used c-Cbl small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes and ac-Cbl dominant negative mutant to show that c-Cbl is critical for the efficient transition of the EGFR from early endosomes to a recycling pathway and that c-Cbl regulates the duration of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK) phosphorylation. These data support novel functions of c-Cbl in mediating recycling of EGF receptors to the plasma membrane, as well as in mediating the duration of activation (transient vs sustained) of ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation.

  19. Rat Prolactinoma cell growth regulation by Epidermal Growth Factor receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Vlotides, George; Siegel, Emily; Donangelo, Ines; Gutman, Shiri; Ren, Song-Guang; Melmed, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulates pituitary development, hormone synthesis and cell proliferation. Although ErbB receptor family members are expressed in pituitary tumors, effects of EGF signaling on pituitary tumors are not known. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot confirmed EGFR and p185c-neu protein expression in GH3 lacto-somatotroph but not in ACTH-secreting AtT20 pituitary tumor cells. EGF (5 nM) selectively enhanced baseline (~ 4-fold) and serum-induced (> 6-fold) PRL mRNA levels, while gefitinib, an EGFR antagonist, suppressed serum-induced cell proliferation and Pttg1 expression, blocked PRL gene expression, and reversed EGF-mediated somatotroph-lactotroph phenotype switching. Downstream EGFR signaling by ERK, but not PI3K or PKC, mediated the gefitinib-response. Tumors in athymic mice implanted sc with GH3 cells resulted in weight gain accompanied by increased serum PRL, GH and IGF-I levels. Gefitinib decreased tumor volumes and peripheral hormone levels by ~ 30% and restored normal mouse body weight patterns. Mice treated with gefitinib exhibited decreased tumor tissue ERK1/2 phosphorylation and downregulated tumor PRL and Pttg1 mRNA abundance. These results show that EGFR inhibition controls tumor growth and PRL secretion in experimental lacto-somatotroph tumors. EGFR inhibitors could therefore be useful for control of PRL secretion and tumor load in prolactinomas resistant to dopaminergic treatment, or for those prolactinomas undergoing rare malignant transformation. PMID:18676863

  20. Epidermal growth factor and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6: combined therapeutic approach in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    García Del Barco-Herrera, Diana; Martínez, Nelvys Subirós; Coro-Antich, Rosa María; Machado, Jorge Martín; Alba, José Suárez; Salgueiro, Sandra Rodríguez; Acosta, Jorge Berlanga

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is the second cause of mortality worldwide, with a high incidence of disability in survivors. Promising candidate drugs have failed in stroke trials. Combined therapies are attractive strategies that simultaneously target different points of stroke pathophysiology. The aim of this work is to determine whether the combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP6) can attenuate clinical signs and pathology in an experimental stroke model. Brain global ischemia was generated in Mongolian gerbils by 15 minutes of carotid occlusion. After reperfusion, EGF, GHRP6 or EGF+GHRP6 were intraperitoneally administered. Clinical manifestations were monitored daily. Three days after reperfusion, animals were anesthetized and perfused with an ink solution. The anatomy of the Circle of Willis was characterized. Infarct volume and neuronal density were analyzed. EGF+GHRP6 co-administration reduced clinical manifestations and infarct volume and preserved neuronal density. No correlation was observed between the grade of anastomosis of the Circle of Willis and clinical manifestations in the animals receiving EGF+GHRP6, as opposed to the vehicle-treated gerbils. Co-treatment with EGF and GHRP6 affects both the clinical and pathological outcomes in a global brain ischemia model, suggesting a suitable therapeutic approach for the acute management of stroke.

  1. [Enhancement of epidermal regeneration by recombinant vaccinia virus growth factor].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V S; Cheshenko, I O; Omigov, V V; Azaev, M Sh; Krendel'shchikov, A V; Ovechkina, L G; Cheshenko, N V; Malygin, E G

    1998-01-01

    Examining the specific activity has showed that recombinant vaccinia virus growth factor binds to appropriate receptors on the A-431 cell surface and prompts the healing acceleration of degree III burns in rats. This recombinant factor did not demonstrate pyrogenicity or toxicogenicity in tests on rabbits, guinea-pits, noninbred albino mice.

  2. Nuclear ribosome biogenesis mediated by the DIM1A rRNA dimethylase is required for organized root growth and epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John

    2012-07-01

    Position-dependent patterning of hair and non-hair cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is a powerful system to study the molecular basis of cell fate specification. Here, we report an epidermal patterning mutant affecting the ADENOSINE DIMETHYL TRANSFERASE 1A (DIM1A) rRNA dimethylase gene, predicted to participate in rRNA posttranscriptional processing and base modification. Consistent with a role in ribosome biogenesis, DIM1A is preferentially expressed in regions of rapid growth, and its product is nuclear localized with nucleolus enrichment. Furthermore, DIM1A preferentially accumulates in the developing hair cells, and the dim1A point mutant alters the cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE, and WEREWOLF. Together, these findings suggest that establishment of cell-specific gene expression during root epidermis development is dependent upon proper ribosome biogenesis, possibly due to the sensitivity of the cell fate decision to relatively small differences in gene regulatory activities. Consistent with its effect on the predicted S-adenosyl-l-Met binding site, dim1A plants lack the two 18S rRNA base modifications but exhibit normal pre-rRNA processing. In addition to root epidermal defects, the dim1A mutant exhibits abnormal root meristem division, leaf development, and trichome branching. Together, these findings provide new insights into the importance of rRNA base modifications and translation regulation for plant growth and development.

  3. Nuclear Ribosome Biogenesis Mediated by the DIM1A rRNA Dimethylase Is Required for Organized Root Growth and Epidermal Patterning in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wieckowski, Yana; Schiefelbein, John

    2012-01-01

    Position-dependent patterning of hair and non-hair cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana root epidermis is a powerful system to study the molecular basis of cell fate specification. Here, we report an epidermal patterning mutant affecting the ADENOSINE DIMETHYL TRANSFERASE 1A (DIM1A) rRNA dimethylase gene, predicted to participate in rRNA posttranscriptional processing and base modification. Consistent with a role in ribosome biogenesis, DIM1A is preferentially expressed in regions of rapid growth, and its product is nuclear localized with nucleolus enrichment. Furthermore, DIM1A preferentially accumulates in the developing hair cells, and the dim1A point mutant alters the cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulators GLABRA2, CAPRICE, and WEREWOLF. Together, these findings suggest that establishment of cell-specific gene expression during root epidermis development is dependent upon proper ribosome biogenesis, possibly due to the sensitivity of the cell fate decision to relatively small differences in gene regulatory activities. Consistent with its effect on the predicted S-adenosyl-l-Met binding site, dim1A plants lack the two 18S rRNA base modifications but exhibit normal pre-rRNA processing. In addition to root epidermal defects, the dim1A mutant exhibits abnormal root meristem division, leaf development, and trichome branching. Together, these findings provide new insights into the importance of rRNA base modifications and translation regulation for plant growth and development. PMID:22829145

  4. Association Study of Polymorphisms of Epidermal Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have suggested that specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to the clinical features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In this study, we investigated the relationships of genetic polymorphisms of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene with BPH. Methods A total of 218 patients with BPH were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the relationship between eight SNPs in the EGF and EGFR genes and prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and International Prostate Symptom Score of BPH patients. Each SNP was genotyped by direct sequencing. Statistical analysis applying codominant, dominant, recessive, and log-additive models was performed via logistic regression. Results The rs11568943 and rs11569017 SNPs in the EGF gene showed significant associations with prostate volume (rs11568943: P=0.038 in the log-additive model, P=0.024 in the allele distribution; rs11569017, P=0.031 in the dominant model, P=0.028 in the log-additive model, P=0.020 in the allele distribution). Additionally, the rs3756261, rs11568943, and rs11569017 SNPs of the EGF gene and the rs2293347 SNP of the EGFR gene were associated with PSA levels (P<0.05 in each model, respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that the EGF gene may affect prostate volume. In addition, the EGF and EGFR genes may be associated with PSA levels in patients with BPH. PMID:28043105

  5. Impact of active smoking on survival of patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Bulent; Kodaz, Hilmi; Karabulut, Senem; Cinkaya, Ahmet; Tozkir, Hilmi; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Cabuk, Devrim; Hacioglu, Muhammed Bekir; Turkmen, Esma; Hacibekiroglu, Ilhan; Uzunoglu, Sernaz; Cicin, Irfan

    2016-11-10

    Lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers demonstrates distinct genetic profiles, and cigarette smoking affects epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) function and causes secondary EGFR tyrosine kinase resistance. We evaluated the effect of active smoking in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 132 metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients, diagnosed between 2008 and 2013, with known EGFR mutation status, were evaluated retrospectively. Among these patients, 40 had an activating EGFR mutation. Patients who continued smoking during the treatment were defined as active smokers. Former smokers and never smokers were together defined as non-smokers. The outcomes of the treatment in relation to the EGFR mutation and smoking status were evaluated. The median follow-up time was 10.5 months. The overall response rate for the first-line therapy was significantly higher among the EGFR-mutant patients (p = 0.01), however, smoking status had no impact on the response rate (p = 0.1). The EGFR-mutant active smokers progressed earlier than the non-smokers (p < 0.01). The overall survival (OS) of the non-smokers and patients treated with erlotinib was significantly longer (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking status did not affect the OS in EGFR wild type tumors (p = 0.49) but EGFR-mutant non-smokers had a longer OS than the active smokers (p = 0.01).The active smokers treated with erlotinib had poorer survival than the non-smokers (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of EGFR-mutant patients showed that erlotinib treatment at any line and non-smoking were independent prognostic factors for the OS (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively). Smoking during treatment is a negative prognostic factor in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma with an EGFR mutation.

  6. Immunohistochemical demonstration of epidermal growth factor in human gastric cancer xenografts of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyuki, T; Shimizu, Y; Onda, M; Tokunaga, A; Kiyama, T; Nishi, K; Mizutani, T; Matsukura, N; Tanaka, N; Akimoto, M

    1990-02-15

    Thirty-two surgical specimens and three cell lines of human gastric cancers were used for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice, resulting in the establishment of eight (25%) xenografts from the surgical specimens and two (67%) from the cell lines. The localization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the surgical specimens and cell lines of the gastric cancers and their xenografts in nude mice was then investigated immunohistochemically. Epidermal growth factor was stained in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells, being detected in 16 (50%) of the 32 surgical specimens and in all of the cell lines. Seven (44%) of the sixteen EGF-positive surgical specimens and one (6%) of the 16 EGF-negative ones were tumorigenic in nude mice. All of the xenografts in nude mice were positive for EGF. The tumorigenicity of human gastric cancer xenografts in nude mice may, therefore, be correlated with the presence of EGF in cancer cells.

  7. Predicting response to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard; Maughan, Tim

    2007-04-01

    The discovery over 20 years ago by the Nobel Laureate Stanley Cohen of epidermal growth factor and its receptor, followed by the recognition that this receptor is overexpressed in multiple cancer types, has been of phenomenal significance. From these events the 'Holy Grail' of targeted therapy has looked increasingly realistic. Over the last 5 years this work has come of age with the licensing of multiple agents targeting this important mitogenic pathway in multiple tumor types. However, these agents and the technology behind them, while impressive, have resulted in lower clinical response rates than anticipated. In this review we will focus on the epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapies in colorectal cancer, why our expectations from these therapies have not yet been fulfilled and how we may predict those cancers that are likely to respond or be resistant to these therapies through a greater appreciation of the intricacy, diversity and dynamism of cellular signaling mechanisms.

  8. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response.

  9. Expression of an Exogenous Growth Hormone Gene by Transplantable Human Epidermal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Barrandon, Yann; Green, Howard; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1987-09-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to introduce a recombinant human growth hormone gene into cultured human keratinocytes. The transduced keratinocytes secreted biologically active growth hormone into the culture medium. When grafted as an epithelial sheet onto athymic mice, these cultured keratinocytes reconstituted an epidermis that was similar in appearance to that resulting from normal cells, but from which human growth hormone could be extracted. Transduced epidermal cells may prove to be a general vehicle for the delivery of gene products by means of grafting.

  10. Pleiotropic phenotypes of the sticky peel mutant provide new insight into the role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in epidermal cell function in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B; Barry, Cornelius S

    2012-07-01

    Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells.

  11. Pleiotropic Phenotypes of the sticky peel Mutant Provide New Insight into the Role of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 in Epidermal Cell Function in Tomato1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Pollard, Mike; Kosma, Dylan K.; Allen, Charles; Ohlrogge, John B.; Barry, Cornelius S.

    2012-01-01

    Plant epidermal cells have evolved specialist functions associated with adaptation to stress. These include the synthesis and deposition of specialized metabolites such as waxes and cutin together with flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have important roles in providing a barrier to water loss and protection against UV radiation, respectively. Characterization of the sticky peel (pe) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) revealed several phenotypes indicative of a defect in epidermal cell function, including reduced anthocyanin accumulation, a lower density of glandular trichomes, and an associated reduction in trichome-derived terpenes. In addition, pe mutant fruit are glossy and peels have increased elasticity due to a severe reduction in cutin biosynthesis and altered wax deposition. Leaves of the pe mutant are also cutin deficient and the epicuticular waxes contain a lower proportion of long-chain alkanes. Direct measurements of transpiration, together with chlorophyll-leaching assays, indicate increased cuticular permeability of pe leaves. Genetic mapping revealed that the pe locus represents a new allele of CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2), a member of the class IV homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family, previously only associated with cutin deficiency in tomato fruit. CD2 is preferentially expressed in epidermal cells of tomato stems and is a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ANTHOCYANINLESS2 (ANL2). Analysis of cuticle composition in leaves of anl2 revealed that cutin accumulates to approximately 60% of the levels observed in wild-type Arabidopsis. Together, these data provide new insight into the role of CD2 and ANL2 in regulating diverse metabolic pathways and in particular, those associated with epidermal cells. PMID:22623518

  12. Tyrosine kinase activity is essential for the association of phospholipase C-gamma with the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, B; Bellot, F; Honegger, A M; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J; Zilberstein, A

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells transfected with wild-type EGF receptor induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). The EGF receptor and PLC-gamma were found to be physically associated such that antibodies directed against PLC-gamma or the EGF receptor coimmunoprecipitated both proteins. The association between PLC-gamma and wild-type EGF receptor was dependent on the concentration of EGF, but EGF did not enhance the association between PLC-gamma and a kinase-negative mutant of the EGF receptor. Oligomerization of the EGF receptor was not sufficient to induce association of the EGF receptor with PLC-gamma, since the kinase-negative mutant receptor underwent normal dimerization in response to EGF yet did not associate with PLC-gamma. The form of PLC-gamma associated with the EGF receptor appeared to be primarily the non-tyrosine-phosphorylated form. It is concluded that the kinase activity of the EGF receptor is essential for association of PLC-gamma with the EGF receptor, possibly by stimulating receptor autophosphorylation. Images PMID:2153914

  13. A case of colorectal cancer with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Kammei; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Tsushima, Mizuho; Kudo, Kenichiro; Mizuta, Makoto; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yonei, Toshiro; Yamadori, Ichiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman with locally advanced lung tumor mimicking primary lung cancer. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer at the age of 65 years and was initially treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation as a treatment for primary lung cancer. One year later, a thyroid tumor was detected in her right thyroid lobe and was confirmed to have metastasized from rectal cancer based on pathological findings. Therefore, we suspected that she had metachronous double cancers and treated her with conventional chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. However, new life-threatening multiple lung metastases appeared. We treated her with the drug erlotinib because additional genetic analysis against primary lung tumor revealed typical double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Histological review by immunostaining concluded that the primary lung tumor was composed of metastatic tumors from rectal cancer. In addition, genetic analysis revealed that the primary rectal cancer contained nearly the same types of double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations as were present in the lung tumor. This is the first report of a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with double-activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

  14. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Bénédicte; Mouawad, François; Gros, Abigaëlle; Lansiaux, Amélie; Chevalier, Dominique; Meignan, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. The main characteristic of HER3 is that it does not possess tyrosine kinase activity, unlike other HERs. The role of HER3 in tumorigenesis has now been recognized, particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Despite conflicting studies, HER3 was found to be overexpressed in HNSCC samples, and correlates with disease progression and poor survival, especially when it is coexpressed with other HERs. HER3 is a significant factor in HNSCC treatment resistance. Indeed, HER3 is a major mechanism described for cetuximab resistance because of modification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization and by phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway activation. HER3 also affects resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and thereby promotes treatment escape and radiotherapy resistance by activation of the survival signaling pathway. To counteract this, pharmacologic inhibitors of HER3 are currently in development and could significantly improve HNSCC treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2412-E2418, 2016.

  15. Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene are linked to smoking-independent, lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sonobe, M; Manabe, T; Wada, H; Tanaka, F

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are a potential predictor of the effectiveness of EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of lung cancer. Although EGFR mutations were reported to occur with high frequency in nonsmoking Japanese adenocarcinoma patients, the exact nature has not been fully elucidated. We examined EGFR gene mutations within exons 18–21 and their correlations to clinico-pathological factors and other genetic alterations in tumour specimens from 154 patients who underwent resection for lung cancer at Kyoto University Hospital. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were observed in 60 tumours (39.0%), all of which were adenocarcinoma. Among the patients with adenocarcinoma (n=108), EGFR mutations were more frequently observed in nonsmokers than former smokers or current smokers (83.0, 50.0, 15.2%, respectively), in women than men (76.3 vs 34.0%), in tumours with bronchio-alveolar component than those without bronchio-alveolar component (78.9 vs 42.9%), and in well or moderately differentiated tumours than poorly differentiated tumours (72.0, 64.4, 34.2%). No tumours with EGFR mutations had any K-ras codon 12 mutations, which were well-known smoking-related gene mutations. In conclusion, adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutation had a distinctive clinico-pathological feature unrelated to smoking. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations may play a key role in the development of smoking-independent adenocarcinoma. PMID:16052218

  16. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    PubMed

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor signaling in breast cancer cell growth: focus on endocrine resistant disease.

    PubMed

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Tzanakakis, George N; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease.

  18. Effects of epidermal growth factor on neural crest cells in tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the /sup 3/H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis.

  19. Recycling of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Is Mediated by a Novel Form of the Clathrin Adaptor Protein Eps15*

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Susan; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yu; McNiven, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface are tightly regulated by a complex endocytic machinery. Following internalization, EGFR is either recycled back to the cell surface or transported to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation. Currently, the molecular machinery that regulates this sorting pathway is only partially defined. Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate 15) is an endocytic adaptor protein that is well known to support clathrin-mediated internalization of EGFR at the plasma membrane. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a novel short form of Eps15 (Eps15S) from rat liver that lacks the 111 C-terminal amino acids present in the traditional Eps15 form. The goal of this study was to define the functional role of the novel Eps15S form in EGFR trafficking. Overexpression of a mutant form of Eps15S (Eps15S ΔEH2/EH3) did not block EGFR internalization but reduced its recycling to the cell surface. After knockdown of all Eps15 forms, re-expression of Eps15S significantly reduced EGFR degradation while promoting recycling back to the cell surface. In contrast, re-expression of Eps15 did not potentiate receptor recycling. Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant Eps15S substantially reduced cell proliferation, linking EGFR recycling to downstream mitogenic effects. Finally, we found that Eps15S is localized to the Rab11-positive recycling endosome that is disrupted in cells expressing the Eps15S mutant, leading to an accumulation of the EGFR in early endosomes. These findings suggest that distinct forms of Eps15 direct EGFR to either the late endosome/lysosome for degradation (Eps15) or to the recycling endosome for transit back to the cell surface (Eps15S). PMID:21832070

  20. Effects of cerulein and epidermal growth factor on pancreatic growth in the reserpinized rat model.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, F L; Benrezzak, O; Vanier, M; Morisset, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of reserpine on rat pancreatic growth, to evaluate if reserpine-caused alterations can be prevented by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or cerulein treatment, to evaluate the time course of rat pancreas recovery after reserpine, and to determine if EGF and/or cerulein treatment can accelerate such a recovery. In the first experiment, three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-265 g) were used. Ad libitum-fed control animals received the reserpine vehicle, and one experimental group received reserpine (1 mg kg-1 day-1 for 7 days) while the other, pair-fed group received the reserpine vehicle with a reduced amount of food to result in malnourishment. Rats from each of these three groups were also assigned to one of four treatments consisting of saline, EGF (10 micrograms kg-1), cerulein (1 microgram kg-1), or a combination (same doses) twice a day for 7 days. In the morning of the 8th day, after an overnight fat, rats were killed. In the second experiment, rats were selected and treated with reserpine or the vehicle as described in experiment 1; after the 7-day treatment, a first cohort of animals was allowed a 30-day recovery period. Three other groups (an ad libitum-fed control, a pair-fed, and a reserpine group) were allowed a 6-day recovery period during which they were treated subcutaneously, twice a day, with either saline, EGF (10 micrograms kg-1), cerulein (1 microgram kg-1), or a combination (same doses). On the morning of the 31st or 7th day, after an overnight fat, rats were killed. After death, all pancreata were examined for weight and protein, amylase, chymotrypsinogen, RNA, and DNA content. In the ad libitum-fed control group, EGF caused pancreatic hypertrophy, whereas cerulein was associated with hypertrophy and hyperplasia. In the pair-fed malnourished group, the EGF effect was limited to slight increases in pancreatic weight and cell mass whereas cerulein caused hypertrophy; EGF plus cerulein

  1. Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H H; Vijapurkar, U; Hellyer, N J; Bravo, D; Koland, J G

    1998-01-01

    The role of protein tyrosine kinase activity in ErbB3-mediated signal transduction was investigated. ErbB3 was phosphorylated in vivo in response to either heregulin (HRG) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and ErbB2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and EGF receptor. A recombinant receptor protein (ErbB3-K/M, in which K/M stands for Lys-->Met amino acid substitution) containing an inactivating mutation in the putative ATP-binding site was also phosphorylated in response to HRG and EGF. Both the wild-type ErbB3 and mutant ErbB3-K/M proteins transduced signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Separate kinase-inactivating mutations in the EGF receptor and ErbB2 proteins abolished ErbB3 phosphorylation and signal transduction activated by EGF and HRG respectively. Hence the protein tyrosine kinase activity necessary for growth factor signalling via the ErbB3 protein seems to be provided by coexpressed EGF and ErbB2 receptor proteins. PMID:9693119

  2. Signal transduction by epidermal growth factor and heregulin via the kinase-deficient ErbB3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Vijapurkar, U; Hellyer, N J; Bravo, D; Koland, J G

    1998-08-15

    The role of protein tyrosine kinase activity in ErbB3-mediated signal transduction was investigated. ErbB3 was phosphorylated in vivo in response to either heregulin (HRG) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and ErbB2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and EGF receptor. A recombinant receptor protein (ErbB3-K/M, in which K/M stands for Lys-->Met amino acid substitution) containing an inactivating mutation in the putative ATP-binding site was also phosphorylated in response to HRG and EGF. Both the wild-type ErbB3 and mutant ErbB3-K/M proteins transduced signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Separate kinase-inactivating mutations in the EGF receptor and ErbB2 proteins abolished ErbB3 phosphorylation and signal transduction activated by EGF and HRG respectively. Hence the protein tyrosine kinase activity necessary for growth factor signalling via the ErbB3 protein seems to be provided by coexpressed EGF and ErbB2 receptor proteins.

  3. The aqueous extract of Brucea javanica suppresses cell growth and alleviates tumorigenesis of human lung cancer cells by targeting mutated epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hun; Liu, Chun-Yen; Fan, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chang-Heng; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lee, Ming-Chung; Fang, Kang

    2016-01-01

    As a practical and safe herbal medicine, the seeds of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., were used to cure patients suffering from infectious diseases such as malaria. Recent advances revealed that the herb could also be a useful cancer therapy agent. The study demonstrated that aqueous B. javanica (BJ) extract attenuated the growth of human non-small-lung cancer cells bearing mutant L858R/T790M epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The reduced cell viability in H1975 cells was attributed to apoptosis. Transfection of EGFR small hairpin RNA reverted the sensitivities. When nude mice were fed BJ extract, the growth of xenograft tumors, as established by H1975 cells, was suppressed. Additional histological examination and fluorescence analysis of the resected tissues proved that the induced apoptosis mitigated tumor growth. The work proved that the BJ extract exerted its effectiveness by targeting lung cancer cells carrying mutated EGFR while alleviating tumorigenesis. Aqueous BJ extract is a good candidate to overcome drug resistance in patients undergoing target therapy. PMID:27843300

  4. Antisense Reduction of Mutant COMP Reduces Growth Plate Chondrocyte Pathology.

    PubMed

    Posey, Karen L; Coustry, Francoise; Veerisetty, Alka C; Hossain, Mohammad; Gattis, Danielle; Booten, Sheri; Alcorn, Joseph L; Seth, Punit P; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein cause pseudoachondroplasia, a severe disproportionate short stature disorder. Mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein produces massive intracellular retention of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, stimulating ER and oxidative stresses and inflammation, culminating in post-natal loss of growth plate chondrocytes, which compromises linear bone growth. Treatments for pseudoachondroplasia are limited because cartilage is relatively avascular and considered inaccessible. Here we report successful delivery and treatment using antisense oligonucleotide technology in our transgenic pseudoachondroplasia mouse model. We demonstrate delivery of human cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-specific antisense oligonucleotides to cartilage and reduction of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein expression, which largely alleviates pseudoachondroplasia growth plate chondrocyte pathology. One antisense oligonucleotide reduced steady-state levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA and dampened intracellular retention of mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, leading to a reduction of inflammatory markers and cell death and partial restoration of proliferation. This novel and exciting work demonstrates that antisense-based therapy is a viable approach for treating pseudoachondroplasia and other human cartilage disorders. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Apical Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling: Regulation of Stretch-dependent Exocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balestreire, Elena M.

    2007-01-01

    The apical surface of polarized epithelial cells receives input from mediators, growth factors, and mechanical stimuli. How these stimuli are coordinated to regulate complex cellular functions such as polarized membrane traffic is not understood. We analyzed the requirement for growth factor signaling and mechanical stimuli in umbrella cells, which line the mucosal surface of the bladder and dynamically insert and remove apical membrane in response to stretch. We observed that stretch-stimulated exocytosis required apical epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation and that activation occurred in an autocrine manner downstream of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor cleavage. Long-term changes in apical exocytosis depended on protein synthesis, which occurred upon EGF receptor-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our results indicate a novel physiological role for the EGF receptor that couples upstream mechanical stimuli to downstream apical EGF receptor activation that may regulate apical surface area changes during bladder filling. PMID:17287395

  6. Prognostic Factors for Survival After Recurrence in Patients With Completely Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma: Important Roles of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Status and the Current Staging System.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yujin; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Saji, Hisashi; Kato, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Koichi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagase, Seisuke; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Kajiwara, Naohiro; Ohira, Tatsuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2015-11-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status and pathological stage (p-stage) were shown to be essential prognostic factors for estimating survival after recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma. In patients with EGFR mutations, those with early p-stage tumors showed better survival after disease recurrence than those with advanced p-stage tumors. The EGFR mutation status and p-stage could also prompt the design of clinical trials on adjuvant therapy for patients after complete surgical resection. The current staging system and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status are key factors for predicting survival. However, the significance of these factors as predictors of survival after disease recurrence (PRS) has not been sufficiently elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological factors, particularly the EGFR mutation status and pathological stage (p-stage), which affect PRS in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 198 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients with disease recurrence who previously underwent complete surgical resection in our hospital. Of the 198 patients, 117 were examined for EGFR mutations (mutants). Mutants were detected in 57 patients (28.7%). The patients with mutants had a significantly better 3-year PRS (3y-PRS) rate (68.6%) than those with an EGFR wild type (WT) status (51.7%) or an unknown (UN) status (27.0%). The 3y-PRS rates for p-stage I to II (p-I-II) and p-stage III (p-III) were 52.5% and 29.3%, respectively. Multivariate survival analysis showed that the EGFR mutation status and p-stage had significant associations with favorable PRS. The 3y-PRS rate for mutants/p-I-II (81.4%) was significantly better than that for mutants/p-III (48.0%). Conversely, there was no significant difference between mutants/p-III and WT/UN/p-I-II (3y-PRS: 40.7%) or between mutants/p-III and WT/UN/p-III (3y-PRS: 24.4%). EGFR status and p-stage were shown to

  7. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a novel tool for testing epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Dreier, Birgit; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Seifert, Burkhardt; Behnke, Silvia; Zürrer-Härdi, Ursina; Ingold, Fabienne; Plückthun, Andreas; Moch, Holger

    2010-09-01

    Designed ankyrin repeat proteins are a novel class of specific binding molecules, which display increased thermodynamic stability, smaller size and at least equal target affinity compared to immunoglobulins, making them potentially powerful tools in diagnostic pathology and therapeutic oncology. Here, we investigated whether designed ankyrin repeat proteins can reliably identify the amplification status of the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins specific for epidermal growth factor receptor 2 were tested in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Detection using enzymatic biotinylation proved to be most specific and sensitive. The affinity of the designed ankyrin repeat proteins was found crucial, but for a picomolar binder no further gain was found by making it multivalent. The best designed ankyrin repeat protein, G3 (K(D) 90 pM) was compared on breast cancer tissue microarrays (n=792) to an FDA-approved rabbit monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (clone 4B5; Ventana Medical Systems) and correlated with corresponding epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification status measured by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Amplification status and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression measured by designed ankyrin repeat protein and antibody correlated strongly with each other (P<0.0001 each), the correlation between designed ankyrin repeat protein and amplification status being the strongest (0.87 compared to 0.77 for the antibody, Kendall's tau-beta). Using a modified scoring system for the designed ankyrin repeat protein, we show that the designed ankyrin repeat protein detects a positive epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification status with similar sensitivity and significantly higher specificity than the antibody (P=0.0005). This study suggests that designed ankyrin repeat proteins provide a valuable alternative to antibodies for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor

  8. Psoralens potentiate ultraviolet light-induced inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Laskin, J D; Lee, E; Laskin, D L; Gallo, M A

    1986-01-01

    The psoralens, when activated by ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm (UVA light), are potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Previously, we reported that, in mammalian cells, these compounds bind to specific saturable high-affinity cellular receptor sites. In the present studies, we demonstrate that binding of psoralens to their receptors followed by UVA light activation is associated with inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding. Inhibition of EGF binding, which required UVA light, was rapid and dependent on the dose of UVA light (0.5-2.0 J/cm2), as well as the concentration of psoralens (10 nM to 1 microM). Higher doses of UVA light (2.0-6.0 J/cm2) by themselves were also inhibitory, indicating that psoralens potentiate the UVA-induced inhibition of EGF binding. A number of biologically active analogs of psoralen, including 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, when activated by UVA light, were found to be inhibitors of binding. Inhibition of EGF binding by psoralens was observed in a variety of human and mouse cell culture lines known to possess psoralen receptors. In the epidermal-derived line PAM 212, at least two populations of receptors with different affinities for EGF were found. Psoralens and UVA light selectively inhibited binding to the higher-affinity EGF receptors, an effect analogous to that of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. As observed with phorbol esters, photoactivated psoralens appeared to inhibit EGF binding by an indirect mechanism. These data demonstrate that the psoralens and UVA light have direct biological effects on cell-surface membranes. Since EGF is a growth-regulatory peptide, the ability of psoralens and UVA light to inhibit EGF binding may underlie the biologic effects of these agents in the skin. PMID:3490664

  9. Psoralens potentiate ultraviolet light-induced inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, J.D.; Lee, E.; Laskin, D.L.; Gallo, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The psoralens, when activated by ultraviolet light of 320-400 nm (UVA light), are potent modulators of epidermal cell growth and differentiation. Previously, we reported that, in mammalian cells, these compounds bind to specific saturable high-affinity cellular receptor sites. In the present studies, we demonstrate that binding of psoralens to their receptors followed by UVA light activation is associated with inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding. Inhibition of EGF binding, which required UVA light, was rapid and dependent on the dose of UVA light (0.5-2.0 J/cm2), as well as the concentration of psoralens (10 nM to 1 microM). Higher doses of UVA light (2.0-6.0 J/cm2) by themselves were also inhibitory, indicating that psoralens potentiate the UVA-induced inhibition of EGF binding. A number of biologically active analogs of psoralen, including 8-methoxypsoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, when activated by UVA light, were found to be inhibitors of binding. Inhibition of EGF binding by psoralens was observed in a variety of human and mouse cell culture lines known to possess psoralen receptors. In the epidermal-derived line PAM 212, at least two populations of receptors with different affinities for EGF were found. Psoralens and UVA light selectively inhibited binding to the higher-affinity EGF receptors, an effect analogous to that of the phorbol ester tumor promoters. As observed with phorbol esters, photoactivated psoralens appeared to inhibit EGF binding by an indirect mechanism. These data demonstrate that the psoralens and UVA light have direct biological effects on cell-surface membranes. Since EGF is a growth-regulatory peptide, the ability of psoralens and UVA light to inhibit EGF binding may underlie the biologic effects of these agents in the skin.

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutated Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Changing Treatment Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pakkala, Suchita; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2017-02-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are present in approximately 15% of US patients with lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are associated with high response rate and progression-free survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer with this genotype. Gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are presently in clinical use. Understanding resistance mechanisms has led to the identification of a secondary mutational target, T790M, in more than half of patients, for which osimertinib has been approved. This article reviews the current treatments, resistance mechanisms, and strategies to overcome resistance.

  11. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  12. Dermatologic Reactions to Targeted Therapy: A Focus on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and Nursing Care.

    PubMed

    Barton-Burke, Margaret; Ciccolini, Kathryn; Mekas, Maria; Burke, Sean

    2017-03-01

    Cancer treatments usually have side effects of bone marrow depression, mucositis, hair loss, and gastrointestinal issues. Rarely do we think of skin side effects until patients have been treated successfully with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRi). Those reactions include papulopustular rash, hair changes, radiation dermatitis enhancement, pruritus, mucositis, xerosis, fissures, and paronychia. This article discusses the common skin reactions seen when using EGFRi and presents an overview of skin as the largest and important organ of the body, including an overview of skin assessment, pathophysiology of the skin reactions, nursing care involved, and introduction to oncodermatology.

  13. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  14. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and Src family kinases in proliferation of renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shougang; Kinsey, Gilbert R; Rasbach, Kyle; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2008-03-01

    Our recent studies have shown that proliferation of renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) in the absence of growth factors requires activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. We sought to identify the endogenous EGF receptor ligand and investigate the mechanism(s) by which RPTC proliferate in different models. RPTC expressed both pro- and cleaved forms of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) and several metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -3, -9, and ADAM10, ADAM17) that have been reported to cleave HB-EGF. Treatment of RPTC with CRM 197, an inhibitor of HB-EGF binding to the EGF receptor, or downregulation of HB-EGF with small interfering RNA inhibited RPTC proliferation following plating. Furthermore, GM6001 (pan-MMP inhibitor), tumor-necrosis factor protease inhibitor-1 (TAPI-1; MMP and ADAM17 inhibitor), and GW280264X (ADAM10 and -17 inhibitor), but not GI254023X (ADAM10 inhibitor), attenuated the proliferation after plating. Although EGF receptor activation is required for RPTC proliferation after oxidant injury, CRM197, GM6001, and TAPI-1 did not block this response. In contrast, inhibition of Src with PP1 blocked EGF receptor activation and RPTC proliferation after oxidant injury. In addition, PP1 treatment attenuated HB-EGF-enhanced RPTC proliferation. We suggest that RPTC proliferation after plating is mediated by HB-EGF produced through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism and RPTC proliferation following oxidant injury is mediated by Src without involvement of HB-EGF.

  15. The metalloendopeptidase nardilysin (NRDc) is potently inhibited by heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF).

    PubMed

    Hospital, Véronique; Nishi, Eiichiro; Klagsbrun, Michael; Cohen, Paul; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik

    2002-10-01

    Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase, or NRDc) is a cytosolic and cell-surface metalloendopeptidase that, in vitro, cleaves substrates upstream of Arg or Lys in basic pairs. NRDc differs from most of the other members of the M16 family of metalloendopeptidases by a 90 amino acid acidic domain (DAC) inserted close to its active site. At the cell surface, NRDc binds heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and enhances HB-EGF-induced cell migration. An active-site mutant of NRDc fulfills this function as well as wild-type NRDc, indicating that the enzyme activity is not required for this process. We now demonstrate that NRDc starts at Met(49). Furthermore, we show that HB-EGF not only binds to NRDc but also potently inhibits its enzymic activity. NRDc-HB-EGF interaction involves the 21 amino acid heparin-binding domain (P21) of the growth factor, the DAC of NRDc and most probably its active site. Only disulphide-bonded P21 dimers are inhibitory. We also show that Ca(2+), via the DAC, regulates both NRDc activity and HB-EGF binding. We conclude that the DAC is thus a key regulatory element for the two distinct functions that NRDc fulfills, i.e. as an HB-EGF modulator and a peptidase.

  16. The metalloendopeptidase nardilysin (NRDc) is potently inhibited by heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF).

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Véronique; Nishi, Eiichiro; Klagsbrun, Michael; Cohen, Paul; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik

    2002-01-01

    Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase, or NRDc) is a cytosolic and cell-surface metalloendopeptidase that, in vitro, cleaves substrates upstream of Arg or Lys in basic pairs. NRDc differs from most of the other members of the M16 family of metalloendopeptidases by a 90 amino acid acidic domain (DAC) inserted close to its active site. At the cell surface, NRDc binds heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and enhances HB-EGF-induced cell migration. An active-site mutant of NRDc fulfills this function as well as wild-type NRDc, indicating that the enzyme activity is not required for this process. We now demonstrate that NRDc starts at Met(49). Furthermore, we show that HB-EGF not only binds to NRDc but also potently inhibits its enzymic activity. NRDc-HB-EGF interaction involves the 21 amino acid heparin-binding domain (P21) of the growth factor, the DAC of NRDc and most probably its active site. Only disulphide-bonded P21 dimers are inhibitory. We also show that Ca(2+), via the DAC, regulates both NRDc activity and HB-EGF binding. We conclude that the DAC is thus a key regulatory element for the two distinct functions that NRDc fulfills, i.e. as an HB-EGF modulator and a peptidase. PMID:12095415

  17. [Effects of transfection of human epidermal growth factor gene with adenovirus vector on biological characteristics of human epidermal cells].

    PubMed

    Yin, Kai; Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan'an; Shang, Yuru; Li, Dawei; Li, Longzhu; Zhao, Dongxu; Cheng, Wenfeng

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the suitable transfection condition of human epidermal cells (hECs) with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene by adenovirus vector (Ad-hEGF) and its effects on the biological characteristics of hECs. hECs were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision by enzyme digestion method and then sub-cultured. hECs of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into non-transfection group and 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 fold transfection groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 3 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were not transfected with Ad-hEGF gene, while cells in the latter six groups were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in multiplicities of infection (MOI) of 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 respectively. The morphology of the cells was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope, and expression of green fluorescent protein of the cells was observed with inverted fluorescence microscope at transfection hour (TH) 24, 48, and 72. (2) Another three batches of cells were collected, grouped, and treated as above, respectively. Then the transfection rate of Ad-hEGF gene was detected by flow cytometer (n=3), the mass concentration of EGF in culture supernatant of cells was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n=6), and the proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and microplate reader (n=6) at TH 24, 48, and 72, respectively. (3) Cells were collected and divided into non-transfection group and transfection group, with 6 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells without transfection, while cells in transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells which were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in the optimum MOI (50). CCK8 and microplate reader were used to measure the biological activity of EGF secreted by cells on culture

  18. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants: quantitative analysis of root growth.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Peter

    2008-03-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe growth of plant roots is very easy to measure and is particularly straightforward in Arabidopsis thaliana, because the increase in organ size is essentially restricted to one dimension. The precise measurement of root apical growth can be used to accurately determine growth activity (the rate of growth at a given time) during development in mutants, transgenic backgrounds, or in response to experimental treatments. Root growth is measured in a number of ways, the simplest of which is to grow the seedlings in a Petri dish and record the position of the advancing root tip at appropriate time points. The increase in root length is measured with a ruler and the data are entered into Microsoft Excel for analysis. When dealing with large numbers of seedlings, however, this procedure can be tedious, as well as inaccurate. An alternative approach, described in this protocol, uses "snapshots" of the growing plants, which are taken using gel-documentation equipment (i.e., a video camera with a frame-grabber unit, now commonly used to capture images from ethidium-bromide-stained electrophoresis gels). The images are analyzed using publicly available software (NIH-Image), which allows the user simply to cut and paste data into Microsoft Excel.

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor-Dependent Transformation by a Human EGF Receptor Proto-Oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velu, Thierry J.; Beguinot, Laura; Vass, William C.; Willingham, Mark C.; Merlino, Glenn T.; Pastan, Ira; Lowy, Douglas R.

    1987-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene EGFR has been placed in a retrovirus vector to examine the growth properties of cells that experimentally overproduce a full-length EGF receptor. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the viral DNA or infected with the corresponding rescued retrovirus developed a fully transformed phenotype in vitro that required both functional EGFR expression and the presence of EGF in the growth medium. Cells expressing 4 × 105 EGF receptors formed tumors in nude mice, while control cells did not. Therefore, the EGFR retrovirus, which had a titer on NIH 3T3 cells that was greater than 107 focus-forming units per milliliter, can efficiently transfer and express this gene, and increased numbers of EGF receptors can contribute to the transformed phenotype.

  20. CD95 death receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in liver cell apoptosis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Roland; Häussinger, Dieter

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that signaling pathways towards cell proliferation and cell death are much more interconnected than previously thought. Whereas not only death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1) can couple to both, cell death and proliferation, also growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in these opposing kinds of cell fate. EGFR is briefly discussed as a growth factor receptor involved in liver cell proliferation during liver regeneration. Then the role of EGFR in activating CD95 death receptor in liver parenchymal cells (PC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which represent a liver stem/progenitor cell compartment, is described summarizing different ways of CD95- and EGFR-dependent signaling in the liver. Here, depending on the hepatic cell type (PC vs. HSC) and the respective signaling context (sustained vs. transient JNK activation) CD95-/EGFR-mediated signaling ends up in either liver cell apoptosis or cell proliferation.

  1. Topical grape seed proanthocyandin extract reduces sunburn cells and mutant p53 positive epidermal cell formation, and prevents depletion of Langerhans cells in an acute sunburn model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Wei; Hao, Jian-Chun; Gu, Wei-Jie; Zhao, Yan-Shuang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can provide photoprotection against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Study has shown that GSPE is a natural oxidant, and is used in many fields such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, chronic pancreatitis, and even cancer. However, the effect of GSPE on UV irradiation is as yet unknown. Cutaneous areas on the backs of normal volunteers were untreated or treated with GSPE solutions or vehicles 30 min before exposure to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of solar simulated radiation. Cutaneous areas at different sites were examined histologically for the number of sunburn cells, or immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells and mutant p53 epidermal cells. On histological and immunohistochemical examination, skin treated with GSPE before UV radiation showed fewer sunburn cells and mutant p53-positive epidermal cells and more Langerhans cells compared with skin treated with 2-MED UV radiation only (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively). GSPE may be a possible preventive agent for photoprotection.

  2. Human keratinocyte growth factor effects in a porcine model of epidermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Krueger, J. G.; Rubin, J. S.; D'limi, S.; Vallat, V. P.; Valentino, L.; Fahey, T.; Hawes, A.; Kingston, G.; Madden, M. R.; Mathwich, M.; Gottlieb, A.; Aaronson, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family (hence the alternative designation FGF-7). It is produced by stromal cells, but acts as a mitogen for epithelial cells. We examined the effects of topically applied KGF on healing of wounds in a porcine model. In partial-thickness wounds, KGF stimulated the rate of reepithelialization (p < 0.0002), associated with a thickening of the epidermis (p < 0.0001). Epidermis from KGF-treated full-thickness wound sites was significantly thicker (0.31 +/- 0.22 mm) compared with mirror image control sites (0.18 +/- 0.12 mm) (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the majority (77%) of KGF-treated wounds exhibited epidermis with a deep rete ridge pattern as compared with control sites. These effects were observed as early as 14 d and persisted for at least 4 wk. KGF treatment also increased the number of serrated basal cells associated with increased deposition of collagen fibers in the superficial dermis adjacent to the acanthotic epidermis. Electron microscopy revealed better developed hemidesmosomes associated with thicker bundles of tonofilaments in the serrated cells. The pattern of epidermal thickening observed in KGF-treated wounds resembled psoriasis. Psoriasis is a disease associated with epidermal thickening, parakeratosis as well as hyperproliferation that extends beyond the basal layer. In striking contrast to psoriasis, KGF-treated wounds exhibited normal orthokeratotic maturation, and proliferation was localized to the basal cells. Our present findings have significant implications concerning the role of KGF as a paracrine modulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation. PMID:8350059

  3. Healing enhancement of diabetic wounds by locally infiltrated epidermal growth factor is associated with systemic oxidative stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Ojalvo, Ariana García; Acosta, Jorge Berlanga; Marí, Yssel Mendoza; Mayola, Maday Fernández; Pérez, Calixto Valdés; Gutiérrez, William Savigne; Marichal, Ileydis Iglesias; Seijas, Eduardo Álvarez; Kautzman, Alicia Molina; Pacheco, Angélica Estrada; Armstrong, David G

    2017-02-01

    The diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation worldwide and is directly associated with comorbidity, disability and mortality. Oxidative stress mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these wounds. Intra-lesional infiltration of epidermal growth factor has emerged as a potential therapeutic alternative to allow for physiological benefit while avoiding the proteolytic environment at the centre of the wound. The aim of this study was to characterise the response of patients with DFUs to epidermal growth factor treatment in terms of redox status markers. Experimental groups included patients with DFUs before and 3-4 weeks after starting treatment with epidermal growth factor; compensated and non-compensated diabetic patients without ulcers; and age-matched non-diabetic subjects. Evaluations comprised serum levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve markers. Patients with DFUs exhibited the most disheveled biochemical profile, with elevated oxidative stress and low antioxidant reserves, with respect to non-ulcerated diabetic patients and to non-diabetic subjects. Epidermal growth factor intra-lesional administration was associated with a significant recovery of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve markers. Altogether, our results indicate that epidermal growth factor intra-ulcer therapy contributes to restore systemic redox balance in patients with DFUs. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of epidermal growth factor receptor and transforming growth factor-α on hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Afkar Abdel-Ghany; El-Hindawi, Ali; Hammam, Olfat; Moussa, Mona; Gabal, Samia; Said, Noha

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor system plays a central hepato-protective and pro-regenerative role in liver. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is an important autocrine growth regulator of hepatocytes that plays a role in development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This study was done on 40 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC, 20 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC as well as five normal controls. All were immunohistochemically stained with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TGF-α antibodies. Some selected HCC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect EGFR gene alteration. By immunohistochemistry EGFR and TGF-α were overexpressed in HCC and cirrhotic cases compared to CHC cases without cirrhosis. Also, their expression was stronger in CHC cases with higher grades of activity and stages of fibrosis compared to lower ones. FISH positive results for EGFR were detected in 33.3% of the examined HCC cases. EGFR and TGF-α can be used as predictive markers for activity, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis in CHC patients. Overexpression of EGFR in HCC patients can be promising in selecting those who can get benefit from anti-EGFR target therapy.

  5. Ligand-independent epidermal growth factor receptor hyperactivation increases sebaceous gland size and sebum secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Dahlhoff, Maik; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R

    2013-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is an established regulator of the development and homeostasis of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. Here, we evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands (SGs) by employing Dsk5 mice, a mutant line in which the EGFR is constitutively activated in a ligand-independent manner. Compared to control littermates, Dsk5 mice showed increased sebum levels and enlarged SGs, which contained a higher number of cells and showed stronger proliferation. c-myc transcript levels were increased in Dsk5 skin, suggesting that c-myc mediates the proliferative stimuli of the EGFR in the SG. Analysis of differentiation markers revealed deregulated expression of Scd1 and Scd3, indicating that sebaceous lipogenesis is affected in Dsk5 mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that the EGFR is an important regulator of presebocyte proliferation, contributing to the final cell number, to the size and to the lipid output of SGs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Multidrug transporter ABCG2 prevents tumor cell death induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib).

    PubMed

    Elkind, N Barry; Szentpétery, Zsófia; Apáti, Agota; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Várady, György; Ujhelly, Olga; Szabó, Katalin; Homolya, László; Váradi, András; Buday, László; Kéri, György; Német, Katalin; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2005-03-01

    Iressa (ZD1839, Gefitinib), used in clinics to treat non-small cell lung cancer patients, is a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor that leads to specific decoupling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Recent data indicate that Iressa is especially effective in tumors with certain EGFR mutations; however, a subset of these tumors does not respond to Iressa. In addition, certain populations have an elevated risk of side effects during Iressa treatment. The human ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) transporter causes cancer drug resistance by actively extruding a variety of cytotoxic drugs, and it functions physiologically to protect our tissues from xenobiotics. Importantly, ABCG2 modifies absorption, distribution, and toxicity of several pharmacologic agents. Previously, we showed that ABCG2 displays a high-affinity interaction with several tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors, including Iressa. Here, we show that the expression of ABCG2, but not its nonfunctional mutant, protects the EGFR signaling-dependent A431 tumor cells from death on exposure to Iressa. This protection is reversed by the ABCG2-specific inhibitor, Ko143. These data, reinforced with cell biology and biochemical experiments, strongly suggest that ABCG2 can actively pump Iressa. Therefore, variable expression and polymorphisms of ABCG2 may significantly modify the antitumor effect as well as the absorption and tissue distribution of Iressa.

  7. The direct interaction of phospholipase C-gamma 1 with phospholipase D2 is important for epidermal growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Jang, Il Ho; Lee, Sukmook; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Chang Sup; Hur, Eun-Mi; Kim, Il Shin; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2003-05-16

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor has an important role in cellular proliferation, and the enzymatic activity of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1 is regarded to be critical for EGF-induced mitogenesis. In this study, we report for the first time a phospholipase complex composed of PLC-gamma1 and phospholipase D2 (PLD2). PLC-gamma1 is co-immunoprecipitated with PLD2 in COS-7 cells. The results of in vitro binding analysis and co-immunoprecipitation analysis in COS-7 cells show that the Src homology (SH) 3 domain of PLC-gamma1 binds to the proline-rich motif within the Phox homology (PX) domain of PLD2. The interaction between PLC-gamma1 and PLD2 is EGF stimulation-dependent and potentiates EGF-induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) formation and Ca(2+) increase. Mutating Pro-145 and Pro-148 within the PX domain of PLD2 to leucines disrupts the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and PLD2 and fails to potentiate EGF-induced IP(3) formation and Ca(2+) increase. However, neither PLD2 wild type nor PLD2 mutant affects the EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1. These findings suggest that, upon EGF stimulation, PLC-gamma1 directly interacts with PLD2 and this interaction is important for PLC-gamma1 activity.

  8. Structural, biochemical and clinical characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Park, Eunyoung; Yun, Cai-Hong; Sng, Natasha J.; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio R.; Yeo, Wee-Lee; Huberman, Mark S.; Cohen, David W.; Nakayama, Sohei; Ishioka, Kota; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Hanna, Megan; Oxnard, Geoffrey R.; Lathan, Christopher S.; Moran, Teresa; Sequist, Lecia V.; Chaft, Jamie E.; Riely, Gregory J.; Arcila, Maria E.; Soo, Ross A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Eck, Michael J.; Kobayashi, Susumu S.; Costa, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations (G719X, exon 19 deletions/insertions, L858R and L861Q) predict favorable responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations (∼10% of all EGFR mutations) are generally associated with insensitivity to available TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib). The basis of this primary resistance is poorly understood.  We study a broad subset of exon 20 insertion mutations, comparing in vitro TKI sensitivity with responses to gefitinib and erlotinib in NSCLC patients; and find that most are resistant to EGFR TKIs. The crystal structure of a representative TKI-insensitive mutant (D770_N771insNPG) reveals an unaltered ATP-binding pocket and the inserted residues form a wedge at the end of the C-helix that promotes the active kinase conformation. Unlike EGFR-L858R, D770_N771insNPG activates EGFR without increasing its affinity for EGFR TKIs. Unexpectedly, we find that EGFR-A763_Y764insFQEA is highly sensitive to EGFR TKIs in vitro; and patients whose NSCLCs harbor this mutation respond to erlotinib. Analysis of the A763_Y764insFQEA mutant indicates that the inserted residues shift the register of the C-helix in the N-terminal direction, altering the structure in the region that is also affected by the TKI-sensitive EGFR-L858R. Our studies reveal intricate differences between EGFR mutations, their biology and their response to EGFR TKIs. PMID:24353160

  9. Structural, biochemical, and clinical characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Park, Eunyoung; Yun, Cai-Hong; Sng, Natasha J; Lucena-Araujo, Antonio R; Yeo, Wee-Lee; Huberman, Mark S; Cohen, David W; Nakayama, Sohei; Ishioka, Kota; Yamaguchi, Norihiro; Hanna, Megan; Oxnard, Geoffrey R; Lathan, Christopher S; Moran, Teresa; Sequist, Lecia V; Chaft, Jamie E; Riely, Gregory J; Arcila, Maria E; Soo, Ross A; Meyerson, Matthew; Eck, Michael J; Kobayashi, Susumu S; Costa, Daniel B

    2013-12-18

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations (G719X, exon 19 deletions/insertions, L858R, and L861Q) predict favorable responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations (~10% of all EGFR mutations) are generally associated with insensitivity to available TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib). The basis of this primary resistance is poorly understood. We studied a broad subset of exon 20 insertion mutations, comparing in vitro TKI sensitivity with responses to gefitinib and erlotinib in NSCLC patients, and found that most are resistant to EGFR TKIs. The crystal structure of a representative TKI-insensitive mutant (D770_N771insNPG) reveals an unaltered adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket, and the inserted residues form a wedge at the end of the C helix that promotes the active kinase conformation. Unlike EGFR-L858R, D770_N771insNPG activates EGFR without increasing its affinity for EGFR TKIs. Unexpectedly, we find that EGFR-A763_Y764insFQEA is highly sensitive to EGFR TKIs in vitro, and patients whose NSCLCs harbor this mutation respond to erlotinib. Analysis of the A763_Y764insFQEA mutant indicates that the inserted residues shift the register of the C helix in the N-terminal direction, altering the structure in the region that is also affected by the TKI-sensitive EGFR-L858R. Our studies reveal intricate differences between EGFR mutations, their biology, and their response to EGFR TKIs.

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor on cutaneous scar quality in thyroidectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung U; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Lee, Ju Hee

    2015-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases inflammatory cell infiltration and TGF-β expression during wound healing. Several clinical studies show that recovery of various ulcer wounds, such as diabetic and radiation ulcer, is promoted by EGF. To evaluate effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on cutaneous scar quality after thyroidectomy. Scar quality was evaluated by Vancouver scar scale (VSS) in two groups of female thyroidectomy patients (control, n = 11; rhEGF-treated, n = 10). Scar erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration were measured by mexameter, cutometer and corneometer. Scar pliability (at 4 weeks) and thickness (2 weeks) after surgery were significantly lower in the rhEGF group than control. Total VSS score was significantly lower in the rhEGF group after 4 weeks. However, erythema, pigmentation, elasticity and hydration of the scar were not significantly different between groups. The early use of rhEGF in surgical wound healing may improve cutaneous scar quality.

  12. Stepwise Progress in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Radiation Studies for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, Paul M.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of four new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for cancer therapy (cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib) over the last 3 years is a remarkable milestone in oncology. Indeed, molecular inhibition of EGFR signaling represents one of the most promising current arenas for the development of molecular-targeted cancer therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors from both the monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor class have demonstrated clinical activity in the treatment of a broad spectrum of common human malignancies. For the discipline of radiation oncology, the 2006 report of a phase III trial demonstrating a survival advantage for advanced head and neck cancer patients with the addition of weekly cetuximab during a 7-week course of radiation is particularly gratifying. Indeed, this is the first phase III trial to confirm a survival advantage with the addition of a molecular-targeted agent to radiation. Furthermore, this result seems to have been achieved with only a modest increment in overall treatment toxicity and with very high compliance to the prescribed treatment regimen. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned regarding the rational integration of EGFR inhibitors into cancer treatment regimens, as well as methods to optimize the selection of patients most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitor strategies.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and its receptor during odontogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cobo, J; Hernández, L C; del Valle, M E; Vijande, M; Vega, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in developing teeth has been immunohistochemically studied in rat embryos (E-16 to E-21). Both EGF and EGFr showed a similar pattern of distribution. A very weak immunostaining was observed in the dental germ cells during the bud, cap, and bell teeth stages, as well as in few ectomesenchymal cells. In developed, but not erupted teeth, a moderate immunoreactivity for EGF and EGFr was present in the odontoblasts, in the ameloblasts and in the internal epithelial cells, but it was stronger in the dentine. In addition, the presence of EGF/EGFr was also observed in the intercalated ducts of salivary glands, primarily the submaxillary gland, in the maxillary bone cells, and in the cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. These results suggest that EGF has little or no effect during the early periods of tooth differentiation, whereas it is probably involved in the production of dentine. Moreover, EGF/EGFr seem to participate in the maturation and differentiation of other embryonic tissues such as tissues of the nervous system and bone.

  14. Combining chemotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Linda; Loong, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of advanced stage lung cancer is changing rapidly. With the new found knowledge on molecular targets such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), effective therapy is now available in a selected population with the target mutation. Single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is a standard first-line therapy for patients with activating-EGFR mutation such as base-pair deletion in exon 19 or point mutation at exon 21. At the same time, this class of drugs may be combined with chemotherapy. Studies on the concurrent combination of chemotherapy and EGFR-TKI confirmed a lack of efficacy. A phase II study on sequential intercalated combination has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but this needs to be validated by the ongoing phase III study. The third approach is to combine EGFR-TKI as maintenance therapy after tumour response or stable disease to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two phase III studies have shown improvement in PFS, but the use of biomarkers for the selection of maintenance therapy remains debatable. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR and its combination with chemotherapy was shown to improve overall survival in an unselected population. A new biomarker using the H-score will help to select patients for this combination. PMID:22754591

  15. Identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor as the receptor for Salmonella Rck-dependent invasion.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Mijouin, Lily; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Barilleau, Emilie; Canepa, Sylvie; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana Paula; Le Vern, Yves; Rosselin, Manon; Reiter, Eric; Velge, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    The Salmonella Rck outer membrane protein binds to the cell surface, which leads to bacterial internalization via a Zipper mechanism. This invasion process requires induction of cellular signals, including phosphorylation of tyrosine proteins, and activation of c-Src and PI3K, which arises as a result of an interaction with a host cell surface receptor. In this study, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was identified as the cell signaling receptor required for Rck-mediated adhesion and internalization. First, Rck-mediated adhesion and internalization were shown to be altered when EGFR expression and activity were modulated. Then, immunoprecipitations were performed to demonstrate the Rck-EGFR interaction. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance biosensor and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technologies were used to demonstrate the direct interaction of Rck with the extracellular domain of human EGFR. Finally, our study strongly suggests a noncompetitive binding of Rck and EGF to EGFR. Overall, these results demonstrate that Rck is able to bind to EGFR and thereby establish a tight adherence to provide a signaling cascade, which leads to internalization of Rck-expressing bacteria.-Wiedemann, A., Mijouin, L., Ayoub, M. A., Barilleau, E., Canepa, S., Teixeira-Gomes, A. P., Le Vern, Y., Rosselin, M., Reiter, E., Velge, P. Identification of the epidermal growth factor receptor as the receptor for Salmonella Rck-dependent invasion.

  16. Prophylaxis and treatment of dermatologic adverse events from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peggy A; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Lacouture, Mario E; Anadkat, Milan J

    2011-07-01

    As the number and uses for targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) increase, so does the need to recognize and treat the dermatologic side-effects of these agents. Although agents such as gefitinib, erlotinib, cetuximab, lapatinib, and panitumumab have less systemic side-effects than traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, dermatologic adverse events from EGFRIs are significantly more common. These dermatologic toxicities have previously led to reduction or cessation of therapy and recently have been shown to decrease patients' quality of life. This review provides a symptom-based treatment approach to the common dermatologic adverse effects seen with the epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists: papulopustular rash, xerosis, pruritus as well as hair, nail, and mucosal changes. Each dermatologic toxicity is described; prophylaxis and treatment options, from topical to systemic, are presented based on a review of the current literature with emphasis on new clinical trials results. We also provide specific recommendations based on our practice in a specialty clinic. Although the field continues to evolve, this review presents the most up-to-date information on managing dermatologic adverse effects of EGFRIs. Practitioners should find this article to be a practical resource in approaching patients on EGFRIs with dermatologic toxicities. As we learn how to optimally manage the adverse effects of these agents, we practitioners have the opportunity to increase patients' quality of life and decrease reductions or cessations of life-prolonging therapy.

  17. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Heals Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations With Advantage Over Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor in an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Peter Luke; Weierich, Kendall; Kim, Sungwoo; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-08-01

    That heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) heals chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations at higher rates than fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an animal model. A nonsurgical treatment for chronic TM perforation would benefit those unable to access surgery or those unable to have surgery, as well as reducing the cost of tympanoplasty. Growth factor (GF) treatments have been reported in the literature with variable success with the lack of a suitable animal providing a major obstacle. The GFs were tested in a validated mouse model of chronic TM perforation. A bioabsorbable hydrogel polymer was used to deliver the GF at a steady concentration as it dissolved over 4 weeks. A control (polymer only, n = 18) was compared to polymer loaded with HB-EGF (5 μg/ml, n = 18), FGF2 (100 μg/ml, n = 19), and EGF (250 μg/ml, n = 19). Perforations were inspected at 4 weeks. The healing rates, as defined as 100% perforation closure, were control (5/18, 27.8%), HB-EGF (15/18, 83.3%), FGF2 (6/19, 31.6%), and EGF (3/19, 15.8%). There were no differences between FGF2 (p = 0.80) and EGF (p = 0.31) with control healing rates. HB-EGF (p = 0.000001) showed a significant difference for healing. The HB-EGF healed TMs showed layers similar to a normal TM, whereas the other groups showed a lack of epithelial migration. This study confirms the advantage of HB-EGF over two other commonly used growth factors and is a promising nonsurgical treatment of chronic TM perforations.

  18. Sensitivities to various epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations L861Q and S768I: What is the optimal epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Banno, Eri; Togashi, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yu; Chiba, Masato; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Terashima, Masato; de Velasco, Marco A; Sakai, Kazuko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations.

  19. Parathyroid-specific epidermal growth factor-receptor inactivation prevents uremia-induced parathyroid hyperplasia in mice.

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Yang, Jing; Fernandez, Elvira; Dusso, Adriana

    2015-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), parathyroid hyperplasia contributes to high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and also to an impaired suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism by calcium, vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In rats, systemic inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation markedly attenuated uremia-induced parathyroid hyperplasia and vitamin D receptor (VDR) loss, hence restoring the response to vitamin D. Therefore, we propose that parathyroid-specific EGFR inactivation should prevent CKD-induced parathyroid hyperplasia. A dominant-negative human EGFR mutant, which forms non-functional heterodimers with full-length endogenous EGFR, was successfully targeted to the parathyroid glands (PTGs) of FVB/N mice, using the 5' regulatory sequence of the PTH promoter. The parathyroid phenotype and serum chemistries of wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice were examined after 14 weeks of either sham operation or 75% renal mass reduction (NX). Both genotypes had similar morphology and body weight, and NX-induction enhanced similarly serum blood urea nitrogen compared with sham-operated controls. However, despite similar serum calcium, phosphate and FGF23 levels in NX mice of both genotypes, parathyroid EGFR inactivation sufficed to completely prevent the marked increases in PTG enlargement, serum PTH and in parathyroid levels of transforming growth factor-α, a powerful EGFR-activator, and the VDR reductions observed in WT mice. In CKD, parathyroid EGFR activation is essential for parathyroid hyperplasia and VDR loss, rendering this transgenic mouse a unique tool to scrutinize the pathogenesis of parathyroid and multiple organ dysfunction of CKD progression unrelated to parathyroid hyperplasia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  20. Root-Growth Behavior of the Arabidopsis Mutant rgr11

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Jack L.; Turk, Ed; Johnson, Karin; Wolverton, Chris; Ishikawa, Hideo; Simmons, Carl; Söll, Deiter; Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we investigated the kinetics of the gravitropic response of the Arabidopsis mutant rgr1 (reduced root gravitropism). Although the rate of curvature in rgr1, which is allelic to axr4, was smaller than in the wild type (ecotype Wassilewskija), curvature was initiated in the same region of the root, the distal elongation zone. The time lag for the response was unaffected in the mutant; however, the gravitropic response of rgr1 contained a feature not found in the wild type: when roots growing along the surface of an agar plate were gravistimulated, there was often an upward curvature that initiated in the central elongation zone. Because this response was dependent on the tactile environment of the root, it most likely resulted from the superposition of the waving/coiling phenomenon onto the gravitropic response. We found that the frequency of the waving pattern and circumnutation, a cyclic endogenous pattern of root growth, was the same in rgr1 and in the wild type, so the waving/coiling phenomenon is likely governed by circumnutation patterns. The amplitudes of these oscillations may then be selectively amplified by tactile stimulation to provide a directional preference to the slanting. PMID:9847088

  1. Direct identification of residues of the epidermal growth factor receptor in close proximity to the amino terminus of bound epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Woltjer, R L; Lukas, T J; Staros, J V

    1992-01-01

    We have recently developed a kinetically controlled, step-wise affinity cross-linking technique for specific, high-yield, covalent linkage of murine epidermal growth factor (mEGF) via its N terminus to the EGF receptor. EGF receptor from A431 cells was cross-linked to radiolabeled mEGF (125I-mEGF) by this technique and the 125I-mEGF-receptor complex was purified and denatured. Tryptic digestion of this preparation gave rise to a unique radiolabeled peptide that did not comigrate with trypsin-treated 125I-mEGF in SDS/Tricine gels but that could be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to mEGF. The immunoprecipitated peptide was isolated by electrophoresis in SDS/Tricine gels, eluted, and sequenced. The sequence was found to correspond to that of a tryptic peptide of the EGF receptor beginning with Gly-85, which is in domain I, a region N terminal to the first cysteine-rich region of the receptor. Selective loss of signal in the 17th sequencing cycle suggests that the point of attachment of N-terminally modified 125I-mEGF to the receptor is Tyr-101. The data presented here provide identification by direct protein microsequencing of a site of interaction of EGF and the EGF receptor. Images PMID:1380167

  2. Emodin Suppresses Maintenance of Stemness by Augmenting Proteosomal Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongyub; Lee, Jong-Seon; Jung, Jieun; Lim, Inhye; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that small subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like characteristics within most solid tumors are responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells and that targeting these cells might be a good therapeutic strategy to reduce the risk of tumor relapse after therapy. Here, we examined the effects of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), an active component of the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has several biological activities, including antitumor effects, on primary cultured glioma stem cells (GSCs). Emodin inhibited the self-renewal activity of GSCs in vitro as evidenced by neurosphere formation, limiting dilution, and soft agar clonogenic assays. Emodin inhibited the maintenance of stemness by suppressing the expression of Notch intracellular domain, nonphosphorylated β-catenin, and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. In addition, treatment with emodin partially induced apoptosis, reduced cell invasiveness, and sensitized GSCs to ionizing radiation. Intriguingly, emodin induced proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) by interfering with the association of EGFR/EGFRvIII with heat shock protein 90, resulting in the suppression of stemness pathways. Based on these data, we propose that emodin could be considered as a potent therapeutic adjuvant that targets GSCs. PMID:25229646

  3. Epidermal growth factor-nonresponsive 3T3 variants do not contain epidermal growth factor receptor-related antigens or mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.A.; Lim, R.W.; Terwilliger, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously isolated three independent variants of Swiss 3T3 cells that are unable to generate a mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Each of the variants is unable to bind /sup 125/I-labeled EGF; each lacks a functional EGF receptor. They used an antiserum to murine EGF receptor to look for an EGF-receptor gene product in wild-type 3T3 cells and in the three EGF-nonresponsive variants. No cross-reactive material could be detected in any of the three variants, either in /sup 125/I-labeled cell extracts or in (/sup 35/S)methionine metabolically labeled cells. 3T3 cells contained mRNA molecules homologous to a cDNA probe for the human EGF-receptor coding region. In contrast, no homologous RNA could be detected in any of the three variants. Analysis of genomic Southern blots of the DNA from 3T3 cells and the three EGF-nonresponsive variants indicated sequences from the EGF-receptor gene are present in the DNA of all four cell lines. These EGF-nonresponsive lines, which demonstrate proliferative responses to a variety of mitogens, will be ideal recipients for structure-function studies of the EGF receptor by transfection of the cloned gene.

  4. Epidermal growth factor-like proteins in breast fluid and human milk.

    PubMed

    Connolly, J M; Rose, D P

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), and the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) family of proteins, which also bind to the EGF receptor, have been associated with human breast cancer. The total EGF-like proteins were determined by a radioreceptor assay, and TGF-alpha by radioimmunoassay, in human milk and breast fluid samples. The breast fluids were collected by nipple aspiration from healthy premenopausal women. Both the 24 milks and 18 breast fluids assayed contained EGF-like proteins, at concentrations ranging from 32-600 ng/ml (median, 140 ng/ml), and 62-654 ng/ml (median, 205 ng/ml) respectively. Immunoreactive TGF-alpha proteins were detected at higher levels in 21 breast fluids (range, 0-50.0; median 5.1 ng/ml) than in 24 milk samples (range, 0-8.4; median, 0.8 ng/ml).

  5. Cloning of human epidermal growth factor as a bacterial secretory protein, its properties and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, D.A.; Matsunami, R.K.; Campion, S.R.; Foote, R.S.; Mural, R.J.; Larimer, F.W.; Stevens, A.; Niyogi, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    A chimeric gene, containing the DNA coding for the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that for the signal peptide of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, was constructed by the annealing and subsequent ligation of appropriate DNA oligonucleotides synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The gene was then cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the transcriptional control of the E. coli trp-lac (tac) promoter, and then transformed into E. coli. Following induction with isopropylthiogalactoside, the secretion of EGF into the E. coli periplasmic space and some into the growth medium was confirmed by its specific binding to the EGF receptor and stimulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The size and physicochemical properties of the purified protein mimicked those of authentic human EGF. Studies of structure/function relationships by specific alterations of targeted amino acid residues in the EGF molecule have been initiated by utilizing site-directed mutagenesis.

  6. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck cancer: its role and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michel; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2006-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the ErbB family of receptors. Its stimulation by endogenous ligands, EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) results in activation of intracellular tyrosine kinase, therefore, cell cycle progression. High levels of EGFR expression are correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation therapy in a variety of cancers, mostly in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Blocking the EGFR by a monoclonal antibody results in inhibition of the stimulation of the receptor, therefore, in inhibition of cell proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, and reduced angiogenesis, invasiveness and metastases. The EGFR is a prime target for new anticancer therapy in SCCHN, and other agents in development include small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antisense therapies. PMID:16722544

  7. Construction of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) phage library and identification of high binders of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by phage display.

    PubMed

    Tang, X B; Dallaire, P; Hoyt, D W; Sykes, B D; O'Connor-McCourt, M; Malcolm, B A

    1997-10-01

    TGF-alpha, a 50 amino acid growth factor containing 3 disulfide bonds, was fused to the N-terminal domain of the pIII protein of fusN, a derivative of phagemid fd-tet, to form a TGF-alpha phage. The fusion phage showed binding activity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A library of approximately 4 x 10(7) variants of TGF-alpha was generated with substitutions of total of 10 amino acids located in the C-loop region. This C-loop subdomain of TGF-alpha consists of a small antiparallel double hairpin structure involving interactions between intra-polypeptide segments. Mutants isolated from the phage library with greatly increased binding affinity were selected through panning with A431 cells (a cell line expressing an elevated number of EGFRs). Following two rounds of stringent selection, variant phages with higher binding affinity than wild type TGF-alpha were identified and the phage DNAs were sequenced for the alignment analysis. Absolute selection at position 42 as Arg, preferential selection at position 38 and 45 as Tyr or Phe with aromatic side chain and selection at position 41 with acidic residues, were obtained. Although an amino acid residue with smaller side chain at position 35 and one with larger side chain at position 36 were preferred, the steric hindering of the structure in side chains was minimized between these adjacent amino acids.

  8. Proliferative response and oncogene expression induced by epidermal growth factor in EL2 rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liboi, E; Pelosi, E; Testa, U; Peschle, C; Rossi, G B

    1986-06-01

    Extensive evidence supports a two-step model for the control of fibroblast growth, which includes first the action of a competence factor (e.g., platelet-derived growth factor) followed by the stimulus of a progression factor (e.g., epidermal growth factor [EGF]). We investigated whether this model may be applied to the euploid EL2 fibroblast line recently isolated from rat embryos (E. Liboi, M. Caruso, and C. Basilico, Mol. Cell. Biol. 4:2925-2928, 1984). Our results clearly show that EGF alone leads EL2 cells to proliferate in serum-free conditions at a rate corresponding to 50 to 60% of that observed in the presence of 10% calf serum. It is of interest that, when resting EL2 cells were exposed to EGF, transcription of both c-myc and c-fos was markedly induced. Altogether, these observations suggest that, in contrast with the model of fibroblast growth mentioned above, EL2 cells require the presence of a single growth factor (EGF) for induction of DNA synthesis, and the expression of myc and fos proto-oncogenes may represent an obligatory step in the pathway of commitment of EL2 cells to proliferation. In addition, we showed that EGF may induce EL2 cells to acquire some properties of transformed cells, such as growth in agar and loss of contact inhibition. This suggests that the particular response to EGF of the EL2 line may be strictly connected with the expression of a transformed phenotype.

  9. The kinetics of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Iloro, Ibon; Narváez, Daniel; Guillén, Nancy; Camacho, Carlos M; Guillén, Lalisse; Cora, Elsa; Pastrana-Ríos, Belinda

    2008-05-15

    Five highly homologous epidermal growth factor receptor ligands were studied by mass spectral analysis, hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation analysis. These studies were performed to determine the order of events during the exchange process, the extent of H/D exchange, and associated kinetics of exchange for a comparative analysis of these ligands. Furthermore, the secondary structure composition of amphiregulin (AR) and heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) was determined. All ligands were found to have similar contributions of 3(10)-helix and random coil with varying contributions of beta-sheets and beta-turns. The extent of exchange was 40%, 65%, 55%, 65%, and 98% for EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), AR, HB-EGF, and epiregulin (ER), respectively. The rate constants were determined and classified as fast, intermediate, and slow: for EGF the 0.20 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.09 min(-1) (Arg, beta-turns), and 1.88 x 10(-3) min(-1) (beta-sheets and 3(10)-helix); and for TGF-alpha 0.91 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.27 min(-1) (Arg, beta-turns), and 1.41 x 10(-4) min(-1) (beta-sheets). The time constants for AR 0.47 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.04 min(-1) (Arg), and 1.00 x 10(-4) min(-1) (buried 3(10)-helix, beta-turns, and beta-sheets); for HB-EGF 0.89 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.14 min(-1) (Arg and 3(10)-helix), and 1.00 x 10(-3) min(-1) (buried 3(10)-helix, beta-sheets, and beta-turns); and for epiregulin 0.16 min(-1) (Tyr), 0.03 min(-1) (Arg), and 1.00 x 10(-4) min(-1) (3(10)-helix and beta-sheets). These results provide essential information toward understanding secondary structure, H/D exchange kinetics, and solvation of these epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in their unbound state.

  10. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, Hakan; Liman, Narin; Saruhan, Berna Güney; Küçükaslan, İbrahim

    2014-06-30

    In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus.

  11. Ricinus communis-based biopolymer and epidermal growth factor regulations on bone defect repair: A rat tibia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Barrera, C.; Meléndez-Lira, M.; Altuzar, V.; Tomás, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report the effect of the addition of an epidermal growth factor to a Ricinus communis-based biopolymer in the healing of a rat tibia model. Bone repair and osteointegration after a period of three weeks were evaluated employing photoacoustic spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. A parallel study was performed at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We conclude that the use of an epidermal growth factor (group EGF) in vivo accelerates the process of bony repair in comparison with other groups, and that the employment of the Ricinus communis-based biopolymer as a bone substitute decreases bone production.

  12. Role of DNA endoreduplication, lipotubuloids, and gibberellic acid in epidermal cell growth during fruit development of Ornithogalum umbellatum.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Maria; Poplonska, Katarzyna; Kazmierczak, Andrzej; Stepinski, Dariusz; Rogala, Katarzyna; Polewczyk, Katarzyna

    2007-01-01

    Cytophotometry of individual nuclei was used to examine the level of endoreduplication in epidermal cells from the upper and lower parts of the ovary during Ornithogalum umbellatum flower and fruit development. An increase in DNA content from 2-4C to 2-8C in both parts of the ovary was observed, while the epidermal cell surface area grew about 6-fold and 15-fold in the lower and upper parts of the ovary, respectively. However, the correlation between mean epidermal cell size and ploidy was distinct during epidermis growth. Lipotubuloids became bigger in the upper than in the lower part during ovary and fruit development. In addition, more dynamic growth of the epidermal cells of the upper than of the lower part of the ovary was connected to the higher content of gibberellic acid. A hypothesis has been put forward that the role of DNA endoreduplication in epidermal cell growth was modulated by the function of lipotubuloids and the gradient of gibberellin.

  13. Epidermal growth factor-induced hydrogen peroxide production is mediated by dual oxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Sirokmány, Gábor; Pató, Anna; Zana, Melinda; Donkó, Ágnes; Bíró, Adrienn; Nagy, Péter; Geiszt, Miklós

    2016-08-01

    Stimulation of mammalian cells by epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicits complex signaling events, including an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Understanding the significance of this response is limited by the fact that the source of EGF-induced H2O2 production is unknown. Here we show that EGF-induced H2O2 production in epidermal cell lines is dependent on the agonist-induced calcium signal. We analyzed the expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms and found both A431 and HaCaT cells to express the calcium-sensitive NADPH oxidase, Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) and its protein partner Duox activator 1 (DuoxA1). Inhibition of Duox1 expression by small interfering RNAs eliminated EGF-induced H2O2 production in both cell lines. We also demonstrate that H2O2 production by Duox1 leads to the oxidation of thioredoxin-1 and the cytosolic peroxiredoxins. Our observations provide evidence for a new signaling paradigm in which changes of intracellular calcium concentration are transformed into redox signals through the calcium-dependent activation of Duox1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors trigger a type I interferon response in human skin

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is centrally involved in the regulation of key processes of the epithelia, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and also tumorigenesis. Humanized antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors targeting EGFR were developed to disrupt these functions in cancer cells and are currently used in the treatment of diverse metastatic epithelial cancers. By contrast, these drugs possess significant skin-specific toxic effects, comprising the establishment of a persistent inflammatory milieu. So far, the molecular mechanisms underlying these epiphenomena have been investigated rather poorly. Here we showed that keratinocytes respond to anti-EGFR drugs with the development of a type I interferon molecular signature. Upregulation of the transcription factor IRF1 is early implicated in the enhanced expression of interferon-kappa, leading to persistent activation of STAT1 and further amplification of downstream interferon-induced genes, including anti-viral effectors and chemokines. When anti-EGFR drugs are associated to TNF-α, whose expression is enhanced by the drugs themselves, all these molecular events undergo a dramatic enhancement by synergy mechanisms. Finally, high levels of interferon-kappa can be observed in epidermal keratinocytes and also in leukocytes infiltrating the upper dermis of cetuximab-driven skin lesions. Our data suggest that dysregulated activation of type I interferon innate immunity is implicated in the molecular processes triggered by anti-EGFR drugs and leading to persistent skin inflammation. PMID:27322144

  15. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  16. An Integrated Model of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking and Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Resat, Haluk; Ewald, Jonathan A.; Dixon, David A.; Wiley, H. Steven

    2003-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking of many types of receptors can have profound effects on subsequent signaling events. Quantitative models of these processes, however, have usually considered trafficking and signaling independently. Here, we present an integrated model of both the trafficking and signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using a probability weighted-dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. Our model consists of hundreds of distinct endocytic compartments and ∼13,000 reactions/events that occur over a broad spatio-temporal range. By using a realistic multicompartment model, we can investigate the distribution of the receptors among cellular compartments as well as their potential signal transduction characteristics. Our new model also allows the incorporation of physiochemical aspects of ligand-receptor interactions, such as pH-dependent binding in different endosomal compartments. To determine the utility of this approach, we simulated the differential activation of the EGFR by two of its ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α). Our simulations predict that when EGFR is activated with TGF-α, receptor activation is biased toward the cell surface whereas EGF produces a signaling bias toward the endosomal compartment. Experiments confirm these predictions from our model and simulations. Our model accurately predicts the kinetics and extent of receptor downregulation induced by either EGF or TGF-α. Our results suggest that receptor trafficking controls the compartmental bias of signal transduction, rather than simply modulating signal magnitude. Our model provides a new approach to evaluating the complex effect of receptor trafficking on signal transduction. Importantly, the stochastic and compartmental nature of the simulation allows these models to be directly tested by high-throughput approaches, such as quantitative image analysis. PMID:12885624

  17. Rotational diffusion of receptors for epidermal growth factor measured by time-resolved phosphorescence depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidovetzki, Raphael; Johnson, David A.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    1991-06-01

    The cell surface receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is one of the most studied integral membrane proteins. The receptor is widely distributed in cells and tissues of mammalian and avian tissues and plays an important role in growth control. Binding of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGFR initiates a complex biological response, which includes self-phosphorylation of the receptor due to an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, phosphorylation of other membrane proteins, increased intake of metabolites, and increased proliferation. Complete amino acid sequence of EGFR revealed a high degree of homology with viral oncogenes and allowed tentative identification of an external hormone binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain that includes tyrosine kinase activity. EGF binding induces rapid aggregation of EGFR, a process which was also observed on other receptor systems. These and other observations led to a hypothesis that microaggregation of EGFR is a necessary prerequisite for the biological response of EGF. A direct approach to study the processes of oligomerization of cell membrane proteins is to measure their mobility under various conditions. The lateral mobility of the EGFR was studied on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and on A431 cells. However, an examination of the equations for the lateral and rotational diffusion in membranes shows that only rotational diffusion is strongly dependent on the size of the diffusing entity. A method of measuring protein rotational diffusion by time-resolved phosphorescence has proved to be very useful in the analysis of both in vivo and in vitro systems. The authors apply this method to study the mobility of EGFR on living A431 cells and membrane preparations.

  18. Discovery of Novel Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitors by Structure-based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Yu, Tian; Sun, Rong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Li-Jia; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is a trans-membrane receptor like protein, and aberrant signaling of HER2 is implicated in many human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, most notably breast cancer. Moreover, it has been in the spotlight in the recent years as a promising new target for therapy of breast cancer. Objective: Since virtual screening has become an integral part of the drug discovery process, it is of great significant to identify novel HER2 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening. Materials and Methods: In this study, we carried out a series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, such as virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify HER2 inhibitors from Food and Drug Administration-approved small molecule drug as potential “new use” drugs. Results: Molecular docking identified top 10 potential drugs which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Moreover, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) might exert potential inhibitory effects against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Conclusion: Together, our findings may provide successful application of virtual screening studies in the lead discovery process, and suggest that our discovered small molecules could be effective HER2 inhibitor candidates for further study. SUMMARY A series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, including virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were took advantage to identify human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors. Molecular docking recognized top 10 candidate compounds, which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Further, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) in candidate compounds were identified as potential “new use” drugs against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Abbreviations used: HER2: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2

  19. Epidermal growth factor released in human dental pulp following orthodontic force.

    PubMed

    Derringer, Kathryn; Linden, Roger

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the role of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the angiogenic response of the dental pulp to orthodontic force. The release of angiogenic growth factor EGF in human dental pulp following orthodontic force application was examined using neutralizing antibody anti-human (anti-h) EGF to block its effects. The dental pulps from 10 premolar teeth from 10 patients (equal numbers of males and females aged 11-14 years), treated with a straightwire fixed appliance for 2 weeks and extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided vertically, and sections from each half-pulp were individually co-cultured with a section of rat aorta in collagen surrounded by growth media. Anti-h EGF was added to the media of the co-cultures from one-half of each pulp from each tooth from each patient; the remaining co-cultures from the other half of each pulp without anti-h EGF were used as the controls. Cultures were examined daily by light microscopy for angiogenic growth and number of microvessels. The addition of anti-h EGF to the growth media in the co-cultures resulted in a significant reduction (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed rank test) in pulpal and rat aorta microvessel numbers, compared with the control co-cultures. The results indicate that EGF released following orthodontic force application plays a part in the angiogenic response of the pulp.

  20. Cbl competitively inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase C-gamma1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Song, Hebok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Cocco, Lucio; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2003-04-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) plays pivotal roles in cellular growth and proliferation through its two Src homology (SH) 2 domains and its single SH3 domain, which interact with signaling molecules in response to various growth factors and hormones. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced regulation of PLC-gamma1 is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis we have identified Cbl as a binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 from rat pheochromatocyte PC12 cells. Association of Cbl with PLC-gamma1 was induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by nerve growth factor (NGF). Upon EGF stimulation, both Cbl and PLC-gamma1 were recruited to the activated EGF receptor through their SH2 domains. Mutation of the SH2 domains of either Cbl or PLC-gamma1 abrogated the EGF-induced interaction of PLC-gamma1 with Cbl, indicating that SH2-mediated translocation is essential for the association of PLC-gamma1 and Cbl. Overexpression of Cbl attenuated EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of PLC-gamma1 by interfering competitively with the interaction between PLC-gamma1 and EGFR. Taken together, these results provide the first indications that Cbl may be a negative regulator of intracellular signaling following EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation.

  1. The F-BAR Protein PACSIN2 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Anthony, Eloise C.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor receptors can lead to disturbed signaling. Intracellular trafficking is crucial for proper signaling of growth factor receptors. As a result, the level of cell surface expression of growth factor receptors is an important determinant for the outcome of downstream signaling. BAR domain-containing proteins represent an important family of proteins that regulate membrane dynamics. In this study, we identify a novel role for the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 in the regulation of EGF receptor signaling. We show that internalized EGF as well as the (activated) EGF receptor translocated to PACSIN2-positive endosomes. Furthermore, loss of PACSIN2 increased plasma membrane expression of the EGF receptor in resting cells and increased EGF-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. As a consequence, EGF-induced activation of Erk and Akt as well as cell proliferation were enhanced in PACSIN2-depleted cells. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel role for the F-BAR-domain protein PACSIN2 in regulating EGF receptor surface levels and EGF-induced downstream signaling. PMID:23129763

  2. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM.

  3. Rational identification of an optimal antibody mixture for targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed, Klaus; Steinaa, Lucilla; Søderberg, Josefine Nielsen; Kjær, Ida; Jacobsen, Helle Jane; Meijer, Per-Johan; Haurum, John Sørensen; Jensen, Allan; Kragh, Michael; Andersen, Peter Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently dysregulated in human malignancies and a validated target for cancer therapy. Two monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies (cetuximab and panitumumab) are approved for clinical use. However, the percentage of patients responding to treatment is low and many patients experiencing an initial response eventually relapse. Thus, the need for more efficacious treatments remains. Previous studies have reported that mixtures of antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes are more effective than single mAbs at inhibiting growth of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The current work describes the rational approach that led to discovery and selection of a novel anti-EGFR antibody mixture Sym004, which is currently in Phase 2 clinical testing. Twenty-four selected anti-EGFR antibodies were systematically tested in dual and triple mixtures for their ability to inhibit cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. The results show that targeting EGFR dependent cancer cells with mixtures of antibodies is superior at inhibiting their growth both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, antibody mixtures targeting non-overlapping epitopes on domain III are efficient and indeed Sym004 is composed of two monoclonal antibodies targeting this domain. The superior growth inhibitory activity of mixtures correlated with their ability to induce efficient EGFR degradation. PMID:22123060

  4. Epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors collaborate to induce multiple biological responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Accornero, P; Martignani, E; Miretti, S; Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Baratta, M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to explore whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could increase the biological responses of a mammary epithelial cell line of bovine origin when added simultaneously. We also investigated a possible molecular mechanism underlying this cooperation. The development of mammary gland requires several circulating and locally produced hormones. Hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET), are expressed and temporally regulated during mammary development and differentiation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands have also been implicated in the growth and morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium. Both EGF and HGF seem to exert a morphogenic program in this tissue; therefore, we hypothesized that these cytokines could act cooperatively in bovine mammary epithelial cells. We have already shown that the bovine BME-UV cell line, a nontumorigenic mammary epithelial line, expresses both MET and EGF receptor. Simultaneous treatment with HGF and EGF elicited an increase in proliferation, dispersion, degradation of extracellular matrix, and motility. Following EGF treatment, BME-UV mammary cells exhibited an increase in MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Long-term treatment of BME-UV cells with HGF and EGF together increased the level of activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B signaling pathways when compared with HGF or EGF alone. These data outline a possible cooperative role of the EGF and HGF pathways and indicate that cross-talk between their respective receptors may modulate mammary gland development in the cow.

  5. Cetuximab Inhibits T790M-Mediated Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in a Lung Adenocarcinoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Petra; Stewart, Erin; Pham, Nhu-An; Mascaux, Celine; Panchal, Devang; Li, Ming; Kim, Lucia; Sakashita, Shingo; Wang, Dennis; Sykes, Jenna; Friess, Thomas; Shepherd, Frances A; Liu, Geoffrey; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2016-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain T790M (amino acid substitution at position 790 in EGFR from threonine [T] to methionine [M]) mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) results in resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We used a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model containing an EGFR exon 19 deletion/T790M mutation to assess response to the EGFR-directed antibody cetuximab. Changes in the EGFR signaling pathway and ligand expression after treatment were investigated. PDX were randomized into control and treatment arms. Pharmacodynamic studies were performed at 2 and 24 hours and at 4 days after a single administration of cetuximab, erlotinib, or dacomitinib. Changes in the EGFR signaling pathway were assessed using Western blot analysis, and baseline mRNA expression of EGFR ligands using microarray analysis. Relative changes after treatment were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The xenograft showed a dramatic response to cetuximab. A complete reduction of total EGFR and phosphorylated EGFR occurred after cetuximab treatment. The PDX had increased baseline levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) compared with other PDX models with or without EGFR mutations. Amphiregulin was significantly reduced 2 hours after treatment with cetuximab. Compared with control mice, cetuximab- and EGFR-TKI-treated mice had significantly reduced HB-EGF gene expression at 2 hours, however, by day 4 the level of HB-EGF expression was higher. The effect of cetuximab compared with EGFR TKI on HB-EGF gene expression levels differed significantly at 2 and 24 hours but not at 4 days. We showed a dramatic tumor response with cetuximab in an exon 19 deletion/T790M EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma PDX model, which suggests a role for the autocrine feedback loop in the mutant EGFR signaling pathway. Further investigation using cetuximab in NSCLC with T790M mutation is warranted. Copyright

  6. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer.

  7. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor induces sequestration of extracellular signal-related kinases and selective attenuation of specific epidermal growth factor-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Habib, Amyn A; Chun, Soo Jin; Neel, Benjamin G; Vartanian, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in cancer and correlates with neoplastic progression. Although the biology of this receptor has been the subject of intense investigation, surprisingly little is known about how increased expression of the wild-type EGFR affects downstream signal transduction in cells. We show that increasing the expression of the receptor results in dramatic shifts in signaling with attenuation of EGF-induced Ras, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and Akt activation, as well as amplification of STAT1 and STAT3 signaling. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling and present evidence suggesting that the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling in EGFR-overexpressing cells is a sequestration of ERKs at the cell membrane in EGFR-containing complexes. Increased expression of the EGFR results in an aberrant localization of ERKs to the cell membrane. Furthermore, ERKs become associated with the EGFR in a physical complex in EGFR-overexpressing cells but not in control cells. The EGFR-ERK association is detected in unstimulated cells or on exposure to a low concentration of EGF; under these conditions, ERK activation is minimal. Exposure of these cells to saturating concentrations of EGF results in a decreased membrane localization of ERKs, a concomitant dissociation of ERKs from the EGFR, and restores ERK activation. A similar association can be detected between the EGFR and MEK1 in receptor-overexpressing cells, suggesting that multiple components of the ERK signaling pathway may become trapped in complexes with the EGFR. These findings can be demonstrated in cells transfected to express high levels of the EGFR as well as in cancer cells which naturally overexpress the EGFR and, thus, may be representative of altered EGFR signaling in human cancer.

  8. Salinity stiffens the epidermal cell walls of salt-stressed maize leaves: is the epidermis growth-restricting?

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H; Kutschera, Ulrich; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2015-01-01

    As a result of salt (NaCl)-stress, sensitive varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) respond with a strong inhibition of organ growth. The reduction of leaf elongation investigated here has several causes, including a modification of the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Among the various tissues that form the leaf, the epidermis plays a special role in controlling organ growth, because it is thought to form a rigid outer leaf coat that can restrict elongation by interacting with the inner cell layers. This study was designed to determine whether growth-related changes in the leaf epidermis and its cell wall correspond to the overall reduction in cell expansion of maize leaves during an osmotic stress-phase induced by salt treatment. Two different maize varieties contrasting in their degree of salt resistance (i.e., the hybrids Lector vs. SR03) were compared in order to identify physiological features contributing to resistance towards salinity. Wall loosening-related parameters, such as the capacity of the epidermal cell wall to expand, β-expansin abundance and apoplastic pH values, were analysed. Our data demonstrate that, in the salt-tolerant maize hybrid which maintained leaf growth under salinity, the epidermal cell wall was more extensible under salt stress. This was associated with a shift of the epidermal apoplastic pH into a range more favourable for acid growth. The more sensitive hybrid that displayed a pronounced leaf growth-reduction was shown to have stiffer epidermal cell walls under stress. This may be attributable to the reduced abundance of cell wall-loosening β-expansin proteins following a high salinity-treatment in the nutrient solution (100 mM NaCl, 8 days). This study clearly documents that salt stress impairs epidermal wall-loosening in growth-reduced maize leaves.

  9. Salinity Stiffens the Epidermal Cell Walls of Salt-Stressed Maize Leaves: Is the Epidermis Growth-Restricting?

    PubMed Central

    Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H.; Kutschera, Ulrich; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2015-01-01

    As a result of salt (NaCl)-stress, sensitive varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) respond with a strong inhibition of organ growth. The reduction of leaf elongation investigated here has several causes, including a modification of the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Among the various tissues that form the leaf, the epidermis plays a special role in controlling organ growth, because it is thought to form a rigid outer leaf coat that can restrict elongation by interacting with the inner cell layers. This study was designed to determine whether growth-related changes in the leaf epidermis and its cell wall correspond to the overall reduction in cell expansion of maize leaves during an osmotic stress-phase induced by salt treatment. Two different maize varieties contrasting in their degree of salt resistance (i.e., the hybrids Lector vs. SR03) were compared in order to identify physiological features contributing to resistance towards salinity. Wall loosening-related parameters, such as the capacity of the epidermal cell wall to expand, β-expansin abundance and apoplastic pH values, were analysed. Our data demonstrate that, in the salt-tolerant maize hybrid which maintained leaf growth under salinity, the epidermal cell wall was more extensible under salt stress. This was associated with a shift of the epidermal apoplastic pH into a range more favourable for acid growth. The more sensitive hybrid that displayed a pronounced leaf growth-reduction was shown to have stiffer epidermal cell walls under stress. This may be attributable to the reduced abundance of cell wall-loosening β-expansin proteins following a high salinity-treatment in the nutrient solution (100 mM NaCl, 8 days). This study clearly documents that salt stress impairs epidermal wall-loosening in growth-reduced maize leaves. PMID:25760715

  10. Identification of a minimal promoter element of the mouse epidermal growth factor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Pascall, J C; Brown, K D

    1997-01-01

    We have previously generated a transgenic mouse line (EGF/Tag) in which simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen expression is directed by the mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene promoter. In these mice, cellular hyperproliferation is observed in the submaxillary gland associated with SV40 T-antigen expression. In addition, SV40 T-antigen-expressing tumours of prostatic origin are seen. We have now derived immortalized cell lines from these tissues and have used the cells to perform a functional analysis of the EGF gene promoter. Cells were transfected with EGF promoter/reporter constructs, and an element located between 51 and 35 bases upstream of the EGF mRNA start site required for basal activity of the promoter was identified. Electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis suggests that three proteins bind to this region, one of which is either Sp1 or a closely related protein. PMID:9210411

  11. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Başaran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples.

  12. A Premature Termination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcription in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Elloumi-Mseddi, Jihene; Jellali, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Our success in producing an active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli encouraged us to express the full-length receptor in the same host. Despite its large size, we were successful at producing the full-length EGFR protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) that was detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, we obtained a majoritarian truncated GST-EGFR form detectable by gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This truncated protein was purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to belong to the N-terminal extracellular region of the EGFR fused to GST. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts suggesting the occurrence of a transcriptional arrest. PMID:25389535

  13. Effective Delivery of Doxycycline and Epidermal Growth Factor for Expedited Healing of Chronic Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Abhilash

    The problems and high medical costs associated with chronic wounds necessitate an economical bioactive wound dressing. A new strategy was investigated to inhibit MMP-9 proteases and to release epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance healing. Doxycycline (DOX) and EGF were encapsulated on polyacrylic acid modified polyurethane film (PAA-PU) using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly. The number of bilayers tuned the concentration of DOX and EGF released over time with over 94% bioactivity of EGF retained over 4 days. A simple wound model in which MMP-9 proteases were added to cell culture containing fibroblast cells demonstrated that DOX inhibited the proteases providing a protective environment for the released EGF to stimulate cell migration and proliferation at a faster healing rate. In the presence of DOX, only small amounts of the highly bioactive EGF are sufficient to close the wound. Results show that this is new and promising bioactive dressing for effective wound management.

  14. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor and metastatic colorectal cancer: Insights into target therapies

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Ramon Andrade; Marques, Andrea Marin; Araújo, António

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has high incidence and mortality worldwide. In 2012, CRC was the second most prevalent cancer among males (9%) and the third among females (8%). In recent decades, standard chemotherapies protocols combining 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin were important for improve survival in this set of patients. Further, biological drugs throughout epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways showed interesting results in metastatic disease (mCRC) control when in association to standard chemotherapy regimens. Cetuximab and panitumumab are two cornerstones for mCRC treatment and are both approved in Europe and United States based on previous results phase III trials. This paper will briefly summarize those anti-EGFR therapies framework in mCRC and discusses some issues in this regard. PMID:24151349

  16. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogels in artificial tears

    PubMed Central

    PALUS, JENNIFER S.; CHAY, EDWARD Y.; HEALEY, JEFFREY; SULLENBERGER, REBECCA; KLARLUND, JES K.

    2008-01-01

    Most formulations of artificial tears include high-molecular weight hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels) that are usually thought to serve to enhance viscosity and to act as demulcents. A few reports have indicated that application of some of the polymers accelerates healing of wounds in epithelia. Since activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is critical for spontaneous corneal epithelial wound healing, we tested commonly used hydrogels for their ability to activate the EGF receptor and enhance closure of wounds. Five structurally unrelated hydrogels used in artificial tears were found to activate the EGF receptor. Importantly, two of the hydrogels enhanced wound healing in an organ culture model. We propose that the efficacy of hydrogels in treating dry eye may be related to their ability to activate the EGF receptor, and that hydrogels are inexpensive, safe agents to promote healing of wounds in the cornea and possibly in other tissues. PMID:18242602

  17. Studying the Stoichiometry of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Intact Cells using Correlative Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-09-11

    This protocol describes the labeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on COS7 fibroblast cells, and subsequent correlative fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state. Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) were coupled to EGFR via a two-step labeling protocol, providing an efficient and specific protein labeling, while avoiding label-induced clustering of the receptor. Fluorescence microscopy provided overview images of the cellular locations of the EGFR. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector was used to detect the QD labels with nanoscale resolution. The resulting correlative images provide data of the cellular EGFR distribution, and the stoichiometry at the single molecular level in the natural context of the hydrated intact cell. ESEM-STEM images revealed the receptor to be present as monomer, as homodimer, and in small clusters. Labeling with two different QDs, i.e., one emitting at 655 nm and at 800 revealed similar characteristic results.

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32-56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general.

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in canine mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Gama, A; Gärtner, F; Alves, A; Schmitt, F

    2009-12-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) has been extensively studied in human breast cancer; however, systematic studies of EGFR protein expression in canine mammary gland tumours are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated its immunohistochemical expression in a series of 136 canine mammary tumours and representative areas of adjacent normal and hyperplastic mammary tissue and investigated a possible correlation between EGFR overexpression and several clinicopathological parameters and survival. In normal and hyperplastic canine mammary glands, EGFR expression was consistently observed in myoepithelial cells, with luminal cells usually negative. In tumour tissues, EGFR overexpression was found in 9 benign (19.6%) and 38 malignant (42.2%) lesions, with EGFR positivity significantly related with malignancy. Besides animal age and tumour size, there were no significant associations between other clinicopathological parameters and EGFR overexpression. On survival analysis, tumours with EGFR overexpression showed a reduced disease-free and overall survival; however these associations failed to reach statistically significant levels.

  20. Study of the biological effectiveness of a nanosilver-epidermal growth factor sustained-release carrier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-DA; Wang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Chun-Jiao; Cao, Ke; Liu, Jin-Yan; Chen, Yao; Chen, Feng-Hua

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biological effectiveness and character of a nanosilver-epidermal growth factor (EGF) sustained-release carrier. This was synthesized using the self-assembly method and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy and UV spectrophotometry. The biological activity of the sustained release carrier was determined through cytological, bacteriological and wound-healing experiments. The results showed that the nanosilver-EGF sustained-release carrier was well dispersed with uniform particle size and that it had good antibacterial properties similar to those of nanosilver. The nanosilver-EGF sustained-release carrier is superior to EGFs in effectively promoting cell division and proliferation. The results of the wound-healing experiments provide evidence of its curative effects.

  1. Trophic action of epidermal growth factor on the pancreas and gastroduodenal mucosa in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, A; Gregory, H; Konturek, S J; Polański, M

    1982-01-01

    1. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) infused subcutaneously in a dose of 10 micrograms/kg . h but not 1 microgram/kg . h inhibited spontaneous gastric acid and pepsin secretion, whereas when given intragastrically in a dose of 10 micrograms/kg . h it failed to affect this secretion. 2. EGF injected intraperitoneally at 8 h intervals for 24 h significantly stimulated DNA synthesis in the gastroduodenal mucosa and the pancreas, whereas when administered intragastrically it stimulated DNA synthesis only in the gastroduodenal mucosa but not in the pancreas. 3. Chronic parenteral administration of EGF significantly increased the DNA and RNA contents of the gastroduodenal mucosa and the pancreas. 4. This study demonstrates that parenteral EGF is a potent inhibitor of gastric secretion and trophic agent for the gastroduodenal mucosa and pancreas, and that the gastric inhibitory and trophic effects of EGF are the results of two separate mechanisms. PMID:6180163

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation: Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Potential Therapies in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; O'Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation impacts the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is called transactivation and is well described, yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight recent advancements in defining the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation in the cardiovascular renal system. We also focus on studies that link EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease, and we discuss potential therapeutic applications.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor localized to exosome membranes as a possible biomarker for lung cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kamada, H; Kanasaki, S; Maeda, Y; Nagano, K; Abe, Y; Inoue, M; Yoshioka, Y; Tsutsumi, Y; Katayama, S; Inoue, M; Tsunoda, S

    2013-12-01

    Detection of drug-target proteins and biomarkers that are expressed in cancer tissue has significant potential for both diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, current immuno-histochemical and cytogenetic analyses of biopsy specimens for pre-operational diagnosis are highly invasive and often difficult to apply to lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible utility of determining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression on exosomal membranes using a targeted ELISA with an anti-CD81 antibody as a capture antibody for lung cancer diagnosis. While soluble EGFR (sEGFR) levels in plasma were not remarkably different between lung cancer patients and normal controls, significantly higher exosomal EGFR expression levels were observed in 5/9 cancer cases compared to normal controls. These results suggest that measurement of exosomal protein levels could be useful for in vitro diagnosis, and that exosomal EGFR is a possible biomarker for characterization of lung cancer.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Eder, Magdalena; Werner, Ulf; de Jonge, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Imaging single epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in intact cells is presently limited by the available microscopy methods. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of whole cells in hydrated state in combination with specific labeling with gold nanoparticles was used to localize activated EGFRs in the plasma membranes of COS7 and A549 cells. The use of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector yielded a spatial resolution of 3 nm, sufficient to identify the locations of individual EGFR dimer subunits. The sizes and distribution of dimers and higher order clusters of EGFRs were determined. The distance between labels bound to dimers amounted to 19 nm, consistent with a molecular model. A fraction of the EGFRs was found in higher order clusters with sizes ranging from 32–56 nm. ESEM can be used for quantitative whole cell screening studies of membrane receptors, and for the study of nanoparticle-cell interactions in general. PMID:24022088

  5. A transcription factor active on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, R; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I

    1988-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro transcription system for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene by using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce EGFR. We found that a nuclear factor, termed EGFR-specific transcription factor (ETF), specifically stimulated EGFR transcription by 5- to 10-fold. In this report, ETF, purified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, is shown by renaturing material eluted from a NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel to be a protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. ETF binds to the promoter region, as measured by DNase I "footprinting" and gel-mobility-shift assays, and specifically stimulates the transcription of the EGFR gene in a reconstituted in vitro transcription system. These results suggest that ETF could play a role in the overexpression of the cellular oncogene EGFR. Images PMID:3393529

  6. Heparin stimulates epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated phosphorylation of tyrosine and threonine residues.

    PubMed

    Revis-Gupta, S; Abdel-Ghany, M; Koland, J; Racker, E

    1991-07-15

    We have described previously that in extracts of A431 cells epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the phosphorylation of tyrosine as well as of threonine residues in the EGF receptor and in lipocortin 1. We now report that heparin at low concentrations also stimulates the autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor and of the recombinant 56-kDa domain of the EGF receptor that lacks the EGF binding site. To study the stimulations of phosphorylation of threonine residues, a fusion protein was prepared with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and an EGF receptor fragment, TK8 (residues 647-688), that contains the threonine phosphorylation site but no tyrosine. We show that the phosphorylation of threonine residues in GST-TK8 by extracts of A431 cells is stimulated by heparin but not by EGF. These and other results suggest that heparin acts as a chaperone, a substrate modulator, that enhances the susceptibility of the substrate to phosphorylation by protein kinases.

  7. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ahren, B.

    1987-07-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with /sup 125/I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of /sup 125/I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse.

  8. Recycling of epidermal growth factor in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Korc, M.; Magun, B.E.

    1985-09-01

    PANC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cells readily bound and internalized /sup 125/I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF). Bound /sup 125/I-labeled EGF was then partially processed to a number of high molecular weight acidic species. Percoll gradient centrifugation of cell homogenates indicated that the majority of /sup 125/I activity localized to several intracellular vesicular compartments. Both intact EGF and its processed species were subsequently released into the incubation medium. A major portion of the released radioactivity was capable of rebinding to the cell. Only a small amount of bound /sup 125/I-labeled EGF was degraded to low molecular weight products, and this degradation was completely blocked by methylamine. These findings suggest that in PANC-1 cells, bound EGF undergoes only limited processing. Both intact EGF and its major processed species bypass the cellular degradative pathways, are slowly released from the cell, and then rebind to the cell.

  9. Oropharyngeal cancers: relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor alterations and human papillomavirus status.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2014-04-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), particularly type 16, is now recognised as a causative agent in a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs). These tumours are on the increase and generally have a better prognosis than their HPV negative counterparts. This raises the question of de escalation therapy to reduce long term consequences in a younger cohort of patients with a long life expectancy. Several clinical trials with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies, particularly cetuximab, are ongoing. Few data exist on the relationship between EGFR and HPV induced oropharyngeal cancers. We summarise the main studies in relation to EGFR alterations (gene copy number, protein expression and mutations) and the impact on prognosis of HPV positive tumours that express high levels of EGFR. We also discuss the opportunity of targeting this pathway in light of recent studies.

  10. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  11. Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.

    PubMed

    Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

    2007-05-01

    We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system.

  12. QSAR and 3D QSAR of inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Bazurco, Mariano; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    This article reports quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and 3D QSAR models of 134 structurally diverse inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Free-Wilson analysis was used to derive the QSAR model. It identified the substituents in aniline, the polycyclic system, and the substituents at the 6- and 7-positions of the polycyclic system as the most important structural features. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used in the 3D QSAR modeling. The steric and electrostatic interactions proved the most important for the inhibitory effect. Both QSAR and 3D QSAR models led to consistent results. On the basis of the statistically significant models, new structures were proposed and their inhibitory activities were predicted.

  13. A GC-rich element confers epidermal growth factor responsiveness to transcription from the gastrin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, J L; Demediuk, B; Brand, S J

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha are important determinants of mucosal integrity in the gastrointestinal tract, and they act both directly and indirectly to prevent ulceration in the stomach. Consistent with this physiological role, EGF stimulates transcription of gastrin, a peptide hormone which regulates gastric acid secretion and mucosal growth. EGF stimulation of gastrin transcription is mediated by a GC-rich gastrin EGF response element (gERE) (GGGGCGGGGTGGGGGG) which lies between -54 and -68 in the human gastrin promoter. The gERE sequence also confers weaker responsiveness to phorbol ester stimulation. The gERE sequence differs from previously described EGF response elements. The gERE DNA sequence specifically interacts with a GH4 DNA-binding protein distinct from previously described transcription factors (Egr-1 and AP2) which bind GC-rich sequences and mediate transcriptional activation by growth factors. Furthermore, the gERE element does not bind the Sp1 transcription factor even though the gERE sequence contains a high-affinity Sp1-binding site (GGCGGG). Images PMID:2017173

  14. Epidermal growth factor and erythropoietin infusion accelerate functional recovery in combination with rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Matthew S; Hoyles, Amy; Morshead, Cindi; Corbett, Dale

    2014-06-01

    Rehabilitation is the only treatment option for chronic stroke deficits, but unfortunately, it often provides incomplete recovery. In this study, a novel combination of growth factor administration and rehabilitation therapy was used to facilitate functional recovery in a rat model of cortical stroke. Ischemia was induced via injection of endothelin-1 into the sensorimotor cortex. This was followed by either a 2-week infusion of epidermal growth factor and erythropoietin or artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the ipsilateral lateral ventricle. Two weeks after ischemia, animals began an 8-week enriched rehabilitation program. Functional recovery was assessed after ischemia using the Montoya staircase-reaching task, beam-traversing, and cylinder test of forelimb asymmetry. The combination of growth factor infusion and rehabilitation led to a significant acceleration in recovery in the staircase task. When compared with controls, animals receiving the combination treatment attained significant recovery of function at 4 weeks after stroke, whereas those receiving rehabilitation alone did not recover until 10 weeks. Significant recovery was also observed on the beam-traversing and cylinder tasks. Combining behavioral rehabilitation with growth factor infusion accelerates motor recovery. These data suggest a promising new avenue of combination therapies that may have the potential to reduce the rehabilitation time necessary to recover from sensorimotor deficits arising from stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Triple Negative and Nontriple Negative Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Changavi, Arathi A; Shashikala, Arundhathi; Ramji, Ashwini S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The panel of markers used for molecular classification include estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2/neu, p53, Bcl-2 and basal markers like cytokeratin 5/6 or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Among these, EGFR plays an important role and is associated with bad prognosis. Aims and Objectives: To study EGFR expression in triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) and non-TNBCs (NTNBCs). Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of breast carcinomas were classified and graded according to World Health Organization and Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) system, respectively. The age of the patients ranged from 28 to 69 years. Histological features such as necrosis, pushing borders, lymphocytic infiltrate and periductal elastosis were noted. The panel of markers used in our study included ER, PR, HER-2/neu and EGFR. EGFR expression was assessed based on membrane staining. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis to compare EGFR expression with hormonal status and prognostic factors. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age was 49.8 ± 7.2 years. There were 44 (88%) infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 3 (6%) medullary carcinoma and 3 (6%) mucinous carcinoma. EGFR expression was common in young patients and was predominant in TNBC (89.47%), was also expressed in few cases of NTNBC. There was a positive correlation of EGFR expression (P = 0.03491) with a high grade. Medullary carcinomas were triple negative and strongly expressed EGFR. EGFR expression was inversely associated with ER status and showed strong association with necrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate, but not with pushing border and periductal elastosis. Conclusion: EGFR is an important marker to stratify patients with breast cancer according to molecular classification. Its expression correlated positively with young age, higher SBR grade, necrosis, lymphocytic infiltrate and inversely with

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Triple Negative and Nontriple Negative Breast Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Changavi, Arathi A; Shashikala, Arundhathi; Ramji, Ashwini S

    2015-01-01

    The panel of markers used for molecular classification include estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2/neu, p53, Bcl-2 and basal markers like cytokeratin 5/6 or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Among these, EGFR plays an important role and is associated with bad prognosis. To study EGFR expression in triple negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) and non-TNBCs (NTNBCs). Fifty cases of breast carcinomas were classified and graded according to World Health Organization and Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) system, respectively. The age of the patients ranged from 28 to 69 years. Histological features such as necrosis, pushing borders, lymphocytic infiltrate and periductal elastosis were noted. The panel of markers used in our study included ER, PR, HER-2/neu and EGFR. EGFR expression was assessed based on membrane staining. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis to compare EGFR expression with hormonal status and prognostic factors. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean age was 49.8 ± 7.2 years. There were 44 (88%) infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 3 (6%) medullary carcinoma and 3 (6%) mucinous carcinoma. EGFR expression was common in young patients and was predominant in TNBC (89.47%), was also expressed in few cases of NTNBC. There was a positive correlation of EGFR expression (P = 0.03491) with a high grade. Medullary carcinomas were triple negative and strongly expressed EGFR. EGFR expression was inversely associated with ER status and showed strong association with necrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate, but not with pushing border and periductal elastosis. EGFR is an important marker to stratify patients with breast cancer according to molecular classification. Its expression correlated positively with young age, higher SBR grade, necrosis, lymphocytic infiltrate and inversely with hormonal receptor expression.

  17. Cloning, Expression, and Cost Effective Purification of Authentic Human Epidermal Growth Factor With High Activity.

    PubMed

    Pouranvari, Sara; Ebrahimi, Firouz; Javadi, Gholamreza; Maddah, Bozorgmehr

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a fundamental role in the healing of wounds relating to skin damage, the cornea, and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is the cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant human EGF (rhEGF), and an assessment of its activity. In the present experimental study, a synthetic pET28a (+) -hEGF construct was prepared. In order to ligate hEGF into pET24a (+), the PCR technique was performed, using special primers that possess restriction enzyme sites, which are also located in appropriate sites in pET24a (+). After transferring this construct into E. coli cells, protein expression was performed under standard conditions. Protein solubilization was done by urea. hEGF purification and refolding were carried out using gradient dialysis against the urea. We used RP-HPLC to compare between rhEGF and commercial rhEGF as a control. Finally, an MTT assay was performed to assess the viability of the NIH 3T3 cells treated with various concentrations of rhEGF. Dialysis after urea solubilization caused precipitation of unwanted proteins, resulting in achievement of purified EGF with > 90% purity, without the need for expensive and time-consuming process. The MTT assay results showed that our rhEGF activate significantly higher proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells in comparison to the control (P-values were < 0.0001), in total concentrations and times evaluated Via our purification protocol, a sufficient amount of bioactive recombinant human epidermal growth factor was obtained in just a few affordable steps, with superlative purity.

  18. Radiosensitizing effect of lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Min; Kim, Dan Hyo; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, however, it cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is known to increase the incidence of brain metastases. In contrast, lapatinib has a low molecular weight and can cross the BBB and it could be useful to treat brain metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. To explore the impact of lapatinib on radiation response, we conducted an in vitro experiment using SKBR3 and BT474 breast carcinoma cells exhibiting HER2/neu amplification. Lapatinib down-regulated phosphorylated (p)-HER2, p-epidermal growth factor receptor, p-AKT, and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Pretreatment of lapatinib increased the radiosensitivity of SKBR3 (sensitizer enhancement ratio [SER]: 1.21 at a surviving fraction of 0.5) and BT474 (SER: 1.26 at a surviving fraction of 0.5) cells and hindered the repair of DNA damage, as suggested by the prolongation of radiation-induced γH2AX foci and the down-regulation of phosphorylated DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (p-DNAPKcs). Increases in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence were suggested to be the major modes of cell death induced by the combination of lapatinib and radiation. Furthermore, lapatinib did not radiosensitize a HER2- negative breast cancer cell line or normal human astrocytes. These findings suggest that lapatinib can potentiate radiation-induced cell death in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and may increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. A phase II clinical trial using lapatinib concurrently with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is currently being conducted. PMID:27738326

  19. Management of dermatologic toxicities associated with monoclonal antibody epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: A case review

    PubMed Central

    Leporini, Christian; Saullo, Francesca; Filippelli, Gianfranco; Sorrentino, Antonio; Lucia, Maria; Perri, Gino; Gattuta, Gaetana La; Infusino, Stefania; Toscano, Rosa; Dima, Gianluca; Olivito, Virginia; Paletta, Laura; Bottoni, Ugo; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs), cetuximab and panitumumab, represent an effective treatment option for patients affected by metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC); furthermore, they are relatively devoid of systemic toxicities, which are commonly observed with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, the majority of patients treated with these monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), will experience dermatologic toxicities, most notably the papulopustular skin rash, which can impact quality-of-life and affect adherence to therapy. This paper reviews the most recent practices in the management of skin rash related to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mAbs, cetuximab and panitumumab, in the treatment of mCRC. Materials and Methods: We reviewed relevant literature regarding dermatologic toxicities associated with anti-EGFR mAbs in order to give important indications about prevention and reactive treatment of skin rash. Results: Two case reports were presented to show how skin rash could hamper mAb EGFRIs use in clinical practice, underscoring the need of implementing a comprehensive management strategy of skin toxicity in order to promote patients’ compliance with anti-EGFR therapy and maintain quality-of-life. Based on randomized data, recent guidelines established by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer Skin Toxicity Study Group suggest that prophylactic use of oral doxycycline or minocycline reduces the risk and severity of skin rash, improving clinical outcomes. Conclusions: At the start of treatment with cetuximab and panitumumab, the proper patient education about the skin rash associated with these mAbs and the implementation of a pre-emptive, comprehensive skin toxicity program significantly contribute to improve adherence to therapy, optimize anti-EGFR therapy and maintain quality-of-life. PMID:24347989

  20. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  1. Phase II trial of epidermal growth factor ointment for patients with Erlotinib-related skin effects.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Gyu; Kang, Jung Hun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Song, Ki-Hoon; Son, Choonhee; Park, Min Jae; Kang, Myung Hee; Kim, Hoon Gu; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Sun, Jong Mu; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jang, Joung-Soon; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of erlotinib, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been demonstrated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer (PC). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ointment on erlotinib-related skin effects (ERSEs). This was an open-label, non-comparative, multicenter, phase II trial. The patients included those diagnosed with NSCLC or PC who were treated with erlotinib. The effectiveness of the ointment was defined as follows: (1) grade 2, 3, or 4 ERSEs downgraded to ≤ grade 1 or (2) grade 3 or 4 ERSEs downgraded to grade 2 and persisted for at least 2 weeks. Fifty-two patients from seven institutes in Korea were enrolled with informed consent. The final assessment included 46 patients (30 males, 16 females). According to the definition of effectiveness, the EGF ointment was effective in 36 (69.2%) intention to treat patients. There were no statistically significant differences in the effectiveness of the EGF ointment by gender (p = 0.465), age (p = 0.547), tumor type (p = 0.085), erlotinib dosage (p = 0.117), and number of prior chemotherapy sessions (p = 0.547). The grading for the average National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) rating of rash/acne and itching improved from 2.02 ± 0.83 to 1.13 ± 0.89 and 1.52 ± 0.84 to 0.67 ± 0.90, respectively (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discontinuing the study was progression of cancer (37%). Based on the results, the EGF ointment is effective for ERSEs, regardless of gender, age, type of tumor, and dosage of erlotinib. The EGF ointment evenly improved all kinds of symptoms of ERSEs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01593995.

  2. Cloning, Expression, and Cost Effective Purification of Authentic Human Epidermal Growth Factor With High Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pouranvari, Sara; Ebrahimi, Firouz; Javadi, Gholamreza; Maddah, Bozorgmehr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a fundamental role in the healing of wounds relating to skin damage, the cornea, and the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives: The aim of this study is the cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant human EGF (rhEGF), and an assessment of its activity. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, a synthetic pET28a (+) -hEGF construct was prepared. In order to ligate hEGF into pET24a (+), the PCR technique was performed, using special primers that possess restriction enzyme sites, which are also located in appropriate sites in pET24a (+). After transferring this construct into E. coli cells, protein expression was performed under standard conditions. Protein solubilization was done by urea. hEGF purification and refolding were carried out using gradient dialysis against the urea. We used RP-HPLC to compare between rhEGF and commercial rhEGF as a control. Finally, an MTT assay was performed to assess the viability of the NIH 3T3 cells treated with various concentrations of rhEGF. Results: Dialysis after urea solubilization caused precipitation of unwanted proteins, resulting in achievement of purified EGF with > 90% purity, without the need for expensive and time-consuming process. The MTT assay results showed that our rhEGF activate significantly higher proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells in comparison to the control (P-values were < 0.0001), in total concentrations and times evaluated Conclusions: Via our purification protocol, a sufficient amount of bioactive recombinant human epidermal growth factor was obtained in just a few affordable steps, with superlative purity. PMID:27247796

  3. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10–12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  4. Platelet Derived Growth Factor-B and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kumudesh; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Khan, M Salman; Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is a gastro-intestinal cancer with high prevalence among north Indian women. Platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGFB) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) may play roles in the etiology of GBC through the inflammation-hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. To study the association of PDGFB and HER2 polymorphisms with risk of GBC, 200 cases and 300 controls were considered. PDGFB +286A>G and +1135A>C polymorphisms were investigated with an amplification refractory mutation system and the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant risk associations for PDGFB +286 GG (OR=5.25) and PDGFB +1135 CC (OR=3.19) genotypes were observed for GBC. Gender wise stratification revealed susceptibility for recessive models of PDGFB +1135A>C (OR=3.00) and HER2 Ile655Val (OR=2.52) polymorphisms among female GBC cases. GBC cases with gall stones were predisposed to homozygous +286 GG and +1135 CC genotypes. Significant risk associations were found for ACIle (OR=1.48), GAVal (OR=1.70), GAIle (OR=2.00) haplotypes with GBC cases and GCIle haplotype with female GBC cases (OR=10.37, P=<0.0001). Pair-wise linkage disequilibrium revealed negative associations among variant alleles. On multi-dimensional reduction analysis, a three factor model revealed significant gene-gene interaction for PDGFB +286A>G, PDGFB +1135A>C and HER2 Ile165Val SNPs with GBC. Protein-protein interaction showed significant association of PDGFB and HER2 with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

  5. Growth and development of maize that contains mutant tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Wick

    2004-07-23

    Mutant maize plants containing a Mu transposon disrupting one of the five beta tubulin genes of interest were followed for several generations and hybridized with each other to produce plants containing disruptions in both copies of a single gene or disruption of more than one tubulin gene. Seedlings of some of these plants were grown under chilling conditions for a few weeks. After DOE funding ended, plants have been assessed to see whether mutant are more or less tolerant to chilling. Other mutant plants will be assessed for their male and female fertility relative to non-mutant siblings or other close relatives.

  6. Chronic systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor in pigs causes pronounced urothelial growth with accumulation of glycoconjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Vinter-Jensen, L.; Juhl, C. O.; Djurhuus, J. C.; Poulsen, S. S.; Dajani, E. Z.; Brown, K. D.; Orntoft, T. F.; Teglbjaerg, P. S.; Nexø, E.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in large amounts in the urine, but the effects of systemically administered EGF on the urinary tract have not been described previously. In the present paper, we describe a potent growth induction of EGF on the urinary tract. Goettingen minipigs were treated with solvent (n = 5), EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day (n = 6) for 4 weeks, or EGF 30 micrograms/kg/day for 5 weeks followed by 3 weeks of recovery (n = 5). The ureters and bladders were examined by routine histology and electron microscopy and were immunostained for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Four weeks of EGF treatment increased the median cross sectional area of the ureter fourfold with growth of all wall layers. The urothelium was widened from 5 cell layers in the controls to 10 in the EGF-treated animals. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining revealed an increased mitotic activity in the basal zone of the urothelium. In the luminal zone, glycoconjugates accumulated in goblet cells, in cells with intracytoplasmic lumina, and beneath the luminal cell membrane in the umbrella cells. Our studies present a new experimental approach to growth induction of the urinary tract. The findings implicate the EGF system in regulating urothelial growth and glycoconjugate biosynthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7485396

  7. Ductal morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland: evidence supporting a role for epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S; Silberstein, G B; Daniel, C W

    1988-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent mitogen for a variety of cells in vitro, but studies on its effects in vivo and its possible role as a natural growth regulator are few. Using slow-release plastic implants, capable of delivering EGF to small regions of the gland over a period of several days, we have shown that EGF reinitiated ductal growth and morphogenesis in growth-static glands of ovariectomized mice. The effects of implanted EGF were confined to the zone around the implant and were time and dose dependent. Unimplanted glands in the same animal were unaffected. Local effects included (1) the formation of new ductal growth points (end buds), (2) the restoration of normal end bud histomorphology and the reappearance of a stem (cap) cell layer, (3) the reinitiation of epithelial DNA synthesis, and (4) an increase in ductal diameter. No lobulo-alveolar or hyperplastic growth was seen. Competitive binding assays and autoradiography were used to characterize EGF receptor activity in growing and static glands. High and low affinity receptors were demonstrated in each tissue, while 125I-EGF autoradiography revealed differential, specific binding of the ligand to certain epithelial and stromal elements. In the epithelium, label was concentrated in the cap cells of the end buds and in myoepithelial cells of the mammary ducts. Stromal cell label was heaviest adjacent to the epithelium in the end bud flank and subtending ducts, suggesting the induction of stromal EGF receptors by mammary epithelium. Because exogenous EGF is both a mitogenic and morphogenetic factor in this tissue and can serve as a locally acting substitute for known systemic mammogens such as estrogen and prolactin, it must be considered a strong candidate for a naturally occurring mammary tissue mitogen.

  8. Differential expression of epidermal growth factor-related proteins in human colorectal tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Ciardiello, F; Kim, N; Saeki, T; Dono, R; Persico, M G; Plowman, G D; Garrigues, J; Radke, S; Todaro, G J; Salomon, D S

    1991-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) and cripto are proteins that are structurally related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). AR is also functionally related to this family of growth regulatory molecules and is able to bind and activate the 170-kDa EGF receptor (EGFR). Human EGFR-3 (HER3)/ERBB3 is a recently identified protein related to the EGFR that is widely expressed in breast carcinomas and is a candidate receptor for EGF-like growth factors. Differential expression of these putative ligands and receptors in transformed cells suggests that they may function in an autocrine manner to regulate tumor cell growth. Specific mRNA transcripts for TGF-alpha [4.8 kilobases (kb)], AR (1.4 kb), cripto (2.2 kb), and HER3 (6.2 kb) were expressed in a majority of human colon cancer cell lines. HER3 mRNA was detected in 55% of primary or metastatic human colorectal carcinomas but in only 22% of normal colon mucosa and 32% of normal liver samples. In contrast, cripto and AR mRNA were expressed in 60-70% of primary or metastatic human colorectal cancers but in only 2-7% of normal human colonic mucosa. Immunostaining also detected AR protein in primary and metastatic colorectal tumors but not in normal colon or uninvolved liver. These findings suggest that cripto and AR may be useful markers to discriminate between normal and malignant colonic epithelium and may provide a selective growth advantage for colorectal carcinomas. Images PMID:1715580

  9. Tannic acid, a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Er Bin; Wei, Liu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yu Zong; Chen, Wei Ning

    2006-03-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that tannic acid, a plant polyphenol, exerts anticarcinogenic activity in chemically induced cancers. In the present study, tannic acid was found to strongly inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in vitro (IC50 = 323 nM). In contrast, the inhibition by tannic acid of p60(c-src) tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 14 microM) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IC50 = 5 microM) was much weaker. The inhibition of EGFr tyrosine kinase by tannic acid was competitive with respect to ATP and non-competitive with respect to peptide substrate. In cultured cells, growth factor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of growth factor receptors, including EGFr, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and basic fibroblast growth factor receptor, was inhibited by tannic acid. No inhibition of insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin-receptor substrate-1 was observed. EGF-stimulated growth of HepG2 cells was inhibited in the presence of tannic acid. The inhibition of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, including cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase, by tannic acid was only detected at relatively high concentration, IC50 being 3, 325 and 142 microM respectively. The molecular modeling study suggested that tannic acid could be docked into the ATP binding pockets of either EGFr or insulin receptor. These results demonstrate that tannic acid is an in vitro potent inhibitor of EGFr tyrosine kinase.

  10. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide-induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-03-01

    A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti-EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild-type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and phosphorylation status of molecules were determined by Western blot analysis. Methylation status of promoter region of O(6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Antitumor activity was tested using nude mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral xenografts along with analyses of EGFR phosphorylation status, proliferation, apoptosis, and vessel density. Nimotuzumab treatment resulted in reduction of EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation with a decrease in Akt phosphorylation that was greater than that of wtEGFR. Correspondingly, antitumor effects, growth suppression and survival elongation, were more significant in mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral tumor expressing EGFRvIII than in those expressing wtEGFR. These effects were markedly increased when temozolomide was combined with nimotuzumab. The post-treatment recurrent brain tumors exhibited a decrease in expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MSH6 and MLH1, but their methylated MGMT status did not changed. Nimotuzumab has in vivo antitumor activity against GBM, especially those expressing EGFRvIII, when combined with temozolomide. This could provide a basis for preselection of patients with GBM by EGFR status who might benefit from the nimotuzumab and temozolomide combination therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  12. Epidermal growth factor acts as a corticotropin-releasing factor in chronically catheterized fetal lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Polk, D H; Ervin, M G; Padbury, J F; Lam, R W; Reviczky, A L; Fisher, D A

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been reported to stimulate adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), growth hormone and prolactin secretion from pituitary tissue in vitro, and in large doses evokes ACTH secretion in adult sheep in vivo. In order to assess a possible role for EGF in the pituitary hyperfunction characteristic of the in utero fetus, we measured changes in plasma immunoreactive ACTH concentrations after acute administration of saline, purified mouse EGF or synthetic ovine corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) to chronically catheterized fetal sheep. Both CRF and EGF were associated with increases in plasma immunoreactive ACTH concentrations. Peak values 60 min after 10-micrograms injections of either EGF or CRF increased from baseline ACTH values of 61 +/- 11 pg/ml to 191 +/- 37 and 178 +/- 25 pg/ml, respectively. Dose-response studies indicate that at low doses (less than 20 micrograms) EGF is as potent a stimulus for ACTH release as CRF. EGF infusion was not associated with detectable changes in circulating CRF, catecholamines, arginine vasopressin levels, or plasma growth hormone concentrations. We speculate that EGF may be important in the regulation of pituitary function in the developing mammalian fetus. PMID:3029180

  13. Development of an Epidermal Growth Factor Derivative with EGFR Blocking Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panosa, Clara; Tebar, Francesc; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Fonge, Humphrey; Seno, Masaharu; Reilly, Raymond M.; Massaguer, Anna; De Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB family are prime targets for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the existing anti-ErbB agents is limited. Thus, identifying new molecules that inactivate the ErbB receptors through novel strategies is an important goal on cancer research. In this study we have developed a shorter form of human EGF (EGFt) with a truncated C-terminal as a novel EGFR inhibitor. EGFt was designed based on the superimposition of the three-dimensional structures of EGF and the Potato Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor (PCI), an EGFR blocker previously described by our group. The peptide was produced in E. coli with a high yield of the correctly folded peptide. EGFt showed specificity and high affinity for EGFR but induced poor EGFR homodimerization and phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGFt promoted EGFR internalization and translocation to the cell nucleus although it did not stimulate the cell growth. In addition, EGFt competed with EGFR native ligands, inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. These data indicate that EGFt may be a potential EGFR blocker for cancer therapy. In addition, the lack of EGFR-mediated growth-stimulatory activity makes EGFt an excellent delivery agent to target toxins to tumours over-expressing EGFR. PMID:23935985

  14. Epidermal growth factor controls smooth muscle alpha-isoactin expression in BC3H1 cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet- derived growth factor, and insulin on the differentiation of a mouse vascular smooth muscle-like cell line, the BC3H1 cells. On the basis of cell morphology and smooth muscle alpha-isoactin synthesis, we demonstrate that EGF at physiological concentrations prevents the differentiation of these cells, whereas platelet-derived growth factor has no apparent effect. The induction of alpha-isoactin synthesis by serum deprivation is inhibited by EGF in a dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal effect at 3-5 ng/ml and a maximal inhibition at approximately 30 ng/ml. Northern analysis also shows that EGF blocks the accumulation of alpha-isoactin mRNA normally observed during cell differentiation. Addition of EGF to differentiated cells results in a repression of alpha-isoactin synthesis, a stimulation of beta- and gamma-isoactin synthesis, and the stabilization of the nonmuscle isoactins. The synthesis of creatine phosphokinase, a muscle-specific noncontractile protein, is also regulated by EGF in a similar fashion. Modulation by EGF of alpha-isoactin expression is not affected by aphidicolin and is therefore independent of its mitogenic effect on these cells. Insulin is not required for observation of the EGF- dependent effects but instead seems to promote differentiation. Our results show that EGF can replace serum in controlling the differentiation of BC3H1 cells. PMID:3279054

  15. Death of serum-free mouse embryo cells caused by epidermal growth factor deprivation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Serum-free mouse embryo (SFME) cells, derived in medium in which serum is replaced with growth factors and other supplements, are proastroblasts that are acutely dependent on epidermal growth factor (EGF) for survival. Ultrastructurally, an early change found in SFME cells deprived of EGF was a loss of polysomes which sedimentation analysis confirmed to be a shift from polysomes to monosomes. The ribosomal shift was not accompanied by decreased steady-state level of cytoplasmic actin mRNA examined as an indicator of cellular mRNA level. With time the cells became small and severely degenerate and exhibited nuclear morphology characteristic of apoptosis. Genomic DNA isolated from cultures undergoing EGF deprivation-dependent cell death exhibited a pattern of fragmentation resulting from endonuclease activation characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that cultures in the absence of EGF contained almost exclusively G1-phase cells. Some of the phenomena associated with EGF deprivation of SFME cells are similar to those observed upon NGF deprivation of nerve cells in culture, suggesting that these neuroectodermal-derived cell types share common mechanisms of proliferative control involving peptide growth factor-dependent survival. PMID:2016341

  16. Characterization of a comparative model of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Jorissen, R N; Epa, V C; Treutlein, H R; Garrett, T P; Ward, C W; Burgess, A W

    2000-02-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor is a tyrosine kinase that mediates the biological effects of ligands such as EGF and transforming growth factor alpha. An understanding of the molecular basis of its action has been hindered by a lack of structural and mutational data on the receptor. We have constructed comparative models of the four extracellular domains of the EGF receptor that are based on the structure of the first three domains of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor. The first and third domains of the EGF receptor, L1 and L2, are right-handed beta helices. The second and fourth domains of the EGF receptor, S1 and S2, consist of the modules held together by disulfide bonds, which, except for the first module of the S1 domain, form rod-like structures. The arrangement of the L1 and S1 domains of the model are similar to that of the first two domains of the IGF-1 receptor, whereas that of the L2 and S2 domains appear to be significantly different. Using the EGF receptor model and limited information from the literature, we have proposed a number of regions that may be involved in the functioning of the receptor. In particular, the faces containing the large beta sheets in the L1 and L2 domains have been suggested to be involved with ligand binding of EGF to its receptor.

  17. Characterization of a comparative model of the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, R. N.; Epa, V. C.; Treutlein, H. R.; Garrett, T. P.; Ward, C. W.; Burgess, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor is a tyrosine kinase that mediates the biological effects of ligands such as EGF and transforming growth factor alpha. An understanding of the molecular basis of its action has been hindered by a lack of structural and mutational data on the receptor. We have constructed comparative models of the four extracellular domains of the EGF receptor that are based on the structure of the first three domains of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor. The first and third domains of the EGF receptor, L1 and L2, are right-handed beta helices. The second and fourth domains of the EGF receptor, S1 and S2, consist of the modules held together by disulfide bonds, which, except for the first module of the S1 domain, form rod-like structures. The arrangement of the L1 and S1 domains of the model are similar to that of the first two domains of the IGF-1 receptor, whereas that of the L2 and S2 domains appear to be significantly different. Using the EGF receptor model and limited information from the literature, we have proposed a number of regions that may be involved in the functioning of the receptor. In particular, the faces containing the large beta sheets in the L1 and L2 domains have been suggested to be involved with ligand binding of EGF to its receptor. PMID:10716183

  18. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-08-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ((/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM). Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status.

  19. The carboxy-terminal domains of erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor exert different regulatory effects on intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase function and transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Di Fiore, P P; Segatto, O; Lonardo, F; Fazioli, F; Pierce, J H; Aaronson, S A

    1990-01-01

    The erbB-2 gene product, gp185erbB-2, displays a potent transforming effect when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells. In addition, it possesses constitutively high levels of tyrosine kinase activity in the absence of exogenously added ligand. In this study, we demonstrate that its carboxy-terminal domain exerts an enhancing effect on erbB-2 kinase and transforming activities. A premature termination mutant of the erbB-2 protein, lacking the entire carboxy-terminal domain (erbB-2 delta 1050), showed a 40-fold reduction in transforming ability and a lowered in vivo kinase activity for intracellular substrates. When the carboxy-terminal domain of erbB-2 was substituted for its analogous region in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (EGFR/erbB-2COOH chimera), it conferred erbB-2-like properties to the EGFR, including transforming ability in the absence of epidermal growth factor, elevated constitutive autokinase activity in vivo and in vitro, and constitutive ability to phosphorylate phospholipase C-gamma. Conversely, a chimeric erbB-2 molecule bearing an EGFR carboxy-terminal domain (erbB-2/EGFRCOOH chimera) showed reduced transforming and kinase activity with respect to the wild-type erbB-2 and was only slightly more efficient than the erbB-2 delta 1050 mutant. Thus, we conclude that the carboxy-terminal domains of erbB-2 and EGFR exert different regulatory effects on receptor kinase function and biological activity. The up regulation of gp185erbB-2 enzymatic activity exerted by its carboxy-terminal domain can explain, at least in part, its constitutive level of kinase activity. Images PMID:2188097

  20. Association between epidermal growth factor receptor amplification and ADP-ribosylation factor 1 methylation in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    López-Ginés, Concha; Navarro, Lara; Muñoz-Hidalgo, Lisandra; Buso, Enrique; Morales, José Manuel; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Gregori-Romero, Mariela; Megías, Javier; Roldán, Pedro; Segura-Sabater, Remedios; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Monleón, Daniel; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Previously, it has been found that both genetic and epigenetic factors may play critical roles in its etiology and prognosis. In addition, it has been found that the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) is frequently over-expressed and amplified in primary GBs. Here, we assessed the promoter methylation status of 10 genes relevant to GB and explored associations between these findings and the EGFR gene amplification status. Tumor samples were obtained from 36 patients with primary GBs. In addition, 6 control specimens were included from patients who were operated for diseases other than brain tumors. The amplification status of the EGFR gene, and its deletion mutant EGFRvIII, were evaluated using FISH and MLPA, respectively. The IDH1/2 gene mutation status was verified using Sanger sequencing. A commercial DNA methylation kit was used to assess the promoter methylation status of 10 pre-selected genes. Metabolic profiles were measured using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The EGFR and ARF1 mRNA expression levels were quantified using qRT-PCR. Of the 10 genes analyzed, we found that only ARF1 promoter hypermethylation was significantly associated with EGFR gene amplification. ARF1 is a GTPase that is involved in vesicle trafficking and the Golgi apparatus. Subsequent tumor metabolism measurements revealed a positive association between EGFR amplification and different membrane precursors and methyl-donor metabolites. Finally, we found that EGFR gene amplifications were associated with distinct tumor infiltration patterns, thus representing a putative novel functional association between EGFR gene amplification and ARF1 gene promoter methylation in GB. The results reported here provide a basis for a new hypotheses connecting EGFR gene amplification in GB cells with ARF1 gene promoter methylation, vesicle trafficking, membrane turnover and tumor metabolism. The mechanism

  1. Protein kinase C and epidermal growth factor stimulation of Raf1 potentiates adenylyl cyclase type 6 activation in intact cells.

    PubMed

    Beazely, Michael A; Alan, Jamie K; Watts, Val J

    2005-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6) activity is inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro; however, in intact cells, PKC activation does not inhibit the activity of transiently expressed AC6. To investigate the effects of PKC activation on AC6 activity in intact cells, we constructed human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells that stably express wild-type AC6 (AC6-WT) or an AC6 mutant lacking a PKC and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylation site, Ser674 (AC6-S674A). In contrast to in vitro observations, we observed a PKC-mediated enhancement of forskolin- and isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in HEK-AC6 cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also potentiated cyclic AMP accumulation in cells expressing endogenous AC6, including Chinese hamster ovary cells and differentiated Cath.a differentiated cells. In HEK-AC6-S674A cells, the potentiation of AC6 stimulation was significantly greater than in cells expressing AC6-WT. The positive effect of PKC activation on AC6 activity seemed to involve Raf1 kinase because the Raf1 inhibitor 3-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene-5-iodo-1,3-dihydro-indol-2-one (GW5074) inhibited the PKC potentiation of AC6 activity. Furthermore, the forskolin-stimulated activity of a recombinant AC6 in which the putative Raf1 regulatory sites have been eliminated was not potentiated by activation of PKC. The ability of Raf1 to regulate AC6 may involve a direct interaction because AC6 and a constitutively active Raf1 construct were coimmunoprecipitated. In addition, we report that epidermal growth factor receptor activation also enhances AC6 signaling in a Raf1-dependent manner. These data suggest that Raf1 potentiates drug-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cells expressing AC6 after activation of multiple signaling pathways.

  2. The Mediator Kinase Module Restrains Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Represses Vulval Cell Fate Specification in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Grants, Jennifer M; Ying, Lisa T L; Yoda, Akinori; You, Charlotte C; Okano, Hideyuki; Sawa, Hitoshi; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex promote or inhibit vulva development, but pertinent mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we show that Mediator's dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8, cic-1/Cyclin C, mdt-12/dpy-22, and mdt-13/let-19, is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1/ERK, cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1, as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1. In addition, we find that CKM mutation alters Mediator subunit requirements in vulva development: the mdt-23/sur-2 subunit, which is required for vulva development in wild-type worms, is dispensable for ectopic vulva formation in CKM mutants, which instead display hallmarks of unrestrained Mediator tail module activity. We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. Collectively, these data offer an explanation for CKM repression of EGFR signaling output and ectopic vulva formation and provide the first evidence of Mediator CKM-tail module subunit crosstalk in animals.

  3. The Mediator Kinase Module Restrains Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Represses Vulval Cell Fate Specification in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grants, Jennifer M.; Ying, Lisa T. L.; Yoda, Akinori; You, Charlotte C.; Okano, Hideyuki; Sawa, Hitoshi; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex promote or inhibit vulva development, but pertinent mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we show that Mediator’s dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8, cic-1/Cyclin C, mdt-12/dpy-22, and mdt-13/let-19, is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1/ERK, cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1, as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1. In addition, we find that CKM mutation alters Mediator subunit requirements in vulva development: the mdt-23/sur-2 subunit, which is required for vulva development in wild-type worms, is dispensable for ectopic vulva formation in CKM mutants, which instead display hallmarks of unrestrained Mediator tail module activity. We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. Collectively, these data offer an explanation for CKM repression of EGFR signaling output and ectopic vulva formation and provide the first evidence of Mediator CKM-tail module subunit crosstalk in animals. PMID:26715664

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptors harboring kinase domain mutations associate with the heat shock protein 90 chaperone and are destabilized following exposure to geldanamycins.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Takeshi; Lowell, April M; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2005-07-15

    Somatic mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), including L858R and exon 19 deletions, underlie responsiveness to gefitinib and erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Acquired resistance to these tyrosine kinase inhibitors is in some cases mediated by a second mutation, T790M. Ansamycin antibiotics, such as geldanamycin, potently inhibit heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), promoting ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogenic kinases that require the chaperone for proper conformational folding. Here, we show that L858R and deletion mutant EGFR proteins found in NSCLC interact with the chaperone and are sensitive to degradation following Hsp90 inhibition. In NIH/3T3 cells expressing either wild-type or mutant EGFR, diminution of expression of both L858R and EGFR delL747-S752, P753S occurred following exposure to 50 nmol/L geldanamycin over 24 hours, whereas partial diminution of wild-type EGFR required a minimum of 200 nmol/L drug. In time course experiments, mutant EGFR expression was depleted after only 4 hours of exposure to 1 micromol/L geldanamycin, whereas diminution of wild-type EGFR was less substantial and seen only following 12 hours. Similarly, EGFR proteins in NSCLC cell lines harboring EGFR mutations, including NCI-H1650, NCI-H3255, and NCI-H1975, were also more sensitive to geldanamycin-induced degradation compared with the protein in wild-type cells. Exposure of EGFR-mutant cell lines to geldanamycin induced marked depletion of phospho-Akt and cyclin D1 as well as apoptosis. These data suggest mutational activation of EGFR is associated with dependence on Hsp90 for stability and that Hsp90 inhibition may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  5. Salivary epidermal growth factor correlates with hospitalization length in rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rial, J; Curras-Tuala, M J; Talavero-González, C; Rodríguez-Tenreiro, C; Vilanova-Trillo, L; Gómez-Carballa, A; Rivero-Calle, I; Justicia-Grande, A; Pardo-Seco, J; Redondo-Collazo, L; Salas, A; Martinón-Torres, F

    2017-05-30

    The IFI27 interferon gene expression has been found to be largely increased in rotavirus (RV)-infected patients. IFI27 gene encodes for a protein of unknown function, very recently linked to epidermal proliferation and related to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) protein. The EGF is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide that is mainly produced by submandibular and parotid glands, and it plays an important physiological role in the maintenance of oro-esophageal and gastric tissue integrity. Our aim was to determine salivary EGF levels in RV-infected patients in order to establish its potential relationship with IFI27 increased expression and EGF-mediated mucosal protection in RV infection. We conducted a prospective comparative study using saliva samples from 27 infants infected with RV (sampled at recruitment during hospital admission and at convalescence, i.e. at least 3 months after recovery) and from 36 healthy control children. Median (SD) EGF salivary concentration was 777 (529) pg/ml in RV-infected group at acute phase and 356 (242) pg/m at convalescence, while it was 337 (119) pg/ml in the healthy control group. A significant association was found between EGF levels and hospitalization length of stay (P-value = 0.022; r(2) = -0.63). The salivary levels of EGF are significantly increased during the acute phase of natural RV infection, and relate to length of hospitalization. Further assessment of this non-invasive biomarker in RV disease is warranted.

  6. Expression and effects of epidermal growth factor on human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Teramatsu, Yoko; Maeda, Hidefumi; Sugii, Hideki; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hamano, Sayuri; Wada, Naohisa; Yuda, Asuka; Yamamoto, Naohide; Koori, Katsuaki; Akamine, Akifumi

    2014-09-01

    Repair of damaged periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue is an essential challenge in tooth preservation. Various researchers have attempted to develop efficient therapies for healing and regenerating PDL tissue based on tissue engineering methods focused on targeting signaling molecules in PDL stem cells and other mesenchymal stem cells. In this context, we investigated the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in normal and surgically wounded PDL tissues and its effect on chemotaxis and expression of osteoinductive and angiogenic factors in human PDL cells (HPDLCs). EGF as well as EGF receptor (EGFR) expression was observed in HPDLCs and entire PDL tissue. In a PDL tissue-injured model of rat, EGF and IL-1β were found to be upregulated in a perilesional pattern. Interleukin-1β induced EGF expression in HPDLCs but not EGFR. It also increased transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression. Transwell assays demonstrated the chemotactic activity of EGF on HPDLCs. In addition, EGF treatment significantly induced secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor, and gene expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and early growth response-1 and -2 (EGR-1/2). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells developed well-formed tube networks when cultured with the supernatant of EGF-treated HPDLCs. These results indicated that EGF upregulated under inflammatory conditions plays roles in the repair of wounded PDL tissue, suggesting its function as a prospective agent to allow the healing and regeneration of this tissue.

  7. Ferritin Mutants of Escherichia coli Are Iron Deficient and Growth Impaired, and fur Mutants are Iron Deficient

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Tehrani, Hossein; Hudson, Aaron J.; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Timms, Andrew R.; Hawkins, Chris; Williams, John M.; Harrison, Pauline M.; Guest, John R.; Andrews, Simon C.

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains at least two iron storage proteins, a ferritin (FtnA) and a bacterioferritin (Bfr). To investigate their specific functions, the corresponding genes (ftnA and bfr) were inactivated by replacing the chromosomal ftnA and bfr genes with disrupted derivatives containing antibiotic resistance cassettes in place of internal segments of the corresponding coding regions. Single mutants (ftnA::spc and bfr::kan) and a double mutant (ftnA::spc bfr::kan) were generated and confirmed by Western and Southern blot analyses. The iron contents of the parental strain (W3110) and the bfr mutant increased by 1.5- to 2-fold during the transition from logarithmic to stationary phase in iron-rich media, whereas the iron contents of the ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants remained unchanged. The ftnA and ftnA bfr mutants were growth impaired in iron-deficient media, but this was apparent only after the mutant and parental strains had been precultured in iron-rich media. Surprisingly, ferric iron uptake regulation (fur) mutants also had very low iron contents (2.5-fold less iron than Fur+ strains) despite constitutive expression of the iron acquisition systems. The iron deficiencies of the ftnA and fur mutants were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, which further showed that the low iron contents of ftnA mutants are due to a lack of magnetically ordered ferric iron clusters likely to correspond to FtnA iron cores. In combination with the fur mutation, ftnA and bfr mutations produced an enhanced sensitivity to hydroperoxides, presumably due to an increase in production of “reactive ferrous iron.” It is concluded that FtnA acts as an iron store accommodating up to 50% of the cellular iron during postexponential growth in iron-rich media and providing a source of iron that partially compensates for iron deficiency during iron-restricted growth. In addition to repressing the iron acquisition systems, Fur appears to regulate the demand for iron, probably by controlling

  8. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Xu, F.; Reinhard, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex.It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF

  9. BMP-7 attenuates liver fibrosis via regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Xiong, Li-Jun; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zou, Zhuo-Lin; Zhang, Sai-Nan; Cao, Su-Ting; Lin, Zhuo; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in vivo and on the hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation in vitro. In vivo, thirty male ICR mice were randomly allocated to three groups, the control group (n = 6), the CCl4 group (n = 18) and the BMP-7+CCl4 group (n = 6). The model of liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection with CCl4 three times per week lasting for 12 weeks in CCl4 group and the BMP-7+CCl4 group. After 8 weeks injection with CCl4, mice were intraperitoneal injected with human recombinant BMP-7 in BMP-7+CCl4 group. Meanwhile, mice in the CCl4 group were only intraperitoneal injection with equal amount of saline. The degree of liver fibrosis was assessed by HE and Masson's staining. PCR and western blot were used to detect mRNA and protein levels. In BMP-7+CCl4 group, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aminotransferase (AST) were decreased and serum albumin (Alb) was increased. Meanwhile, the expressions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were down-regulated by BMP-7 intervention as compared to the CCl4 group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BMP-7 also suppressed the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phosphorylated-epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR). HE and Masson stain showed that liver damage was alleviated in BMP-7+CCl4 group. In vitro study, expression of EGFR, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were down regulated by BMP-7 dose-dependently, indicating it might effect on suppression of HSC activation. Therefore, our data indicate BMP-7 was capable of inhibiting liver fibrosis and suppressing HSCs activation, and these effects might rely on its crosstalk with EGFR and TGF-β1. We suggest that BMP-7 may be a potential reagentfor the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis.

  10. Epidermal growth factor facilitates melanoma lymph node metastasis by influencing tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Cardona, Ana Soler; Tauber, Stefanie; Fink, Astrid M; Steiner, Andreas; Pehamberger, Hubert; Niederleithner, Heide; Petzelbauer, Peter; Gröger, Marion; Loewe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression are known to be of prognostic relevance in human melanoma, but EGF-mediated effects on melanoma have not been extensively studied. As lymph node metastasis usually represents the first major step in melanoma progression, we were trying to identify a potential role of primary tumor-derived EGF in the mediation of melanoma lymph node metastases. Stable EGF knockdown (EGFkd) in EGF-high (M24met) and EGF-low (A375) expressing melanoma cells was generated. Only in EGF-high melanoma cells, EGFkd led to a significant reduction of lymph node metastasis and primary tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo, as well as impairment of tumor cell migration in vitro. Moreover, EGF-induced sprouting of lymphatic but not of blood endothelial cells was abolished using supernatants of M24met EGFkd cells. In addition, M24met EGFkd tumors showed reduced vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression levels. Similarly, in human primary melanomas, a direct correlation between EGF/VEGF-C and EGF/Prox-1 expression levels was found. Finally, melanoma patients with lymph node micrometastases undergoing sentinel node biopsy were found to have significantly elevated EGF serum levels as compared with sentinel lymph node-negative patients. Our data indicate that tumor-derived EGF is important in mediating melanoma lymph node metastasis.

  11. Mass production of human epidermal growth factor using fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Fukuzono, S; Harada, Y; Fujimori, K; Gotoh, K; Yamazaki, Y

    1991-06-05

    Fed-batch cultures of recombinant E. coli HB101 harboring expression plasmid pTRLBT1 or pTREBT1, with acetate concentration monitoring, are investigated to obtain high cell density and large amounts of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF). The expression plasmid pTRlBT1 contains a synthetic hEGF gene attached downstream of the N-terminal fragment of the trp L gene preceded by the trp promoter. The expression plasmid pTREBT1 contains the same coding sequence attached downstream of the N-terminal fragment of the trp E gene preceded by the trp promoter, trp L gene, and attenuator region. E. coli harboring pTREBT1 produces 0.56 mg/L hEGE and immediately degrades it. On the other hand E. coli harboring pTRLBT1 produces 6.8 mg/L hEGF and does not decompose it. Prominent inclusion bodies are observed in E. coli cells harboring pTRLBT1 using an election microscope. To Cultivate E. coli harboring pTRLBT1, a fed-batch culture system, divided into a cell growth step and an hEGF production step, is carried out. The cells grow smoothly without acetate-induced inhibition. Cell concentration and hEGF quantity reach the high values of 21 g/L and 60 mg/L, respectively.

  12. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  13. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development. PMID:27766259

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors on PC12 cells: alteration of binding properties by lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Vale, R.D.; Shooter, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The PC12 cell line displays cell surface receptors for both nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). It has been previously shown that the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) alters the properties of NGF receptors on these cells. We now report that preincubations with either WGA or concanavalin A (Con A) decrease the binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to PC12 cells by greater than 50%. The inhibition of binding occurred at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C and could be blocked or reversed by the addition of sugars which bind specifically to WGA or Con A. Scatchard analysis revealed that these lectins decreased binding primarily by lowering the affinity of the receptor and to a lesser extent by decreasing receptor number. Succinylation of Con A (sCon A) produced a derivative that was less effective than the native lectin in decreasing EGF binding; however, addition of an antibody against Con A restored the ability of sCon A to decrease binding. Similar to results obtained with /sup 125/I-NGF binding, WGA but not Con A was found to increase, by severalfold, the proportion of /sup 125/I-EGF binding that is resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 detergent. A potential association of the EGF receptor with cytoskeletal elements is discussed which could account for such results.

  15. Epidermal growth factor enhances osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Mosqueda, Casiano; Gutiérrez-Puente, Yolanda; López-Lozano, Ada Pricila; Romero-Zavaleta, Ricardo Emmanuel; Mendiola-Jiménez, Andrés; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos Eduardo; Márquez-M, Marcela; De la Garza-Ramos, Myriam Angélica

    2015-09-03

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) play an important role in extracellular matrix mineralization, a complex process required for proper bone regeneration, one of the biggest challenges in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic potential of EGF and bFGF on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Human DPSCs were isolated using CD105 magnetic microbeads and characterized by flow cytometry. To induce osteoblast differentiation, the cells were cultured in osteogenic medium supplemented with EGF or bFGF at a low concentration. Cell morphology and expression of CD146 and CD10 surface markers were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. To measure mineralization, an alizarin red S assay was performed and typical markers of osteoblastic phenotype were evaluated by RT-PCR. EGF treatment induced morphological changes and suppression of CD146 and CD10 markers. Additionally, the cells were capable of producing calcium deposits and increasing the mRNA expression to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) in relation to control groups (p < 0.001). However, bFGF treatment showed an inhibitory effect. These data suggests that DPSCs in combination with EGF could be an effective stem cell-based therapy for bone tissue engineering applications in periodontics and oral implantology.

  16. Epidermal growth factor increases coactivation of the androgen receptor in recurrent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher W; Fei, Xiaoyin; Ponguta, Liliana A; He, Bin; Bill, Heather M; French, Frank S; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2004-02-20

    Growth of normal and neoplastic prostate is mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by high affinity androgen binding. The AR is highly expressed in recurrent prostate cancer cells that proliferate despite reduced circulating androgen. In this report, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) increases androgen-dependent AR transactivation in the recurrent prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1 through a mechanism that involves a post-transcriptional increase in the p160 coactivator transcriptional intermediary factor 2/glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1 (TIF2/GRIP1). Site-specific mutagenesis and selective MAPK inhibitors linked the EGF-induced increase in AR transactivation to phosphorylation of TIF2/GRIP1. EGF signaling increased the coimmunoprecipitation of TIF2 and AR. AR transactivation and its stimulation by EGF were reduced by small interfering RNA inhibition of TIF2/GRIP1 expression. The data indicate that EGF signaling through MAPK increases TIF2/GRIP1 coactivation of AR transactivation in recurrent prostate cancer.

  17. Radiosensitisation of U87MG brain tumours by anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Diaz Miqueli, A; Rolff, J; Lemm, M; Fichtner, I; Perez, R; Montero, E

    2009-01-01

    As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be a radiation response modulator, HER inhibitors are regarded to act as potential radiosensitisers. Our study examined the role of nimotuzumab and cetuximab both, the two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to EGFR, as radiosensitisers in a murine glioma model in vivo. Co-administration of both the antibodies with radiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG, resulting in a significant delay of subcutaneous (s.c.) tumour growth. Furthermore, the addition of antibodies to the radiation decreased brain tumour sizes and is inhibited by 40–80% the increased tumour cell invasion provoked by radiotherapy, although promoted tumour cell apoptosis. Whereas nimotuzumab led to a reduction in the size of tumour blood vessels and proliferating cells in s.c. tumours, cetuximab had no significant antiangiogenic nor antiproliferative activity. In contrast, cetuximab induced a more marked inhibition of EGFR downstream signalling compared with nimotuzumab. Moreover, both antibodies reduced the total number of radioresistant CD133+ cancer stem cells (CSCs). These results were encouraging, and showed the superiority of combined treatment of mAbs to EGFR and radiation over each single therapy against glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), confirming the role of these drugs as radiosensitisers in human GBM. In addition, we first showed the ability of mAb specifics against EGFR to target radioresistant glioma CSC, supporting the potential use in patients. PMID:19293809

  18. High Efficient Expression, Purification, and Functional Characterization of Native Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Yu, Jieying; Lin, Jinglian; Wu, Shaomin; Li, Shan; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) is a small, mitotic growth polypeptide that promotes the proliferation of various cells and is widely applied in clinical practices. However, high efficient expression of native hEGF in Escherichia coli has not been successful, since three disulfide bonds in monomer hEGF made it unable to fold into correct 3D structure using in vivo system. To tackle this problem, we fused Mxe GyrA intein (Mxe) at the C-terminal of hEGF followed by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and 10x His-tag to construct a chimeric protein hEGF-Mxe-SUMO-H10. The fusion protein was highly expressed at the concentration of 281 mg/L and up to 59.5% of the total cellular soluble proteins. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and 29.4 mg/L of native hEGF can be released by thiol induced N-terminal cleavage without any proteases. The mitotic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells is proliferated by commercial and recombinant hEGF measured with methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay which indicated that recombinant hEGF protein stimulates the cell proliferation similar to commercial protein. This study significantly improved the yield and reduced the cost of hEGF in the recombinant E. coli system and could be a better strategy to produce native hEGF for pharmaceutical development.

  19. Epidermal development, growth control, and homeostasis in the face of centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Kulukian, Anita; Holland, Andrew J; Vitre, Benjamin; Naik, Shruti; Cleveland, Don W; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-11-17

    As nucleators of the mitotic spindle and primary cilium, centrosomes play crucial roles in equal segregation of DNA content to daughter cells, coordination of growth and differentiation, and transduction of homeostatic cues. Whereas the majority of mammalian cells carry no more than two centrosomes per cell, exceptions to this rule apply in certain specialized tissues and in select disease states, including cancer. Centrosome amplification, or the condition of having more than two centrosomes per cell, has been suggested to contribute to instability of chromosomes, imbalance in asymmetric divisions, and reorganization of tissue architecture; however, the degree to which these conditions are a direct cause of or simply a consequence of human disease is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by generating a mouse model inducing centrosome amplification in a naturally proliferative epithelial tissue by elevating Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) expression in the skin epidermis. By altering centrosome numbers, we observed multiciliated cells, spindle orientation errors, and chromosome segregation defects within developing epidermis. None of these defects was sufficient to impart a proliferative advantage within the tissue, however. Rather, impaired mitoses led to p53-mediated cell death and contributed to defective growth and stratification. Despite these abnormalities, mice remained viable and healthy, although epidermal cells with centrosome amplification were still appreciable. Moreover, these abnormalities were insufficient to disrupt homeostasis and initiate or enhance tumorigenesis, underscoring the powerful surveillance mechanisms in the skin.

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  1. ADAM binding protein Eve-1 is required for ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonari; Nanba, Daisuke; Mori, Seiji; Shiba, Fumio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Koichiro; Matsuura, Nariaki; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2004-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are implicated in the ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in EGFR transactivation. However, the activation mechanisms of ADAMs remain elusive. To analyze the regulatory mechanisms of ADAM activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM12 as bait, and identified a protein that we designated Eve-1. Two cDNAs were cloned and characterized. They encode alternatively spliced isoforms of Eve-1, called Eve-1a and Eve-1b, that have four and five tandem Src homology 3 (SH3) domains in the carboxyl-terminal region, respectively, and seven proline-rich SH3 domain binding motifs in the amino-terminal region. The short forms of Eve-1, Eve-1c and Eve-1d, translated at Met-371 are human counterparts of mouse Sh3d19. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that Eve-1 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. Western blot analysis revealed the dominant production of Eve-1c in human cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Eve-1 by small interfering RNA in HT1080 cells reduced the shedding of proHB-EGF induced by angiotensin II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, as well as the shedding of pro-transforming growth factor-alpha, promphiregulin, and proepiregulin by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, suggesting that Eve-1 plays a role in positively regulating the activity of ADAMs in the signaling of EGFR-ligand shedding.

  2. Prolactin decreases epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Quijano, V J; Sheffield, L G

    1998-01-09

    Previously, we have shown that prolactin inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced mitogenesis in mouse mammary epithelial cells without altering the response to other growth promoting agents. This effect has been associated with reduced EGF-induced EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb-2 association, and Ras activation. Our current hypothesis is that prolactin induces an alteration in EGFR kinase activity via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we treated normal murine mammary gland cells with or without 100 ng/ml prolactin. EGFR isolated by wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography from nontreated cells exhibited substantial ligand-induced phosphorylation, and EGFR isolated from prolactin-treated cells displayed minimal EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation, as well as decreased kinase activity toward exogenous substrates. The observed decrease in ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation could not be attributed to either differential amounts of EGFR, decreased EGF binding affinity, or the presence of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase or ATPase. EGFR isolated from prolactin-treated cells exhibited increased phosphorylation on threonine. Removal of this phosphorylation with alkaline phosphatase restored EGFR kinase activity to levels observed in nontreated cells. Therefore, these results suggest that prolactin antagonizes EGF signaling by increasing EGFR threonine phosphorylation and decreasing EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation.

  3. Reformulating Tylocrebrine in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles Improves Its Therapeutic Index.

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ameya R; Wong, Henry L; Guru, Bharath Raja; Lis, Lev G; Georg, Gunda I; Gurvich, Vadim J; Panyam, Jayanth

    2015-08-03

    Several promising anticancer drug candidates have been sidelined owing to their poor physicochemical properties or unfavorable pharmacokinetics, resulting in high overall cost of drug discovery and development. Use of alternative formulation strategies that alleviate these issues can help advance new molecules to the clinic at a significantly lower cost. Tylocrebrine is a natural product with potent anticancer activity. Its clinical trial was discontinued following the discovery of severe central nervous system toxicities. To improve the safety and potency of tylocrebrine, we formulated the drug in polymeric nanoparticles targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed on several types of tumors. Through in vitro studies in different cancer cell lines, we found that EGFR targeted nanoparticles were significantly more effective in killing tumor cells than the free drug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that encapsulation in nanoparticles resulted in lower brain penetration and enhanced tumor accumulation of the drug. Further, targeted nanoparticles were characterized by significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibitory activity in a mouse xenograft model of epidermoid cancer. These results suggest that the therapeutic index of drugs that were previously considered unusable could be significantly improved by reformulation. Application of novel formulation strategies to previously abandoned drugs provides an opportunity to advance new molecules to the clinic at a lower cost. This can significantly increase the repertoire of treatment options available to cancer patients.

  4. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and association with epidermal growth factor receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Soo, Ross; Putti, Thomas; Tao, Qian; Goh, Boon-Cher; Lee, Kang-Hoe; Kwok-Seng, Loh; Tan, Luke; Hsieh, Wen-Son

    2005-02-01

    To examine the association between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) expression and with COX-2 promoter methylation status in primary nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) tumors and to determine COX-2 promoter methylation status in NPC cell lines. Retrospective study. Patients with NPC were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery for treatment. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC specimens from 42 patients were obtained. Immunohistochemical expression of COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, iNOS, and LMP-1 was performed in 42 NPC samples. COX-2 promoter methylation status was studied in 20 separate specimens and in 4 NPC cell lines. (1) COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, iNOS, and LMP-1 expression; and (2) COX-2 promotor methylation status. COX-2 was overexpressed in 79% of NPC specimens and was associated with EGFR status (P = .03) but not with LMP-1 or iNOS. In primary NPC tissue, methylation of the COX-2 promoter was seen in 4 of 7 COX-2-negative and 1 of 13 COX-2-positive immunohistochemical cases. COX-2 promoter methylation was found in the CNE-1 cell line. Nasopharyngeal cancer may be a useful target for selective COX-2 inhibition. The absence of promoter methylation may be a necessary component of COX-2 overexpression, and promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms that regulate COX-2 expression.

  5. Downregulating activated epidermal growth factor receptor has no effect on RBM5 expression.

    PubMed

    Masilamani, Twinkle J; Rintala-Maki, Nina D; Wang, Ke; Sutherland, Leslie C

    2012-07-01

    We were interested in determining how the tumor suppressor gene RBM5 is regulated in lung cancers. Previous studies suggested that the gene expression is related to histological subtype and smoking exposure, since in small cell lung cancers the RBM5 gene is deleted whereas in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) RBM5 expression is reduced. Of particular interest was the recent finding that in lung adenocarcinomas, a histological subtype of NSCLC, smoking exposure correlated with mutational activity in the transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a) signaling pathway. Lung adenocarcinomas from smokers were associated with activating KRAS mutations, whereas lung adenocarcinomas from never-smokers were associated with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. We hypothesized that inhibition of RBM5 in lung adenocarcinomas is achieved indirectly via these activating mutations. The objective of the research described herein was to determine if EGFR activation and RBM5 expression are negatively correlated. EGFR expression in the lung adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H1975 was inhibited using small interfering RNA. RBM5 expression was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Reduced EGFR expression did not correlate with any change in RBM5 expression at either the RNA or protein level. These results suggest that RBM5 expression is not directly regulated by EGFR in non-smoker related lung adenocarinomas, and that some other mechanism operates to inhibit either the expression or function of this potential tumour suppressor in lung cancers that retain the RBM5 gene.

  6. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in canine osteosarcoma: association with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Gayathri T; Verheije, Monique H; Kik, Marja; Slob, Adri; Rottier, Peter J M; Mol, Jan A; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2012-08-01

    Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with aggressive growth and metastasis of a range of tumours, including osteosarcomas (OS), although some studies have reported no relevance to clinicopathological events or prognosis. The present study evaluated EGFR mRNA and protein expression in a panel of OS cell lines, normal bones, frozen primary OS and tissue microarrays. EGFR expression was significantly elevated in primary OS compared to normal bones and in metastases of OS to the lungs in comparison with extrapulmonary sites. However, there were no clinical or pathological associations with mRNA expression levels in frozen tumours. Tissue microarray analysis demonstrated that a subset of canine OS with high EGFR expression was associated with significantly shorter survival times and disease-free intervals. Cytoplasmic expression of EGFR was present in 75% of metastases and was similar to expression in primary tumours. EGFR expression alone is not a reliable predictor of outcome and other markers are necessary for further prognostic stratification of dogs with OS. However, these findings suggest that a subset of dogs may benefit from anti-EGFR adjuvant therapies.

  7. Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Epidermal Growth Factor: Revisiting the Local Delivery Route for a Successful Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Montequín, José; Valdés-Pérez, Calixto; Savigne-Gutiérrez, William; García-Ojalvo, Ariana; Falcón‐Cama, Viviana; García del Barco-Herrera, Diana; Fernández-Mayola, Maday; Pérez-Saad, Héctor; Pimentel-Vázquez, Eulogio; Urquiza-Rodríguez, Aleida; Kulikovsky, Moshe; Guillén-Nieto, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Soon after epidermal growth factor (EGF) discovery, some in vivo models appeared demonstrating its property to enhance cutaneous wound healing. EGF was the first growth factor (GF) introduced in the clinical arena as a healing enhancer, exerting its mitogenic effects on epithelial, fibroblastoid, and endothelial cells via a tyrosine kinase membrane receptor. Compelling evidences from the 90s documented that, for EGF, locally prolonged bioavailability and hourly interaction with the receptor were necessary for a successful tissue response. Eventually, the enthusiasm on the clinical use of EGF to steer the healing process was wiped out as the topical route to deliver proteins started to be questioned. The simultaneous in vivo experiments, emphasizing the impact of the parenterally administered EGF on epithelial and nonepithelial organs in terms of mitogenesis and cytoprotection, rendered the theoretical fundamentals for the injectable use of EGF and shaped the hypothesis that locally infiltrating the diabetic ulcers would lead to an effective healing. Although the diabetic chronic wounds microenvironment is hostile for local GFs bioavailability, EGF local infiltration circumvented the limitations of its topical application, thus expanding its therapeutic prospect. Our clinical pharmacovigilance and basic studies attest the significance of the GF local infiltration for chronic wounds healing. PMID:28904951

  8. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  9. Cutaneous reactions to anticancer agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a dermatology-oncology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, M E; Melosky, B L

    2007-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in solid tumors. Targeting the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway has become routine practice in the treatment of lung, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon carcinomas. Available agents with selected activity towards the EGFR include low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., erlotinib (Tarceva, Genentech BioOncology/ OSI Pharmaceuticals/ F. Hoffmann-La Roche) and monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux, Bristol-Myers Squibb/ ImClone Systems/ Merck) and panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen). Their use is anticipated to increase for treating other solid tumors that are dependent on this pathway for growth and proliferation. Health Canada and the US FDA have approved erlotinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It has also been approved in the US for use against pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly). Cetuximab and most recently panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen/ Abgenix) were approved by the US FDA for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cetuximab is also approved in the US for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile for this class of drugs is unique, with virtually no hematological toxicity, but frequent cutaneous and gastrointestinal side-effects. Although there is a dearth of randomized trials addressing treatment of the dermatological side-effects, some basic principles of management have been agreed upon and can likely improve patient compliance and decrease inappropriate dose reduction, which may negatively influence the antitumor effect.

  10. Soluble E-cadherin promotes cell survival by activating epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Inge, Landon J; Barwe, Sonali P; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Gopal, Jegan; Lu, Kan; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2011-04-01

    High levels of the soluble form of E-cadherin can be found in the serum of cancer patients and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite the possible predictive value of soluble E-cadherin, little is understood concerning its patho-physiological consequences in tumor progression. In this study, we show that soluble E-cadherin facilitates cell survival via functional interaction with cellular E-cadherin. Exposure of cells to a recombinant form of soluble E-cadherin, at a concentration found in cancer patient's serum, prevents apoptosis due to serum/growth factor withdrawal, and inhibits epithelial lumen formation, a process that requires apoptosis. Further, soluble E-cadherin-mediated cell survival involves activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR-mediated activation of both phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. These results are evidence of a complex functional interplay between EGFR and E-cadherin and also suggest that the presence of soluble E-cadherin in cancer patients' sera might have relevance to cell survival and tumor progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress.

  12. Cellular characterization of epidermal growth factor-expanded free-floating neurospheres.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Maria V T; Alonso, F Javier M; Redondo, Carolina; López-Toledano, Miguel A; Caso, Enrique; Herranz, Antonio S; Paíno, Carlos Luis; Reimers, Diana; Bazán, Eulalia

    2003-01-01

    Neural stem cells proliferate in liquid culture as cell clusters (neurospheres). This study was undertaken to characterize the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expanded free-floating neurospheres derived from rat fetal striatum. We examined the ultrastructural and antigenic characteristics of these spheres. They consisted of two cell types, electron-dense and electron-lucent cells. Lucent cells were immunopositive to actin, vimentin, and nestin, whereas dense cells were immunopositive to actin, weakly positive to vimentin, and nestin-negative. Neurospheres contained healthy, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Healthy cells were attached to each other by adherens junctions. They showed many pseudopodia and occasionally a single cilium. Sphere cells showed phagocytic capability because healthy cells phagocytosed the cell debris derived from dead cells in a particular process that involves the engulfment of dying cells by cell processes from healthy cells. Sphere cells showed a cytoplasmic and a nuclear pool of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors. They expressed E- and N-cadherin, alpha- and beta-catenin, EGF receptor, and a specific subset of FGF receptors. Because sphere cells expressed this factor in the absence of exogenous FGF-2, we propose that they are able to synthesize FGF-2.

  13. Reformulating Tylocrebrine in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles Improves Its Therapeutic Index

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several promising anticancer drug candidates have been sidelined owing to their poor physicochemical properties or unfavorable pharmacokinetics, resulting in high overall cost of drug discovery and development. Use of alternative formulation strategies that alleviate these issues can help advance new molecules to the clinic at a significantly lower cost. Tylocrebrine is a natural product with potent anticancer activity. Its clinical trial was discontinued following the discovery of severe central nervous system toxicities. To improve the safety and potency of tylocrebrine, we formulated the drug in polymeric nanoparticles targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed on several types of tumors. Through in vitro studies in different cancer cell lines, we found that EGFR targeted nanoparticles were significantly more effective in killing tumor cells than the free drug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that encapsulation in nanoparticles resulted in lower brain penetration and enhanced tumor accumulation of the drug. Further, targeted nanoparticles were characterized by significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibitory activity in a mouse xenograft model of epidermoid cancer. These results suggest that the therapeutic index of drugs that were previously considered unusable could be significantly improved by reformulation. Application of novel formulation strategies to previously abandoned drugs provides an opportunity to advance new molecules to the clinic at a lower cost. This can significantly increase the repertoire of treatment options available to cancer patients. PMID:26065924

  14. Rapid metabolism of glucose detected with FRET glucose nanosensors in epidermal cells and intact roots of Arabidopsis RNA-silencing mutants.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Karen; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Okumoto, Sakiko; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Frommer, Wolf B

    2006-09-01

    Genetically encoded glucose nanosensors have been used to measure steady state glucose levels in mammalian cytosol, nuclei, and endoplasmic reticulum. Unfortunately, the same nanosensors in Arabidopsis thaliana transformants manifested transgene silencing and undetectable fluorescence resonance energy transfer changes. Expressing nanosensors in sgs3 and rdr6 transgene silencing mutants eliminated silencing and resulted in high fluorescence levels. To measure glucose changes over a wide range (nanomolar to millimolar), nanosensors with higher signal-to-noise ratios were expressed in these mutants. Perfusion of leaf epidermis with glucose led to concentration-dependent ratio changes for nanosensors with in vitro K(d) values of 600 microM (FLIPglu-600 microDelta13) and 3.2 mM (FLIPglu-3.2 mDelta13), but one with 170 nM K(d) (FLIPglu-170 nDelta13) showed no response. In intact roots, FLIPglu-3.2 mDelta13 gave no response, whereas FLIPglu-600 microDelta13, FLIPglu-2 microDelta13, and FLIPglu-170 nDelta13 all responded to glucose. These results demonstrate that cytosolic steady state glucose levels depend on external supply in both leaves and roots, but under the conditions tested they are lower in root versus epidermal and guard cells. Without photosynthesis and external supply, cytosolic glucose can decrease to <90 nM in root cells. Thus, observed gradients are steeper than expected, and steady state levels do not appear subject to tight homeostatic control. Nanosensor-expressing plants can be used to assess glucose flux differences between cells, invertase-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in vivo, delivery of assimilates to roots, and glucose flux in mutants affected in sugar transport, metabolism, and signaling.

  15. Epidermal growth factor elevates intracellular pH in chicken granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Morley, P; Asem, E K; Tsang, B K

    1991-08-01

    Many bioregulators, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), induce intracellular alkalinization by activating a membrane bound Na+/H+ antiporter. The present studies were designed to examine the influence of EGF on intracellular pH (pHi) in chicken granulosa cells. pHi in granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of hens was determined spectrofluorometrically using the dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. The resting pHi was 6.81 +/- 0.006 (n = 30) when the extracellular pH and sodium concentration (Na+o) were 7.3 and 144 mM, respectively. EGF (5-100 ng/ml) induced a concentration-dependent increase in pHi, which reached a maximum of 0.217 +/- 0.009 pH units at a concentration of 100 ng/ml EGF. Cytosolic alkalinization was observed within 10 min of the addition of EGF and lasted over the 60 min observation period. The increase in pHi was dependent upon the presence of Na+o, since the EGF effect was attenuated when Na+o was substituted with equimolar concentrations of nonpermeant choline chloride. The EGF-induced pHi change was also inhibited by amiloride, dimethyl amiloride, and ethylisopropyl amiloride, inhibitors of the Na+/H+ antiporter. The alkalinization effect of EGF was mimicked by transforming growth factor-alpha but not by insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, or transforming growth factor-beta. These studies suggest for the first time that intracellular alkalinization resulting from activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter may be a part of the transmembrane signaling pathway in the action of EGF on chicken granulosa cells.

  16. Epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor alpha is required for kidney tubulogenesis in matrigel cultures in serum-free medium.

    PubMed Central

    Taub, M; Wang, Y; Szczesny, T M; Kleinman, H K

    1990-01-01

    The ability of matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane gel, to induce the differentiation of baby mouse kidney cells has been examined in a hormonally defined serum-free medium. Primary cultures of baby mouse kidney cells were observed to form tubules over a time interval of 1-2 weeks in matrigel. Electron microscopic studies showed that tubules with lumens were present, and the tubule morphology was similar to that of the collecting duct. When using matrigel from which the growth factors had been removed, tubule formation no longer occurred, unless the medium was further supplemented with epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml). Transforming growth factor alpha stimulated tubule formation as effectively as epidermal growth factor, whereas transforming growth factor beta had an inhibitory effect on tubule formation. These data suggest that both an extracellular matrix and specific growth factors may regulate kidney differentiation during development. Images PMID:2339133

  17. Growth and sporulation of a pyrimidine spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola.

    PubMed

    el-Ani, A S

    1967-04-07

    A nonautonomous spore color mutant of Sordaria fimicola is a pyrimidine auxotroph that produces hyaline nonviable ascospores. Uracil, uridine, and cytidine are more effective growth factors than cytosine and thymine and, in high concentrations, render the mutant self-fertile by inducing the ascospores to resume development and maturation. Crosses with the unlinked arginine non-autonomus spore color mutant st-59 yielded the double mutant st-59 pyr that requires both arginine and a pyrimidine for growth, which indicates a lack of suppression of the pyrimidine requirement by the arginine locus.

  18. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  19. Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shawn; Yuan, Chaoshen; Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Yaswen, Paul; Vulpe, Chris D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and to some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and an increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal-care products and are generally considered safe. However, previous cell-based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG). Methods: The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells. Results: Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared with the effects of BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene. Conclusion: Our results show that HER ligands enhanced the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. Citation: Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM

  20. Salivary and gastric epidermal growth factor in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: its protective potential.

    PubMed

    Sarosiek, J; Jensen, R T; Maton, P N; Peura, D A; Harlow, D; Feng, T; McCallum, R W; Pisegna, J R

    2000-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating that epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a major molecule contributing to the maintenance of the integrity of the upper alimentary tract mucosa before and after injury by acid and pepsin. Patients with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) typically have hypersecretion of acid and pepsin; however, the concentration and rate of secretion of salivary and gastric EGF that could counteract these potentially aggressive factors are unknown. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine whether EGF affords mucosal protection in ZES patients. The concentration and output of salivary (sEGF) and gastric epidermal growth factor (gEGF) were measured in eight patients with ZES and the results compared to those in 17 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD), serving as a control group. All patients had normal esophageal and gastric mucosa as determined by endoscopy. Total saliva was collected during 1-h parafilm- and 1-h pentagastrin/parafilm-stimulated conditions, as well as basal and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric juice. The concentration and output of EGF were determined by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of EGF in saliva collected from ZES patients after parafilm chewing was significantly higher compared to that in NUD patients (4.61 +/- 0.59 vs 2.75 +/- 0.50 ng/ml, p < 0.05). The concentration of EGF in saliva collected after pentagastrin stimulation in ZES patients was also significantly higher than in NUD patients (4.37 +/- 0.73 vs 2.22 +/- 0.37 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Salivary EGF output during parafilm chewing in ZES and NUD were similar (68 +/- 6.4 vs 109 +/- 25.2 ng/h). Salivary EGF output after administration of pentagastrin in ZES and NUD was also similar (66 +/- 6.1 vs 132 +/- 45.4 ng/h). Basal EGF output in the gastric juice of patients with ZES was 3-fold higher than in patients with NUD (801 +/- 73 vs 271 +/- 32 ng/h, p < 0.01). Pentagastrin-stimulated EGF output was similar in both groups (705 +/- 92 vs 675 +/- 168 ng/h). Patients with ZES

  1. Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shawn; Yuan, Chaoshen; Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Rudel, Ruthann A; Ackerman, Janet M; Yaswen, Paul; Vulpe, Chris D; Leitman, Dale C

    2016-05-01

    Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and to some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and an increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal-care products and are generally considered safe. However, previous cell-based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG). The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells. Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared with the effects of BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene. Our results show that HER ligands enhanced the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM, Yaswen P, Vulpe CD, Leitman DC. 2016. Parabens and human epidermal

  2. Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor receptors are dispensable for structural intestinal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Raphael C.; Diaz-Miron, Jose L.; Choi, Pamela M.; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation structurally represents increases in crypt depth and villus height in response to small bowel resection (SBR). Previously, we found that neither epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nor insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) function was individually required for normal adaptation. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of disrupting both EGFR and IGF1R expression on resection-induced adaptation. Methods Intestinal-specific EGFR and IGF1R double knockout mice (EGFR/IGF1R-IKO) (n=6) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n=7) underwent 50% proximal SBR. On postoperative day (POD) 7, structural adaptation was scored by measuring crypt depth and villus height. Rates of crypt cell proliferation, apoptosis, and submucosal capillary density were also compared. Results After 50% SBR, normal adaptation occurred in both WT and EGFR/IGF1R-IKO. Rates of proliferation and apoptosis were no different between the two groups. The angiogenic response was less in the EGFR/IGF1R-IKO compared to WT mice. Conclusion Disrupted expression of EGFR and IGF1R in the intestinal epithelial cells does not affect resection-induced structural adaptation but attenuates angiogenesis after SBR. These findings suggest that villus growth is driven by receptors and pathways that occur outside the epithelial cell component, while angiogenic responses may be influenced by epithelial-endothelial crosstalk. PMID:25818318

  3. Chronic myelogenous leukaemia exosomes modulate bone marrow microenvironment through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Chiara; Saieva, Laura; Raimondo, Stefania; Santoro, Alessandra; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder. Recent evidence indicates that altered crosstalk between CML and mesenchymal stromal cells may affect leukaemia survival; moreover, vesicles released by both tumour and non-tumour cells into the microenvironment provide a suitable niche for cancer cell growth and survival. We previously demonstrated that leukaemic and stromal cells establish an exosome-mediated bidirectional crosstalk leading to the production of IL8 in stromal cells, thus sustaining the survival of CML cells. Human cell lines used are LAMA84 (CML cells), HS5 (stromal cells) and bone marrow primary stromal cells; gene expression and protein analysis were performed by real-time PCR and Western blot. IL8 and MMP9 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. Exosomes were isolated from CML cells and blood samples of CML patients. Here, we show that LAMA84 and CML patients' exosomes contain amphiregulin (AREG), thus activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling in stromal cells. EGFR signalling increases the expression of SNAIL and its targets, MMP9 and IL8. We also demonstrated that pre-treatment of HS5 with LAMA84 exosomes increases the expression of annexin A2 that promotes the adhesion of leukaemic cells to the stromal monolayer, finally supporting the growth and invasiveness of leukaemic cells. Leukaemic and stromal cells establish a bidirectional crosstalk: exosomes promote proliferation and survival of leukaemic cells, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing IL8 secretion from stromal cells. We propose that this mechanism is activated by a ligand-receptor interaction between AREG, found in CML exosomes, and EGFR in bone marrow stromal cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Reduced Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling System in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; FRITZ, Rani; KILBURN, Brian A.; KIM, Yeon Mee; NIEN, Jyh Kae; MAIHLE, Nita J.; ROMERO, Roberto; LEACH, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Methods Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunocytochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N=76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Results Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p<0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p<0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p< 0.05). Discussion Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. PMID:25589361

  5. Activation of the epidermal growth factor signalling pathway by tissue plasminogen activator in pancreas cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Mariano; Lozano, Juan José; Castellanos, Elisabeth; López‐Fernández, Luis A; Harshman, Keith; Martínez‐A, Carlos; Ortiz, Angel R; Thomson, Timothy M; Paciucci, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Background Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the major activator of plasminogen in plasma. This serine protease is overexpressed by exocrine pancreas tumour cells, where it promotes tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion. Here we have explored the signalling pathways used by tPA to activate the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Transcriptional profiling on cDNA micro arrays was used to analyse the pattern of gene expression in response to tPA compared to the response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Results were confirmed using different biochemical assays in which specific kinase inhibitors or RNA interference were used. Results Transcriptional profiling showed that tPA modulates the expression of a set of genes commonly regulated by EGF, but distinct from the major set of genes modulated by PDGF. This suggested that tPA and EGF share common signalling pathways, a conclusion supported by further experimental evidence. Firstly, we found that tPA induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of the EGFR. Secondly, specific EGFR kinase inhibitors, but not PDGFR kinase inhibitors, abolished the tPA induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 kinases and cell proliferation. The mitogenic activity of tPA was also inhibited by siRNA depletion of EGFR, thus confirming the involvement of this receptor in tPA triggered signalling. Thirdly, we show that the signalling and mitogenic effects of tPA require its proteolytic activity, the activity of the metalloprotease‐9 and active hb‐EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that tPA induces proliferation by triggering a proteolytic cascade that sequentially activates plasmin, metalloprotease‐9 (MMP‐9) and hb‐EGF. These events are required to activate the EGFR signalling pathway and cell proliferation. PMID:17452424

  6. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Fritz, R; Kilburn, B A; Kim, Y M; Nien, J K; Maihle, N J; Romero, R; Leach, R E

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N = 76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p < 0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p < 0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p < 0.05). Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arginine vasopressin stimulates mesangial cell proliferation by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P M; Mikhailova, M; Bedolla, R; Kreisberg, J I

    2001-06-01

    The potent vasoconstrictor arginine vasopressin (AVP) is also a mitogen for mesangial cells. Treatment with AVP decreased transit time through the cell cycle. AVP-stimulated mesangial cell growth by activating both the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) cell signaling pathways. Both the selective PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 and the MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-98059 inhibited AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. However, LY-294002 was more potent, indicating an important role for PI3K activation in AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. AVP appeared to exert its effect on MAPK and PI3K activation, as well as on cell proliferation, by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Pretreatment with the tyrphostin-derived EGF-R antagonist AG-1478 inhibited mesangial cell proliferation as well as the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 or p42/p44(MAPK)), and p70S6 kinase, a downstream effector of PI3K, providing evidence that MAPK and PI3K activation, respectively, occurred downstream of EGF-R activation. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the p70S6 kinase activator mTOR, also resulted in growth inhibition, further suggesting the importance of the PI3K signaling pathway in AVP-induced proliferation. AVP treatment appeared to transactivate EGF-R by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)/protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Pyk2, leading to Pyk2/c-Src association and c-Src activation. This was followed by association of c-Src with EGF-R and EGF-R activation. These data suggested that AVP-stimulated Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation to activate c-Src, thereby leading to EGF-R transactivation.

  8. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  9. Transepithelial transport of epidermal growth factor by absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Gonnella, P A; Siminoski, K; Murphy, R A; Neutra, M R

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), an acid-stable peptide present in rodent and human milk, is absorbed and promotes intestinal growth when fed to suckling rats. To determine whether absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum conduct selective transepithelial transport of EGF, we followed uptake of 125I-EGF from ileal loops by autoradiography and biochemical methods. Specific binding sites for 125I-EGF were localized by electron microscope autoradiography on apical membranes of ileal epithelial sheets in vitro. During uptake in vivo, radiolabeled molecules were concentrated in apical endosomal compartments and were also associated with lysosomal vacuoles, basolateral cell surfaces, and lamina propria. Excess cold EGF reduced basolateral label by 44% and TCA precipitable serum label by 38%. After 30 and 60 min of continuous uptake, radiolabeled molecules in epithelium, denuded mucosa, blood, and liver were analyzed under reducing conditions by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Although considerable degradation of 125I-EGF occurred after uptake from the lumen, a portion of radiolabel in epithelium and mucosa represented 125I-EGF which eluted somewhat more rapidly from C18 HPLC columns and showed a slight decrease in apparent molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. All radiolabel in blood and liver represented breakdown products. Thus, EGF is selectively transported across the ileal epithelium in suckling rats but is modified during transport. Milk EGF may accumulate in the lamina propria where it could influence growth and maturation of the suckling intestine. Images PMID:3496363

  10. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factors Prevent Apoptosis of Alcohol-Exposed Human Placental Cytotrophoblast Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Garen S.; Chiang, Po Jen; Smith, Susan M.; Romero, Roberto; Armant, D. Randall

    2007-01-01

    Maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy can produce an array of birth defects comprising fetal alcohol syndrome. A hallmark of fetal alcohol syndrome is intrauterine growth retardation, which is associated with elevated apoptosis of placental cytotrophoblast cells. Using a human first trimester cytotrophoblast cell line, we examined the relationship between exposure to ethanol and cytotrophoblast survival, as well as the ameliorating effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by human cytotrophoblast cells. After exposure to 0–100 mM ethanol, cell death was quantified by the TUNEL method, and expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67, was measured by immunohistochemistry. The mode of cell death was determined by assessing annexin V binding, caspase 3 activation, pyknotic nuclear morphology, reduction of TUNEL by caspase inhibition, and cellular release of lactate dehydrogenase. Ethanol significantly reduced proliferation and increased cell death approximately 2.5-fold through the apoptotic pathway within 1–2 h of exposure to 50 mM alcohol. Exposure to 25–50 mM ethanol significantly increased transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), but not EGF or amphiregulin (AREG). When cytotrophoblasts were exposed concurrently to 100 mM ethanol and 1 nM HBEGF or TGFA, the increase in apoptosis was prevented, while EGF ameliorated at 10 nM and AREG was weakly effective. HBEGF survival-promoting activity required ligation of either of its cognate receptors, HER1 or HER4. These findings reveal the potential for ethanol to rapidly induce cytotrophoblast apoptosis. However, survival factor induction could provide cytotrophoblasts with an endogenous cytoprotective mechanism. PMID:17392498

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition modulates the nuclear localization and cytotoxicity of the Auger electron emitting radiopharmaceutical 111In-DTPA human epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kristy E; Costantini, Danny L; Cai, Zhongli; Scollard, Deborah A; Chen, Zhuo; Reilly, Raymond M; Vallis, Katherine A

    2007-09-01

    (111)In-DTPA-human epidermal growth factor ((111)In-DTPA-hEGF [DTPA is diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid]) is an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical that targets EGF receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EGFR inhibition by gefitinib on the internalization, nuclear translocation, and cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF in EGFR-overexpressing MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cells. Western blot analysis was used to determine the optimum concentration of gefitinib to abolish EGFR activation. Internalization and nuclear translocation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled hEGF were evaluated by confocal microscopy in MDA-MB-468 cells (1.3 x 10(6) EGFRs/cell) in the presence or absence of 1 microM gefitinib. The proportion of radioactivity partitioning into the cytoplasm and nucleus of MDA-MB-468 cells after incubation with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF for 24 h at 37 degrees C in the presence or absence of 1 microM gefitinib was measured by cell fractionation. DNA double-strand breaks caused by (111)In were quantified using the gamma-H2AX assay, and radiation-absorbed doses were estimated. Clonogenic survival assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity of (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone or in combination with gefitinib. Gefitinib (1 microM) completely abolished EGFR phosphorylation in MDA-MB-468 cells. Internalization and nuclear translocation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled EGF were not diminished in gefitinib-treated cells compared with controls. The proportion of internalized (111)In that localized in the nucleus was statistically significantly greater when (111)In-DTPA-hEGF was combined with gefitinib compared with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (mean +/- SD: 26.0% +/- 5.5% vs. 14.6% +/- 4.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). Induction of gamma-H2AX foci was greater in MDA-MB-468 cells that were treated with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF (250 ng/mL, 1.5 MBq/mL) plus gefitinib (1 microM ) compared with those treated with (111)In-DTPA-hEGF alone (mean

  13. A genetic screen for zebrafish mutants with hepatic steatosis identifies a locus required for larval growth.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sarah E; Schlegel, Amnon

    2017-03-01

    In a screen for zebrafish larval mutants with excessive liver lipid accumulation (hepatic steatosis), we identified harvest moon (hmn). Cytoplasmic lipid droplets, surrounded by multivesicular structures and mitochondria whose cristae appeared swollen, are seen in hmn mutant hepatocytes. Whole body triacylglycerol is increased in hmn mutant larvae. When we attempted to raise mutants, which were morphologically normal at the developmental stage that the screen was conducted, to adulthood, we observed that most hmn mutants do not survive to the juvenile period when raised. An arrest in growth occurs in the late larval period without obvious organ defects. Maternal zygotic mutants have no additional defects, suggesting that the mutation affects a late developmental process. The developmental window between embryogenesis and the metamorphosis remains under-studied, and hmn mutants might be useful for exploring the molecular and anatomic processes occurring during this transition period.

  14. Mutations in the Polybasic Juxtamembrane Sequence of Both Plasma Membrane- and Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Confer Ligand-independent Cell Transformation*

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Kirsten L.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of ErbB receptor-tyrosine kinases is a hallmark of many human cancers. Conserved in the ErbB family is a cluster of basic amino acid residues in the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region. We found that charge-silencing mutagenesis within this juxtamembrane region of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) results in the generation of a mutant receptor (EGFR Mut R1-6) that spontaneously transforms NIH 3T3 cells in a ligand-independent manner. A similar mutant with one additional basic residue, EGFR Mut R1-5, fails to exhibit ligand-independent transformation. The capacity of EGFR Mut R1-6 to mediate this transformation is maintained when this mutant is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum via a single point mutation, L393H, which we describe. We show that EGFR Mut R1-6 with or without L393H exhibits enhanced basal tyrosine phosphorylation when ectopically expressed, and the ligand-independent transforming activity of EGFR Mut R1-6 is sensitive to inhibition of EGFR kinase activity and is particularly dependent on PI3K and mTOR activity. Similar to EGFR Mut R1-6/L393H in NIH 3T3 cells, EGFR variant type III, a highly oncogenic mutant form of EGFR linked to human brain cancers, confers transforming activity while it is wholly endoplasmic reticulum-retained in U87 cells. Our findings highlight the importance of the polybasic juxtamembrane sequence in regulating the oncogenic potential of EGFR signaling. PMID:24142702

  15. Effects of epidermal growth factor on glycolysis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Baulida, J; Onetti, R; Bassols, A

    1992-03-31

    A431 cells were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) to study the mechanism by which this factor accelerates the glycolytic flux. After EGF treatment, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels rose up to 2-fold. This change correlated with an increase in phosphofructokinase-2 activity, which was not due to a change in the transcription or translation of the enzyme, neither in the amount of enzyme. PK-C does not appear to be involved in the signalling mechanism since EGF was equally potent in PK-C depleted cells than in control cells. The increase in Fru-2,6-P2 levels was lower and more transient in cells treated with EGF in a calcium-free medium than in the presence of the cation, and it was restored by the addition of calcium to the medium. These results suggest a possible role for calcium-mediated pathways in the control of Fru-2,6-P2 levels in A431 cells.

  16. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in mixed gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Kun; Chen, Zhong; Yun, Tian; Li, Cong-Yang; Jiang, Bo; Lv, Xue-Xia; Chu, Guang-Hui; Wang, Su-Nan; Yan, Hui; Shi, Lei-Feng

    2015-04-21

    To investigate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification and protein expression in mixed gastric carcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect HER2 amplification and protein expression in 277 cases of mixed gastric carcinoma. Protein staining intensity was rate as 1+, 2+, or 3+. Of the 277 cases, 114 (41.2%) expressed HER2 protein. HER2 3+ staining was observed in 28/277 (10.1%) cases, 2+ in 37/277 (13.4%) cases, and 1+ in 49/277 (17.7%) cases. A HER2 amplification rate of 17% was detected, of which 25/28 (89.3%) were observed in the HER2 3+ staining group, 17/37 (45.9%) in 2+, and 5/49 (10.2%) in 1+. Of the 47 patients with HER2 amplification who received chemotherapy plus trastuzumab, 22 demonstrated median progression-free and overall survivals of 9.1 mo and 16.7 mo, respectively, which were significantly better than those achieved with chemotherapy alone (5.6 mo and 12.1 mo, respectively) in 19 previously treated patients (Ps < 0.05). HER2 detection in mixed gastric carcinoma displays high heterogeneity. Relatively quantitative parameters are needed for assessing the level of HER2 amplification and protein expression.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Ramírez, Dionisio A.; Rodríguez-Tojo, María J.; Coca-Meneses, Juan C.; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. Objectives: To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Material and Methods: Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk. Key words:Oral lichenoid disease, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesion, oral carcinogenesis, EGFR. PMID:24880441

  18. Attenuation of internal organ damages by exogenously administered epidermal growth factor (EGF) in burned rodents.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Jorge; Lodos, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Major burns are associated with multiple internal organ damages, including necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Failure of the intestinal barrier is a serious complication in burned patients. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair and affords protection to the gastric mucosa. We examined whether a single systemic intervention with EGF prevents organ systems damages, following full-thickness scalds (25-30%) in rodents. Animals were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of EGF (30 microg/kg in mice, 10 microg/kg in rats) or saline solution, 30 min prior thermal injury in mice or after the cutaneous injury in rats. General clinical condition and mortality during 24h were recorded. Animals were autopsied and histopathological and histomorphometric studies were conducted. Mice treated with EGF exhibited a milder clinical evolution and acute lethality was significantly reduced as compared to saline counterparts (P<0.01). Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that EGF significantly reduced intestinal necrosis and contributed to preserve jejunoileal architecture in mice (P<0.05) and rats (P<0.01). The onset of renal hemorrhagic foci was significantly reduced in EGF-treated groups (P<0.01). Lung damages appeared attenuated in EGF-treated animals. These data indicate the salutary effects of EGF by attenuating internal complications associated to thermal injuries. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the usefulness of this therapy.

  19. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages.

  20. Delineating the functional map of the interaction between nimotuzumab and the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tundidor, Yaima; García-Hernández, Claudia Patricia; Pupo, Amaury; Infante, Yanelys Cabrera; Rojas, Gertrudis

    2014-01-01

    Molecular details of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting by nimotuzumab, a therapeutic anti-cancer antibody, have been largely unknown. The current study delineated a functional map of their interface, based on phage display and extensive mutagenesis of both the target antigen and the Fv antibody fragment. Five residues in EGFR domain III (R353, S356, F357, T358, and H359T) and the third hypervariable region of nimotuzumab heavy chain were shown to be major functional contributors to the interaction. Fine specificity differences between nimotuzumab and other anti-EGFR antibodies were revealed. Mapping information guided the generation of a plausible in silico binding model. Knowledge about the epitope/paratope interface opens new avenues for the study of tumor sensitivity/resistance to nimotuzumab and for further engineering of its binding site. The developed mapping platform, also validated with the well-known cetuximab epitope, allows a comprehensive exploration of antigenic regions and could be expanded to map other anti-EGFR antibodies. PMID:24759767

  1. The Effect of Micro-Spicule Containing Epidermal Growth Factor on Periocular Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jeong-Min; Lim, Cho-Ah; Han, Kyuboem; Ha, Jong-Cheon; Lee, Hae-Eul; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background Micro-needle patches have been recently used to increase skin permeability, which improves drug delivery, and for cosmetic purposes. However, these patches may often have limited efficacy due to insufficient skin penetration and reduced compliance caused by discomfort. Objective We evaluated the efficacy and the safety of soluble micro-spicule containing epidermal growth factor (MS-EGF) for the treatment of periocular wrinkles. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers aged 33 to 54 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, split-face study. For 4 weeks, a periocular wrinkle was treated daily with either a soluble MS-EGF cream or a cream containing EGF alone. All subjects underwent 8 weeks of follow-up. Efficacy was assessed using an ultrasonic measurement of dermal depth and density, digital skin image analysis, 5-point photonumeric scale for periocular wrinkles and subjective satisfaction. Results MS-EGF group showed statistically significant increase of dermal depth and density compared to EGF alone group after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, there was a marked improvement shown in clinical and 3-dimensional skin image in MS-EGF group. The treatments were well-tolerated; no significant side-effect was noted. Conclusion The MS-EGF formulation may represent an effective and biocompatible advance in the treatment of periocular wrinkles. PMID:28392646

  2. Epidermal growth factor-mediated proliferation and sodium transport in normal and PKD epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheleznova, Nadezhda N.; Wilson, Patricia D.; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-family bind to ErbB (EGFR)-family receptors which play an important role in the regulation of various fundamental cell processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. The normal rodent kidney has been shown to express at least three members of the ErbB receptor family and is a major site of EGF ligand synthesis. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a group of diseases caused by mutations in single genes and is characterized by enlarged kidneys due to the formation of multiple cysts in both kidneys. Tubule cells proliferate, causing segmental dilation, in association with the abnormal deposition of several proteins. One of the first abnormalities described in cell biological studies of PKD pathogenesis was the abnormal mislocalization of the EGFR in cyst lining epithelial cells. The kidney collecting duct (CD) is predominantly an absorptive epithelium where electrogenic Na+ entry is mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). ENaC-mediated sodium absorption represents an important ion transport pathway in the CD that might be involved in the development of PKD. A role for EGF in the regulation of ENaC-mediated sodium absorption has been proposed. However, several investigations have reported contradictory results indicating opposite effects of EGF and its related factors on ENaC activity and sodium transport. Recent advances in understanding how proteins in the EGF-family regulate the proliferation and sodium transport in normal and PKD epithelial cells are discussed here. PMID:20959142

  3. Genetic profiling and epidermal growth factor receptor-directed therapy in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cadranel, J; Zalcman, G; Sequist, L

    2011-01-01

    The principle of preferentially selecting patients most likely to benefit from therapy according to their genetic profile has led to substantial clinical benefit in some tumour types, and has potential to considerably refine treatment in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Effective, reliable use of molecular biomarkers to inform clinical practice requires the standardisation of testing methods and careful assessment of biomarkers' predictive and prognostic value. Although a number of studies have shown that patients with activating mutations in exons 18-21 of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene respond particularly well to gefitinib and erlotinib, a prospective, randomised study was needed to differentiate between the prognostic and predictive value of EGFR mutations. From one such study, it appeared that mutational testing should become standard at diagnosis, at least for adenocarcinoma patients with a never or low smoking history, as clinical predictors are insufficient to optimise treatment. However, outstanding questions remain: what are the treatment options for patients with tumours resistant to erlotinib/gefitinib? What conclusions about treatment can we draw from EGFR copy number or KRAS mutation status? What role should anti-EGFR antibodies play in NSCLC treatment, and in which patients? This review considers current evidence linking biomarker profile to efficacy of EGFR-targeted therapy in NSCLC, and clinical implications of recent findings.

  4. Immunotoxin Therapies for the Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nathan; FitzGerald, David

    2016-01-01

    Many epithelial cancers rely on enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to drive proliferation and survival pathways. Development of therapeutics to target EGFR signaling has been of high importance, and multiple examples have been approved for human use. However, many of the current small molecule or antibody-based therapeutics are of limited effectiveness due to the inevitable development of resistance and toxicity to normal tissues. Recombinant immunotoxins are therapeutic molecules consisting of an antibody or receptor ligand joined to a protein cytotoxin, combining the specific targeting of a cancer-expressed receptor with the potent cell killing of cytotoxic enzymes. Over the decades, many bacterial- or plant-based immunotoxins have been developed with the goal of targeting the broad range of cancers reliant upon EGFR overexpression. Many examples demonstrate excellent anti-cancer properties in preclinical development, and several EGFR-targeted immunotoxins have progressed to human trials. This review summarizes much of the past and current work in the development of immunotoxins for targeting EGFR-driven cancers. PMID:27153091

  5. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates atherosclerosis via decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lintao; Huang, Zhouqing; Huang, Weijian; Chen, Xuemei; Shan, Peiren; Zhong, Peng; Khan, Zia; Wang, Jingying; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Guang; Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. In the present study, we have elucidated the role of EGFR in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. We show increased EGFR phosphorylation and activity in atherosclerotic lesion development. EGFR inhibition prevented oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and SMC proliferation within the lesions. We further show that EGFR is activated through toll-like receptor 4. Disruption of toll-like receptor 4 or the EGFR pathway led to reduced inflammatory activity and foam cell formation. These studies provide evidence that EGFR plays a key role on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggests that EGFR may be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of atherosclerosis development. PMID:28374780

  6. Immune Responses to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Their Application for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Tetsuro; Azuma, Koichi; Ohtake, Junya; Fujimoto, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a prototypic cell-surface receptor belonging to the ErbB/HER onocogene family. Overexpression or somatic mutations of EGFR have been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis in various types of epithelial cancers. Therefore, targeting of EGFR with specific blocking antibodies or inhibitors have been developing for treatment for EGFR-associated tumors. Immune responses to HER2, another molecule of the ErbB/HER onocogene family, have been well studied, but only limited information on the immune responses to EGFR in cancer has been currently available. In this review, we have summarized the available data and discussed potential clinical importance of the anti-EGFR immune responses and EGFR-mediated immune regulation in cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest that cellular and humoral immune responses to EGFR might be useful as a marker and/or target for cancer therapy against EGFR-associated tumors. In addition, recent studies suggest the critical roles of EGFR-mediated signaling in regulation of expression of an immune checkpoint molecule, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells. Further studies are warranted to clarify the impact of the anti-EGFR immune responses and EGFR-mediated immunomodulation for clinical application for cancer treatment.

  7. Effective targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for treating oral cancer: a promising approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; Noguti, Juliana; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious problem growing in incidence in many parts of the world; it is considered the sixth most common cancer and despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities, oral squamous cell carcinoma, which represents 90% of oral cancers, is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. The Epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) comprises of four distinct receptors: the EGFR (also known as ErbB-1/HER1), ErbB-2 (neu, HER2), ErbB-3 (HER3) and ErbB-4 (HER4). Several studies have been published on the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of oral carcinoma. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of EGFR pathway in oral cancer with special focus on its role during the carcinogenesis process as a result of therapeutic approaches of EGFR in oral cancer. The EGFR is a 170-kDa cell-surface protein involved in many biological processes, such as proliferation, migration, DNA synthesis and adhesion. Overexpression of EGFR results in a poor prognosis in oral cancer and its activation is associated with the malignant phenotype, inhibition of apoptosis and increased metastatic potential. EGFR variations and mutations have been correlated with tumor formation, and possibly alter the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibitors.

  8. Interactions of ABCG2 (BCRP) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors developed for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Qawasmi, Israa; Shmuel, Miriam; Eyal, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro the interactions between novel epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors (EGFRIs) developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the major efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Seven compounds were evaluated, using the ATPase activity assays and Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing BCRP. Five of the tested compounds activated BCRP ATPase to various extent. Overexpression of BCRP conferred resistance to ML04, ML06, methoxy-Br-ML03, and PEG6-ML05 (IC50 values for inhibition of control cell proliferation 2.1 ± 0.6, 2.2 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 1.2, and 2.8 ± 3.1 μM, respectively, compared to >50 μM in MDCK-BCRP cells). At submicromolar concentrations, none of the EGFRIs significantly inhibited BCRP. Immunoblotting studies indicated that BCRP expression is evident in cell lines utilized for in vivo tumor grafting in small animal PET imaging studies. Thus, the intensity of EGFRIs radioactivity signals previously observed in tumor xenografts reflects an interplay between transporter-mediated distribution of the probe into tumor cells and target binding. Concomitant use of efflux transporter inhibitors may help distinguish between the contribution of efflux transport and EGFR binding to the tissue signal.

  9. Interactions of ABCG2 (BCRP) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors developed for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qawasmi, Israa; Shmuel, Miriam; Eyal, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro the interactions between novel epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors (EGFRIs) developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the major efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Seven compounds were evaluated, using the ATPase activity assays and Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing BCRP. Five of the tested compounds activated BCRP ATPase to various extent. Overexpression of BCRP conferred resistance to ML04, ML06, methoxy-Br-ML03, and PEG6-ML05 (IC50 values for inhibition of control cell proliferation 2.1 ± 0.6, 2.2 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 1.2, and 2.8 ± 3.1 μM, respectively, compared to >50 μM in MDCK-BCRP cells). At submicromolar concentrations, none of the EGFRIs significantly inhibited BCRP. Immunoblotting studies indicated that BCRP expression is evident in cell lines utilized for in vivo tumor grafting in small animal PET imaging studies. Thus, the intensity of EGFRIs radioactivity signals previously observed in tumor xenografts reflects an interplay between transporter-mediated distribution of the probe into tumor cells and target binding. Concomitant use of efflux transporter inhibitors may help distinguish between the contribution of efflux transport and EGFR binding to the tissue signal. PMID:25484865

  10. Combination epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition and radical radiotherapy for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Susanne J; Harrington, Kevin J; Eccles, Suzanne A; Nutting, Christopher M

    2004-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the most common cause of cancer-related death in the developed world. Despite advances in therapy with conventional modalities, over 85% of patients will die from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis. For patients with inoperable lung cancer, the addition of chemotherapy to radical radiotherapy yields a small but significant 10% survival benefit at 3 years. However, the systemic toxicity of chemotherapy is common and may be severe. Over the past 20 years, dramatic improvements in our understanding of the molecular etiology of cancer have enabled the development of novel targeted therapies. Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in lung cancer correlates with an aggressive disease course and poor tumor response to radiotherapy. Strategies to inhibit this molecular switch have become a focus for drug development. Preclinical efficacy has been repeatedly demonstrated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and responses have been documented in the clinic with acceptable toxicity. Phase III trials combining EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors with radical chemoradiation are recruiting at present. This review addresses the current challenges of discovering how best to use these new anticancer therapies, with particular emphasis on the enhancement of existing therapeutic strategies such as radical radiotherapy, factors relating to patient selection and prediction of clinical response.

  11. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of mouse epidermal growth factor-like domain 8.

    PubMed

    Song, Ik-Jin; Ikram, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazli; Choi, Da-Jeong; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Heui-Soo; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2015-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like (EGFL) domain, a common structural module in numerous secreted or transmembrane proteins, is generally involved in protein-protein interactions. To date, several EGFL proteins have been identified and characterized, but little is known about EGFL domain 8 (EGFL8). The present study reported the molecular characterization and expression analysis of EGFL8 in mice. Mouse EGFL8 amplified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach was sequenced and characterized. Mouse EGFL8 encodes a protein of 293 amino acids with two EGFL domains, an Emilin-like domain and a Ca(2+)-binding EGFL domain, which has a molecular mass of 32 kDa. The coding sequence has a high degree of amino acid sequence identity across species, and the EGFL domain has been highly conserved in various species during evolutionary radiation. A phylogenetic tree calculated using the neighbor-joining method revealed that EGFL8 and EGFL7 are more closely associated with each other than either is to EGFL3, and they cluster with EGFL6. It was found that mouse EGFL8 protein was highly expressed in diverse mouse tissue types, including the thymus, lymph nodes, testis, ovaries, epididymis, ductus deferens, ileum, colon, stomach, esophagus, lung, uterus, urinary bladder, skin, spleen, adrenal glands and penis. These results are of great use in understanding the biological roles of mouse EGFL8 for further study.

  12. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  13. Molecular basis for multimerization in the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yongjian; Bharill, Shashank; Karandur, Deepti; ...

    2016-03-28

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by dimerization, but activation also generates higher-order multimers, whose nature and function are poorly understood. We have characterized ligand-induced dimerization and multimerization of EGFR using single-molecule analysis, and show that multimerization can be blocked by mutations in a specific region of Domain IV of the extracellular module. These mutations reduce autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of EGFR and attenuate phosphorylation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, which is recruited by EGFR. The catalytic activity of EGFR is switched on through allosteric activation of one kinase domain by another, and we show that if thismore » is restricted to dimers, then sites in the tail that are proximal to the kinase domain are phosphorylated in only one subunit. We propose a structural model for EGFR multimerization through self-association of ligand-bound dimers, in which the majority of kinase domains are activated cooperatively, thereby boosting tail phosphorylation.« less

  14. Molecular basis for multimerization in the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongjian; Bharill, Shashank; Karandur, Deepti; Peterson, Sean M.; Marita, Morgan; Shi, Xiaojun; Kaliszewski, Megan J.; Smith, Adam W.; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Kuriyan, John

    2016-03-28

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by dimerization, but activation also generates higher-order multimers, whose nature and function are poorly understood. We have characterized ligand-induced dimerization and multimerization of EGFR using single-molecule analysis, and show that multimerization can be blocked by mutations in a specific region of Domain IV of the extracellular module. These mutations reduce autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of EGFR and attenuate phosphorylation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, which is recruited by EGFR. The catalytic activity of EGFR is switched on through allosteric activation of one kinase domain by another, and we show that if this is restricted to dimers, then sites in the tail that are proximal to the kinase domain are phosphorylated in only one subunit. We propose a structural model for EGFR multimerization through self-association of ligand-bound dimers, in which the majority of kinase domains are activated cooperatively, thereby boosting tail phosphorylation.

  15. Enhancement of drug sensitivity of human malignancies by epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kröning, R.; Jones, J. A.; Hom, D. K.; Chuang, C. C.; Sanga, R.; Los, G.; Howell, S. B.; Christen, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells to cisplatin. EGF was found to enhance selectively the in vivo toxicity of cisplatin to 2008 cell xenografts without altering the toxicity of cisplatin to non-malignant target tissues such as the kidney or bone marrow. We now show that recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) enhances the cisplatin sensitivity of cell lines representative of many other types of malignancies in addition to ovarian carcinoma, including cancers of the head and neck, cervix, colon, pancreas and prostate, as well as non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. In addition, rhEGF was found to sensitise cells to other platinum-containing drugs and several other classes of chemotherapeutic agents. rhEGF sensitised 2008 cells not only to cisplatin, but also to carboplatin and tetraplatin, as well as taxol, melphalan and 5-fluorouracil. We conclude that modulation of drug sensitivity by rhEGF is observed in cell lines representative of many human malignancies and for multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents, indicating that it alters one or more components of the cellular damage response that are both common between cell lines and classes of drugs and fundamental to survival. Images Figure 2 PMID:7669570

  16. Targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Siwak, Doris R.; Carey, Mark; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Nguyen, Catherine T.; McGahren Murray, Mollianne J.; Nolden, Laura; Mills, Gordon B.

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is overexpressed in up to 60% of ovarian epithelial malignancies. EGFR regulates complex cellular events due to the large number of ligands, dimerization partners, and diverse signaling pathways engaged. In ovarian cancer, EGFR activation is associated with increased malignant tumor phenotype and poorer patient outcome. However, unlike some other EGFR-positive solid tumors, treatment of ovarian tumors with anti-EGFR agents has induced minimal response. While the amount of information regarding EGFR-mediated signaling is considerable, current data provides little insight for the lack of efficacy of anti-EGFR agents in ovarian cancer. More comprehensive, systematic, and well-defined approaches are needed to dissect the roles that EGFR plays in the complex signaling processes in ovarian cancer as well as to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict sensitivity toward EGFR-targeted therapeutic agents. This new knowledge could facilitate the development of rational combinatorial therapies to sensitize tumor cells toward EGFR-targeted therapies. PMID:20037743

  17. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double (3H)proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in the periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse.

  19. Llgl1 prevents metaplastic survival driven by epidermal growth factor dependent migration

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Erin; Russ, Atlantis; Pandey, Ritu; Schroeder, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Llgl1 loss results in a gain of mesenchymal phenotypes and a loss of apicobasal and planar polarity. We now demonstrate that these changes represent a fundamental shift in cellular phenotype. Llgl1 regulates the expression of multiple cell identity markers, including CD44, CD49f, and CD24, and the nuclear translocation of TAZ and Slug. Cells lacking Llgl1 form mammospheres, where survival and transplantability is dependent upon the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Additionally, Llgl1 loss allows cells to grow in soft-agar and maintain prolonged survival as orthotopic transplants in NOD-SCIDmice. Lineage tracing and wound healing experiments demonstrate that mammosphere survival is due to enhanced EGF-dependent migration. The loss of Llgl1 drives EGFR mislocalization and an EGFR mislocalization point mutation (P667A) drives these same phenotypes, including activation of AKT and TAZ nuclear translocation. Together, these data indicate that the loss of Llgl1 results in EGFR mislocalization, promoting pre-neoplastic changes. PMID:27542214

  20. GBM heterogeneity as a function of variable epidermal growth factor receptor variant III activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Olle R.; McKinney, Andrew; Engler, Jane R.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane; Gong, Henry; Robinson, Aaron E.; Ewald, Andrew J.; Huillard, Emmanuelle; James, C. David; Molinaro, Annette M.; Shieh, Joseph T.; Phillips, Joanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) due to a deletion of exons 2-7 of EGFR (EGFRvIII) is a common alteration in glioblastoma (GBM). While this alteration can drive gliomagenesis, tumors harboring EGFRvIII are heterogeneous. To investigate the role for EGFRvIII activation in tumor phenotype we used a neural progenitor cell-based murine model of GBM driven by EGFR signaling and generated tumor progenitor cells with high and low EGFRvIII activation, pEGFRHi and pEGFRLo. In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies suggested a direct association between EGFRvIII activity and increased tumor cell proliferation, decreased tumor cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and altered progenitor cell phenotype. Time-lapse confocal imaging of tumor cells in brain slice cultures demonstrated blood vessel co-option by tumor cells and highlighted differences in invasive pattern. Inhibition of EGFR signaling in pEGFRHi promoted cell differentiation and increased cell-matrix adhesion. Conversely, increased EGFRvIII activation in pEGFRLo reduced cell-matrix adhesion. Our study using a murine model for GBM driven by a single genetic driver, suggests differences in EGFR activation contribute to tumor heterogeneity and aggressiveness. PMID:27738329

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ramírez, Dionisio-Alejandro; Rodríguez-Tojo, María-Jose; Coca-Meneses, Juan-Carlos; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Aguirre-Urizar, José-Manuel

    2014-09-01

    The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk.

  2. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  3. The epidermal growth factor receptor family as a central element for cellular signal transduction and diversification.

    PubMed

    Prenzel, N; Fischer, O M; Streit, S; Hart, S; Ullrich, A

    2001-03-01

    Homeostasis of multicellular organisms is critically dependent on the correct interpretation of the plethora of signals which cells are exposed to during their lifespan. Various soluble factors regulate the activation state of cellular receptors which are coupled to a complex signal transduction network that ultimately generates signals defining the required biological response. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases represents both key regulators of normal cellular development as well as critical players in a variety of pathophysiological phenomena. The aim of this review is to give a broad overview of signal transduction networks that are controlled by the EGFR superfamily of receptors in health and disease and its application for target-selective therapeutic intervention. Since the EGFR and HER2 were recently identified as critical players in the transduction of signals by a variety of cell surface receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors and integrins, our special focus is the mechanisms and significance of the interconnectivity between heterologous signalling systems.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of radiolabelled nimotuzumab, a promising monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Barta, Pavel; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Vera, Denis Rolando Beckford; Beran, Milos

    2013-05-15

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies with affinity towards tumour-associated antigens may enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment with targeted radiotherapy. The humanized antibody nimotuzumab represents a promising vector to deliver radioactivity to tumours overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (ErbB1). We analysed the effect of radiolabelling nimotuzumab on its uptake in cancer cells and its biodistribution profile in preclinical experiments. Nimotuzumab was labelled with (131) I by oxidative iodination and with (177) Lu using nimotuzumab conjugates with two different chelators (DTPA and DOTA) and two different spacers (p-SCN-Bn and NHS). For the receptor studies, two cell lines (HaCaT and A431) were used. Biodistribution studies were performed in male Wistar rats. The choice of radiolabel and the manner of its attachment to nimotuzumab had little effect on the internalization of the antibody into ErbB1-expressing cell lines. However, the type of radiolabel, the way in which it was attached to nimotuzumab and the radiolabelling procedure, significantly affected the blood clearance, liver uptake and liver persistence of radiolabelled nimotuzumab. (131) I-nimotuzumab had the longest elimination half-life and the lowest radioactivity uptake in the liver. (177) Lu-labelled nimotuzumab exhibited a shorter elimination half-life, high radioactivity and long-term retention in the liver. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Delineating the functional map of the interaction between nimotuzumab and the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Tundidor, Yaima; García-Hernández, Claudia Patricia; Pupo, Amaury; Cabrera Infante, Yanelys; Rojas, Gertrudis

    2014-01-01

    Molecular details of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting by nimotuzumab, a therapeutic anti-cancer antibody, have been largely unknown. The current study delineated a functional map of their interface, based on phage display and extensive mutagenesis of both the target antigen and the Fv antibody fragment. Five residues in EGFR domain III (R353, S356, F357, T358, and H359T) and the third hypervariable region of nimotuzumab heavy chain were shown to be major functional contributors to the interaction. Fine specificity differences between nimotuzumab and other anti-EGFR antibodies were revealed. Mapping information guided the generation of a plausible in silico binding model. Knowledge about the epitope/paratope interface opens new avenues for the study of tumor sensitivity/resistance to nimotuzumab and for further engineering of its binding site. The developed mapping platform, also validated with the well-known cetuximab epitope, allows a comprehensive exploration of antigenic regions and could be expanded to map other anti-EGFR antibodies.

  6. Characterization of human epidermal growth factor in human serum and urine under native conditions.

    PubMed

    Aybay, Cemalettin; Karakus, Resul; Yucel, Aysegul

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular nature of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) in serum and urine samples of normal subjects. Recombinant EGF emerged as a single peak and did not interact with human IgG1 and albumin up to the concentration of 12 microg/ml. Freshly separated human serum contained only trace amounts of EGF. However, EGF appeared and increased in serum separated from blood after spontaneous overnight clotting. The authentic 6 kDa form of EGF made up nearly 40% of the total EGF in serum and revealed relatively homogeneous feature. The remaining immunoreactive fractions corresponded to 160 kDa proEGF. Immunoreactive EGF in blood seemed to be associated with the EGF release from platelets. TSKgel G3000SW chromatography of freshly-voided morning and day urines revealed that urine samples mainly contained two major form of EGF; a high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms. In the sense of molecular nature of EGF contents, morning urine was more heterogeneous than day urine of the same individuals. The LMW form of EGF in morning urine, in which its proportion was more than 90% of the total EGF, revealed further heterogeneous feature generally containing three to four different components.

  7. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  8. Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth factor for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2005-08-01

    The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth factor specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are interchangeable, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.

  9. Effect of epidermal growth factor against radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-wook; Jung, Kwon Il; Kim, Yeun Wha B.S.; Jung, Heun Don; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hong, Joon Pio . E-mail: joonphong@amc.seoul.kr

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: We tested the efficacy of oral recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) against radiation-induced oral mucositis in a rat model. Methods and Materials: Each of 35 Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 8 weeks of age and weighing 178 {+-} 5 grams, was irradiated once in the head region with 25 Gy, using a 4-MV therapeutic linear accelerator at a rate of 2 Gy/min. The irradiated rats were randomly divided into four groups: those receiving no treatment (Group 1), those treated with vehicle only three times per day (Group 2), and those treated with 50 {mu}g/mL (Group 3), or 100 {mu}g/mL (Group 4) rhEGF three times per day. Results: Rats were monitored for survival rate and daily activity, including hair loss, sensitivity, and anorexia. We found that survival rate and oral intake were significantly increased and histologic changes were significantly decreased in the rhEGF-treated rats. There was no difference, however, between rats treated with 50 {mu}g/mL or 100 {mu}g/mL rhEGF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that orally administered rhEGF decreased radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats.

  10. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SARS coronavirus-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection. In this article, we summarize pulmonary fibrotic changes observed after a SARS-CoV infection, discuss the extent to which other respiratory viruses induce fibrosis, describe available animal models to study the development of SARS-CoV induced fibrosis and review evidence that pulmonary fibrosis is caused by a hyperactive host response to lung injury mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We summarize work from our group and others indicating that inhibiting EGFR signaling may prevent an excessive fibrotic response to SARS-CoV and other respiratory viral infections and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of acid formation by epidermal growth factor in the isolated rabbit gastric glands.

    PubMed Central

    Dembiński, A; Drozdowicz, D; Gregory, H; Konturek, S J; Warzecha, Z

    1986-01-01

    The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on basal and stimulated (with histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and high concentrations of K+) acid formation have been studied in isolated glands from the rabbit gastric mucosa. The changes in the accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine [14C]AP have been used as an indirect measurement of acid production in the glands. Unstimulated gastric glands accumulated [14C]AP indicating the existence of basal acid production in these glands, and EGF caused a small but significant reduction in basal [14C]AP uptake. A similar reduction of basal [14C]AP uptake was observed after exposure to omeprazole but not after ranitidine or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Histamine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and K+ caused a strong and dose-dependent stimulation of acid formation by the glands. EGF, like omeprazole, reduced dose-dependently the [14C]AP accumulation stimulated by both histamine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP, while ranitidine and PGE2 reduced histamine- but not dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP-stimulated accumulation of [14C]AP. In the absence of other external stimuli, an increased K+ concentration enhanced [14C]AP accumulation to levels similar to those produced by histamine and this effect was not changed by EGF, ranitidine or PGE2 but was inhibited by omeprazole. We conclude that EGF interferes with the final steps of acid production between cyclic nucleotides and proton pump of the parietal cells. PMID:3025433

  12. Enhancement in gastric mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor expression by sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Slomiany, B L; Piotrowski, J; Czajkowski, A; Murty, V L; Majka, J; Slomiany, A

    1994-05-01

    The effect of intragastric administration of sulglycotide, a cytoprotective sulfated glycopeptide, on the expression of gastric mucosal epidermal growth factor receptor was investigated. The experiments were conducted with groups of rats, one receiving twice daily for 5 consecutive days a dose of 200mg/kg sulglycotide, and the other only vehicle. Mucosal cell membranes were isolated from the stomachs at 16, 40 and 88h after the last dose, and used for EGF receptor assays. The binding assays revealed a marked increase in mucosal EGF receptor expression with sulglycotide. Compared to the controls, the sulglycotide-treated group showed a 4-fold increase in the EGF receptor expression at 16h after the last dose of sulglycotide, a 4.7-fold increase in the EGF receptor was observed by the 40h, and a 4.2-fold increase was still evident at 88h following the treatment. The results demonstrate that sulglycotide exhibits remarkable ability to enhance the gastric mucosal expression of EGF receptor.

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling towards Proliferation: Modeling and Logic Inference Using Forward and Backward Search.

    PubMed

    Riesco, Adrián; Santos-Buitrago, Beatriz; De Las Rivas, Javier; Knapp, Merrill; Santos-García, Gustavo; Talcott, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, pathways define complex interaction networks where multiple molecular elements are involved in a series of controlled reactions producing responses to specific biomolecular signals. These biosystems are dynamic and there is a need for mathematical and computational methods able to analyze the symbolic elements and the interactions between them and produce adequate readouts of such systems. In this work, we use rewriting logic to analyze the cellular signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its cell surface receptor (EGFR) in order to induce cellular proliferation. Signaling is initiated by binding the ligand protein EGF to the membrane-bound receptor EGFR so as to trigger a reactions path which have several linked elements through the cell from the membrane till the nucleus. We present two different types of search for analyzing the EGF/proliferation system with the help of Pathway Logic tool, which provides a knowledge-based development environment to carry out the modeling of the signaling. The first one is a standard (forward) search. The second one is a novel approach based on narrowing, which allows us to trace backwards the causes of a given final state. The analysis allows the identification of critical elements that have to be activated to provoke proliferation.

  14. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  15. Effects of hyperthermia on binding, internalization, and degradation of epidermal growth factor. [/sup 125/I

    SciTech Connect

    Magun, B.E.; Fennie, C.W.

    1981-04-01

    /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor was used as a molecular probe to study the effects of hyperthermia and local anesthetics on cultured Rat-1 cells. Heating cells at 45/sup 0/C for times up to 1 h caused a continuous decrease in EGF binding. Scatchard analysis showed that the decreased binding resulted from a decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptors rather than from a decrease in receptor number. Exposure to 42/sup 0/C had no effect on degradation. We compared the effects of heat to those caused by the local anesthetics procaine the lidocaine, which have been shown to prevent EGF degradation. Because procaine and lidocaine have been shown by others to potentiate the killing effects of hyperthermia on tumors and in cultured cells, we suggest that hyperthermia and the local anesthetics may act at the same cellular site. By inhibiting the action of lysosomes, hyperthermia and local anesthetics may permit potentially toxic materials to enter the cell by endocytosis, where they would accumulate and induce lethal damage.

  16. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Ansó, Elena; Martínez-Irujo, Juan José; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 muM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  17. KRAS mutational status as a predictor of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor efficacy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Roy D; Gansert, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have demonstrated promising potential in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. However, a proportion of patients do not respond to therapy with EGFR inhibitors, and therefore, there has been interest in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from therapy with these agents. KRAS, a member of the RAS family of signaling proteins, plays an important role in EGFR-mediated regulation of cellular proliferation and survival. Although there is still some debate regarding the prognostic importance of KRAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, several recent phase 2 and 3 studies have identified the presence of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of KRAS as predictors of poor response to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab. Patients with wild-type KRAS were found to have significantly better progression-free survival, overall survival, and/or objective response rate compared with patients harboring KRAS mutations. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of KRAS mutational status as a biomarker for predicting patient response to EGFR-targeted therapy. Screening colorectal tumors for the absence of KRAS mutations may help identify patients most likely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapies.

  18. A novel insertion mutation on exon 20 of epidermal growth factor receptor, conferring resistance to erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawazish A; Mirshahidi, Saied; Mirshahidi, Hamid R

    2014-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine kinase receptor. The small-molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs) are in clinical use to treat non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. Variable tumor responses to erlotinib and gefitinib have been observed. The response to these TKIs varies by the type of EGFR mutations found in the tumor. The deletion on exon 19 and the L858R substitution on exon 21 constitute the most frequent mutations and are known to show good response to TKIs. However, mutations on exon 20 are less common and seem to respond poorly to TKIs. In clinical settings, the reported response of exon 20 mutations to reversible TKIs (both gefitinib and erlotinib) remains inconstant. The type of coexisting mutation seems to affect the response of these insertions to TKIs. We herein present a case of disease progression despite the use of erlotinib in a female patient who had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20. Our patient was a never-smoker and was identified to have a Pro772_His773insGlnCysPro mutation on exon 20. She had previously been treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine and then with carboplatin and pemetrexed. She was treated with erlotinib upon intolerance to second-line chemotherapy and did not respond. Our patient had a novel insertion mutation on exon 20, which was found to be resistant to erlotinib.

  19. Irreversible inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor activity by 3-aminopropanamides.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Caterina; Galvani, Elena; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Lodola, Alessio; Russo, Simonetta; Aiello, Stefania; Bordi, Fabrizio; Costantino, Gabriele; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Alfieri, Roberta R; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Mor, Marco

    2012-03-08

    Irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors contain a reactive warhead which covalently interacts with a conserved cysteine residue in the kinase domain. The acrylamide fragment, a commonly employed warhead, effectively alkylates Cys797 of EGFR, but its reactivity can cause rapid metabolic deactivation or nonspecific reactions with off-targets. We describe here a new series of irreversible inhibitors containing a 3-aminopropanamide linked in position 6 to 4-anilinoquinazoline or 4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile driving portions. Some of these compounds proved to be as efficient as their acrylamide analogues in inhibiting EGFR-TK (TK = tyrosine kinase) autophosphorylation in A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, several 3-aminopropanamides suppressed proliferation of gefitinib-resistant H1975 cells, harboring the T790M mutation in EGFR, at significantly lower concentrations than did gefitinib. A prototypical compound, N-(4-(3-bromoanilino)quinazolin-6-yl)-3-(dimethylamino)propanamide (5), did not show covalent binding to cell-free EGFR-TK in a fluorescence assay, while it underwent selective activation in the intracellular environment, releasing an acrylamide derivative which can react with thiol groups.

  20. Ethnic differences in response to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Emiliano; Baselga, José

    2006-05-10

    The identification of somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their correlation with response to EGFR inhibitors has become an important event in the fields of cancer genetics and therapeutics. The initial observation of a higher response to gefitinib and erlotinib in patients of Asian origin was followed by the discovery that they harbor more frequent EGFR mutations in NSCLC; this raises the issue of ethnic diversity in the pathogenesis of given tumors. In a similar fashion, amplification of the closely related HER2 gene, which could also have implications for the treatment of NSCLC, is also more frequent in East Asian patients. On the other hand, EGFR gene amplification may be more prevalent in Western populations. The implication of these findings is that ethnicity may indicate different genetic backgrounds in common tumors that may influence clinical outcome and response to therapy. Therefore, in clinical trials with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other molecular-targeted therapies, the inclusion of a global population appears to be required.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor and DNA double strand break repair: the cell's self-defence.

    PubMed

    Szumiel, Irena

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the relation between the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB)--the main lethal lesion inflicted by ionising radiation-and the function of receptors of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and similar ligands (other members of the ERBB family). The reviewed experimental data support the assumption that in mammalian cells, one consequence of EGFR/ERBB activation by X-rays is its internalisation and nuclear translocation together with DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) subunits present in lipid rafts or cytoplasm. The effect of EGFR/ERBB stimulation on DSB rejoining would be due to an increase in the nuclear content of DNA-PK subunits and hence, in activity increase of the DNA-PK dependent non-homologous end-joining (D-NHEJ) system. Such mechanism explains the radiosensitising action of "membrane-active drugs", hypertonic media, and other agents that affect nuclear translocation of proteins. Also, one radiosensitising effect of the recently introduced into clinical practice EGFR/ERBB inhibitors would consist on counteracting the nuclear translocation of DNA-PK subunits. In result, D-NHEJ may be less active in inhibitor-treated cells and this will contribute to an enhanced lethal effect of irradiation. The reviewed observations point to a heretofore not understood mechanism of the cell's self-defence against X-rays which can be exploited in combined radio- and chemotherapy.

  2. Notch-1 regulates transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor through p53.

    PubMed

    Purow, Benjamin W; Sundaresan, Tilak K; Burdick, Michael J; Kefas, Benjamin A; Comeau, Laurey D; Hawkinson, Michael P; Su, Qin; Kotliarov, Yuri; Lee, Jeongwu; Zhang, Wei; Fine, Howard A

    2008-05-01

    The Notch pathway plays a key role in the development and is increasingly recognized for its importance in cancer. We demonstrated previously the overexpression of Notch-1 and its ligands in gliomas and showed that their knockdown inhibits glioma cell proliferation and survival. To elucidate the mechanisms downstream of Notch-1 in glioma cells, we performed microarray profiling of glioma cells transfected with Notch-1 small interfering RNA. Notable among downregulated transcripts was the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to be overexpressed or amplified in gliomas and prominent in other cancers as well. Further studies confirmed that Notch-1 inhibition decreased EGFR messenger RNA (mRNA) and EGFR protein in glioma and other cell lines. Transfection with Notch-1 increased EGFR expression. Additionally, we found a significant correlation in levels of EGFR and Notch-1 mRNA in primary high-grade human gliomas. Subsequent experiments showed that p53, an activator of the EGFR promoter, is regulated by Notch-1. Experiments with p53-positive and -null cell lines confirmed that p53 partially mediates the effects of Notch-1 on EGFR expression. These results show for the first time that Notch-1 upregulates EGFR expression and also demonstrate Notch-1 regulation of p53 in gliomas. These observations have significant implications for understanding the mechanisms of Notch in cancer and development.

  3. Effect of concentration on hepatic transport of exogenous epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Burwen, S.J.; Barker, M.E.; Goldman, I.S.; Jones, A.L.

    1985-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), taken up by rat hepatocytes, is primarily transported to the lysosomes and degraded. However, a small but significant percentage of endocytosed EGF is transported by a nonlysosomal pathway and is secreted intact into bile. There is no information as to the mechanisms that regulate the selection of transport pathway and thereby determine the different metabolic fates for EGF. The experiments reported here were undertaken to determine whether the amount of exogenous EGF administered to the liver (the transport load) might affect the selection of the transport pathway. If ''excess'' EGF, exceeding some as yet undetermined threshold, is preferentially transported by the lysosomal pathway, then the proportion of degraded EGF secreted into bile should increase as a function of the amount of EGF administered. /sup 125/I-EGF (3 to 175 ng) was injected into rat portal veins, and bile samples were collected via cannula. The radioactivity secreted into bile was measured, and the bile samples were immunoprecipitated with anti-EGF antiserum. The proportion of intact vs. degraded EGF in bile was determined by the percentage of immunoprecipitable radioactivity. Regardless of the amount of EGF injected, the pattern of its secretion was unaltered. The percentage of immunoprecipitable EGF in bile was the same for all doses. Therefore, the amount of EGF that was degraded did not change as a function of EGF concentration, implying that the lysosomal pathway was not preferentially utilized as the transport load increased.

  4. Third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pirker, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance during therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In about half of the patients, this resistance is because of the emergence of the T790M mutation. Third-generation TKIs are active against EGFR-activating mutations and the T790M resistance mutation and have only limited efficacy against wild-type EGFR. Here we review the current status of the clinical development of these novel TKIs. Third-generation TKIs in clinical development include osimertinib, rociletinib, and HM61713. Osimertinib and rociletinib have shown clinical efficacy in phase I/II trials in patients who had acquired resistance to first- or second-generation TKIs. Both TKIs are currently further evaluated in phase III trials as first-line or second-line therapy in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. HM61713 is in early clinical development. Third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown activity in patients with acquired resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKIs and may further improve clinical outcome in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

  5. Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, Peter S; Jänne, Pasi A; Johnson, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are ATP competitive inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and are approved around the world for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR are found in 10 to 40% of patients with NSCLC. Patients with sensitizing somatic mutations of EGFR treated with gefitinib or erlotinib have an initial clinical response of 60 to 80%, approximately twice as high as the responses associated with the administration of conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is limited by either primary (de novo) or acquired resistance after therapy and investigations to define the mechanisms of resistance are active areas of ongoing preclinical and clinical studies. Primary resistance is typically caused by other somatic mutations in genes such as KRAS, which also have an impact on the EGFR signaling pathway or by mutations in the EGFR gene that are not associated with sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Two established mechanisms of acquired resistance are caused by additional mutations in the EGFR gene acquired during the course of treatment that change the protein-coding sequence or by amplification of another oncogene signaling pathway driven by the MET oncogene. This review focuses on characterized mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR TKIs and efforts to overcome the problem of resistance aimed at improving the therapy of patients with NSCLC. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7502-9).

  6. Strategies to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-07

    Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.

  7. Contributions of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor to Acquisition of Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Michaela L.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of platinum resistance following first line platinum/taxane therapy is commonly observed in ovarian cancer patients and prevents clinical effectiveness. There are few options to prevent platinum resistance; however, demethylating agents have been shown to resensitize patients to platinum therapy thereby demonstrating that DNA methylation is a critical contributor to the development of platinum resistance. We previously reported the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a novel regulator of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and DNA methylation. Others have shown that EGFR activation is linked to cisplatin treatment and platinum resistance. We hypothesized that cisplatin induced activation of the EGFR mediates changes in DNA methylation associated with the development of platinum resistance. To investigate this, we evaluated EGFR signaling and DNMT activity after acute cisplatin exposure. We also developed an in vitro model of platinum resistance to examine the effects of EGFR inhibition on acquisition of cisplatin resistance. Acute cisplatin treatment activates the EGFR and downstream signaling pathways, and induces an EGFR mediated increase in DNMT activity. Cisplatin resistant cells also showed increased DNMT activity and global methylation. EGFR inhibition during repeated cisplatin treatments generated cells that were more sensitive to cisplatin and did not develop increases in DNA methylation or DNMT activity compared to controls. These findings suggest that activation of EGFR during platinum treatment contributes to the development of platinum resistance. Furthermore, EGFR inhibition may be an effective strategy at attenuating the development of platinum resistance thereby enhancing the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment in ovarian cancer. PMID:26351843

  8. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) prevents methylprednisolone-induced inhibition of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Laato, M; Heino, J; Kähäri, V M; Niinikoski, J; Gerdin, B

    1989-10-01

    Subcutaneously implanted cylindrical hollow viscose cellulose sponges were used to study the effect of locally applied epidermal growth factor (EGF) on methylprednisolone-induced inhibition of granulation tissue formation in rats. In in vivo studies the sponges were treated immediately after implantation with a single injection of 2 mg (approximately 1.7 x 10(-3) M) of depot methylprednisolone or with its carrier solution only. Thereafter the implants were injected daily with 5 micrograms of EGF or with its carrier solution 0.1% albumin for 7 days. Methylprednisolone treatment decreased the accumulation of nucleic acids, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans in the developing granulation tissue. After daily injections of EGF the concentrations of these tissue components returned close to the control values. In cultures of rat granulation tissue fibroblasts, 10(-4) M and 10(-3)M methylprednisolone decreased collagen synthesis by 41 and 81% from the control level, respectively. In the presence of methylprednisolone EGF treatment could not increase collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Methylprednisolone treatment resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA levels, which was partially inhibited by low EGF concentrations (1 and 10 ng/ml). In the presence of methylprednisolone all concentrations of EGF increased fibronectin mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that EGF treatment can prevent the inhibitory effect of methylprednisolone on wound healing by stimulating fibroblast proliferation but does not stimulate collagen synthesis per cell.

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling towards Proliferation: Modeling and Logic Inference Using Forward and Backward Search

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, Adrián; Santos-Buitrago, Beatriz; De Las Rivas, Javier; Knapp, Merrill; Talcott, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, pathways define complex interaction networks where multiple molecular elements are involved in a series of controlled reactions producing responses to specific biomolecular signals. These biosystems are dynamic and there is a need for mathematical and computational methods able to analyze the symbolic elements and the interactions between them and produce adequate readouts of such systems. In this work, we use rewriting logic to analyze the cellular signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its cell surface receptor (EGFR) in order to induce cellular proliferation. Signaling is initiated by binding the ligand protein EGF to the membrane-bound receptor EGFR so as to trigger a reactions path which have several linked elements through the cell from the membrane till the nucleus. We present two different types of search for analyzing the EGF/proliferation system with the help of Pathway Logic tool, which provides a knowledge-based development environment to carry out the modeling of the signaling. The first one is a standard (forward) search. The second one is a novel approach based on narrowing, which allows us to trace backwards the causes of a given final state. The analysis allows the identification of critical elements that have to be activated to provoke proliferation. PMID:28191459

  10. Epidermal growth factor inhibits morphogenesis of the embryonic quail uropygial gland cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Y

    1997-04-01

    Formation of the uropygial papilla and glandular lumena was inhibited when the uropygial rudiment of a day 8 1/3 quail embryo was cultured for 2 days in a chemically defined medium in the presence of 50 ng/mL of epidermal growth factor (EGF). The epithelium of EGF-treated explants remained at the placode stage, or underwent minor invagination into the mesenchyme and became stratified like that of a 12- or 13-day-old embryo. EGF promoted cellular proliferation in the uropygial epithelium and the epidermis adjacent to the gland and it shortened the lag phase of proliferation and markedly stimulated epithelial DNA synthesis, detected immunocytochemically by labeling explants with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The maximal labeling index in EGF-treated uropygial epithelium was 55% higher than in the control. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the basal lamina had become irregular in the EGF-treated explants and that epithelial cytoplasmic processes penetrated through the basal lamina toward the mesenchyme. These same phenomena are observed in vivo when the glandular buds are formed during day 12-13. Some precocious changes occurred in the uropygial epithelium when the rudiment was cultured in the presence of EGF.

  11. Specific Rab GTPase-activating proteins define the Shiga toxin and epidermal growth factor uptake pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Evelyn; Haas, Alexander K.; Spooner, Robert A.; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Lord, J. Michael; Barr, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Rab family guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) together with their regulators define specific pathways of membrane traffic within eukaryotic cells. In this study, we have investigated which Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) can interfere with the trafficking of Shiga toxin from the cell surface to the Golgi apparatus and studied transport of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the cell surface to endosomes. This screen identifies 6 (EVI5, RN-tre/USP6NL, TBC1D10A–C, and TBC1D17) of 39 predicted human Rab GAPs as specific regulators of Shiga toxin but not EGF uptake. We show that Rab43 is the target of RN-tre and is required for Shiga toxin uptake. In contrast, RabGAP-5, a Rab5 GAP, was unique among the GAPs tested and reduced the uptake of EGF but not Shiga toxin. These results suggest that Shiga toxin trafficking to the Golgi is a multistep process controlled by several Rab GAPs and their target Rabs and that this process is discrete from ligand-induced EGF receptor trafficking. PMID:17562788

  12. Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary M K; Lui, Philip C W; Vong, Joaquim S L; Lau, Kin-Mang; Putti, Thomas C; Karim, Rooshdiya; Scolyer, Richard A; Lee, C-Soon; Yu, Alex M C; Ng, David C H; Tse, Agnes K Y; Tan, Puay-Hoon

    2009-04-01

    Mammary phyllodes tumors are uncommon stromal-epithelial neoplasms, and are divided into benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant groups on the basis of their histological features. Accumulating evidence shows that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of many malignancies. This study investigated 453 phyllodes tumors (296 benign, 98 borderline, 59 malignant) for EGFR expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene amplification. The staining was correlated to tumor margin status, degree of malignancy, stromal cellularity, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism and stromal overgrowth. Cases with strong positive IHC staining were selected for FISH. The overall positive rate for EGFR was 16.2% (48/296), 30.6% (30/98) and 56% (33/59) for benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant phyllodes tumors, respectively. FISH demonstrated egfr gene amplification in 8% of immunohistochemically positive cases. The results of this study provide strong evidence that EGFR overexpression is involved in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumors, although gene amplification may not be the major underlying mechanism for overexpression.

  13. Structural basis of interactions between epidermal growth factor receptor and SH2 domain proteins.

    PubMed

    Sierke, S L; Longo, G M; Koland, J G

    1993-02-26

    The structural basis of the interactions between the activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and SH2 domain proteins was investigated. The c-src SH2 domain (second domain of src homology) was expressed as a recombinant fusion protein, and an in vitro assay was developed to monitor EGF receptor/SH2 domain interactions. EGF receptor tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) forms expressed in the baculovirus/insect cell system were shown to bind to the SH2 domain when phosphorylated. These TKD/SH2 domain interactions were characterized by dissociation constants of 60-320 nM. Deletion analysis indicated that the entire SH2 domain was required for recognition of the phosphorylated TKD. The binding of a highly truncated TKD protein to the SH2 domain suggested that the sites recognized by the SH2 domain included the EGF receptor autophosphorylation site, tyr992. A phosphorylated EGF receptor peptide containing tyr992 was also shown to interact with the SH2 domain. This residue may therefore mediate interactions between the EGF receptor and tyrosine kinases in the src family.

  14. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  15. Src and epidermal growth factor receptor mediate the pro-invasive activity of Bcl-w.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Mi; Park, Jong Kuk; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Um, Hong-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family are established regulators of cell death. However, recent studies have shown that they can also regulate cell migration, invasion, and cancer metastasis. These functions of cancer cells are promoted by pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-w) but are suppressed by pro-apoptotic members (Bax and Bak). We have previously shown that Bcl-w and Bcl-XL enhance the ability of respiratory complex-I to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), stimulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent invasion pathway. Here, we show that Bcl-w overexpression increases the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src, and their interaction. Our results show that ROS production induced by Bcl-w activates Src, which then binds to and phosphorylates EGFR, leading to stimulation of the PI3K-dependent invasion pathway. Importantly, Bcl-w-induced cell invasion was prevented by treating cells with gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839), an anticancer drug that directly inhibits EGFR. We also show that Bcl-XL can stimulate Src and EGFR phosphorylation, and that this function of Bcl-XL and Bcl-w is antagonized by Bax and Bak. Overall, this study demonstrates the involvement of Src and EGFR in the regulation of cellular invasiveness by Bcl-2 proteins, suggesting that chemotherapeutics targeting EGFR may be useful in preventing the progression of cancers that have altered Bcl-2 protein functions.

  16. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor attenuates atherosclerosis via decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lintao; Huang, Zhouqing; Huang, Weijian; Chen, Xuemei; Shan, Peiren; Zhong, Peng; Khan, Zia; Wang, Jingying; Fang, Qilu; Liang, Guang; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-04

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood. In the present study, we have elucidated the role of EGFR in high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null mice. We show increased EGFR phosphorylation and activity in atherosclerotic lesion development. EGFR inhibition prevented oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and SMC proliferation within the lesions. We further show that EGFR is activated through toll-like receptor 4. Disruption of toll-like receptor 4 or the EGFR pathway led to reduced inflammatory activity and foam cell formation. These studies provide evidence that EGFR plays a key role on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and suggests that EGFR may be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of atherosclerosis development.

  17. Molecular Basis for Redox Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thu H; Ung, Peter Man-Un; Palde, Prakash B; Paulsen, Candice E; Schlessinger, Avner; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-07-21

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of signal-derived H2O2, and oxidation of active-site cysteine 797 to sulfenic acid enhances kinase activity. Although a major class of covalent drugs targets C797, nothing is known about its catalytic importance or how S-sulfenylation leads to activation. Here, we report the first detailed functional analysis of C797. In contrast to prior assumptions, mutation of C797 diminishes catalytic efficiency in vitro and cells. The experimentally determined pKa and reactivity of C797 toward H2O2 correspondingly distinguish this residue from the bulk of the cysteinome. Molecular dynamics simulation of reduced versus oxidized EGFR, reinforced by experimental testing, indicates that sulfenylation of C797 allows new electrostatic interactions to be formed with the catalytic loop. Finally, we show that chronic oxidative stress yields an EGFR subpopulation that is refractory to the FDA-approved drug afatinib. Collectively, our data highlight the significance of redox biology to understanding kinase regulation and drug pharmacology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Under-Appreciated Promiscuity of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sean P.; Hastings, Jordan F.; Han, Jeremy Z. R.; Croucher, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Each member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a key role in normal development, homeostasis, and a variety of pathophysiological conditions, most notably in cancer. According to the prevailing dogma, these four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4) function exclusively through the formation of homodimers and heterodimers within the EGFR family. These combinatorial receptor interactions are known to generate increased interactome diversity and therefore influence signaling output, subcellular localization and function of the heterodimer. This molecular plasticity is also thought to play a role in the development of resistance toward targeted cancer therapies aimed at these known oncogenes. Interestingly, many studies now challenge this dogma and suggest that the potential for EGFR family receptors to interact with more distantly related RTKs is much greater than currently appreciated. Here we discuss how the promiscuity of these oncogenic receptors may lead to the formation of many unexpected receptor pairings and the significant implications for the efficiency of many targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27597943

  19. Enterococcus faecalis Enhances Cell Proliferation through Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Gill, Ann Lindley; Yap, YoonSing; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Sullivan, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a member of the intestinal and oral microbiota that may affect the etiology of colorectal and oral cancers. The mechanisms by which E. faecalis may contribute to the initiation and progression of these cancers remain uncertain. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is postulated to play a crucial role in oral carcinogenesis. A link between E. faecalis and EGFR signaling in oral cancer has not been elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between E. faecalis and oral cancer and to determine the underlying mechanisms that link E. faecalis to EGFR signaling. We report the high frequency of E. faecalis infection in oral tumors and the clinical association with EGFR activation. Using human oral cancer cells, we support the clinical findings and demonstrate that E. faecalis can induce EGFR activation and cell proliferation. E. faecalis activates EGFR through production of H2O2, a signaling molecule that activates several signaling pathways. Inhibitors of H2O2 (catalase) and EGFR (gefitinib) significantly blocked E. faecalis-induced EGFR activation and cell proliferation. Therefore, E. faecalis infection of oral tumor tissues suggests a possible association between E. faecalis infection and oral carcinogenesis. Interaction of E. faecalis with host cells and production of H2O2 increase EGFR activation, thereby contributing to cell proliferation. PMID:22851748

  20. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by inducible feedback inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Oreste; Anastasi, Sergio; Alemà, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Signalling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls morphogenesis and/or homeostasis of several tissues from worms to mammals. The correct execution of these programmes requires the generation of EGFR signals of appropriate strength and duration. This is obtained through a complex circuitry of positive and negative feedback regulation. Feedback inhibitory mechanisms restrain EGFR activity in time and space, which is key to ensuring that receptor outputs are commensurate to the cell and tissue needs. Here, we focus on the emerging field of inducible negative feedback regulation of the EGFR in mammals. In mammalian cells, four EGFR inducible feedback inhibitors (IFIs), namely LRIG1, RALT (also known as MIG6 and ERRFI1), SOCS4 and SOCS5, have been discovered recently. EGFR IFIs are expressed de novo in the context of early or delayed transcriptional responses triggered by EGFR activation. They all bind to the EGFR and suppress receptor signalling through several mechanisms, including catalytic inhibition and receptor downregulation. Here, we review the mechanistic basis of IFI signalling and rationalise the function of IFIs in light of gene-knockout studies that assign LRIG1 and RALT an essential role in restricting cell proliferation. Finally, we discuss how IFIs might participate in system control of EGFR signalling and highlight the emerging roles for IFIs in the suppression of EGFR-driven tumorigenesis.

  1. Cutaneous toxicity from epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: would a subcutaneous desensitization be helpful? Case report.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Andrea; Cecchini, Sara; Di Mauro, Daniela; Geroli, Luca; Villa, Simonetta; Quadri, Antonello; Resta, Davide; Fortugno, Carmelo

    2016-11-11

    Cetuximab and panitumumab are monoclonal antibody inhibitors that bind the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The main adverse event related to EGFR inhibitors (EGFR-Is) is cutaneous toxicity, which can cause dosage reduction and interruption of treatment. State-of-the-art management of skin toxicity associated with EGFR-Is therapy involves the topical administration of corticosteroids and oral antibiotics, but is not completely effective in the management of toxicity. Subcutaneous desensitization with increasing concentrations of monoclonal antibodies can induce a tolerance to drug administration and reduce cutaneous adverse effects. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a reduction or a disappearance of skin toxicity caused by EGFR-Is through subcutaneous desensitization has been achieved. We present cases of 2 Caucasian patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon treated with EGFR-Is who developed severe cutaneous toxicity. A 73-year-old man presented grade 4 skin toxicity of the face and grade 3 skin toxicity of the trunk during treatment with cetuximab. A 68-year-old woman developed G2 rash on the face after the first administration of cetuximab. These patients underwent subcutaneous desensitization with increasing concentrations of EGFR-Is. After this procedure, patients restarted therapy at the optimal dosage with reduction or disappearance of skin toxicity. These cases suggest that by giving rising doses of antibody it is possible to obtain desensitization able to prevent severe cutaneous adverse events in patients treated with EGFR-Is.

  2. Plasma Epidermal Growth Factor Decreased in the Early Stage of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  3. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor co-dependent signaling pathways in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Mischel, Paul S

    2017-09-11

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is critical for normal development and function. EGFR is also amplified or mutated in a variety of cancers including in nearly 60% of cases of the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). EGFR amplification and mutation reprogram cellular metabolism and broadly alter gene transcription to drive tumor formation and progression, rendering EGFR as a compelling drug target. To date, brain tumor patients have yet to benefit from anti-EGFR therapy due in part to an inability to achieve sufficient intratumoral drug levels in the brain, cultivating adaptive mechanisms of resistance. Here, we review an alternative set of strategies for targeting EGFR-amplified GBMs, based on identifying and targeting tumor co-dependencies shaped both by aberrant EGFR signaling and the brain's unique biochemical environment. These approaches may include highly brain-penetrant drugs from non-cancer pipelines, expanding the pharmacopeia and providing promising new treatments. We review the molecular underpinnings of EGFR-activated co-dependencies in the brain and the promising new treatments based on this strategy. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Brain metastasis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: from biology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents. PMID:27104161

  5. Management of adverse events during treatment of gastrointestinal cancers with epidermal growth factor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Segaert, Siegfried; Safont, María José; Demonty, Gaston; Prenen, Hans

    2017-06-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in development and progression of some gastrointestinal cancers, and is targeted by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat these conditions. Targeted agents are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, but have characteristic toxicities that can affect adherence, dosing, and outcomes. Skin conditions are the most common toxicities associated with EGFR inhibitors, particularly papulopustular rash. Other common toxicities include mucosal toxicity, electrolyte imbalances (notably hypomagnesaemia), and diarrhoea, while the chimaeric mAb cetuximab is also associated with increased risk of infusion reactions. With appropriate prophylaxis, the incidence and severity of these events can be reduced, while management strategies tailored to the patient and the degree of toxicity can help to ensure continuation of anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the main toxicities associated with EGFR-inhibiting mAbs and TKIs in patients with gastrointestinal cancers, and provide recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct interaction of avermectin with epidermal growth factor receptor mediates the penetration resistance in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Ping; Wang, Pan; Sun, Ying-Jian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    With the widespread use of avermectins (AVMs) for managing parasitic and agricultural pests, the resistance of worms and insects to AVMs has emerged as a serious threat to human health and agriculture worldwide. The reduced penetration of AVMs is one of the main reasons for the development of the resistance to the chemicals. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we use the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as the model organism to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to AVMs. We clearly show that the chitin layer is thickened and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is overexpressed in the AVM-resistant larvae epidermis. We reveal that the activation of the transcription factor Relish by the over-activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/AKT/ERK pathway induces the overexpression of the chitin synthases DmeCHS1/2 and P-gp in the resistant larvae. Interestingly, we discover for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that AVM directly interacts with EGFR and leads to the activation of the EGFR/AKT/ERK pathway, which activates the transcription factor Relish and induces the overexpression of DmeCHS1/2 and P-gp. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to drugs. PMID:27249340

  7. Cellular Behavior on Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-Immobilized PCL/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tığlı, R Seda; Kazaroğlu, N Merve; Mavış, Bora; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2011-01-01

    Nano-scaled poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL/gelatin fibrous scaffolds with immobilized epidermal growth factor (EGF) were prepared for the purpose of wound-healing treatments. The tissue scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and the parameters that affect the electrospinning process were optimized. While the fiber diameters were 488 ± 114 nm and 663 ± 107 nm for PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds, respectively, the porosities were calculated as 79% for PCL and 68% for PCL/gelatin scaffolds. Electrospun PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds were first modified with 1,6-diaminohexane to introduce amino groups on their surfaces, then EGF was chemically conjugated to the surface of nanofibers. The results obtained from Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and quantitative measurements showed that EGF was successfully immobilized on nanofibrous scaffolds. L929 mouse fibroblastic cells were cultivated on both neat and EGF-immobilized PCL and PCL/gelatin scaffolds in order to investigate the effect of EGF on cell spreading and proliferation. According to the results, especially EGF-immobilized PCL/gelatin scaffolds exerted early cell spreading and superior and rapid proliferation compared to EGF-immobilized PCL scaffolds and neat PCL, PCL/gelatin scaffolds. Consequently, EGF-immobilized PCL/gelatin scaffolds could potentially be employed as novel scaffolds for skin tissueengineering applications.

  8. [Targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor and applications in ORL cancer].

    PubMed

    Tortochaux, Jacques; Aunoble, Bénédicte; Rolhion, Christine; Bourhis, Jean

    2003-11-01

    EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Once triggered by ligands, tyrosine kinase located at their inner part is phosphorylated, initiating signal transduction pathways towards the nucleus. Two categories of EGFR inhibitors are affordable: the former group includes monoclonal antibodies whereas the latter regards tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ITK). Acting more as cytostatic than cytotoxic agents, they may potentiate both chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Characterized by a spectrum of toxicity that does not overlap that of CT or RT, they may be associated with these treatments. First clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility of their administration. Side-effects merely consist of skin reactions and digestive symptoms; their intensity is generally mild and they resolve at the completion of treatment. As of yet, response rates are sometimes astounding but are still disparate. Randomized studies are ongoing. A better definition of EGFR status is warranted. Other data regarding interactions between her-family members, ligands parameters and the cascade regulation of signal transduction would certainly enable to better define the clinical applications of this new therapeutical approach.

  9. Semiology of skin toxicity associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Peuvrel, L; Bachmeyer, C; Reguiai, Z; Bachet, J B; André, T; Bensadoun, R J; Bouché, O; Ychou, M; Dréno, B

    2012-05-01

    Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in oncogenesis have led to the development of so-called targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, which take on an increasingly important role in the management of cancer. These treatments have the advantage not to trigger the adverse effects traditionally encountered with chemotherapy, such as nausea, vomiting or haematological toxicity. However, they do cause new forms of toxicity: the most common one is skin toxicity. It is important to be aware of it because it can be debilitating, adversely impacting patients' quality of life and altering treatment compliance, although it appears to be correlated with treatment response in certain series. Non-specialists can have difficulty in recognising this unusual skin toxicity. The dermatologic side effects most frequently triggered by EGFR inhibitors are discussed in this article. They are divided into three categories depending on their target: inflammation of the pilo-sebaceous follicle, represented by EGFR inhibitor-associated folliculitis, which occurs at an early stage and is frequent; alteration in the skin barrier, primarily responsible for xerosis, fissures and pruritus, which are frequent and delayed; and lesions of the skin appendages (paronychia, pyogenic granuloma, hair changes), which are delayed and less frequent. It is essential for all practitioners concerned to know about these dermatologic side effects in order to ensure better global management of patients, particularly in terms of quality of life.

  10. Molecular basis for multimerization in the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjian; Bharill, Shashank; Karandur, Deepti; Peterson, Sean M; Marita, Morgan; Shi, Xiaojun; Kaliszewski, Megan J; Smith, Adam W; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by dimerization, but activation also generates higher-order multimers, whose nature and function are poorly understood. We have characterized ligand-induced dimerization and multimerization of EGFR using single-molecule analysis, and show that multimerization can be blocked by mutations in a specific region of Domain IV of the extracellular module. These mutations reduce autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of EGFR and attenuate phosphorylation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, which is recruited by EGFR. The catalytic activity of EGFR is switched on through allosteric activation of one kinase domain by another, and we show that if this is restricted to dimers, then sites in the tail that are proximal to the kinase domain are phosphorylated in only one subunit. We propose a structural model for EGFR multimerization through self-association of ligand-bound dimers, in which the majority of kinase domains are activated cooperatively, thereby boosting tail phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14107.001 PMID:27017828

  11. The effect of indomethacin on the secretion of human salivary epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, W; Burkhalter, E; Eaton, C; Schaudies, R P; Maydonovitch, C; Andrada, F; Maged, A R; Wong, R K

    1994-01-01

    Ulceration associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is a common problem in elderly patients. The postulated cause of NSAID ulceration is multifactorial but is probably related to the inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway and a subsequent decrease in mucosal prostaglandin levels. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), on the other hand, has been shown to be gastroprotective, stimulating DNA synthesis, and preventing ASA-induced gastric ulceration. Since EGF is important in gastric mucosal protection, we questioned whether the potential ulcerogenic properties of indomethacin were related in part to decreasing salivary EGF. Twenty healthy male volunteers with no gastrointestinal complaints received indomethacin 50 mg P.O. t.i.d. for 3 consecutive days. Saliva and serum were collected before indomethacin treatment and repeated 2 h after the last indomethacin dose. Stimulated salivary samples were collected for 15 min in fasted subjects and assayed for EGF, whereas serum indomethacin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. EGF levels significantly decreased by 33% after indomethacin (p < 0.03), and this decrement was linearly related to serum indomethacin concentrations (r = 0.58; p < 0.048). Salivary output did not change after indomethacin treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that indomethacin's ulcerogenic properties may be related to its prostaglandin inhibitory properties as well as its ability to decrease salivary EGF output.

  12. Endosomal Signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Stimulates Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to generate endosomal signals without plasma membrane signaling. In this paper, we report the establishment of a system to specifically activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) when it endocytoses into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG-1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks the recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complexes into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG-1478 and monensin. During this procedure we did not observe any surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. By using this system, we provided original evidence demonstrating that (i) the endosome can serve as a nucleation site for the formation of signaling complexes, (ii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to activate the major signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and survival, and (iii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to suppress apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. PMID:12242303

  13. Epidermal growth factor-like, corneal wound healing substance in mouse tears.

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, O; Tsutsumi, A; Oka, T

    1988-01-01

    We have identified the presence of a putative corneal wound healing substance in mouse tears, which has a molecular size and immunological properties similar to those of epidermal growth factor (EGF). The substance was capable of binding to EGF receptors in mouse parenchymal cells and this binding was inhibited by anti-EGF serum. The concentration of the EGF-like substance in the tears of male and female mice was estimated to be 79.3 +/- 7.0 (SD) ng/ml and 76.5 +/- 8.1 (SD) ng/ml, respectively, by EGF radioimmunoassay. Removal of the submandibular glands, which produce large amounts of EGF, reduced plasma EGF to an undetectable level and also decreased the concentration of the EGF-like substance in tears to 27.3 +/- 3.9 (SD) ng/ml in male mice and 25.8 +/- 3.7 (SD) ng/ml in female mice. Approximately 50% of sialoadenectomized (submandibular glands removed) male mice with deep corneal wounds developed severe ocular lesions or loss of sight whereas none of normal male mice with similar wounds did. Topical application of EGF to deeply wounded eyes of sialoadenectomized mice eliminated the various complications and restored the healing rate and incidence of recovery to virtually normal levels. Images PMID:3258318

  14. Human cobalamin deficiency: alterations in serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Peracchi, M; Bamonti Catena, F; Pomati, M; De Franceschi, M; Scalabrino, G

    2001-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-deficient central neuropathy in the rat is associated with local overexpression of neurotoxic tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha combined with locally decreased synthesis of neurotrophic epidermal growth factor (EGF). The aims of this study were to investigate whether a similar imbalance also occurs in the serum of adult patients with clinically confirmed cobalamin deficiency and whether it can be corrected by vitamin B12 replacement therapy. We studied 34 adult patients with severe cobalamin deficiency, 12 patients with pure iron deficiency anaemia and 34 control subjects. Haematological markers of cobalamin deficiency and serum TNF-alpha and EGF levels were measured using commercial kits. Thirteen cobalamin-deficient patients were re-evaluated after 3 and 6 months of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. TNF-alpha was significantly higher (p < 0.01) and EGF significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the patients with cobalamin deficiency, but both were unchanged in patients with pure iron deficiency anaemia. In cobalamin-deficient patients the serum TNF-alpha levels correlated significantly with plasma total homocysteine levels (r = 0.425; p < 0.02). In the treated patients TNF-alpha and EGF levels normalised concomitantly with clinical and haematological disease remission. In humans, as in rats, cobalamin concentration appears to be correlated with the synthesis and release of TNF-alpha and EGF in a reciprocal manner, because cobalamin deficiency is accompanied by overproduction of TNF-alpha and underproduction of EGF.

  15. Fluorescence techniques used to measure interactions between hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and epidermal growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Kathawala, Mustafa H; Khoo, Stella P K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Zhao, Xinxin; Say Chye Loo, Joachim; Ahmed, Sohail; Woei Ng, Kee

    2015-01-01

    The potential applications of nanomaterials in therapeutics are immense and to fully explore this potential, it is important to understand the interaction of nanoparticles with cellular components. To examine the interaction between nanoparticles and cell membrane receptors, this report describes the use of advanced fluorescence techniques to measure interactions between hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), as a model system. FITC-labelled HA nanoparticles and monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP)-conjugated EGFRs expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) were generated and their interaction measured using acceptor photobleaching-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (AP-FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET). Results confirmed that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles not only interacted with EGFR but also attenuated downstream EGFR signalling, possibly by hindering normal dimerization of EGFR. Furthermore, the extent of signal attenuation suggested correlation with specific surface area of the nanoparticles, whereby greater specific surface area resulted in greater downstream signal attenuation. This novel demonstration establishes fluorescence techniques as a viable method to study nanoparticle interactions with proteins such as cell surface receptors. The approach described herein can be extended to study interactions between any fluorescently labelled nanoparticle-biomolecule pair.

  16. Direct visualization of the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor during its internalization in A-431 cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) rapidly stimulates receptor autophosphorylation in A-431 cells. After 1 min the phosphorylated receptor can be identified at the plasma membrane using an anti- phosphotyrosine antibody. With further incubation at 37 degrees C, approximately 50% of the phosphorylated EGF receptor was internalized (t1/2 = 5 min) and associated with the tubulovesicular system and later with multivesicular bodies, but not the nucleus. During this period, there was no change in the extent or sites of phosphorylation. At all times the phosphotyrosine remained on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, opposite to the EGF ligand identified by anti-EGF antibody. These data indicate that (a) the tyrosine-phosphorylated EGF receptor is internalized in its activated form providing a mechanism for translocation of the receptor kinase to substrates in the cell interior; (b) the internalized receptor remains intact for at least 60 min, does not associate with the nucleus, and does not generate any tyrosine-phosphorylated fragments; and (c) tyrosine phosphorylation alone is not the signal for receptor internalization. PMID:2447100

  17. Intralesional epidermal growth factor for diabetic foot wounds: the first cases in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ertugrul, Bulent M; Buke, Cagri; Ersoy, Ozlem Saylak; Ay, Bengisu; Demirez, Dilek Senen; Savk, Oner

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) was produced in the Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Cuba, in 1988 and licensed in 2006. Because it may accelerate wound healing, it is a potential new treatment option in patients with a diabetic foot wound (whether infected or not) as an adjunct to standard treatment (i.e. debridement, antibiotics). We conducted the initial evaluation of EGF for diabetic foot wounds in Turkey. We enrolled 17 patients who were hospitalized in various medical centers for a foot ulcer and/or infection and for whom below the knee amputation was suggested to all except one. All patients received 75 μg intralesional EGF three times per week on alternate days. The appearance of new granulation tissue on the wound site (≥75%) was observed in 13 patients (76%), and complete wound closure was observed in 3 patients (18%), yielding a 'complete recovery' rate of 94%. The most common side effects were tremor (n=10, 59%) and nausea (n=6, 35%). In only one case,a serious side effect requiring cessation of EGF treatment was noted. That patient experienced severe hypotension at the 16th application session, and treatment was discontinued. At baseline, a total of 21 causative bacteria were isolated from 15 patients, whereascultures were sterile in two patients. The most frequently isolated species was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, this preliminary study suggests that EGF seems to be a potential adjunctive treatment option in patients with limb-threatening diabetic foot wounds.

  18. Epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in the mouse reproductive tract during development

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, N.L.; Nelson, K.G.; Ross, K.A.; Takahashi, T.; McLachlan, J.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The ontogeny of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in the different cell types in the neonatal and immature mouse uterus and vagina was examined. Immunohistochemical examination of prenatal and neonatal reproductive tracts with a polyclonal antibody to the EGF receptor shows immunoreactive EGF receptors as early as Day 13 of gestation. Autoradiographic analysis of tissue sections at 3 to 17 days of age (the day of birth is Day 1) demonstrates that both uterine and vaginal epithelial and stromal cells are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF. Both the 125I-labeled EGF autoradiography and immunohistochemistry in whole tissue show higher EGF receptor levels in the uterine epithelium than the uterine stroma. The presence of EGF receptors was also confirmed by affinity labeling and Scatchard analysis of isolated uterine cell types at 7 and/or 17 days of age. However, in contrast to the autoradiography and immunohistochemistry data of intact tissue, the affinity labeling and Scatchard data of isolated cells indicate that the uterine stroma contains higher levels of EGF receptor than that of the uterine epithelium. The reason for this discrepancy between the different techniques is, as yet, unknown. Regardless of the differences in the actual numbers of EGF receptors obtained, our data demonstrate that the developing mouse reproductive tract contains immunoreactive EGF receptors that are capable of binding 125I-labeled EGF.

  19. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67–0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10−3). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations. PMID:27506295

  20. Phthalocyanine-Peptide Conjugates for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeting1

    PubMed Central

    Ongarora, Benson G.; Fontenot, Krystal R.; Hu, Xiaoke; Sehgal, Inder; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama D.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalocyanine (Pc)-peptide conjugates designed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro using four cell lines: human carcinoma A431 and HEp2, human colorectal HT-29, and kidney Vero (negative control) cells. Two peptide ligands for EGFR were investigated: EGFR-L1 and -L2, bearing 6 and 13 amino acid residues, respectively. The peptides and Pc-conjugates were shown to bind to EGFR using both theoretical (Autodock) and experimental (SPR) investigations. The Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates 5a and 5b efficiently targeted EGFR and were internalized, in part due to their cationic charge, whereas the uncharged Pc-EGFR-L2 conjugates 4b and 6a poorly targeted EGFR maybe due to their low aqueous solubility. All conjugates were non-toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) to HT-29 cells, both in the dark and upon light activation (1 J/cm2). Intravenous (iv) administration of conjugate 5b into nude mice bearing A431 and HT-29 human tumor xenografts resulted in a near-IR fluorescence signal at ca. 700 nm, 24 h after administration. Our studies show that Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates are promising near-IR fluorescent contrast agents for CRC, and potentially other EGFR over-expressing cancers. PMID:22468711

  1. Transforming growth factor alpha induces collagen degradation and cell migration in differentiating human epidermal raft cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Turksen, K; Choi, Y; Fuchs, E

    1991-01-01

    When cultured on plastic and treated with transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), human keratinocytes exhibit an increase in proliferation at the colony periphery, apparently as a consequence of enhanced cell migration (Barrandon and Green, 1987). To investigate the effects of TGF alpha on a differentiating stratified squamous epithelium and to begin to examine the molecular basis mediating this influence, we cultured human epidermal cells on a gelled lattice of collagen and fibroblasts, floating on the air-liquid interface. Under these conditions, raft cultures differentiate and exhibit morphological and biochemical features of human skin in vivo (Asselineau et al., 1986; Kopan et al., 1987). When 3-wk-old raft cultures were treated with TGF alpha, basal cells showed a marked increase in cell proliferation. At elevated concentrations of TGF alpha, the organization of cells within the artificial tissue changed and islands of basal cells entered the collagen matrix. Biochemical analysis of the response revealed that type I collagenase and gelatinase were induced by keratinocytes within 12 h after TGF alpha treatment. In contrast, invasion of basal cells into the collagen matrix was not significant until 48-72 h post-treatment, suggesting that collagenase and gelatinase production may be a prerequisite to this phenomenon. These results have important implications for the possible role of TGF alpha in squamous cell carcinoma and tumor invasion. Images PMID:1663788

  2. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jerusa A Q A; de Andrade, Carolina; Goes, Alfredo M; Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Network and its Role in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Toni M.; Iida, Mari; Li, Chunrong; Wheeler, Deric L.

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). EGFR activation via ligand binding results in signaling through various pathways ultimately resulting in cellular proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Aberrant expression or activity of EGFR has been strongly linked to the etiology of several human epithelial cancers including but not limited to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and brain cancer. Thus intense efforts have been made to inhibit the activity of EGFR by designing antibodies against the ligand binding domains (cetuximab and panitumumab) or small molecules against the tyrosine kinase domains (erlotinib, gefitinib, and lapatinib). Although targeting membrane bound EGFR has shown benefit a new and emerging role for the EGFR is now being elucidated. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge of the nuclear EGFR signaling network, including how it is trafficked to the nucleus, the functions it serves in the nucleus, and how these functions impact cancer progression, survival and response to chemotherapeutics. PMID:22127113

  4. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  5. Honokiol inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tripti; Gupta, Nirzari A; Xu, Su; Prasad, Ram; Velu, Sadanandan E; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-08-28

    Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Treatment of HNSCC cell lines from different sub-sites, SCC-1 (oral cavity), SCC-5 (larynx), OSC-19 (tongue) and FaDu (pharynx) with honokiol inhibited their cell viability, which was associated with the: (i) induction of apoptosis, (ii) correction of dysregulatory cell cycle proteins of G0/G1 phase. Honokiol decreased the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mTOR and their downstream signaling molecules. Treatment of FaDu and SCC-1 cell lines with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, also reduced cell viability of HNSCC cells. Administration of honokiol by oral gavage (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P < 0.01-0.001) inhibited the growth of SCC-1 and FaDu xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with: (i) inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) reduced expressions of cyclins and Cdks, and (iv) inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway. Molecular docking analysis of honokiol in EGFR binding site indicated that the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol against HNSCC is mediated through its firm binding with EGFR, which is better than that of gefitinib, a commonly used drug for HNSCC treatment.

  6. Honokiol inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Gupta, Nirzari A.; Xu, Su; Prasad, Ram; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia plant, on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Treatment of HNSCC cell lines from different sub-sites, SCC-1 (oral cavity), SCC-5 (larynx), OSC-19 (tongue) and FaDu (pharynx) with honokiol inhibited their cell viability, which was associated with the: (i) induction of apoptosis, (ii) correction of dysregulatory cell cycle proteins of G0/G1 phase. Honokiol decreased the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mTOR and their downstream signaling molecules. Treatment of FaDu and SCC-1 cell lines with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, also reduced cell viability of HNSCC cells. Administration of honokiol by oral gavage (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P < 0.01-0.001) inhibited the growth of SCC-1 and FaDu xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with: (i) inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, (ii) induction of apoptosis, (iii) reduced expressions of cyclins and Cdks, and (iv) inhibition of EGFR signaling pathway. Molecular docking analysis of honokiol in EGFR binding site indicated that the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol against HNSCC is mediated through its firm binding with EGFR, which is better than that of gefitinib, a commonly used drug for HNSCC treatment. PMID:26020804

  7. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Enhances Aquaporin 3 Expression and Function During Mouse Embryo Implantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuan-Xiang; Nong, Ying-Qi; Liu, Feng-Hua; Fan, Lin; Chen, Ye

    2017-03-01

    Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is highly expressed in peri-implantation blastocyst trophoblastic cells, indicating its role in cytotrophoblast invasion during embryo implantation. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of AQP3 expression during embryo implantation remains unclear. In this study, an in vitro co-culture system of blastocysts on a monolayer of uterine endometrial cells was used to mimic in vivo process of embryo attachment and invasion to uterine endometrium and treated with different concentrations of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). The results showed that HB-EGF enhanced AQP3 expression in blastocysts in a dose-dependent manner and promoted the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts on the monolayer of uterine endometrial cells. When the AQP3 activity was inhibited by copper sulfate, both the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts were inhibited. Furthermore, HB-EGF induced the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). PD153035 (EGFR inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK inhibitor) inhibited AQP3 expression and also the attachment and outgrowth of blastocysts. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that HB-EGF stimulates EGFR/ERK signaling to promote AQP3 expression in trophoblastic cells, and AQP3 plays a vital role in HB-EGF-induced embryo implantation.

  8. Heparin Binding–Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor for the Regeneration of Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwoo; Varsak, Yasin Kursad; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    We aim to explore the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand shedding in tympanic membrane wound healing and to investigate the translation of its modulation in tissue engineering of chronic tympanic membrane perforations. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an infected chronic tympanic membrane perforation. Up to 200 million suffer from its associated hearing loss and it is the most common cause of pediatric hearing loss in developing countries. There is a need for nonsurgical treatment due to a worldwide lack of resources. In this study, we show that EGF ligand shedding is essential for tympanic membrane healing as it's inhibition, with KB-R7785, leads to chronic perforation in 87.9% (n=58) compared with 0% (n=20) of controls. We then show that heparin binding–EGF-like growth factor (5 μg/mL), which acts to shed EGF ligands, can regenerate chronic perforations in mouse models with 92% (22 of 24) compared with 38% (10 of 26), also with eustachian tube occlusion with 94% (18 of 19) compared with 9% (2 of 23) and with CSOM 100% (16 of 16) compared with 41% (7 of 17). We also show the nonototoxicity of this treatment and its hydrogel delivery vehicle. This provides preliminary data for a clinical trial where it could be delivered by nonspecialist trained healthcare workers and fulfill the clinical need for a nonsurgical treatment for chronic tympanic membrane perforation and CSOM. PMID:25567607

  9. Platelet-derived growth factor mimics phorbol diester action on epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation at threonine-654

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.J.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-06-01

    Addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to quiescent WI-38 human fetal lung fibroblasts mimics the effect of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters to inhibit the high-affinity binding of SVI-labeled epidermal growth factor ( SVI-EGF). PDGF, like phorbol diesters, was found to increase the phosphorylation state of EGF receptors immunoprecipitated from intact fibroblasts that were labeled to equilibrium with (TSP)phosphate. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the EGF receptors indicated that both PDGF and phorbol diesters increased the level of (TSP)phosphoserine and (TSP)phosphothreonine. Phosphopeptide mapping of the EGF receptor demonstrated that PDGF increased the phosphorylation of several sites and induced the phosphorylation of a site that was not observed to be phosphorylated on EGF receptors isolated from control cells. This latter phosphorylation site on the EGF receptor was identified as threonine-654. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increases in diacylglycerol and CaS levels caused by addition of PDGF to fibroblasts activate protein kinase C and that this kinase, at least in part, mediates the effect of PDGF on the phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. The data further suggest that protein kinase C may play an important role in the regulation of cellular metabolism and proliferation by PDGF.

  10. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas, Neuroendocrine Tumours and Chronic Pancreatitis