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Sample records for mutant pisum sativum

  1. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  2. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation.

  3. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations

    PubMed Central

    Belimov, Andrey A.; Dodd, Ian C.; Safronova, Vera I.; Malkov, Nikita V.; Davies, William J.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECdt accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECdt. Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECdt in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECdt plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECdt mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation. PMID:25694548

  4. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found.

  5. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses.

  6. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James M. C.; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S.; Weiner, Catherine A.; Emery, R. J. Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses. PMID:25948707

  7. Seed coat import and unloading in pisum. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Grusak, M.A.; Minchin, P.E.H.

    1987-08-01

    Experiments were undertaken with empty, attached ovules of Pisum sativum to observe the effects of osmotic solution changes on seed coat import and unloading into the apoplast. Through the use of /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ pulse labelling along with collimated monitoring of plant sections, the authors were able to continuously and simultaneously measure total pod import, import into a single ovule, and washout from the ovule into a flow-through bathing solution. The authors results indicated that changes in bathing solution sucrose concentration had no immediate effect on tracer washout in Pisum, but did affect ovule import. Lowering the sucrose concentration decreased import and raising the concentration increased import. Furthermore, these import changes were only gradually reflected in the seed coat washout profile, suggesting a buffering capability of the non-phloem seed coat tissues. Additional results have also led them to propose that the terminal site of seed coat unloading in Pisum is the plasmalemma of an non-phloem seed coat cell type, that unloading from this site occurs via a passive membrane transport process, and that solutes move symplastically to this compartment from the phloem.

  8. Characterization and structural analysis of wild type and a non-abscission mutant at the development funiculus (Def) locus in Pisum sativum L

    PubMed Central

    Ayeh, Kwadwo Owusu; Lee, YeonKyeong; Ambrose, Mike J; Hvoslef-Eide, Anne Kathrine

    2009-01-01

    Background In pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.), the Def locus defines an abscission event where the seed separates from the funicle through the intervening hilum region at maturity. A spontaneous mutation at this locus results in the seed failing to abscise from the funicle as occurs in wild type peas. In this work, structural differences between wild type peas that developed a distinct abscission zone (AZ) between the funicle and the seed coat and non-abscission def mutant were characterized. Results A clear abscission event was observed in wild type pea seeds that were associated with a distinct double palisade layers at the junction between the seed coat and funicle. Generally, mature seeds fully developed an AZ, which was not present in young wild type seeds. The AZ was formed exactly below the counter palisade layer. In contrast, the palisade layers at the junction of the seed coat and funicle were completely absent in the def mutant pea seeds and the cells in this region were seen to be extensions of surrounding parenchymatous cells. Conclusion The Def wild type developed a distinct AZ associated with palisade layer and counterpalisade layer at the junction of the seed coat and funicle while the def mutant pea seed showed non-abscission and an absence of the double palisade layers in the same region. We conclude that the presence of the double palisade layer in the hilum of the wild type pea seeds plays an important structural role in AZ formation by delimiting the specific region between the seed coat and the funicle and may play a structural role in the AZ formation and subsequent detachment of the seed from the funicle. PMID:19549315

  9. Biosynthesis of the phytoalexin pisatin. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Preisig, C.L.; Bell, J.N.; Matthews, D.E.; VanEtten, H.D. ); Sun, Yuejin; Hrazdina, G. )

    1990-11-01

    NADPH-dependent reduction of 2{prime},7-dihydroxy-4{prime},5{prime}-methylenedioxyisoflavone to the isoflavanone sophorol, a proposed intermediate step in pisatin biosynthesis, was detected in extracts of Pisum sativum. This isoflavone reductase activity was inducible by treatment of pea seedlings with CuCl{sub 2}. The timing of induction coincided with that of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain 3-O-methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal biosynthetic step. Neither enzyme was light inducible. Further NADPH-dependent metabolism of sophorol by extracts of CuCl{sub 2}-treated seedlings was also observed; three products were radiolabeled when ({sup 3}H)sophorol was the substrate, one of which is tentatively identified as maackiain.

  10. [Pigment accumulation and functional activity of chloroplasts in common Pisum sativum L. mutants with low chlorophyll level (chlorotica)].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 with a low content of chlorophyll were studied. The mutant 2004 has light green leaves and stem, and the mutant 2014 has yellow green leaves and stem. They accumulate approximately 80 and 50% chlorophylls of the parent form of pea Torsdag cv. The content of carotene in carotenoids of the mutant 2004 was much lower, and the accumulation of lutein and violaxanthine was increased. The accumulation of all carotenoids in the mutant 2014 decreased almost proportionally to a decrease in the chlorophyll content. The rate of CO2 evolution in mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 was established to be lower. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants was 29-30% lower as compared to the control, and in hybrid plants it was 1.5-2-fold higher. It is assumed that the increase in the activity of the night-time respiration in gas exchange of chlorotica mutants and the drop of photosynthesis lead to a decrease in biomass increment. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the mutation of chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affects the genes controlling the formation and functioning of different components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  11. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  12. Gravitropic response and circumnutation in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-jeong; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant circumnutation is a helical movement of growing organs such as shoots and roots. Gravitropic response is hypothesized to act as an external oscillator in shoot circumnutation, although this is subject to debate. The relationship between circumnutational movement and gravitropic response in roots remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed circumnutation of agravitropic roots using the ageotropum pea (Pisum sativum) mutant, and compared it with that of wild-type (cv. Alaska) pea roots. We further examined the relationship of gravitropic response to circumnutation of Alaska seedling roots by removing the gravisensing tissue (the root cap) and by treating the roots with auxin transport inhibitors. Alaska roots displayed circumnutational movements with a period of approximately 150 min, whereas ageotropum roots did not exhibit distinct circumnutational movement. Removal of the root cap in Alaska roots reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. Treatment of Alaska roots with auxin transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), dramatically reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. These results suggest that a gravity-regulated auxin transport is involved in circumnutation of pea seedling roots.

  13. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Hindala, Mali Ram; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations. (i) Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions. (ii) Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOx1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them. (iii) Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible. (vi) Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOx1 orthologues do not become compound. (v) All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum.

  14. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  15. Identification of the 64 kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein as phosphoglucomutase. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Salvucci, M.E.; Drake, R.R.; Broadbent, K.P.; Haley, B.E. ); Hanson, K.R.; McHale, N.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the 64 kilodalton stromal phosphoprotein by incubation of pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP decreased in the presence of Glc-6-P and Glc-1,6-P{sub 2}, but was stimulated by glucose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis following incubation of intact chloroplasts and stromal extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, or incubation of stromal extracts and partially purified phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) with ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P showed that the identical 64 kilodalton polypeptide was labeled. A 62 kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated by incubation of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) stromal extracts with either ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP or ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P. In contrast, an analogous polypeptide was not phosphorylated in extracts from a tobacco mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase activity. The results indicate that the 64 (or 62) kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein is phosphoglucomutase.

  16. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production.

  17. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  18. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  20. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  1. Kinetic features of gravicurvature of pea (Pisum sativum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishchuk, O. V.

    The upper sides of roots oriented horizontally grow more rapidly than the lower sides, causing the root ultimately to grow downward; this phenomenon is known as positive gravitropism. This ability is based on implicit mechanism which is being extensively investigated. Elaborate analysis of kinetic features of gravicurvature may complement the investigation. Pea and cress roots have positive gravitropism as roots of majority of higher plants. Mainly we investigated dependence of gravicurvature angle on time of gravistimulation. Two-day-old seedlings of cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896) and four-day-old pea ones (Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2) were placed on 1% agar medium in Petri dishes and turned on angle of gravistimulation. Then they were photographed at the same position each hour of gravistimulation. Photographs were analyzed with the help of Image Tool software program. Both pea and cress roots showed two phases of gravitropic response during gravistimulation for 6 hours when the initial angle of gravistimulation was 135 degrees. Two peaks of the rate of bending were observed. In cress roots, the first peak was much lower and the distance between the two peaks was greater than in pea roots. Curves of gravitropic bending of cress roots grown in agar had one or two inflections while in the case of roots grown on filter paper curves had no inflections. These data are in agreement with the effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice roots reported by Staves et al. (1997). Our results may reflect the fact that at least two systems that contribute to gravicurvature may exist in roots. These systems may be ligand-receptor complexes that may be formed with different kinetics in two different regions of the root. The most probable ligand is auxin and the regions appear to be central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), that were reported to be centers of tropic bending in roots. Thus, dependence of rate of root bending on

  2. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-07-01

    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity.

  3. Roots of Pisum sativum L. exhibit hydrotropism in response to a water potential gradient in vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shogo; Miyamoto, Naoko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Kuni; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, root hydrotropism in an agravitropic mutant of Pisum sativum L. grown in vermiculite with a steep water potential gradient was examined. When wet and dry vermiculite were placed side by side, water diffused from the wet (-0.04 MPa) to the dry (-1.2 MPa) and a steep water potential gradient became apparent in the dry vermiculite close to the boundary between the two. The extent and location of the gradient remained stable between the fourth and sixth day after filling a box with vermiculite, and the steepest gradient (approx. 0.02 MPa mm-1) was found in the initially dry vermiculite between 60 and 80 mm from the boundary. When seedlings with 25-35 mm long roots were planted in the initially dry vermiculite near where the gradient had been established, each of the main roots elongated toward the wet vermiculite, i.e. toward the high water potential. Control roots elongated without curvature in both the wet and the dry vermiculite, in which no water potential gradient was detectable. These results show that pea roots respond to the water potential gradient around them and elongate towards the higher water potential. Therefore, positive hydrotropism occurs in vermiculite just as it does in air. Hydrotropism in soil may be significant when a steep water potential gradient is apparent, such as when drip irrigation is applied.

  4. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  5. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Musgrave, M E

    1998-09-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  6. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  7. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  9. Fucosylation of xyloglucan: localization of the transferase in dictyosomes of pea stem cells. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, A.; Brummell, D.; MacLachlan, G.

    1987-07-01

    Microsomal membranes from elongating regions of etiolated Pisum sativum stems were separated by rate-zonal centrifugation on Renografin gradients. The transfer of labeled fucose and xylose from GDP-(/sup 14/C) fucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)xylose to xyloglucan occurred mainly in dictyosome-enriched fractions. No transferase activity was detected in secretory vesicle fractions. Pulse-chase experiments using pea stem slices incubated with (/sup 3/H)fucose suggest that xyloglucan chains are fucosylated and their structure completed within the dictyosomes, before being transported to the cell wall by secretory vesicles.

  10. Efficient intergeneric fusion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Durieu, P; Ochatt, S J

    2000-07-01

    Large numbers of viable protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) were efficiently and reproducibly obtained and, for the first time, fused. Different procedures for fusion were compared, based either on electrofusion (750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 V cm(-1)), or on the use of macro or micromethods with a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 or PEG 1540), or a glycine/high pH solution. Over 10% of viable heterokaryons were obtained, with PEG as the most efficient and reproducible agent for protoplast fusion (>20% of viable heterokaryons). Both the division of heterokaryons and the formation of small calluses were observed.

  11. Extracellular superoxide production associated with secondary root growth following desiccation of Pisum sativum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse

    2011-10-15

    The seedling stage is arguably the most vulnerable phase in the plant life cycle, where the young establishing plant is extremely sensitive to environmental stresses such as drought. Here, the production of superoxide (O(2)(-)), a molecule involved in stress signaling, was measured in response to desiccation of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. Following desiccation that was sufficient to kill the radicle meristem, viability could be retained by seedlings that grew secondary roots. Upon rehydration, secondary roots formed in a region that had displayed intense extracellular O(2)(-)production on desiccation. Treating partially desiccated seedlings with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) prevented viability loss. In summary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to participate in the signaling required for secondary root formation following desiccation stress of P. sativum seedlings.

  12. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  13. Products of dark CO sub 2 fixation in pea root nodules support bacteroid metabolism. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, L.; Pedersen, W.B. ); Vance, C.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Products of the nodule cytosol in vivo dark ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} fixation were detected in the plant cytosol as well as in the bacteroids of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Bodil) nodules. The distribution of the metabolites of the dark CO{sub 2} fixation products was compared in effective (fix{sup +}) nodules infected by a wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum (MNF 300), and ineffective (fix{sup {minus}}) nodules of the R. leguminosarum mutant MNF 3080. The latter has a defect in the dicarboxylic acid transport system of the bacterial membrane. The {sup 14}C incorporation from ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} was about threefold greater in the wild-type nodules than in the mutant nodules. Similarly, in wild-type nodules the in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was substantially greater than that of the mutant. Almost 90% of the {sup 14}C label in the cytosol was found in organic acids in both symbioses. The results indicate a central role for nodule cytosol dark CO{sub 2} fixation in the supply of the bacteroids with dicarboxylic acids.

  14. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  15. Malate Dehydrogenases of Pisum sativum: Tissue Distribution and Properties of the Particulate Forms.

    PubMed

    Zschoche, W C; Ting, I P

    1973-06-01

    Mitochondria and leaf microbodies isolated from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) by sucrose density gradient centrifugation were each shown to have a unique form (isoenzyme) of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) based on chromatographic and kinetic properties. Root organelle preparations were shown to contain only a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase with physical and kinetic properties similar to the leaf form. The absence of a detectable root microbody malate dehydrogenase similar to the leaf enzyme, which is intermediate in electrophoretic and chromatographic properties between the mitochondrial and soluble isoenzymes, was confirmed by diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography and starch-gel electrophoresis of total homogenates from leaf and root tissue. These findings tend to support the role of the leaf microbody isoenzyme in a pathway unique to photosynthetic tissue.

  16. [Meiotic abnormalities as expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in crosses of Pisum sativum subspecies].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, V S; Galieva, E R

    2009-05-01

    Meiosis in anthers and mitosis in somatic cells were studied in reciprocal F1 hybrids of the accession VIR320, which belonged to wild Pisum sativum ssp. elatius (Bieb.) Schmal., and the laboratory line Sprint-1. When VIR320 was used as a maternal form, the hybrids displayed nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict, which caused chlorophyll defects and meiotic abnormalities. One or two chromosomes lagged in the equatorial region during chromosome segregation to the poles, distorting cytokinesis and yielding abnormal microspores. Chlorophyll defects were not observed, and meiotic abnormalities were far less frequent in reciprocal hybrids and in the case of an abnormal paternal inheritance of plastids from Sprint-1. Mitosis lacked overt abnormalities in all of the hybrids.

  17. On the shock response of Pisum Sativum (a.k.a the Common Pea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighs, James; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    The high strain-rate response of biological and organic structures is of interest to numerous fields ranging from the food industry (dynamic pasteurisation) to astrobiology (e.g. the theory of panspermia, which suggests that planets could be `seeded' with life `piggy-backing' of interplanetary bodies). Consequently, knowledge of the damage mechanisms and viability of shocked organic material is of paramount importance. In this study a single-stage gas-gun has been employed to subject samples of Pisum Sativum (the Common Pea) to semi-planar shock loading, corresponding to impact pressures of up to c.3 GPa. The experimental approach adopted is discussed along with results from Manganin gauges embedded in the target capsule which show the loading history. Further, the viability of the shock-loaded peas was investigated via attempts at germination. Finally, microscopic examination of the impacted specimens allowed a qualitative assessment of damage mechanisms to be made.

  18. Rubisco activity in guard cells compared with the solute requirement for stomatal opening. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Reckmann, U.; Scheibe, R.; Raschke, K. )

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether the reductive pentose phosphate path in guard cells of Pisum sativum had the capacity to contribute significantly to the production of osmotica during stomatal opening in the light. Amounts of ribulose 1,5-bisphophate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were determined by the ({sup 14}C) carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate assay. A guard cell contained about 1.2 and a mesophyll cell about 324 picograms of the enzyme; the ratio was 1:270. The specific activities of Rubisco in guard cells and in mesophyll cells were equal; there was no indication of a specific inhibitor of Rubisco in guard cells. Rubisco activity was 115 femtomol per guard-cell protoplast and hour. This value was different from zero with a probability of 0.99. After exposure of guard-cell protoplasts to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 2 seconds in the light, about one-half of the radioactivity was in phosphorylated compounds and <10% in malate. Guard cells in epidermal strips produced a different labelling pattern; in the light, <10% of the label was in phosphorylated compounds and about 60% in malate. The rate of solute accumulation in intact guard cells was estimated to have been 900 femto-osmol per cell and hour. If Rubisco operated at full capacity in guard cells, and hexoses were produced as osmotica, solutes could be supplied at a rate of 19femto-osmol per cell and hour, which would constitute 2% of the estimated requirement. The capacity of guard-cell Rubisco to meet the solute requirement for stomatal opening in leaves of Pisum sativum is insignificant.

  19. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the highly complex Pisum sativum genome using next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The garden pea, Pisum sativum, is among the best-investigated legume plants and of significant agro-commercial relevance. Pisum sativum has a large and complex genome and accordingly few comprehensive genomic resources exist. Results We analyzed the pea transcriptome at the highest possible amount of accuracy by current technology. We used next generation sequencing with the Roche/454 platform and evaluated and compared a variety of approaches, including diverse tissue libraries, normalization, alternative sequencing technologies, saturation estimation and diverse assembly strategies. We generated libraries from flowers, leaves, cotyledons, epi- and hypocotyl, and etiolated and light treated etiolated seedlings, comprising a total of 450 megabases. Libraries were assembled into 324,428 unigenes in a first pass assembly. A second pass assembly reduced the amount to 81,449 unigenes but caused a significant number of chimeras. Analyses of the assemblies identified the assembly step as a major possibility for improvement. By recording frequencies of Arabidopsis orthologs hit by randomly drawn reads and fitting parameters of the saturation curve we concluded that sequencing was exhaustive. For leaf libraries we found normalization allows partial recovery of expression strength aside the desired effect of increased coverage. Based on theoretical and biological considerations we concluded that the sequence reads in the database tagged the vast majority of transcripts in the aerial tissues. A pathway representation analysis showed the merits of sampling multiple aerial tissues to increase the number of tagged genes. All results have been made available as a fully annotated database in fasta format. Conclusions We conclude that the approach taken resulted in a high quality - dataset which serves well as a first comprehensive reference set for the model legume pea. We suggest future deep sequencing transcriptome projects of species lacking a genomics backbone will

  20. Dark-induced and organ-specific expression of two asparagine synthetase genes in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, F Y; Coruzzi, G M

    1990-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs for asparagine synthetase (AS) of Pisum sativum has uncovered two distinct AS mRNAs (AS1 and AS2) encoding polypeptides that are highly homologous to the human AS enzyme. The amino-terminal residues of both AS1 and AS2 polypeptides are identical to the glutamine-binding domain of the human AS enzyme, indicating that the full-length AS1 and AS2 cDNAs encode glutamine-dependent AS enzymes. Analysis of nuclear DNA shows that AS1 and AS2 are each encoded by single genes in P.sativum. Gene-specific Northern blot analysis reveals that dark treatment induces high-level accumulation of AS1 mRNA in leaves, while light treatment represses this effect as much as 30-fold. Moreover, the dark-induced accumulation of AS1 mRNA was shown to be a phytochrome-mediated response. Both AS1 and AS2 mRNAs also accumulate to high levels in cotyledons of germinating seedlings and in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. These patterns of AS gene expression correlate well with the physiological role of asparagine as a nitrogen transport amino acid during plant development. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1968003

  1. Rates of sugar uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum L. Related To the solute requirement for stomatal opening

    PubMed

    Ritte; Rosenfeld; Rohrig; Raschke

    1999-10-01

    We wished to determine whether the capacity of the sugar uptake mechanisms of guard cells of the Argenteum mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) sufficed to support a concurrent stomatal opening movement. Sugar uptake by guard cell protoplasts was determined by silicone-oil-filtering centrifugation. The protoplasts took up [(14)C]glucose, [(14)C]fructose, and [(14)C]sucrose (Suc), apparently in symport with protons. Mannose, galactose, and fructose competed with Glc for transport by a presumed hexose carrier. The uptake of Glc saturated with a K(m) of 0.12 mM and a V(max) of 19 fmol cell(-1) h(-1). At external concentrations <1 mM, the uptake of Suc was slower than that of Glc. It exhibited a saturating component with a K(m) varying between 0.25 and 0.8 mM and a V(max) between 1 and 10 fmol cell(-1) h(-1), and at external concentrations >1 mM, a non-saturating component. At apoplastic sugar concentrations below 4 mM, sugar import was estimated to be mainly in the form of hexoses and too slow to support a simultaneous stomatal opening movement. If, however, during times of high photosynthesis and transpiration, the apoplastic Suc concentration rose and entered the range of non-saturating import, absorbed Suc could replace potassium malate as the osmoticum for the maintenance of stomatal opening.

  2. Palladium uptake by Pisum sativum: partitioning and effects on growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ronchini, Matteo; Cherchi, Laura; Cantamessa, Simone; Lanfranchi, Marco; Vianelli, Alberto; Gerola, Paolo; Berta, Graziella; Fumagalli, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    Environmental palladium levels are increasing because of anthropogenic activities. The considerable mobility of the metal, due to solubilisation phenomena, and its known bioavailability may indicate interactions with higher organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the Pd uptake and distribution in the various organs of the higher plant Pisum sativum and the metal-induced effects on its growth and reproduction. P. sativum was grown in vermiculite with a modified Hoagland's solution of nutrients in the presence of Pd at concentrations ranging 0.10-25 mg/L. After 8-10 weeks in a controlled environment room, plants were harvested and dissected to isolate the roots, stems, leaves, pods and peas. The samples were analysed for Pd content using AAS and SEM-EDX. P. sativum absorbed Pd, supplied as K₂PdCl₄, beginning at seed germination and continuing throughout its life. Minimal doses (0.10-1.0 mg Pd/L) severely inhibited pea reproductive processes while showing a peculiar hormetic effect on root development. Pd concentrations ≥1 mg/L induced developmental delay, with late growth resumption, increased leaf biomass (up to 25%) and a 15-20% reduction of root mass. Unsuccessful repeated blossoming efforts led to misshapen pods and no seed production. Photosynthesis was also disrupted. The absorbed Pd (ca. 0.5 % of the supplied metal) was primarily fixed in the root, specifically in the cortex, reaching concentrations up to 200 μg/g. The metal moved through the stem (up to 1 μg/g) to the leaves (2 μg/g) and pods (0.3 μg/g). The presence of Pd in the pea fruits, together with established evidence of environmental Pd accumulation and bioavailability, suggests possible contamination of food plants and propagation in the food chain and must be the cause for concern.

  3. The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development

    PubMed Central

    Fourquin, Chloé; Primo, Amparo; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Huet-Trujillo, Estefanía; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms. Methods CRC orthologues from Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were identified. RNA in situ hybridization experiments determined the corresponding expression patterns throughout flower development. The phenotypic effects of reduced CRC activity were investigated in P. sativum using virus-induced gene silencing. Key Results CRC orthologues from P. sativum and M. truncatula showed similar expression patterns, mainly restricted to carpels and nectaries. However, these expression patterns differed from those of other core eudicots, most importantly in a lack of abaxial expression in the carpel and in atypical expression associated with the medial vein of the ovary. CRC downregulation in pea caused defects in carpel fusion and style/stigma development, both typically associated with CRC function in eudicots, but also affected vascular development in the carpel. Conclusions The data support the conserved roles of CRC orthologues in carpel fusion, style/stigma development and nectary development. In addition, an intriguing new aspect of CRC function in legumes was the unexpected role in vascular development, which could be shared by other species from widely diverged clades within the angiosperms, suggesting that this role could be ancestral rather than derived, as so far

  4. Primary and Secondary Abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima—How Do They Compare and How Do They Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Hvoslef-Eide, Anne K.; Munster, Cristel M.; Mathiesen, Cecilie A.; Ayeh, Kwadwo O.; Melby, Tone I.; Rasolomanana, Paoly; Lee, YeonKyeong

    2016-01-01

    Abscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in 1 week. AFLP differential display (DD) was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two pea (Pisum sativum) mutants in the def (Developmental funiculus) gene, which was compared with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases) was performed. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first 2 days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions), enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis. This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94–98 million years in evolution, hence any genes or processes in common

  5. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  6. Control of storage-protein synthesis during seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, J A; Evans, I M; Bown, D; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1982-10-15

    The tissue-specific syntheses of seed storage proteins in the cotyledons of developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have been demonstrated by estimates of their qualitative and quantitative accumulation by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. Vicilin-fraction proteins initially accumulated faster than legumin, but whereas legumin was accumulated throughout development, different components of the vicilin fraction had their predominant periods of synthesis at different stages of development. The translation products in vitro of polysomes isolated from cotyledons at different stages of development reflected the synthesis in vivo of storage-protein polypeptides at corresponding times. The levels of storage-protein mRNA species during development were estimated by 'Northern' hybridization using cloned complementary-DNA probes. This technique showed that the levels of legumin and vicilin (47000-Mr precursors) mRNA species increased and decreased in agreement with estimated rates of synthesis of the respective polypeptides. The relative amounts of these messages, estimated by kinetic hybridization were also consistent. Legumin mRNA was present in leaf poly(A)+ RNA at less than one-thousandth of the level in cotyledon poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) RNA, demonstrating tissue-specific expression. Evidence is presented that storage-protein mRNA species are relatively long-lived, and it is suggested that storage-protein synthesis is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level.

  7. Rapid wall relaxation in elongating tissues. [Glycine max (L. ); Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Matyssek, R.; Maruyama, S.; Boyer, J.S. )

    1988-01-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, the authors investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. The authors found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species.

  8. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  10. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  11. NADH induces the generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    del Rio, L.A.; Sandalio, L.M.; Palma, J.M. ); Fernandez, V.M.; Ruperez, F.L. )

    1989-03-01

    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive against xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes suggests that O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related roles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism.

  12. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum cv

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum cv. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.

  13. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and vein loading characteristics in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1987-04-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmalemma surface area. Leaf minor vein phloem transfer cells presumably enhance phloem loading. In Pisum sativum cv. Little marvel grown under different light regimes (150 to 1000 ..mu..mol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) there is a positive correlation between light intensity and wall ingrowth area in phloem transfer cells. The extent of ingrowth and correlation to light intensity is greatest in minor veins, decreasing as vein size increases. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (10 mM). There is a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall area, although the latter increased more than the former. The difference in uptake is stable throughout the photoperiod, and is also stable in mature leaves for at least four days after plants are transfered to a different light intensity. Sucrose uptake is biphasic. The saturable component of uptake is sensitive to light intensity, the Km for sucrose is negatively correlated to light intensity, while V/sub max/remains unchanged.

  14. Profile and Functional Properties of Seed Proteins from Six Pea (Pisum sativum) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Barac, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pesic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Sladjana; Zilic, Sladjana; Macej, Ognjen; Ristic, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Extractability, extractable protein compositions, technological-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins from six genotypes grown in Serbia were investigated. Also, the relationship between these characteristics was presented. Investigated genotypes showed significant differences in storage protein content, composition and extractability. The ratio of vicilin:legumin concentrations, as well as the ratio of vicilin + convicilin: Legumin concentrations were positively correlated with extractability. Our data suggest that the higher level of vicilin and/or a lower level of legumin have a positive influence on protein extractability. The emulsion activity index (EAI) was strongly and positively correlated with the solubility, while no significant correlation was found between emulsion stability (ESI) and solubility, nor between foaming properties and solubility. No association was evident between ESI and EAI. A moderate positive correlation between emulsion stability and foam capacity was observed. Proteins from the investigated genotypes expressed significantly different emulsifying properties and foam capacity at different pH values, whereas low foam stability was detected. It appears that genotype has considerable influence on content, composition and technological-functional properties of pea bean proteins. This fact can be very useful for food scientists in efforts to improve the quality of peas and pea protein products. PMID:21614186

  15. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Jiao, Chengjin; Su, Miao; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Lina; Peng, Renyi; Wang, Ranran; Wang, Chongying

    2013-09-01

    Flooding of soils often results in hypoxic conditions surrounding plant roots, which is a harmful abiotic stress to crops. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible, gaseous molecule that modulates cell signaling and is involved in hypoxia signaling in animal cells. However, there have been no previous studies of H2S in plant cells in response to hypoxia. The effects of H2S on hypoxia-induced root tip death were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) via analysis of endogenous H2S and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The activities of key enzymes involved in antioxidative and H2S metabolic pathways were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Ethylene was measured by gas chromatography. We found that exogenous H2S pretreatment dramatically alleviated hypoxia-induced root tip death by protecting root tip cell membranes from ROS damage induced by hypoxia and by stimulating a quiescence strategy through inhibiting ethylene production. Conversely, root tip death induced by hypoxia was strongly enhanced by inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S biosynthesis. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S pretreatment significantly alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in pea seedlings and, therefore, enhances the tolerance of the plant to hypoxic stress.

  16. Digestion of fibre polysaccharides of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage by adult cockerels.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, M; McNab, J M

    1989-11-01

    Characterization of the carbohydrates of pea (Pisum sativum) hulls, carrot and cabbage using both colorimetric and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques permitted a detailed investigation into the extent of digestion of differing types of fibre. These digestion studies were greatly aided by the development of a rapid bioassay employing starved adult cockerels. Total collection of undigested residues, uncontaminated by food spillage, could be made from trays placed under the cockerels. Chemical analysis showed that pea hulls consisted mainly of fibre with very little available carbohydrate present, whereas more than half of freeze-dried carrot and cabbage consisted of available carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch) and consequently considerably less fibre was present. The fibre of carrot and cabbage was similarly composed of nearly equal amounts of neutral and acidic polysaccharides, whereas pea-hull fibre had four times as much neutral as acidic polysaccharides. The digestibility of total neutral polysaccharides from all three foodstuffs was extremely low. However, there appeared to be preferential digestion of polysaccharides composed of rhamnose, arabinose and galactose residues, all associated with pectic material, in contrast to the indigestibility of polysaccharides composed of fucose, xylose and glucose. Acidic polysaccharides were digested to a greater extent than neutral ones, and those of carrot and cabbage more so than pea hulls. The polysaccharides which were the most soluble were also the most digestible, but due to the arbitrariness of polysaccharide solubility, quantification of their total digestibility per se was considered not possible.

  17. Influence of ammonium chloride on the nitrogenase activity of nodulated pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed Central

    Houwaard, F

    1978-01-01

    A study was made on the short-term effect of ammonium ions on the nitrogenase activity of pea root nodules. Nodulated pea plants (Pisum sativum), having reached maximum acetylene-reducing activity, were supplied with NH4Cl (20 mM). Nitrogenase activity of intact plants, detached nodules, and isolated bacteroids was measured at differed time intervals. A significant drop (20 to 40%) in the acetylene-reducing activity of treated intact plants and their detached nodules was observed after 1 day. No drop in the nitrogenase activity of bacteroids (assayed aerobically, or anaerobically after treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-toluene) occurred for 2 to 4 days after the addition of NH4+ to the plants, depending on cultural conditions. From these results it is concluded that the adverse effect of NH4+ on acetylene reduction by intact plants and detached nodules during the first 2 days is not due to a decrease in the amount of nitrogenase in the bacteroids. It is suggested that the effect has to be attributed to a reduced supply to the bacteroids of energy-delivery photosynthates. PMID:677873

  18. Conserved thioredoxin fold is present in Pisum sativum L. sieve element occlusion-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Umate, Pavan; Tuteja, Renu

    2010-06-01

    Homology-based three-dimensional model for Pisum sativum sieve element occlusion 1 (Ps.SEO1) (forisomes) protein was constructed. A stretch of amino acids (residues 320 to 456) which is well conserved in all known members of forisomes proteins was used to model the 3D structure of Ps.SEO1. The structural prediction was done using Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (PHYRE) web server. Based on studies of local sequence alignment, the thioredoxin-fold containing protein [Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) code d1o73a_], a member of the glutathione peroxidase family was selected as a template for modeling the spatial structure of Ps.SEO1. Selection was based on comparison of primary sequence, higher match quality and alignment accuracy. Motif 1 (EVF) is conserved in Ps.SEO1, Vicia faba (Vf.For1) and Medicago truncatula (Mt.SEO3); motif 2 (KKED) is well conserved across all forisomes proteins and motif 3 (IGYIGNP) is conserved in Ps.SEO1 and Vf.For1.

  19. [Biochemical changes associated with cadmium and copper stress in germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.)].

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Asma; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were germinated for four days over two sheets of filter paper moistened with H2O (control) and 5 mM Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4 (treated). The relationship between heavy-metal stress and breakdown of storage compounds was studied. Germination rate and growth of radicle decreased, while the water content in stressed seeds remained around the control values. Cotyledons changed their biochemical constituents: disorders in the contents of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn), free amino acids and soluble sugars were found. Decline of alpha-amylase activity as well as acid phosphatase were also observed, whereas beta-amylase and alkaline phosphatase ones were not modified by heavy-metal treatments. These results suggest that the inhibition of seed germinations after exposure to cadmium or copper is not the consequence of starvation in water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in the reserve mobilization process from cotyledons.

  20. Auxin effects on in vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in pea. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.R.; Ray, P.M.

    1987-04-01

    Terminal 8mm sections from the third internode of dark grown 7 day old Pisum sativum cv Alaska seedlings were separated into membrane and soluble fractions. SDS gradient PAGE identified approximately 50 in vivo phosphorylated proteins and proved superior to 2-D SDS PAGE in terms of resolution and repeatability. Addition of indoleacetic acid (IAA), fusicoccin, or 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to membranes resulted in no detectable change in the number or phosphorylation level of the labeled proteins during in vitro phosphorylation in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of calcium. Similar results were obtained with soluble proteins. In the absence of calcium, the level of in vitro protein phosphorylation was much less, but not auxin effects could be identified. Furthermore, treatment of the sections with IAA in vivo followed by cell fractionation and in vitro phosphorylation failed to identify auxin responsive proteins. Lastly, when sections were labeled with /sup 32/P inorganic phosphate in the presence of 17 uM IAA, no auxin specific changes were found in the level of phosphorylation or in the number of phosphorylated proteins. Auxin effects on phosphorylation are thus slight or below their detection limit.

  1. Extracellular production of reactive oxygen species during seed germination and early seedling growth in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kranner, Ilse; Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Whitaker, Claire; Minibayeva, Farida V

    2010-07-01

    Extracellularly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in plant development, but their significance for seed germination and seedling establishment is poorly understood. Here we report on the characteristics of extracellular ROS production during seed germination and early seedling development in Pisum sativum. Extracellular superoxide (O2(.-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and the activity of extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) were determined spectrophotometrically, and O2(.-) was identified by electron paramagnetic resonance. Cell wall fractionation of cotyledons, seed coats and radicles was used in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to investigate substrate specificity and molecular masses of O2(.-)-producing enzymes, and the forces that bind them to the cell wall. Seed imbibition was accompanied by an immediate, transient burst of redox activity that involved O2(.-) and other substances capable of oxidizing epinephrine, and also H2O2. At the final stages of germination, coinciding with radicle elongation, a second increase in O2(.-) but not H2O2 production occurred and was correlated with an increase in extracellular ECPOX activity. Electrophoretic analyses of cell wall fractions demonstrated the presence of enzymes capable of O2(.-) production. The significance of extracellular ROS production during seed germination and early seedling development, and also during seed aging, is discussed.

  2. Isozymes of beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Pea Seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Harley, S M; Beevers, L

    1987-12-01

    Four isozymes of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-NAHA) from pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) have been separated, with one, designated beta-NAHA-II, purified to apparent homogeneity by means of an affinity column constructed by ligating p-aminophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-thioglucosaminide to Affi-Gel 202. The other three isozymes have been separated and purified 500- to 1750-fold by chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, Zn(2+) charged immobilized metal affinity chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex. All four isozymes are located in the protein bodies of the cotyledons. The molecular weight of each isozyme is 210,000. beta-NAHA-II is composed of two heterogenous subunits. The subunits are not held together by disulfide bonds, but sulfhydryl groups are important for catalysis. All four isozymes release p-nitrophenol from both p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-galactosaminide. The ratio of activity for hydrolysis of the two substrates is pH dependent. The K(m) value for the two substrates and pH optima of the isozymes are comparable to beta-NAHAs from other plant sources.

  3. Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae in symbiosis with host plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, R; Ramachandran, V K; Seaman, J C; East, A K; Mouhsine, B; Mauchline, T H; Prell, J; Skeffington, A; Poole, P S

    2009-06-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on several legumes, including pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia cracca), and has been widely used as a model to study nodule biochemistry. To understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes undergone by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae during bacteroid development, microarray experiments were first performed with cultured bacteria grown on a variety of carbon substrates (glucose, pyruvate, succinate, inositol, acetate, and acetoacetate) and then compared to bacteroids. Bacteroid metabolism is essentially that of dicarboxylate-grown cells (i.e., induction of dicarboxylate transport, gluconeogenesis and alanine synthesis, and repression of sugar utilization). The decarboxylating arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is highly induced, as is gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism, particularly in bacteroids from early (7-day) nodules. To investigate bacteroid development, gene expression in bacteroids was analyzed at 7, 15, and 21 days postinoculation of peas. This revealed that bacterial rRNA isolated from pea, but not vetch, is extensively processed in mature bacteroids. In early development (7 days), there were large changes in the expression of regulators, exported and cell surface molecules, multidrug exporters, and heat and cold shock proteins. fix genes were induced early but continued to increase in mature bacteroids, while nif genes were induced strongly in older bacteroids. Mutation of 37 genes that were strongly upregulated in mature bacteroids revealed that none were essential for nitrogen fixation. However, screening of 3,072 mini-Tn5 mutants on peas revealed previously uncharacterized genes essential for nitrogen fixation. These encoded a potential magnesium transporter, an AAA domain protein, and proteins involved in cytochrome synthesis.

  5. Synthesis of Phytochelatins and Homo-Phytochelatins in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    Klapheck, S.; Schlunz, S.; Bergmann, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the roots of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) cultivated with 20 [mu]M CdCl2 for 3 d, synthesis of phytochelatins [PCs or ([gamma]EC)nG, where [gamma]EC is [gamma]glutamylcysteine and G is glycine] and homophytochelatins [h-PCs, ([gamma]EC)n[beta]-alanine] is accompanied by a drastic decrease in glutathione (GSH) content, but an increase in homoglutathione (h-GSH) content. In contrast, the in vitro activity of GSH synthetase increases 5-fold, whereas h-GSH synthetase activity increases regardless of Cd exposure. The consititutive enzyme PC synthase, which catalyzes the transfer of the [gamma]-EC moiety of GSH to an acceptor GSH molecule thus producing ([gamma]EC)2G, is activated by heavy metals, with Cd and Cu being strong activators and Zn being a very poor activator. Using h-GSH or hm-GSH for substrate, the synthesis rate of([gamma]EC)2[beta]-alanine and [gamma]EC)2-serine is only 2.4 and 0.3%, respectively, of the sythesis rate of ([gamma]EC)2G with GSH as substrate. However, in the presence of a constant GSH level, increasing the concentration of h-GSH or hm-GSH results in increased synthesis of ([gamma]EC)2[beta]-alanine or ([gamma]EC)2-serine, respecively; simultaneously, the synthesis of ([gamma]EC)2G is inhibited. [gamma]EC is not a substrate of PC synthase. These results are best explained by assuming that PC synthase has a [gamma]EC donor binding site, which is very specific for GSH, and a [gamma]EC acceptor binding site, which is less specific and accepts several tripeptides, namely GSH, h-GSH, and hm-GSH. PMID:12228379

  6. Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska 12

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458

  7. Physiological effects of nanoparticulate ZnO in green peas (Pisum sativum L.) cultivated in soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    The toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in plants are still largely unknown. In the present study, green pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were treated with 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) of either ZnO NPs or bulk ZnO in organic matter enriched soil. Corresponding toxicological effects were measured on the basis of plant growth, chlorophyll production, Zn bioaccumulation, H2O2 generation, stress enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation using different cellular, molecular, and biochemical approaches. Compared to control, all ZnO NP concentrations significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) root elongation but no effects were observed in the stem. Whereas all bulk ZnO treatments significantly increased both root and stem length. After 25 days, chlorophyll in leaves decreased, compared to control, by ~61%, 67%, and 77% in plants treated with 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) ZnO NPs, respectively. Similar results were found in bulk ZnO treated plants. At all ZnO NP concentrations CAT was significantly reduced in leaves (p ≤ 0.05), while APOX was reduced in both roots and leaves. In the case of bulk ZnO, APOX activity was down-regulated in the root and leaf and CAT was unaffected. At 500 mg kg(-1) treatment, the H2O2 in leaves increased by 61% with a twofold lipid peroxidation, which would be a predictive biomarker of nanotoxicity. This study could be pioneering in evaluating the phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs to green peas and can serve as a good indicator for measuring the effects on ZnO NPs in plants grown in organic matter enriched soil.

  8. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs.

  9. Characterization of alpha-Amylase from Shoots and Cotyledons of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Beers, E P; Duke, S H

    1990-04-01

    The most abundant alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) in shoots and cotyledons from pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings was purified 6700-and 850-fold, respectively, utilizing affinity (amylose and cycloheptaamylose) and gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration. This alpha-amylase contributed at least 79 and 15% of the total amylolytic activity in seedling cotyledons and shoots, respectively. The enzyme was identified as an alpha-amylase by polarimetry, substrate specificity, and end product analyses. The purified alpha-amylases from shoots and cotyledons appear identical. Both are 43.5 kilodalton monomers with pls of 4.5, broad pH activity optima from 5.5 to 6.5, and nearly identical substrate specificities. They produce identical one-dimensional peptide fingerprints following partial proteolysis in the presence of SDS. Calcium is required for activity and thermal stability of this amylase. The enzyme cannot attack maltodextrins with degrees of polymerization below that of maltotetraose, and hydrolysis of intact starch granules was detected only after prolonged incubation. It best utilizes soluble starch as substrate. Glucose and maltose are the major end products of the enzyme with amylose as substrate. This alpha-amylase appears to be secreted, in that it is at least partially localized in the apoplast of shoots. The native enzyme exhibits a high degree of resistance to degradation by proteinase K, trypsin/chymostrypsin, thermolysin, and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. It does not appear to be a high-mannose-type glycoprotein. Common cell wall constituents (e.g. beta-glucan) are not substrates of the enzyme. A very low amount of this alpha-amylase appears to be associated with chloroplasts; however, it is unclear whether this activity is contamination or alpha-amylase which is integrally associated with the chloroplast.

  10. Purification, characterization and physiological role of sucrose synthase in the pea seed coat (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Déjardin, A; Rochat, C; Maugenest, S; Boutin, J P

    1997-01-01

    The seed coat is a maternal organ which surrounds the embryo and is involved in the control of its nutrition. This study with pea (Pisum sativum L.) was conducted to understand more fully the sucrose/starch interconversions occurring in the seed coat. The concentrations of soluble sugars, the starch content, and the activities of the sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13), alkaline and soluble acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) were compared at four developmental stages during seed filling. Among the four enzymes, only Sus activity was very high and strongly correlated with the starch concentration in the seed coat. Sucrose synthase catalyses the cleavage of sucrose in the presence of UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. Sucrose synthase was purified from pea seed coats in a three-step protocol, consisting of diethylaminoethyl-Sephacel chromatography, gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The enzyme was characterized at the biochemical and molecular levels. Sucrose synthase exhibits biochemical properties which allow it to function in the direction of both sucrose cleavage and synthesis. The mass-action ratio of its four substrate was close to the theoretical equilibrium constant at the four developmental stages we studied. A labelling experiment on seed coats has shown that Sus activity is reversible in vivo and can produce 37% of neo-synthesized sucrose in the seed coat cells (minimum value). It is concluded that Sus could play a central role in the control of sucrose concentration in the seed coat cells in response to the demand for sucrose in the embryo during the development of the seed.

  11. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  12. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  13. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor A.; Herle, Carolyn E.; Lupwayi, Newton Z.

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  14. Molecular changes in Pisum sativum L. roots during arbuscular mycorrhiza buffering of cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; van Tuinen, Diederik; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Metwally, Ashraf; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2005-12-01

    Molecular responses to cadmium (Cd) stress were studied in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pisum sativum L. cv. Frisson inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Biomass decreases caused by the heavy metal were significantly less in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal plants. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that genes implicated in pathways of Cd detoxification varied in response to mycorrhiza development or Cd application. Expression of a metallothionein-encoding gene increased strongly in roots of Cd-treated non-mycorrhizal plants. Genes encoding gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione (GSH) synthetase, responsible for the synthesis of the phytochelatin (PC) precursor GSH, were activated by Cd in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Cd stress decreased accumulation of GSH/homoglutathione (hGSH) and increased thiol groups in pea roots, whether mycorrhizal or not, suggesting synthesis of PCs and/or homophytochelatins. An hGSH synthetase gene, involved in hGSH synthesis, did not respond to Cd alone but was activated by mycorrhizal development in the presence of Cd. Transcript levels of a glutathione reductase gene were only increased in non-mycorrhizal roots treated with Cd. Studies of three stress-related genes showed that a heat-shock protein gene was activated in mycorrhizal roots or by Cd and chitinase gene transcripts increased under Cd stress to a greater extent in mycorrhizal roots, whilst a chalcone isomerase gene was only up-regulated by Cd. Results indicate that although heavy metal chelation pathways contribute to Cd stress responses in pea, they may not make a major contribution to Cd tolerance strategies operating in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  15. Analysis of a diverse global Pisum sp. collection and comparison to a Chinese local P. sativum collection with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zong, Xuxiao; Redden, Robert J; Liu, Qingchang; Wang, Shumin; Guan, Jianping; Liu, Jin; Xu, Yanhong; Liu, Xiuju; Gu, Jing; Yan, Long; Ades, Peter; Ford, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one informative microsatellite loci were used to assess and compare the genetic diversity among Pisum genotypes sourced from within and outside China. The Chinese germplasm comprised 1243 P. sativum genotypes from 28 provinces and this was compared to 774 P. sativum genotypes that represented a globally diverse germplasm collection, as well as 103 genotypes from related Pisum species. The Chinese P. sativum germplasm was found to contain genotypes genetically distinct from the global gene pool sourced outside China. The Chinese spring type genotypes were separate from the global gene pool and from the other main Chinese gene pool of winter types. The distinct Chinese spring gene pool comprised genotypes from Inner Mongolia and Sha'anxi provinces, with those from Sha'anxi showing the greatest diversity. The other main gene pool within China included both spring types from other northern provinces and winter types from central and southern China, plus some accessions from Inner Mongolia and Sha'anxi. A core collection of Chinese landraces chosen to represent molecular diversity was compared both to the wider Chinese collection and to a geographically diverse core collection of Chinese landraces. The average gene diversity and allelic richness per locus of both the micro-satellite based core and the wider collection were similar, and greater than the geographically diverse core. The genetic diversity of P. sativum within China appears to be quite different to that detected in the global gene pool, including the presence of several rare alleles, and may be a useful source of allelic variation for both major gene and quantitative traits.

  16. Kinetic properties of a micronutrient transporter from Pisum sativum indicate a primary function in Fe uptake from the soil.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Clara K; Garvin, David F; Kochian, Leon V

    2004-03-01

    Fe uptake in dicotyledonous plants is mediated by a root plasma membrane-bound ferric reductase that reduces extracellular Fe(III)-chelates, releasing Fe(2+) ions, which are then absorbed via a metal ion transporter. We previously showed that Fe deficiency induces an increased capacity to absorb Fe and other micronutrient and heavy metals such as Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) into pea ( Pisum sativum L.) roots [Cohen et al. (1998) Plant Physiol 116:1063-1072). To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon, an Fe-regulated transporter that is a homologue of the Arabidopsis IRT1 micronutrient transporter was isolated from pea seedlings. This cDNA clone, designated RIT1 for root iron transporter, encodes a 348 amino acid polypeptide with eight putative membrane-spanning domains that is induced under Fe deficiency and can functionally complement yeast mutants defective in high- and low-affinity Fe transport. Chelate buffer techniques were used to control Fe(2+) in the uptake solution at nanomolar activities representative of those found in the rhizosphere, and radiotracer methodologies were employed to show that RIT1 is a very high-affinity (59)Fe(2+) uptake system ( K(m) =54-93 nM). Additionally, radiotracer ((65)Zn, (109)Cd) flux techniques were used to show that RIT can also mediate a lower affinity Zn and Cd influx ( K(m) of 4 and 100 microM, for Zn(2+) and Cd(2+), respectively). These findings suggest that, in typical agricultural soils, RIT1 functions primarily as a high-affinity Fe(2+) transporter that mediates root Fe acquisition. This is consistent with recent findings with Arabidopsis IRT1 knockout mutants that strongly suggest that this transporter plays a key role in root Fe uptake and nutrition. However, the ability of RIT1 to facilitate Zn and Cd uptake when these metals are present at elevated concentrations suggests that RIT1 may be one pathway for the entry of toxic metals into the food chain. Furthermore, the finding that plant Fe deficiency status may

  17. Physical basis for altered stem elongation rates in internode length mutants of Pisum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Reid, J. B.; Davies, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Biophysical parameters related to gibberellin (GA)-dependent stem elongation were examined in dark-grown stem-length genotypes of Pisum sativum L. The rate of internode expansion in these genotypes is altered due to recessive mutations which affect either the endogenous levels of, or response to, GA. The GA deficient dwarf L181 (ls), two GA insensitive semierectoides dwarfs NGB5865 and NGB5862 (lka and lkb, respectively) and the slender' line L197 (la crys), which is tall regardless of GA content, were compared to the wild-type tall cultivar, Torsdag. Osmotic pressure, estimated by vapor pressure osmometry, and turgor pressure, measured directly with a pressure probe, did not correlate with the differences in growth rate among the genotypes. Mechanical wall properties of frozen-thawed tissue were measured using a constant force assay. GA deficiency resulted in increased wall stiffness judged both on the basis of plastic compliance and plastic extensibility normalized for equal stem circumference. Plastic compliance was not reduced in the GA insensitive dwarfs, though lka reduced circumference-normalized plasticity. In contrast, in vivo wall relaxation, determined by the pressure-block technique, differed among genotypes in a manner which did correlate with extension rates. The wall yield threshold was 1 bar or less in the tall lines, but ranged from 3 to 6 bars in the dwarf genotypes. The results with the ls mutant indicate that GA enhances stem elongation by both decreasing the wall yield threshold and increasing the wall yield coefficient. In the GA-insensitive mutants, lka and lkb, the wall yield threshold is substantially elevated. Plants possessing lka may also possess a reduced wall yield coefficient.

  18. Evaluation of expression stability of candidate references genes among green and yellow pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) subjected to abiotic and biotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea (Pisum sativum) is grown as human and animal feed throughout the world. Large yield losses in pea due to biotic and abiotic stresses compel an improved understanding of mechanisms of stress tolerance and genetic determinants conditioning these tolerances. The availability of stably expressed...

  19. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  20. Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis of the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity, population structure and genome-wide marker-trait association analysis was conducted for the USDA pea (Pisum sativum L.) core collection. The core collection contained 285 accessions with diverse phenotypes and geographic origins. The 137 DNA markers included 102 polymorphic fra...

  1. High-throughput development of SSR markers from pea (Pisum sativum L.) based on next generation sequencing of a purified Chinese commercial variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lag...

  2. Development and Partial Characterization of Nearly Isogenic Pea Lines (Pisum sativum L.) that Alter Uptake Hydrogenase Activity in Symbiotic Rhizobium.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D A; Kapulnik, Y; Bedmar, E J; Joseph, C M

    1990-04-01

    Some Rhizobium bacteria have H(2)-uptake (Hup) systems that oxidize H(2) evolved from nitrogenase in leguminous root nodules. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars ;JI1205' and ;Alaska' produce high Hup (Hup(++)) and moderate Hup (Hup(+)) phenotypes, respectively, in Rhizobium leguminosarum 128C53. The physiological significance and biochemical basis of this host plant genetic effect are unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to advance basic Hup studies by developing nearly isogenic lines of peas that alter Hup phenotypes in R. leguminosarum strains containing hup genes. Eight pairs of nearly isogenic pea lines that produce Hup(++) and Hup(+) phenotypes in R. leguminosarum 128C53 were identified in 173 F(2)-derived F(6) families produced from crosses between JI1205 and Alaska. Tests with the pea isolines and three strains of hup-containing R. leguminosarum showed that the isolines altered Hup activity significantly (P mutants of R. leguminosarum 128C53 showed that, in symbioses with Hup(+) rhizobia, two out of three Hup(++) pea lines decreased N(2) fixation relative to Hup(+) peas. In one of those cases, however, the Hup(++) plant line also decreased fixation by Hup(-) rhizobia. When results were averaged across all rhizobia tested, Hup(+) pea isolines had 8.2% higher dry weight (P

  3. Differential changes in size distribution of xyloglucan in the cell walls of gravitropically responding Pisum sativum epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbott, L. D.; Pickard, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Growth-related change in the size distribution of hemicellulosic wall polymers during the gravitropic curvature response of intact pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls was examined by gel-filtration chromatography. The gravitropic response was characterized by the appearance of curvature 20 to 30 min after horizontal placement, with 35 degrees of curvature attained by 80 min. Correlated with the onset of curvature, on the upper side of the epicotyl, there was a conspicuous transient increase in the abundance of relatively large hemicellulosic xyloglucan polymers, similar to increases previously found under conditions where diminished wall extensibility was expected. On the lower side there was a moderate, slower, and longer-term increase in abundance of small xyloglucan, similar to changes previously found in connection with auxin-stimulated growth responses. Both shifts occurred primarily in the epidermis. They appear to represent two coordinated physiological mechanisms contributing to differential growth.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding pea cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.A.; Zilinskas, B.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors now report the nucleotide sequence of the cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD cloned from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from mRNA extracted from leaves of 7- to 10-d pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.). The clone was isolated using a 22-base synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the amino acid sequence CGIIGLQG. This sequence, found at the protein's carboxy terminus, is highly conserved among plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but not chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs. The 738-base pair sequence contains an open reading frame specifying 152 codons and a predicted M{sub r} of 18,024 D. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homologous (79-82% identity) with the sequences of other known plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but less highly conserved (63-65%) when compared with several chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs including pea (10).

  5. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and detection of terminal residues in plants.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) at 0 to 110 days, and terminal residues in green and mature pea were studied under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied as pre-emergence herbicide at 750, to 185 g a.i. ha(-1) in winter, in field peas. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil at 0 to 110 days followed first-order kinetics showing a half-life of 19.83 days averaged over all doses. Low pendimethalin residues were found in mature pea grain (0.004, 0.003, <0.001 μg g(-1)), and straw (0.007, 0.002, <0.001 μg g(-1)) at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. The study indicated that residues of pendimethalin in green and mature pea were within the prescribed MRL limits.

  6. Stomatal Response and Leaf Injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO2 and O3 Exposures 12

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tibbitts, Theodore W.

    1981-01-01

    Stomatal response during exposure to SO2 and O3 and subsequent leaf injury were examined in plants of Pisum sativum L. `Alsweet' grown in a peat-vermiculite medium in controlled environment chambers. Plants developing under moisture stress, induced by drying the medium to 50% of field capacity, exhibited greater stomatal closure during exposures and less than one-fourth the necrosis compared to plants developing in a medium maintained at field capacity. Plants under moisture stress had only a slightly more negative plant water potential (≃−4.0 bars) than at field capacity (≃−3.4 bars). Plants exposed to pollutants for 2 hours near the beginning or end of a 16-hour light period had greater stomatal closure during exposures and less leaf necrosis than plants exposed during the middle of the light period. Images PMID:16661711

  7. Differential changes in size distribution of xyloglucan in the cell walls of gravitropically responding Pisum sativum epicotyls.

    PubMed

    Talbott, L D; Pickard, B G

    1994-10-01

    Growth-related change in the size distribution of hemicellulosic wall polymers during the gravitropic curvature response of intact pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls was examined by gel-filtration chromatography. The gravitropic response was characterized by the appearance of curvature 20 to 30 min after horizontal placement, with 35 degrees of curvature attained by 80 min. Correlated with the onset of curvature, on the upper side of the epicotyl, there was a conspicuous transient increase in the abundance of relatively large hemicellulosic xyloglucan polymers, similar to increases previously found under conditions where diminished wall extensibility was expected. On the lower side there was a moderate, slower, and longer-term increase in abundance of small xyloglucan, similar to changes previously found in connection with auxin-stimulated growth responses. Both shifts occurred primarily in the epidermis. They appear to represent two coordinated physiological mechanisms contributing to differential growth.

  8. Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., Micromonospora noduli sp. nov. and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., isolated from Pisum sativum nodules.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Riesco, Raúl; Spröer, Cathrin; Trujillo, Martha E

    2016-09-01

    A diversity study on the presence of strains representing the genus Micromonospora in Pisum sativum nodules collected from Cañizal (Spain) has provided evidence of the high number of isolates that might represent novel species. In the present work, we have characterized three of these isolates: GUI23T, GUI43T and GUI63T. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses confirmed that all strains represent novel species of the genus Micromonospora with the following proposed names: Micromonospora ureilytica sp. nov., type strain GUI23T (=CECT 9022T=DSM 101692T), Micromonospora noduli sp. nov., type strain GUI43T (=CECT 9020T=DSM 101694T), and Micromonospora vinacea sp. nov., type strain GUI63T (=CECT 9019T=DSM 101695T).

  9. The effect of propionic acid and valeric acid on the cell cycle in root meristems of Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Tramontano, W.A.; Yang, Shauyu; Delillo, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acid and valeric acid at 1mM reduced the mitotic index of root meristem cells of Pisum sativum to < 1% after 12 hr in aerated White's medium. This effect varied with different acid concentrations. After a 12 hr exposure to either acid, seedlings transferred to fresh medium without either acid, resumed their normal mitotic index after 12 hr, with a burst of mitosis 8 hr post-transfer. Exposure of root meristem cells to either acid also inhibited ({sup 3}H)-TdR incorporation. Neither acid significantly altered the distribution of meristematic cells in G1 and G2 after 12 hr. The incorporation of ({sup 3}H) - uridine was also unaltered by the addition of either acid. This information suggests that propionic acid and valeric acid, limit progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting DNA synthesis and arresting cells in G1 and G2. These results were consistent with previous data which utilized butyric acid.

  10. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:26870060

  11. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum).

  12. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  13. Proteomic Profiling of the Microsomal Root Fraction: Discrimination of Pisum sativum L. Cultivars and Identification of Putative Root Growth Markers

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lüthje, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are a large and economically important family, containing a variety of crop plants. Alongside different cereals, some fruits, and tropical roots, a number of leguminosae evolved for millennia as crops with human society. One of these legumes is Pisum sativum L., the common garden pea. In the past, breeding has been largely selective on improved above-ground organs. However, parameters, such as root-growth, which determines acquisition of nutrients and water, have largely been underestimated. Although the genome of P. sativum is still not fully sequenced, multiple proteomic studies have been published on a variety of physiological aspects in the last years. The presented work focused on the connection between root length and the influence of the microsomal root proteome of four different pea cultivars after five days of germination (cultivar Vroege, Girl from the Rhineland, Kelvedon Wonder, and Blauwschokker). In total, 60 proteins were identified to have significantly differential abundances in the four cultivars. Root growth of five-days old seedlings and their microsomal proteome revealed a similar separation pattern, suggesting that cultivar-specific root growth performance is explained by differential membrane and ribosomal protein levels. Hence, we reveal and discuss several putative root growth protein markers possibly playing a key role for improved primary root growth breeding strategies. PMID:28257117

  14. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  15. Different patterns of vein loading of exogenous ( sup 14 C)sucrose in leaves of pisum sativum and coleus blumei

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, R.; Wimmers, L.E. )

    1988-05-01

    Vein loading of exogenous ({sup 14}C)sucrose was studied using short uptake and wash periods to distinguish between direct loading into veins and loading via mesophyll tissue. Mature leaf tissue of Pisum sativum L. cv Little Marvel, or Coleus blumei Benth. cv Candidum, was abraded and leaf discs were floated on ({sup 14}C)sucrose solution for 1 or 2 minutes. Discs were then washed for 1 to 30 min either at room temperature or in the cold and were frozen, lyophilized, and autoradiographed. In P. sativum, veins were clearly labeled after 1 minute uptake and 1 minute wash periods. Autoradiographic images did not change appreciably with longer times of uptake or wash. Vein loading was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. These results indicate that uptake of exogenous sucrose occurs directly into the veins in this species. When C. blumei leaf discs were floated on ({sup 14}C)sucrose for 2 minutes and washed in the cold, the mesophyll was labeled but little, if any, minor vein loading occurred. When discs were labeled for 2 minutes and washed at room temperature, label was transferred from the mesophyll to the veins within minutes. These results indicate that there may be different patterns of phloem loading of photosynthetically derived sucrose in these two species.

  16. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  17. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    DOE PAGES

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; ...

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75more » RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  18. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain CREA-C16 Isolated from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Roberto; Scotti, Riccardo; Salzano, Melania; Aurilia, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herein, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CREA-C16, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Pisum sativum L. plants. The genome sequence is ~6 Mb in size, with a G+C content of 60.1%, and includes 4,457 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:28126933

  20. Iron Transport to Developing Ovules of Pisum sativum (I. Seed Import Characteristics and Phloem Iron-Loading Capacity of Source Regions).

    PubMed Central

    Grusak, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    To understand the processes that control Fe transport to developing seeds, we have characterized seed growth and Fe accretion and have developed a radiotracer technique for quantifying phloem Fe loading in vegetative source regions of Pisum sativum. In hydroponically grown plants of cv Sparkle, developing ovules exhibited a seed-growth period of 22 d, with Fe import occurring throughout the 22-d period. Average Fe content of mature seeds was 19 [mu]g. Source tissues of intact plants were abraded and pulse labeled for 4 h with 100 [mu]M 59Fe(III)-citrate. Fe was successfully phloem loaded and transported to seeds from leaflets, stipules, and pod walls. Total export of 59Fe from labeled source regions was used to calculate tissue-loading rates of 36, 40, and 51 pmol of Fe cm-2 h-1 for the leaflet, stipule, and pod wall surfaces, respectively. By comparison, surface area measurements, along with seed-growth results, allowed us to calculate average theoretical influx values of 42 or 68 pmol of Fe cm-2 h-1 for vegetative tissues at nodes with one or two pods, respectively. Additional studies with the regulatory pea mutant, E107 (a single-gene mutant of cv Sparkle that can overaccumulate Fe), enabled us to increase Fe delivery endogenously to the vegetative tissues. A 36-fold increase in Fe content of E107 leaves, relative to Sparkle, resulted in no increase in Fe content of E107 seeds. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that Fe is phloem loaded in a chelated form, and the expression/synthesis of the endogenous chelator is an important factor in the control of Fe transport to the seeds. PMID:12232115

  1. Hypoxic stress triggers a programmed cell death pathway to induce vascular cavity formation in Pisum sativum roots.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Gladish, Daniel K

    2012-12-01

    Flooding at warm temperatures induces hypoxic stress in Pisum sativum seedling roots. In response, some undifferentiated cells in the primary root vascular cylinder start degenerating and form a longitudinal vascular cavity. Changes in cellular morphology and cell wall ultrastructure detected previously in the late stages of cavity formation suggest possible involvement of programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, cytological events occurring in the early stages of cavity formation were investigated. Systematic DNA fragmentation, a feature of many PCD pathways, was detected in the cavity-forming roots after 3 h of flooding in situ by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and in isolated total DNA by gel electrophoresis. High molecular weight DNA fragments of about 20-30 kb were detected by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, but no low-molecular weight internucleosomal DNA fragments were detected by conventional gel electrophoresis. Release of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein into the cytosol, an integral part of mitochondria-dependent PCD pathways, was detected in the cavity-forming roots within 2 h of flooding by fluorescence microscopy of immunolabeled cytochrome c in situ and in isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic protein fractions by western blotting. DNA fragmentation and cytochrome c release remained confined to the undifferentiated cells in center of the root vascular cylinders, even after 24 h of flooding, while outer vascular cylinder cells and cortical cells maintained cellular integrity and normal activity. These findings confirm that hypoxia-induced vascular cavity formation in P. sativum roots involves PCD, and provides a chronological model of cytological events involved in this rare and understudied PCD system.

  2. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  3. The role of the epidermis in auxin-induced and fusicoccin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum stem segments.

    PubMed

    Brummell, D A; Hall, J L

    1980-12-01

    The effects of peeling and wounding on the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and fusicoccin (FC) growth response of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska stem tissue were examined. Over a 5 h growth period, peeling was found to virtually eliminate the IAA response, but about 30% of the FC response remained. In contrast, unpeeled segments wounded with six vertical slits exhibited significant responses to both IAA and FC, indicating that peeling does not act by damaging the tissue. Microscopy showed that the epidermis was removed intact and that the underlying tissue was essentially undamaged. Neither the addition of 2% sucrose to the incubation medium nor the use of a range of IAA concentrations down to 10(-8) M restored IAA-induced growth in peeled segments, suggesting that lack of osmotic solutes and supra-optimal uptake of IAA were not important factors over this time period. It is concluded that, although the possibility remains that peeling merely allows leakage of hydrogen ions into the medium, it seems more likely that peeling off the epidermis removes the auxin responsive tissue.

  4. Remote sensing study of the influence of herbicides on the spectral reflectance of pea plant leaves (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, D.; Alexieva, V.; Yanev, T.; Ivanov, S.

    Results from a remote sensing study of spectral reflectance of leaves of pea plants Pisum sativum L treated by the herbicides atrazine 2 4-D glyphosate fluridone and chlorsulfuron are reported According to the classification of the Herbicide Action Committee reflecting their mode of action they belong to different groups photosystem II bloker - C1 atrazine synthetic auxins - O 2 4-D inhibition of EPSP synthase - G glyphosate photobleaching - F1 fluridone and inhibition of acetoctate synthase - B chlorsulfuron The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at three low concentrations 1 mu M 0 1 mu M and 0 01 mu M with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice The spectral measurements of the leaf spectral reflectance were carried out in laboratory using a multichannel spectrometer in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum 480 div 810 nm Data was registered in 128 channels at a high spectral resolution of 2 6 nm halfwidth and a spatial resolution of 2 mm 2 The reflectance spectra were obtained from the leaf-reflected radiation referenced against a standard white screen To assess the changes arising in the leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action the developed by us approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods was applied The spectral reflectance characteristics SRC were investigated in three spectral intervals 520 div 580 nm region of maximal

  5. The effect of different alleles at the r locus on the synthesis of seed storage proteins in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Turner, S R; Barratt, D H; Casey, R

    1990-05-01

    Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to measure the accumulation of storage proteins in developing cotyledons of two Pisum sativum (pea) genotypes, that were close to isogenic except for the nature of the allele at the r locus. There was a marked decrease in legumin accumulation in the rr (wrinkled-seeded) genotype compared to the RR (round-seeded) genotype. The accumulation of vicilin did not differ greatly between the two genotypes. Pulse-labelling studies indicated that the differences in rates of accumulation of legumin between the rr and RR genotypes were a consequence of differences in rates of protein synthesis. Measurements of relative amounts of specific mRNAs, using cDNA clones as probes, showed lower amounts of legumin mRNA in developing cotyledons of the rr, compared to the RR, genotype. Both vicilin mRNAs and convicilin mRNA, the latter of which shows a similar temporal pattern of expression to those of the major legumin species, are relatively unaffected by the nature of the allele at the r locus. Nuclear run-on transcription experiments indicated no differences in the rate of synthesis of legumin transcripts in the rr and RR near-isolines. The consequences of homozygosity for the r allele on storage protein mRNA levels in vitro may be mimicked by manipulating the sucrose concentration of the culture medium.

  6. Gibberellic Acid-Promoted Lignification and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activity in a Dwarf Pea (Pisum sativum) 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christina K.-C.; Marsh, H. V.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid on lignification in seedlings of a dwarf and a tall cultivar of pea (Pisum sativum) grown under red or white light or in the darkness, were studied. Gibberellic acid (10−6-10−4 m) promoted stem elongation in both light and dark and increased the percentage of lignin in the stems of the light-grown dwarf pea. The gibberellin had no effect on the lignin content of the tall pea although high concentrations (10−4 m) promoted growth of the tall plants. Time course studies indicated that the enhanced lignification in the gibberellin-treated dwarf plants occurred only after a lag period of several days. It was concluded that gibberellic acid-enhanced ligmification had no direct relation to gibberellic acid-promoted growth. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 4.3.1.5) was higher in gibberellin-treated dwarf plants grown under white or red light than in untreated dwarf plants. Gibberellic acid had no detectable effect on the activity of this enzyme when the plants were grown in darkness, just as it had no effect on lignification under dark conditions. The data suggest that in gibberellin-deficient peas the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is one of the limiting factors in lignification. PMID:16656968

  7. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses.

  8. Purification, properties and amino acid sequence of a low-Mr abundant seed protein from pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, J A; Gilroy, J; Hoque, M S; Croy, R R

    1985-01-01

    The seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) contain several proteins in the albumin solubility fraction that are significant components of total cotyledonary protein (5-10%) and are accumulated in developing seeds concurrently with storage-protein synthesis. One of these proteins, of low Mr and designated 'Psa LA', has been purified, characterized and sequenced. Psa LA has an Mr of 11000 and contains polypeptides of Mr 6000, suggesting that the protein molecules are dimeric. The amino acid sequence contains 54 residues, with a high content (10/54) of asparagine/aspartate. It has no inhibitory action towards trypsin or chymotrypsin, and is distinct from the inhibitors of those enzymes found in pea seeds, nor does it inhibit hog pancreatic alpha-amylase. The protein contains no methionine, but significant amounts of cysteine (four residues per polypeptide), suggesting a possible role as a sulphur storage protein. However, its sequence is not homologous with low-Mr (2S) storage proteins from castor bean (Ricinus communis) or rape (Brassica napus). Psa LA therefore represents a new type of low-Mr seed protein.

  9. Effect of Light Intensity on Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen Reduction in Pisum sativum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bethlenfalvay, Gabor J.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1977-01-01

    Photosynthetic efficiency, primary productivity, and N2 reduction were determined in peas (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska) grown at light intensities ranging from severely limiting to saturating. Plants grown under higher light intensities showed greater carboxylation and light capture potential and higher rates of net C exchange. Uptake of N2, computed from measured C2H2 reduction and H2 evolution rates, also increased with growth light intensity, while the previously proposed relative efficiency of N2 fixation, based on these same parameters, declined. The plot of N/C ratios (total nitrogen content/plant dry weight) increased hyperbolically with light intensity, and the plot of N2/CO2 uptake ratios (N2 uptake rate/net CO2 uptake rate) increased linearly. Both plots extrapolated to the light compensation point. The data indicate that the relative efficiency of N2 fixation is not necessarily correlated with maximum plant productivity and that evaluation of a plant's capacity to reduce N2 is related directly to concurrent CO2 reduction. A measure of whole plant N2 fixation efficiency based on the N2/CO2 uptake ratio is proposed. PMID:16660203

  10. Molecular characterization of a distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with betasatellites and alphasatellites infecting Pisum sativum in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Pudashini, B J; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2017-04-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) plants exhibiting leaf distortion, yellowing, stunted growth and reduction in leaf size from Rampur, Nepal were shown to be infected by a begomovirus in association with betasatellites and alphasatellites. The begomovirus associated with the disease showed only low levels of nucleotide sequence identity (<91%) to previously characterized begomoviruses. This finding indicates that the pea samples were infected with an as yet undescribed begomovirus for which the name Pea leaf distortion virus (PLDV) is proposed. Two species of betasatellite were identified in association with PLDV. One group of sequences had high (>78%) nucleotide sequence identity to isolates of Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB), and the second group had less than 78% to all other betasatellite sequences. This showed PLDV to be associated with either LuLDB or a previously undescribed betasatellite for which the name Pea leaf distortion betasatellite is proposed. Two types of alphasatellites were identified in the PLDV-infected pea plants. The first type showed high levels of sequence identity to Ageratum yellow vein alphasatellite, and the second type showed high levels of identity to isolates of Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. These are the first begomovirus, betasatellites and alphasatellites isolated from pea.

  11. Distribution and Properties of a Potassium-dependent Asparaginase Isolated from Developing Seeds of Pisum sativum and Other Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Sodek, Ladaslav; Lea, Peter J.; Miflin, Benjamin J.

    1980-01-01

    Asparaginase (EC 3.5.1.1) was isolated from the developing seed of Pisum sativum. The enzyme is dependent upon the presence of K+ for activity, although Na+ and Rb+ may substitute to a lesser extent. Maximum activity was obtained at K+ concentrations above 20 millimolar. Potassium ions protected the enzyme against heat denaturation. The enzyme has a molecular weight of 68,300. Asparaginase activity developed initially in the testa, with maximum activity (3.6 micromoles per hour per seed) being present 13 days after flowering. Maximum activity (1.2 micromoles per hour per seed) did not develop in the cotyledon until 21 days after flowering. Glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase were also present in the testae and cotyledons but maximum activity developed later than that of asparaginase. Potassium-dependent asparaginase activity was also detected in the developing seeds of Vicia faba, Phaseolus multiflorus, Zea mays, Hordeum vulgare, and two Lupinus varieties. No stimulation of activity was detected with the enzyme isolated from Lupinus polyphyllus, which has previously been shown to contain a K+-independent enzyme. PMID:16661136

  12. Differential Gene Expression in the Meristem and during Early Fruit Growth of Pisum sativum L. Identifies Potential Targets for Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Smitha Ninan, Annu; Shah, Anish; Song, Jiancheng; Jameson, Paula E.

    2017-01-01

    For successful molecular breeding it is important to identify targets to the gene family level, and in the specific species of interest, in this case Pisum sativum L. The cytokinins have been identified as a key breeding target due to their influence on plant architecture, and on seed size and sink activity. We focused on the cytokinin biosynthetic gene family (the IPTs) and the gene family key to the destruction of cytokinins (the CKXs), as well as other gene families potentially affected by changing cytokinin levels. These included key meristem genes (WUS and BAM1) and the transporter gene families, sucrose transporters (SUTs) and amino acid permeases (AAPs). We used reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to monitor gene expression in the vegetative meristem and in pre- and post-fertilisation young pea fruits. PsWUS expression was specific to the shoot apical meristem while PsBAM1 was highly expressed in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) but was also expressed at a low level in the young fruit. Differential expression was shown between genes and within gene families for IPT, CKX, SUT, and AAP. PsCKX7 showed strong gene family member-specific expression in the SAM, and was also expressed in young pea fruits. We suggest that PsCKX7 is a potential target for downregulation via molecular breeding or gene editing. PMID:28212324

  13. A proposed interplay between peroxidase, amine oxidase and lipoxygenase in the wounding-induced oxidative burst in Pisum sativum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Colville, Louise; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Havaux, Michel; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Plant surfaces form the barrier between a plant and its environment. Upon damage, the wound healing process begins immediately and is accompanied by a rapid production of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), essential in deterring pathogens, signalling responses and cell wall restructuring. Although many enzymes produce extracellular ROS, it is unclear if ROS-producing enzymes act synergistically. We characterised the oxidative burst of superoxide (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that follows wounding in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Rates of ROS production were manipulated by exogenous application of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. The results indicate significant roles for di-amine oxidases (DAO) and peroxidases (Prx) rather than NADPH oxidase. The burst of O2(·-) was strongly dependent on the presence of H2O2 produced by DAO. Potential substrates released from wounded seedlings included linoleic acid that, upon exogenous application, strongly stimulated catalase-sensitive O2(·-) production. Moreover, a 65kD plasma membrane (PM) guaiacol Prx was found in the secretome of wounded seedlings and showed dependence on linoleic acid for O2(·-) production. Lipoxygenases are suggested to modulate O2(·-) production by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids in the apoplast. Overall, a O2(·-)-producing mechanism involving H2O2-derived from DAO, linoleic acid and a PM-associated Prx is proposed.

  14. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  15. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  16. Pinolide, a new nonenolide produced by Didymella pinodes , the causal agent of ascochyta blight on Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Fondevilla, Sara; Abouzeid, Mohamed A; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-05-30

    An aggressive isolate of Didymella pinodes isolated from pea ( Pisum sativum ) produced four different metabolites in vitro. The metabolites isolated from the culture filtrates were characterized by spectroscopic and optical methods. A new nonenolide, named pinolide, was isolated and characterized as (2S*,7R*,8S*,5E,9R*)-2,7,8-trihydroxy-9-propyl-5-nonen-9-olide. Pinolidoxin, the main toxin produced by D. pinodes, was also isolated together with two other closely related nonenolides, identified as herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II. Herbarumin II and 2-epi-herbarumin II have been previously isolated from the fungi Phoma herbarum and Paraphaeosphaeria recurvifoliae , respectively, but described here to be isolated for the first time from D. pinodes. When tested on leaves of the host plant and other legumes and weeds, pinolidoxin was phytotoxic in all of the plant species, whereas the other three nonenolides did not produce any symptoms. The importance of the stereochemistry of the hydroxy group at C-7 on phytotoxicity also is discussed.

  17. Optimization of Agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum Provides a New Tool for Studying the Salivary Protein Functions in the Pea Aphid Complex

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Endrick; Boulain, Hélène; Aigu, Yoann; Le Pennec, Charlotte; Chawki, Khaoula; Morlière, Stéphanie; Schädel, Kristina; Kunert, Grit; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Sugio, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant–aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary) proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from 3 to 10 days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that transient expression of

  18. Optimization of Agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum Provides a New Tool for Studying the Salivary Protein Functions in the Pea Aphid Complex.

    PubMed

    Guy, Endrick; Boulain, Hélène; Aigu, Yoann; Le Pennec, Charlotte; Chawki, Khaoula; Morlière, Stéphanie; Schädel, Kristina; Kunert, Grit; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Sugio, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary) proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from 3 to 10 days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that transient expression of

  19. Nickel availability to pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants limits hydrogenase activity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae bacteroids by affecting the processing of the hydrogenase structural subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Brito, B; Palacios, J M; Hidalgo, E; Imperial, J; Ruiz-Argüeso, T

    1994-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae UPM791 induces the synthesis of an [NiFe] hydrogenase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) bacteroids which oxidizes the H2 generated by the nitrogenase complex inside the root nodules. The synthesis of this hydrogenase requires the genes for the small and large hydrogenase subunits (hupS and hupL, respectively) and 15 accessory genes clustered in a complex locus in the symbiotic plasmid. We show here that the bacteroid hydrogenase activity is limited by the availability of nickel to pea plants. Addition of Ni2+ to plant nutrient solutions (up to 10 mg/liter) resulted in sharp increases (up to 15-fold) in hydrogenase activity. This effect was not detected when other divalent cations (Zn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, and Mn2+) were added at the same concentrations. Determinations of the steady-state levels of hupSL-specific mRNA indicated that this increase in hydrogenase activity was not due to stimulation of transcription of structural genes. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised against the large and small subunits of the hydrogenase enzyme demonstrated that in the low-nickel situation, both subunits are mainly present in slow-migrating, unprocessed forms. Supplementation of the plant nutrient solution with increasing nickel concentrations caused the conversion of the slow-migrating forms of both subunits into fast-moving, mature forms. This nickel-dependent maturation process of the hydrogenase subunits is mediated by accessory gene products, since bacteroids from H2 uptake-deficient mutants carrying Tn5 insertions in hupG and hupK and in hypB and hypE accumulated the immature forms of both hydrogenase subunits even in the presence of high nickel levels. Images PMID:8071205

  20. [Influence of calcium and rhizobial infections (Rhizobium leguminosarum) on the dynamics of nitric oxide (NO) content in roots of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings].

    PubMed

    Glian'ko, A K; Ishchenko, A A; Stepanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of exogenous calcium (Ca2+) and rhizobial infections (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viceae) on the dynamics of the level of nitric oxide (NO) was studied in cross cuts of roots of two-day-old etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) using a DAF-2DA fluorescent probe. Fluctuations of the NO level, indicating the presence of a rhythm in the generation of NO in roots, were observed during the incubation of seedlings in water, a CaCl2 solution, and with rhizobial infections. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ and two rhizobial stamms) change the time dynamics of the NO level in comparison with the control (water).

  1. Symbiotic N2 fixation activity in relation to C economy of Pisum sativum L. as a function of plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Voisin, A S; Salon, C; Jeudy, C; Warembourg, F R

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) activity and C fluxes were investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Baccara) using simultaneous 13C and 15N labelling. Analysis of the dynamics of labelled CO2 efflux from the nodulated roots allowed the different components associated with SNF activity to be calculated, together with root and nodule synthetic and maintenance processes. The carbon costs for the synthesis of roots and nodules were similar and decreased with time. Carbon lost by turnover, associated with maintenance processes, decreased with time for nodules while it increased in the roots. Nodule turnover remained higher than root turnover until flowering. The effect of the N source on SNF was investigated using plants supplied with nitrate or plants only fixing N2. SNF per unit nodule biomass (nodule specific activity) was linearly related to the amount of carbon allocated to the nodulated roots regardless of the N source, with regression slopes decreasing across the growth cycle. These regression slopes permitted potential values of SNF specific activity to be defined. SNF activity decreased as the plants aged, presumably because of the combined effects of both increasing C costs of SNF (from 4.0 to 6.7 g C g-1 N) and the limitation of C supply to the nodules. SNF activity competed for C against synthesis and maintenance processes within the nodulated roots. Synthesis was the main limiting factor of SNF, but its importance decreased as the plant aged. At seed-filling, SNF was probably more limited by nodule age than by C supply to the nodulated roots.

  2. A DNA helicase from Pisum sativum is homologous to translation initiation factor and stimulates topoisomerase I activity.

    PubMed

    Pham, X H; Reddy, M K; Ehtesham, N Z; Matta, B; Tuteja, N

    2000-10-01

    DNA helicases play an essential role in all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, by providing a duplex-unwinding function. This is the first report of the isolation of a cDNA (1.6 kb) clone encoding functional DNA helicase from a plant (pea, Pisum sativum). The deduced amino-acid sequence has eight conserved helicase motifs of the DEAD-box protein family. It is a unique member of this family, containing DESD and SRT motifs instead of DEAD/H and SAT. The encoded 45.5 kDa protein has been overexpressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein contains ATP-dependent DNA and RNA helicase, DNA-dependent ATPase, and ATP-binding activities. The protein sequence contains striking homology with eIF-4A, which has not so far been reported as DNA helicase. The antibodies against pea helicase inhibit in vitro translation. The gene is expressed as 1.6 kb mRNA in different organs of pea. The enzyme is localized in the nucleus and cytosol, and unwinds DNA in the 3' to 5' direction. The pea helicase interacts with pea topoisomerase I protein and stimulates its activity. These results suggest that pea DNA helicase could be an important multifunctional protein involved in protein synthesis, maintaining the basic activities of the cell, and in upregulation of topoisomerase I activity. The discovery of such a protein with intrinsic multiple activity should make an important contribution to our better understanding of DNA and RNA transactions in plants.

  3. Pisum sativum p68 DEAD-box protein is ATP-dependent RNA helicase and unique bipolar DNA helicase.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tarique, Mohammed; Banu, Mst Sufara Akhter; Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-08-01

    DEAD-box helicases play essential role in DNA and RNA metabolism such as replication, repair, recombination, transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis and splicing which regulate plant growth and development. The presence of helicases in the stress-induced ORFs identified by cDNA microarray indicates that helicases might be playing an important role in stabilizing growth in plants under stress. p68 DEAD-box helicase has been identified and characterized from animal systems but the properties and functions of plant p68 are poorly understood. In this study, the identification, purification and characterization of recombinant p68 from Pisum sativum (Psp68) is presented. Psp68 possesses all the characteristic motifs like DEAD-box ATP-binding and helicase C terminal motifs and is structurally similar to human p68 homologue. Psp68 exhibits ATPase activity in the presence of both DNA and RNA and it binds to DNA as well as RNA. It contains the characteristic RNA helicase activity. Interestingly Psp68 also shows the unique DNA helicase activity, which is bipolar in nature (unwinds DNA in both the 5'-3' and 3'-5' directions). The Km values of Psp68 for ATPase are 0.5126 and 0.9142 mM in the presence of DNA and RNA, respectively. The Km values of Psp68 are 1.6129 and 1.14 nM for DNA helicase and RNA helicase, respectively. The unique properties of Psp68 suggest that it could be a multifunctional protein involved in different aspect of DNA and RNA metabolism. This discovery should make an important contribution to better understanding of nucleic acids metabolism plants.

  4. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose) and XG9n (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose{sub 2}) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose {center dot} fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10{sup {minus}4} molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of ({sup 3}H)xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products).

  5. Cadmium accumulation and buffering of cadmium-induced stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza in three Pisum sativum L. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Calantzis, Catherine; Turnau, Katarzyna; Caussanel, Jean-Pierre; Belimov, Andrei A; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Strasser, Reto J; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2002-05-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in reducing Cd stress was investigated in three genotypes of Pisum sativum L. (cv. Frisson, VIR4788, VIR7128), grown in soil/sand pot cultures in the presence and absence of 2-3 mg kg(-1) bioavailable Cd, and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Shoot, root and pod biomass were decreased by Cd in non-mycorrhizal plants. The presence of mycorrhiza attenuated the negative effect of Cd so that shoot biomass and activity of photosystem II, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, were not significantly different between mycorrhizal plants growing in the presence or absence of the heavy metal (HM). Total P concentrations were not significantly different between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants treated with Cd. From 20-50-fold more Cd accumulated in roots than in shoots of Cd-treated plants, and overall levels were comparable to other metal-accumulating plants. Genetic variability in Cd accumulation existed between the pea genotypes. Concentration of the HM was lowest in roots of VIR4788 and in pods of VIR4788 and VIR7128. G. intraradices inoculation decreased Cd accumulation in roots and pods of cv. Frisson, whilst high concentrations were maintained in roots and pods of mycorrhizal VIR7128. Shoot concentrations of Cd increased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR4788. Sequestration of Cd in root cell walls and/or cytoplasm, measured by EDS/SEM, was comparable between non-mycorrhizal pea genotypes but considerably decreased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR7128. Possible mechanisms for mycorrhiza buffering of Cd-induced stress in the pea genotypes are discussed.

  6. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaflets, stipules and tendrils of Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.; Grodzinski, B. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism have been investigated for each of the dominant parts of the pea leaf (P. sativum) in a normal and a semi-leafless phenotype (cv. Improved Laxton's Progress, and cv. Curly, respectively). On a fresh weight basis, net photosynthesis of leaflets and stipules have similar rates, while in tendrils the rte is 40% lower. However, on a surface area basis, tendrils are only 5-10% less efficient photosynthetically when the area is corrected by a factor {pi}/2. Transpiration rates are similar for leaflets and stipules, but double for tendrils even though stomatal frequency on tendrils is reduced by 50%. Dark respiration is higher in tendrils than leaflets and stipules. Gas exchange is comparable in both cultivars. The early {sup 14}C-labelled products of stipules, leaflets and tendrils are similar in both phenotypes, however the tendrils clearly partition about 2-3 times more of the newly fixed {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into the amino acid fraction. These data will be discussed in relation to the anatomy and function of pea tendrils.

  7. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population. PMID:26440522

  8. Differential Toxicity of Bare and Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles in Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.): A Life Cycle Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Sun, Youping; Morelius, Erving; Tamez, Carlos; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Niu, Genhua; White, Jason C.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface or lattice modification of nanoparticles (NPs) on terrestrial plants is poorly understood. We investigated the impact of different zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on green pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the highest consumed legumes globally. Pea plants were grown for 65 d in soil amended with commercially available bare ZnO NPs (10 nm), 2 wt% alumina doped (Al2O3@ZnO NPs, 15 nm), or 1 wt% aminopropyltriethoxysilane coated NPs (KH550@ZnO NP, 20 nm) at 250 and 1000 mg NP/kg soil inside a greenhouse. Bulk (ZnO) and ionic Zn (zinc chloride) were included as controls. Plant fresh and dry biomass, changes in leaf pigment concentrations, elements (Zn, Al, Si), and protein and carbohydrate profile of green pees were quantified upon harvest at 65 days. With the exception of the coated 1000 mg/kg NP treatment, fresh and dry weight were unaffected by Zn exposure. Although, all treated plants showed higher tissue Zn than controls, those exposed to Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg had greater Zn concentration in roots and seeds, compared to bulk Zn and the other NP treatments, keeping Al and Si uptake largely unaffected. Higher Zn accumulation in green pea seeds were resulted in coated ZnO at 250 mg/kg treatments. In leaves, Al2O3@ZnO NP at 250 mg/kg significantly increased Chl-a and carotenoid concentrations relative to the bulk, ionic, and the other NP treatments. The protein and carbohydrate profiles remained largely unaltered across all treatments with the exception of Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg where sucrose concentration of green peas increased significantly, which is likely a biomarker of stress. Importantly, these findings demonstrate that lattice and surface modification can significantly alter the fate and phytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in food crops and seed nutritional quality. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a life cycle study on comparative toxicity of bare, coated, and doped ZnO NPs on a soil-grown food crop. PMID:26793219

  9. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  10. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  11. Photosynthesis light-independent reactions are sensitive biomarkers to monitor lead phytotoxicity in a Pb-tolerant Pisum sativum cultivar.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eleazar; da Conceição Santos, Maria; Azevedo, Raquel; Correia, Carlos; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel Pimenta; Dias, Maria Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) environmental contamination remains prevalent. Pisum sativum L. plants have been used in ecotoxicological studies, but some cultivars showed to tolerate and accumulate some levels of Pb, opening new perspectives to their use in phytoremediation approaches. However, the putative use of pea plants in phytoremediation requires reliable toxicity endpoints. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of a large number of photosynthesis-related biomarkers in Pb-exposed pea plants. Plants (cv. "Corne de Bélier") were exposed to Pb concentrations up to 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil during 28 days. The photosynthetic potential biomarkers that were analyzed included pigments, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) activity, and carbohydrates. Flow cytometry (FCM) was also used to assess the morpho-functional status of chloroplasts. Finally, Pb-induced nutrient disorders were also evaluated. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and RuBisCO activity decreased strongly in Pb-exposed plants. Plant dry mass (DM) accumulation, however, was only reduced in the higher Pb concentrations tested (500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil). Pigment contents increased solely in plants exposed to the largest Pb concentration, and in addition, the parameters related to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, were not affected by Pb exposure. In contrast to this, carbohydrates showed an overall tendency to increase in Pb-exposed plants. The morphological status of chloroplasts was affected by Pb exposure, with a general trend of volume decrease and granularity increase. These results point the endpoints related to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis as more sensitive predictors of Pb-toxicity than the light-dependent reactions ones. Among the endpoints related to the light-independent photosynthesis reactions, RuBisCO activity and A were found to be the most sensitive. We discuss here the advantages of using

  12. Development and Partial Characterization of Nearly Isogenic Pea Lines (Pisum sativum L.) that Alter Uptake Hydrogenase Activity in Symbiotic Rhizobium1

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Donald A.; Kapulnik, Yoram; Bedmar, Eulogio J.; Joseph, Cecillia M.

    1990-01-01

    Some Rhizobium bacteria have H2-uptake (Hup) systems that oxidize H2 evolved from nitrogenase in leguminous root nodules. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars `JI1205' and `Alaska' produce high Hup (Hup++) and moderate Hup (Hup+) phenotypes, respectively, in Rhizobium leguminosarum 128C53. The physiological significance and biochemical basis of this host plant genetic effect are unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to advance basic Hup studies by developing nearly isogenic lines of peas that alter Hup phenotypes in R. leguminosarum strains containing hup genes. Eight pairs of nearly isogenic pea lines that produce Hup++ and Hup+ phenotypes in R. leguminosarum 128C53 were identified in 173 F2-derived F6 families produced from crosses between JI1205 and Alaska. Tests with the pea isolines and three strains of hup-containing R. leguminosarum showed that the isolines altered Hup activity significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in 19 of 24 symbiotic combinations. Analyses of Hup phenotypes in F6 families, the F1 population, and two backcrosses suggested involvement of a single genetic locus. Three of the eight pairs of isolines were identified as being suitable for physiological studies, because the two lines in each pair showed similar growth, N assimilation, and flowering traits under nonsymbiotic conditions. Tests of those lines under N2-dependent conditions with isogenic Hup+ and negligible Hup (Hup−) mutants of R. leguminosarum 128C53 showed that, in symbioses with Hup+ rhizobia, two out of three Hup++ pea lines decreased N2 fixation relative to Hup+ peas. In one of those cases, however, the Hup++ plant line also decreased fixation by Hup− rhizobia. When results were averaged across all rhizobia tested, Hup+ pea isolines had 8.2% higher dry weight (P ≤ 0.05) and fixed 12.6% more N2 (P ≤ 0.05) than Hup++ isolines. Pea lines described here may help identify host plant factors that influence rhizobial Hup activity and should assist in clarifying how Hup systems

  13. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  14. Combinatorial variation in coding and promoter sequences of genes at the Tri locus in Pisum sativum accounts for variation in trypsin inhibitor activity in seeds.

    PubMed

    Page, D; Aubert, G; Duc, G; Welham, T; Domoney, C

    2002-05-01

    Cultivars of Pisum sativum that differ with respect to the quantitative expression of trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor proteins in seeds have been examined in terms of the structure of the corresponding genes. The patterns of divergence in the promoter and coding sequences are described, and the divergence among these exploited for the development of facile DNA-based assays to distinguish genotypes. Quantitative effects on gene expression may be attributed to the overall gene complement and to particular promoter/coding sequence combinations, as well as to the existence of distinct active-site variants that ultimately influence protein activity. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-002-0667-4.

  15. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization. [Spinacia oleracea L. ; Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M. )

    1990-11-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by {sup 14}C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from ({sup 14}C)glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored.

  16. Biochemical Evidence for the Role of the Waxy Protein from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a Granule-Bound Starch Synthase.

    PubMed

    Sivak, M. N.; Wagner, M.; Preiss, J.

    1993-12-01

    Proteins were solubilized from starch extracted from developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) embryos and chromatography of these proteins on a Mono-Q column separated two peaks of starch synthase activity. The major activity peak comprised more than 80% of the total activity. This fraction contained only the Waxy protein, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate followed by staining for proteins or by immunoblot. A 77-kD polypeptide associated with the starch granules and presumed by others to be a starch synthase could not be detected in any of the active fractions. The native molecular weight of the solubilized starch synthase was 59,600 [plus or minus] 1700 as determined by sucrose density gradient. It is concluded that in pea seeds the Waxy protein and the starch synthase bound to the granule are the same protein.

  17. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  18. Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Grant, Jan; Cooper, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a robust method for transformation of peas that has been successfully used in our laboratory since 1992. Using immature pea seed collected from field- or greenhouse-grown plants, we have produced transgenic lines for over 30 genotypes including named pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines. This method uses immature cotyledons as the explant, and the transformation efficiency is in the range 0.2 to 13.5% of cotyledons producing at least one independently transformed line. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1 and KYRT1 are the most successful in our procedure, and kanamycin, phosphinothricin, and hygromycin are reliable selectable markers. Potentially useful genes have been introduced for pest and disease resistance, altering quality traits, and investigating metabolic pathways and are being studied in transgenic pea lines.

  19. ( sup 14 C)-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K. )

    1991-05-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated ({sup 14}C)-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of {sup 14}C-sorbitol and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K{sub m} 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours.

  20. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  1. In situ expression of two storage protein genes in relation to histo-differentiation at mid-embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula and Pisum sativum seeds.

    PubMed

    Abirached-Darmency, M; Abdel-gawwad, M R; Conejero, G; Verdeil, J L; Thompson, R

    2005-08-01

    The seed consists of several layers of specialized cell-types that divide and differentiate following a highly regulated programme in time and space. A cytological approach was undertaken in order to study the histo-differentiation at mid-embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula as a model legume, and in Pisum sativum using serial sections of embedded immature seed. Little published information is available about seed development in Medicago species. The observations from this study revealed a number of distinctive features of Medicago seed development and differentiation. Transfer cells, involved in nutrient transfer to the embryo, were clearly identified in the thin-walled parenchyma of the innermost integument. Histological Schiff-naphthol enabled carbohydrate accumulation to be followed in the different seed compartments, and revealed the storage protein bodies. Non-radioactive mRNA in situ hybridization, was carried out using mRNA probes from two highly expressed genes encoding the major vicilin and legumin A storage protein types. The timing of mRNA expression was related to that of the corresponding proteins already identified.

  2. Evaluation of the protection exerted by Pisum sativum Ferredoxin-NADP(H) Reductase against injury induced by hypothermia on Cos-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Pucci Molineris, M; Di Venanzio, G; Mamprin, M E; Mediavilla, M G

    2013-08-01

    Hypothermia is employed as a method to diminish metabolism rates and preserve tissues and cells. However, low temperatures constitute a stress that produces biochemical changes whose extension depends on the duration and degree of cold exposure and is manifested when physiological temperature is restored. For many cellular types, cold induces an oxidative stress that is dependent on the elevation of intracellular iron, damages macromolecules, and is prevented by the addition of iron chelators. Pisum sativum Ferredoxin-NADP(H) Reductase (FNR) has been implicated in protection from injury mediated by intracellular iron increase and successfully used to reduce oxidative damage on bacterial, plant and mammalian systems. In this work, FNR was expressed in Cos-7 cells; then, they were submitted to cold incubation and iron overload to ascertain whether this enzyme was capable of diminishing the harm produced by these challenges. Contrary to expected, FNR was not protective and even exacerbated the damage under certain circumstances. It was also found that the injury induced by hypothermia in Cos-7 cells presented both iron-dependent and iron-independent components of damage when cells were actively dividing but only iron-independent component when cells were in an arrested state. This is in agreement with previous findings which showed that iron-dependent damage is also an energy-dependent process.

  3. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-01-01

    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with {gamma}-({sup 32}P)ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections.

  4. The Use of Fura-2 Fluorescence to Monitor the Movement of Free Calcium Ions into the Matrix of Plant Mitochondria (Pisum sativum and Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Zottini, M.; Zannoni, D.

    1993-06-01

    Purified mitochondria isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) stems and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1) tubers were loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2. This made possible the continuous monitoring of free [Ca2+] in the matrix ([Ca2+]m) without affecting the apparent viability of the mitochondria. Pea stem mitochondria contained an initial [Ca2+]m of approximately 60 to 100 nM, whereas [Ca2+]m was severalfold higher (400-600 nM) in mitochondria of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. At low extramitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations ([greater than or equal to]100 nM), there was an energy-dependent membrane potential increase in [Ca2+]m; the final [Ca2+]m was phosphate-dependent in Jerusalem artichoke but was phosphate-independent in pea stem mitochondria. The data presented indicate that (a) there is no absolute requirement for phosphate in Ca2+ uptake; (b) plant mitochondria can accumulate external free Ca2+ by means of an electrophoretic Ca2+ uniporter with an apparent affinity for Ca2+ (Km approximately 150 nM) that is severalfold lower than that measured by conventional methods (isotopes and Ca2+-sensitive electrodes); and (c) [Ca2+]m is within the regulatory range of mammalian intramitochondrial dehydrogenases.

  5. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Conflict in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Is Associated with Nuclear and Plastidic Candidate Genes Encoding Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanova, Vera S.; Zaytseva, Olga O.; Mglinets, Anatoliy V.; Shatskaya, Natalia V.; Kosterin, Oleg E.; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized. PMID:25789472

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  7. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (< 24 h) desiccation. However, it declined sharply at c. 0.26 g g¹ dm following slow (c. 5 days) drying. Increasing the rate of dehydration thus lowered the critical water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  8. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  9. Biogenic synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri

    2017-02-01

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe3O4 MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m2/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20-30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe3O4 MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones.

  10. Physiological changes in Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars, caused by irrigation with water contaminated with microcystins: a laboratory experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Saqrane, Sana; Ouahid, Youness; El Ghazali, Issam; Oudra, Brahim; Bouarab, Lahcen; del Campo, Francisca F

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a microcystin (MC)-containing extract from a cyanobacteria bloom on growth, development, mineral nutrient accumulation, and photosynthetic activity of Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars. The MCs in the extract, identified by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry (MS) were: MC-RR, -LR, -YR, -(H4)YR, -WR, and -FR. Plant growth and development was tested along 30 exposure days. After this period, MC-extract caused a clear reduction in plant growth and productivity, as well as deleterious effects on development and Photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. However, the chlorophyll (a + b) content hardly varied, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, Ca2+, P and N was enhanced. All the effects observed were plant species, MC concentration, and exposure-time dependent. Relative accumulation of each MC variant greatly varied among plant species and plant organ. The data obtained supports the idea that the use of surface water containing MCs for crop irrigation can affect both plant yield and quality, and secondly, that MC accumulation in edible plants might pose a potential risk for human and animal health, if the MC intake exceeded the recommended tolerable limits.

  11. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  12. The Relationship between H2 Evolution and Acetylene Reduction in Pisum sativum-Rhizobium leguminosarum Symbioses Differing in Uptake Hydrogenase Activity 1

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, John D.; Nelson, Louise M.

    1986-01-01

    Peas (Pisum sativum L.) were inoculated with strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum having different levels of uptake hydrogenase (Hup) activity and were grown in sterile Leonard jars under controlled conditions. Rates of H2 evolution and acetylene reduction were determined for intact nodulated roots at intervals after the onset of darkness or after removal of the shoots. Hup activity was estimated using treatment plants or equivalent plants from the growth chamber, by measuring the uptake of H2 or 3H2 in the presence of acetylene. In all cases, the rate of H2 evolution was a continuous function of the rate of acetylene reduction. In symbioses with no demonstrable Hup activity, H2 evolution increased in direct proportion to acetylene reduction and the slopes were similar with the Hup− strains NA502 and 128C79. Hup activity was similar in strains 128C30 and 128C52 but significantly lower in strain 128C54. With these strains, the slopes of the H2 evolution versus acetylene reduction curves initially increased with acetylene reduction, but became constant and similar to those for the Hup− strains at high rates of acetylene reduction. On these parallel portions of the curves, the decreases in H2 evolution by Hup+ strains were similar in magnitude to their H2-saturated rates of Hup activity. The curvilinear relationship between H2 evolution and acetylene reduction for a representative Hup+ strain (128C52) was the same, regardless of the experimental conditions used to vary the nitrogenase activity. PMID:16664984

  13. Stomatal response and leaf injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures. I. Influence of pollutant level and leaf maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum L. Alsweet were grown under a controlled environment and exposed to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposure were related to subsequent leaf injury. Stomata consistently closed with injurious levels of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/. Measurements with diffusion porometers demonstrated approx. = 75 and 25% lower conductance with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, compared to the conductance of control plants. Stomata also showed a closing response with noninjurious levels of SO/sub 2/ but an opening response with noninjurious levels of O/sub 3/. Stomata closed to the same degree with combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ as with SO/sub 2/ alone. Stomata of expanding leaves closed more during pollutant exposures than stomata of expanded leaves. The abaxial and adaxial stomata both exhibited closure with SO/sub 2/ and combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/, but abaxial stomata tended to close and adaxial stomata tended to open with exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. The changes in stomatal aperture were not closely correlated with the amount of leaf injury produced by different pollutant levels. Stomata closed, not only with exposure to pollutant levels that caused severe necrosis, but also with levels that caused only a trace of injury. There was no evidence of a reduced amount of closure or even stomatal opening with combinations of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ compared to plants exposed to the pollutants alone to explain the large amount of injury to plants exposed to pollutant combinations.

  14. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl broilers fed micronized-dehulled pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Nahashon, S N; Tufarelli, V

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized peas (Pisum sativum) in diets of guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass yields, and fatty acid composition of meat. One hundred forty 1-d-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments, which were fed from hatch to 12 wk. The birds were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets comprising a control diet, which contained SBM (78 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized peas (180 g/kg) as the main protein source. The substitution of SBM with peas had no adverse effect on growth performance, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscle relative weights of the guinea broilers. However, a reduction of abdominal fat content (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed the pea diet compared with the control. Breast and thigh meat of birds fed the pea diet had higher lightness scores (P < 0.05) and water-holding capacity (P < 0.01) than the control. Meat from guinea fowls fed the pea diet had less cholesterol (P < 0.01) and lipids (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.05). Feeding peas increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and thigh muscles, and decreased the saturated fatty acid concentration. Feeding the pea diet also lowered the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the guinea broiler muscles. Our results suggest that replacing the conventional SBM as the protein source with dehulled-micronized pea meal in diets of guinea fowls broilers can improve carcass quality and favorable lipid profile without adversely affecting growth performance traits.

  15. Changes in the protein patterns in pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots under the influence of long- and short-term chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Badowiec, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Weidner, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Amongst many factors restricting geographical distribution of plants and crop productivity, low temperature is one of the most important. To gain better understanding of the molecular response of germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) to low temperature, we investigated the influence of long and short chilling stress as well as post-stress recovery on the alterations in the root proteomes. The impact of long stress was examined on the pea seeds germinating in the continuous chilling conditions of 10 °C for 8 days (LS). To examine the impact of short stress, pea seeds germinating for 72 h in the optimal temperature of 20 °C were subjected to 24-h chilling (SS). Additionally, both stress treatments were followed by 24 h of recovery in the optimal conditions (accordingly LSR and SR). Using the 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS protein identification, it was revealed, that most of the proteins undergoing regulation under the applied conditions were implicated in metabolism, protection against stress, cell cycle regulation, cell structure maintenance and hormone synthesis, which altogether may influence root growth and development in the early stages of plant life. The obtained results have shown that most of detected alterations in the proteome patterns of pea roots are dependent on stress duration. However, there are some analogical response pathways which are triggered regardless of stress length. The functions of proteins which accumulation has been changed by chilling stress and post-stress recovery are discussed here in relation to their impact on pea roots development.

  16. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacterial inoculation. Although root architecture was not affected, inoculation increased root and shoot biomass, and stomatal conductance, by 20, 15, and 24%, respectively, and increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake by 16, 81, 50, 46, and 58%, respectively. P deposition in inoculated plant roots was 4.9 times higher than that in uninoculated controls. Rhizobacterial inoculation increased root to shoot xylem flows and shoot to root phloem flows of K by 1.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively. In control plants, major sinks for K deposition were the roots and upper shoot (43% and 49% of total uptake, respectively), while rhizobacterial inoculation increased K distribution to the lower shoot at the expense of other compartments (xylem, phloem, and upper shoot). Despite being unable to metabolize ABA in vitro, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased root ABA concentrations and accumulation by 40–60%. Although inoculation decreased xylem ABA flows, phloem ABA flows increased. Whether bacterial ACCd attenuates root to shoot ABA signalling requires further investigation, since ABA is critical to maintain growth of droughted plants, and ACCd-containing organisms have been advocated as a means of minimizing growth inhibition of plants in drying soil. PMID:23136167

  17. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea.

  18. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  19. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ismail, I M; Basahi, J M; Hassan, I A

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009-2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L(-1)). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively.

  20. [Investigation of chromosomes in varieties and translocation lines of pea Pisum sativum L. by FISH, Ag-NOR, and differential DAPI staining].

    PubMed

    Samatadze, T E; Muravenko, O M; Bol'sheva, N L; Amosova, A B; Gostimsckiĭ, S A; Zelenin, A V

    2005-12-01

    The DNA intercalator 9-aminoachridine was used for obtaining high-resolution DAPI patterns of chromosomes of Pisum sativum L. with more than 300 bands per haploid chromosome set. The karyotypes of three pea varieties, Viola, Capital, and Rosa Crown, and two translocation lines, L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)), were examined. Based on the results of DAPI staining, we have identified chromosomes, constructed idiograms, and established breakpoints of chromosome translocations. Lines L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)) were shown to appear as a result of respectively one translocation between chromosomes 2 and 4 and two translocations between chromosomes 2 and 7. All varieties and translocation lines of pea were examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomere repetition probes, 5S and 45S wheat DNA probes. Transcriptional activity of 45S rRNA was detected by Ag-NOR staining. Telomere repetitions were shown to be located only in telomeric chromosome regions. Using high-resolution DAPI staining allowed us to verify localization of 5S genes on pea chromosomes 1, 3, and 5. 45S rDNAs were localized in the secondary constriction regions on the satellite and the satellite thread of chromosome and on the satellite thread and in more proximal satellite heterochromatic region of chromosome 7. The size of 45S rDNA signal on chromosome 7 was larger and its transcriptional activity, higher than the corresponding parameters on chromosome 4 in most of the forms studied. A visual comparison of the results of FISH and Ag-NOR staining of normal and translocated pea chromosomes did not reveal any significant differences between them. The translocations of the satellite chromosomes apparently did not cause significant changes either in the amount of the ribosomal genes or in their transcriptional activity.

  1. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  2. Construction and characterization of two bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for the isolation of economically important genes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, C J; McClendon, M T; Walling, J G; Timmerman-Vaughan, G M; Murray, S; Meksem, K; Lightfoot, D A; Shultz, J L; Keller, K E; Martin, R R; Inglis, D A; Rajesh, P N; McPhee, K E; Weeden, N F; Grusak, M A; Li, C-M; Storlie, E W

    2007-09-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has a genome of about 4 Gb that appears to share conserved synteny with model legumes having genomes of 0.2-0.4 Gb despite extensive intergenic expansion. Pea plant inventory (PI) accession 269818 has been used to introgress genetic diversity into the cultivated germplasm pool. The aim here was to develop pea bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries that would enable the isolation of genes involved in plant disease resistance or control of economically important traits. The BAC libraries encompassed about 3.2 haploid genome equivalents consisting of partially HindIII-digested DNA fragments with a mean size of 105 kb that were inserted in 1 of 2 vectors. The low-copy oriT-based T-DNA vector (pCLD04541) library contained 55 680 clones. The single-copy oriS-based vector (pIndigoBAC-5) library contained 65 280 clones. Colony hybridization of a universal chloroplast probe indicated that about 1% of clones in the libraries were of chloroplast origin. The presence of about 0.1% empty vectors was inferred by white/blue colony plate counts. The usefulness of the libraries was tested by 2 replicated methods. First, high-density filters were probed with low copy number sequences. Second, BAC plate-pool DNA was used successfully to PCR amplify 7 of 9 published pea resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and several other low copy number pea sequences. Individual BAC clones encoding specific sequences were identified. Therefore, the HindIII BAC libraries of pea, based on germplasm accession PI 269818, will be useful for the isolation of genes underlying disease resistance and other economically important traits.

  3. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Chen, Lin; Belimov, Andrey A; Shaposhnikov, Alexander I; Gong, Fan; Meng, Xu; Hartung, Wolfram; Jeschke, Dieter W; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2012-11-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacterial inoculation. Although root architecture was not affected, inoculation increased root and shoot biomass, and stomatal conductance, by 20, 15, and 24%, respectively, and increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake by 16, 81, 50, 46, and 58%, respectively. P deposition in inoculated plant roots was 4.9 times higher than that in uninoculated controls. Rhizobacterial inoculation increased root to shoot xylem flows and shoot to root phloem flows of K by 1.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively. In control plants, major sinks for K deposition were the roots and upper shoot (43% and 49% of total uptake, respectively), while rhizobacterial inoculation increased K distribution to the lower shoot at the expense of other compartments (xylem, phloem, and upper shoot). Despite being unable to metabolize ABA in vitro, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased root ABA concentrations and accumulation by 40-60%. Although inoculation decreased xylem ABA flows, phloem ABA flows increased. Whether bacterial ACCd attenuates root to shoot ABA signalling requires further investigation, since ABA is critical to maintain growth of droughted plants, and ACCd-containing organisms have been advocated as a means of minimizing growth inhibition of plants in drying soil.

  4. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    The effective use of airborne and satellite-based remote sensor systems in resource management, agriculture, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the high-resolution remote sensing data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. In developing the necessary knowledge base, ground-based measurements are the expedient source of information. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied in laboratory for detection of the influence of herbicides 2.4-D, glyphosate, fluridone and acifluorfen on the leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). According to the classification of the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee with reference to their mode of action they belong to different groups: synthetic auxins - O (2.4-D), inhibition of EPSP synthase - G (glyphosate), photobleaching - F1 (fluridone), and inhibition of PPO - E (acifluorfen). During the last 40 years, these herbicides are among the ones used most widely in agriculture worldwide. The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at two low concentrations (1 µM, 0.1 µM) with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice. High-resolution spectral data for leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected from freshly detached leaves using three multichannel spectrometers. Spectral reflectance characteristics were obtained from the leaf reflectance referenced against a standard (white diffuse screen) in the visible and near infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum (450÷850 nm). Fluorescence spectra were taken in the spectral range 650-850 nm. To assess the changes arising in leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action we developed and applied an analytical approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods. The spectral characteristics were analyzed in

  5. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel; Navrátilová, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum). Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data provide a starting point for

  6. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-05

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (P<0.05) ratios of amide I to II peak height (1.698 vs. 1.805) and area (1.843 vs. 2.017). A significant correlation was observed between the amide I and II peak height (r=0.48) and peak area (r=-0.42) ratio with protein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (P<0.05) α-helix:β-sheet ratio (1.015 vs. 0.926), indicating varietal difference in protein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (P<0.05) increase being observed with roasting and microwaving. The heat-induced changes in α-helix:β-sheet ratio was strongly correlated to intestinal digestibility of protein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas.

  7. Stomatal response and leaf injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures. II. Influence of moisture stress and time of exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    Stomatal response during exposure to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ and subsequent leaf injury were examined in plants of Pisum sativum L. Alsweet grown in a peat-vermiculite medium in controlled environment chambers. Plants developing under moisture stress, induced by drying the medium to 50% of field capacity, exhibited greater stomatal closure during exposures and less than one-fourth the necrosis compared to plants developing in a medium maintained at field capacity. Plants under moisture stress had only a slightly more negative plant water potential (approx. = 4.0 bars) than at field capacity (approx. = 3.4 bars). Plants exposed to pollutants for 2 hours near the beginning or end of a 16-hour light period had greater stomatal closure during exposures and less leaf necrosis than plants exposed during the middle of the light period.

  8. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    PubMed

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  9. The isoperoxidases of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Siegel, B Z; Galston, A W

    1967-02-01

    The heterogeneity of the peroxidases in peas was examined by starch gel electrophoresis. Comparisons were made between tall and dwarf cultivars and among organ systems developed in light and darkness. Isoperoxidase bands could be grouped as cathodic, anodic and near-neutral (at pH 9.0) types. The cathodic set stained well with guaiacol oxidation products whereas some anodic bands reacted preferentially with 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Some near-neutral bands were aceto-carmine positive and may have been organellar. Each organ had a characteristic isozyme pattern, and the band patterns in corresponding organs from different varieties were far more alike than were the patterns in the different organs within each variety. Ontogenetic changes were marked in all 3 organ systems, principally in the cathodic bands. The effect of light on isozymal patterns was quantitative rather than qualitative, possibly influencing the isoperoxidases secondarily via its effect upon organ physiology and development.

  10. Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugam, Arun S.K.; Bock, Cheryl; Arganosa, Gene C.; Georges, Fawzy; Gray, Gordon R.; Warkentin, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) (EC 5.5.1.4) is the first and rate-limiting step in the phytic acid biosynthesis pathway. Aiming at understanding the genetic basis of the lpa mutation in the pea, a 1530 bp open reading frame of MIPS was amplified from CDC Bronco and the lpa genotypes. Sequencing results showed no difference in coding sequence in MIPS between CDC Bronco and lpa genotypes. Transcription levels of MIPS were relatively lower at 49 days after flowering (DAF) than at 14 DAF for CDC Bronco and lpa lines. This study elucidated the rate and accumulation of phosphorus compounds in lpa genotypes. The data also demonstrated that mutation in MIPS was not responsible for the lpa trait in these pea lines. PMID:27135314

  11. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity based on rrs, atpD, recA genes and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses of rhizobial strains isolated from Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in Peru.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Nery; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Velázquez, Encarna; Zúñiga, Doris

    2008-03-01

    In this study 17 isolates from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum var. macrocarpum growing in different soils from Peru were isolated and characterized. The isolates, presenting 11 different RAPD profiles, were distributed in three groups on the basis of their 16S-RFLP patterns. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains from 16S-RFLP groups I, II and III were closely related (identities higher than 99.5%) to Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii DSM 30141 (=ATCC 14480), R. leguminosarum bv. viciae DSM 30132(T) and Rhizobium etli CFN42(T) (=USDA 9032(T)), respectively. The analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) and two housekeeping genes, atpD and recA, confirmed the identification of strains from group I, however those from groups II and III were phylogenetically divergent to strains DSM 30132(T) and CFN42(T). These results support the fact that the 16S rRNA gene is not adequate for identification at species level within genus Rhizobium and suggest the existence of putative new species within the phylogenetic group of R. leguminosarum. They also confirm the need of a taxonomic revision of R. leguminosarum since the reference strains of the three biovars included in this study are phylogenetically divergent according to their ITS, atpD and recA gene sequences.

  13. Response to water deficit and high temperature of transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) containing a seed-specific alpha-amylase inhibitor and the subsequent effects on pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) survival.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Majer, Maria José de; Turner, Neil C; Hardie, Darryl C; Morton, Roger L; Lamont, Byron; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2004-02-01

    The effects of water deficit and high temperature on the production of alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alpha-AI-1) were studied in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that were developed to control the seed-feeding pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Transgenic and non-transgenic plants were subjected to water-deficit and high-temperature treatments under controlled conditions in the glasshouse and growth cabinet, beginning 1 week after the first pods were formed. In the water-deficit treatments, the peas were either adequately watered (control) or water was withheld after first pod formation. The high-temperature experiments were performed in two growth cabinets, one maintained at 27/22 degrees C (control) and one at 32/27 degrees C day/night temperatures, with the vapour pressure deficit maintained at 1.3 kPa. The plants exposure to high temperatures and water deficit produced 27% and 79% fewer seeds, respectively, than the controls. In the transgenic peas the level of alpha-AI-1 as a percentage of total protein was not influenced by water stress, but was reduced on average by 36.3% (the range in two experiments was 11-50%) in the high-temperature treatment. Transgenic and non-transgenic pods of plants grown at 27/22 degrees C and 32/27 degrees C were inoculated with pea weevil eggs to evaluate whether the reduction in level of alpha-AI-1 in the transgenic pea seeds affected pea weevil development and survival. At the higher temperatures, 39% of adult pea weevil emerged, compared to 1.2% in the transgenic peas grown at the lower temperatures, indicating that high temperature reduced the protective capacity of the transgenic peas.

  14. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-04

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  15. The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Carmen Marín-Manzano, M; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Carmen Arques, M; Domoney, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from legumes, such as soyabean, pea, lentil and chickpea, are naturally occurring plant protease inhibitors which have potential health-promoting properties within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. BBI can survive both acidic conditions and the action of proteolytic enzymes within the stomach and small intestine, permitting significant amounts to reach the large intestine in active form to exert their reported anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study, we reported the ability of a recombinant form of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major BBI isoinhibitor from pea, to influence negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigate if this effect is related directly to the intrinsic ability of BBI to inhibit serine proteases. rTI1B and a novel engineered mutant, having amino acid substitutions at the P1 positions in the two inhibitory domains, were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rTI1B proved to be active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing K i values at nanomolar concentrations, whereas the related mutant protein was inactive against both serine proteases. The proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells was significantly affected by rTI1B in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 31 (sd 7) μm), whereas the inactive mutant did not show any significant effect on colon cancer cell growth. In addition, neither recombinant protein affected the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. These findings suggest that serine proteases should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  16. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals. PMID:24795736

  17. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning o...

  19. Micromonospora luteifusca sp. nov. isolated from cultivated Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Riesco, Raúl; Spröer, Cathrin; Trujillo, Martha E

    2016-06-01

    Three novel actinobacterial strains, GUI2(T), GUI42 and CR21 isolated from nodular tissues and the rhizosphere of a sweet pea plant collected in Cañizal, Spain were identified according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences as new members of the genus Micromonospora. The closest phylogenetic members were found to be Micromonospora saelicesensis (99.2%) "Micromonospora zeae" (99.1%), "Micromonospora jinlongensis" (99%), Micromonospora lupini (98.9%) and Micromonospora zamorensis (98.8%). To resolve their full taxonomic position, four additional genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB) were partially sequenced and compared to available Micromonospora type strain sequences. DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR and ARDRA profiles confirmed that these strains represent a novel genomic species. All strains contained meso-diaminopimelic and hydroxy-diaminopimelic acids in their cell wall. Their fatty acid profiles comprised iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C15:0 as major components. The polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were found in the type strain GUI2(T) which also contained MK-10(H4) as the major menaquinone. Physiological and biochemical characteristics also differentiated the new isolates. Based on the integration of the above studies, strains GUI2(T), GUI42 and CR21 represent a novel Micromonospora species and we propose the name Micromonospora luteifusca sp. nov. The type strain is GUI2(T) (=CECT 8846(T); =DSM 100204(T)).

  20. Chromosome aberration assays in Pisum for the study of environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Grant, W F; Owens, E T

    2001-05-01

    From a literature survey, 117 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 179 assays for their clastogenic effects in Pisum. Of the 117 chemicals that have been assayed, 65 are reported at giving a positive reaction (i.e. causing chromosome aberrations), 30 positive with a dose response, five borderline positive. Seventeen chemicals gave a negative response. Eighty-one percent of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. A c-mitotic effect was detected from treatment with 17 chemicals. In addition to the above tabulation of chemicals, 39 chemicals have been reported with an antimitotic effect. Thirteen assays have been recorded for five types of radiation, which with the exception of ultrasound reacted positively. The results of assays with 38 chemicals and/or radiations in combined treatments, as well as 15 chemicals and three types of radiations that induce somatic mutations are tabulated. The Pisum sativum (2n=14) bioassay has been shown to be a very good plant bioassay for assessing chromosome damage both in mitosis and meiosis for somatic mutations induced by chemicals, radiations, and environmental pollutants. For some chemicals, the Pisum assay is not as sensitive in assessing clastogenicity as the Allium assay, although this should be considered in relative terms. Pisum fulvum (2n=14) has been used in clastogenic studies also, but to a much lesser extent.

  1. The Temperature Response and Aggressiveness of Peyronellaea pinodes Isolates Originating from Wild and Domesticated Pisum sp. in Israel.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Abbo, S; Sherman, A; Frenkel, O; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Domesticated pea fields are grown in relatively close proximity to wild pea species in Israel. Despite the major role attributed to ascochyta blight in causing yield losses in domesticated pea, very limited information is available on the pathogens prevailing in natural ecosystems. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species causing ascochyta blight symptoms on leaves, stems, and petioles of domesticated pea and wild Pisum plants in Israel, and (ii) to quantify the temperature response(s) and aggressiveness of such pathogens originating from Pisum plants growing in sympatric and allopatric contexts. Eighteen fungal isolates were examined and identified; three of them were sampled from Pisum sativum, 11 from Pisum fulvum, and four from Pisum elatius. All isolates were identified as Peyronellaea pinodes. Spore germination and mycelial growth took place over a wide range of temperatures, the lower and upper cardinal temperatures being 2 to 9 and 33 to 38°C, respectively; the optimal temperatures ranged from 22 to 26°C. At an optimal temperature, disease severity was significantly higher for plants maintained under moist conditions for 24 h postinoculation than for those exposed to humidity for 5 or 10 h. Analyses of the data revealed that temperature responses, spore germination rates, and aggressiveness of isolates sampled from domesticated pea plants did not differ from those of isolates sampled from adjacent or distant wild populations. Host specificity was not observed. These observations suggest that Israel may be inhabited by a single metapopulation of P. pinodes.

  2. The dark-adaptation response of the de-etiolated pea mutant lip1 is modulated by external signals and endogenous programs.

    PubMed Central

    Frances, S; Thompson, W F

    1997-01-01

    The lip1 mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibits a de-etiolated phenotype. When grown in darkness, lip1 plants have several characteristics normally associated only with light-grown plants. Young wild-type (WT) seedlings accumulate high levels of transcripts from plastid-related genes (such as those encoding chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins, ferredoxin, and the small subunit of Rubisco) only in the light. In contrast, regardless of the light conditions under which the plants are grown, young mutant seedlings accumulate transcript levels equal to or greater than those seen in light-grown WT seedlings of the same age. Under some conditions, light-grown lip1 seedlings failed to respond to dark treatment. The largest response to darkness observed in the mutant occurred when older seedlings were first grown under low-light conditions before transfer to darkness. The mutant's inability to respond to darkness is not due to a gross disturbance in the circadian clock. We conclude that environmental signals (light) and endogenous programs (developmental and circadian) regulate gene expression in both WT and mutant plants. However, mutant seedlings exhibit a developmentally regulated and exaggerated response to light. In addition, the effect of the mutation may be greatest during a brief period early in development. PMID:9306689

  3. Oxidative stress in pea seedling leaves in response to Acyrthosiphon pisum infestation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Van Chung; Bednarski, Waldemar; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Wilkaniec, Barbara; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examined whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in seedling leaves of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski in response to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) infestation. A. pisum caused oxidative stress conditions in pea leaves through enhanced production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(·-)). Early, strong generation of H2O2 was observed at 24h in aphid-infested leaves. The highest level of H2O2 at this time point may be related to the functioning of H2O2 as a signaling molecule, triggering defense mechanisms in pea leaves against A. pisum. Additionally, the strong generation and continuous increase of O2(·-) production in aphid-infested leaves from 0 to 96 h enhanced the defense potential to protect against aphid herbivory. Also in the study cytochemical localization of H2O2 and O2(·-) in pea leaves after aphid infestation was determined using the confocal microscope. Relative release of H2O2 and O2(·-) was estimated by staining leaves with specific fluorochromes, i.e. dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE), respectively. DCFH-DA and DHE derived fluorescence was observed to cover a much larger tissue area in aphid-infested leaves, whereas little or no fluorescence was observed in the control leaves. Enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) is one of the most essential elements of defense responses in pea seedling leaves to oxidative stress. Additionally, generation of semiquinones, stable free radicals with g-values of 2.0020 and 2.0035, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), was suggested as a protective action of pea that may contribute to build-up of a defensive barrier or activate other defense mechanisms. Concentrations of semiquinone radicals in aphid-infested seedling leaves not only were generally higher than in the control plants

  4. Ethylene Inhibitors Partly Restore Nodulation to Pea Mutant E 107 (brz) 1

    PubMed Central

    Guinel, Frédérique C.; LaRue, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    E107 (brz) is a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Sparkle) characterized by low nodulation, leaf necrosis, excessive ion accumulation, and decreased plant size. The defective nodulation of E107 was studied by light microscopy of lateral roots. The number of infections per centimeter of lateral root was only a third that of Sparkle. Moreover, most of the infections were aborted early; i.e. in only 14% of the infections did the infection thread penetrate beyond the epidermis. Nodulation of E107 was partly restored by treating the plant with the ethylene inhibitors aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or Ag+. Treatment with Ag+ did not increase the number of infections, but half of the infections went to completion. Ag+ and AVG did not alter the size of the mutant, the accumulation of cations in its shoots, nor the leaf necrosis. Thus, in E107, nodule development can be uncoupled from other pleiotropic characteristics. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668916

  5. Mutant alleles at the rugosus loci in pea affect seed moisture sorption isotherms and the relations between seed longevity and moisture content.

    PubMed

    Lyall, T W; Ellis, R H; John, P; Hedley, C L; Wang, T L

    2003-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant near-isogenic lines (RRrbrb, rrRbRb, rrrbrb) with lower starch but higher lipid contents, brought about by lesions in the starch biosynthetic pathway, had seed moisture sorption isotherms displaced below that of the wild type (RRRbRb). The negative logarithmic relationship between seed longevity and seed storage moisture content (%, f.wt basis), determined in hermetic storage at 65 degrees C, also differed: longevity in the mutant near-isogenic lines was poorer and less sensitive to moisture content than in the wild type (i.e. C(W) was lower). The low-moisture-content limit (m(c)) to this relation also differed, being lower in the mutant near-isogenic lines (5.4-5.9%) than in the wild type (6.1%). In contrast, all four near-isogenic lines showed no difference (P >0.25) in the negative semi-logarithmic relationship between equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) and seed longevity. It is concluded that the effect of these alleles at the r and rb loci on seed longevity was largely indirect; a consequence of their effect on seed composition and hence on moisture sorption isotherms. However, this explanation could not be invoked at moisture contents below m(c) where differences in longevity remained substantial (RRRbRb double that of rrrbrb). Hence, these mutant alleles affected seed longevity directly at very low moisture contents.

  6. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gaël; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-René

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  7. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of flour and starch from pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Flours and isolated starches from three different cultivars (1544-8, 1658-11 and 1760-8) of pea grown under identical environmental conditions were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility. The protein content, total starch content and apparent amylose content of pea flour ranged from 24.4 to 26.3%, 48.8 to 50.2%, and 13.9 to 16.7%, respectively. In pea starches, the 1760-8 showed higher apparent amylose content and total starch content than the other cultivars. Pea starch granules were irregularly shaped, ranging from oval to round with a smooth surface. All pea starches showed C-type X-ray diffraction pattern with relative crystallinity ranging between 23.7 and 24.7%. Pea starch had only a single endothermic transition (12.1-14.2 J/g) in the DSC thermogram, whereas pea flour showed two separate endothermic transitions corresponding to starch gelatinization (4.54-4.71 J/g) and disruption of the amylose-lipid complex (0.36-0.78 J/g). In pea cultivars, the 1760-8 had significantly higher setback and final viscosity than the other cultivars in both pea flour (672 and 1170cP, respectively) and isolated starch (2901 and 4811cP). The average branch chain length of pea starches ranged from 20.1 to 20.3. The 1760-8 displayed a larger proportion of short branch chains, DP (degree of polymerization) 6-12 (21.1%), and a smaller proportion of long branch chains, DP≥37 (8.4%). The RDS, SDS and RS contents of pea flour ranged from 23.7 to 24.1%, 11.3 to 12.8%, and 13.2 to 14.8%, respectively. In pea starches, the 1760-8 showed a lower RDS content but higher SDS and RS contents. The expected glycemic index (eGI), based on the hydrolysis index, ranged from 36.9 to 37.7 and 69.8 to 70.7 for pea flour and isolated pea starch, respectively.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p < 0.01) than broilers fed the higher phosphorus level. Bone strength was higher (p < 0.01) for broilers fed diets based on low-phytate pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  9. Remediation of cadmium toxicity in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) through exogenous silicon.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Farhadur; Ghosal, Anubrata; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) influences the alleviation of Cd toxicity in field peas at biochemical and molecular level. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants noticeably increased growth and development as well as total protein and membrane stability of Cd-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in peas. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed simultaneous significant increase and decrease of Cd and Fe in roots and shoots, respectively, compared with Cd-stressed plants. At molecular level, GSH1 (phytochelatin precursor) and MTA (metallothionein) transcripts predominantly expressed in roots and strongly induced due to Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants compared with Cd-free conditions, suggesting that these chelating agents may bind to Cd leading to vacuolar sequestration in roots. Furthermore, pea Fe transporter (RIT1) showed downregulation in shoots when plants were treated with Si along with Cd compared with Cd-treated conditions. It is consistent with the physiological observations and supports the conclusion that alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea plants might be associated with Cd sequestration in roots and reduced Cd translocation in shoots through the regulation of Fe transport. Furthermore, increased CAT, POD, SOD and GR activity along with elevated S-metabolites (cysteine, methionine, glutathione) implies the active involvement of ROS scavenging and plays, at least in part, to the Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea. The study provides first mechanistic evidence on the beneficial effect of Si on Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  10. Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

  11. Extrachromosomal DNA and cell differentiation in cultured pea roots (Pisum sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1986-01-01

    Histological, cytological and molecular analyses of DNA replication and differentiation and meristematic precursors of vascular parenchyma in cultured pea roots show that the initial steps in the transition from a dividing to a differentiated cell involve retardation of DNA replication in late S phase and production of extrachromosomal molecules by excision from late replicating chromosomal DNA. Portions of the extrachromosomal DNA are displaced by a strand displacement mechanism thereby producing free single-stranded molecules. That extrachromosomal molecules have rDNA reflects the fact that in pea roots replication of the ribosomal genes is maximal during late S phase (unpublished results). It is likely, therefore, that the excised late replicating DNA contains some rDNA sequences. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  12. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M.; Gupta, Dharmendra K.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H2O2 level under abiotic stress. PMID:22213812

  13. Pea starch (Pisum sativum L.) with slow digestion property produced using β-amylase and transglucosidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Kai; Gilbert, Robert G; Gao, Qunyu

    2014-12-01

    Starches extracted from wrinkled (WP) and smooth (SP) peas were treated using β-amylase (B) alone and also with a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase (BT). After enzymatic treatment, the proportions of slowly digested starch in WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT samples were increased by 6%, 9%, 9% and 12%, respectively. Starches treated by a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase exhibited a smaller amount of longer amylopectin chains, a larger amount of short amylopectin chains, and higher branching fraction. The branching fraction was significantly increased, with an increase of 8%, 10%, 13% and 14% for WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT, respectively. The maximum absorbance and iodine binding of enzyme-treated starches were reduced compared with their native starch parents. The C-type crystalline structure completely disappeared after enzymatic treatment. The results support previous findings that increases in the amount of shorter amylopectin chains and branch fraction are likely to contribute to the slow digestion of starch.

  14. Symbiotic activity of pea (Pisum sativum) after application of Nod factors under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-04-29

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10⁻¹¹ M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  15. The effect of UV-B radiation on chloroplast translation in Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, M.M.; Jagendorf, A.T. )

    1990-05-01

    UV-B radiation has previously been reported to reduce growth, flowering, and net photosynthesis. The present study examines the effect of UV-B radiation on isolated chloroplast of 7-10 day old pea seedlings. Amount of ({sup 3}H)-Leu incorporated into isolated chloroplasts was measured in the presence or absence of UV-B exposure. Preliminary experiments show a 30% inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts after only 20 mins of UV-B exposure (6.9 J/m{sup 2}/30 min). Percent inhibition of chloroplast translation is directly correlated with UV-B exposure over a 60 min time span. Preliminary studies also show no change in both cold and radiolabeled protein profiles as expressed on 1-D PAGE and autofluorography. Comparative studies on the sensitivity of e{sup {minus}} flow vs protein synthesis following UV-B exposure are underway. Further work on the role of oxygen free radicals and the specific site of action of UV-B damage to the translation machinery of chloroplasts will be discussed.

  16. Emulsifying and foaming properties of commercial yellow pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Rotimi E; Mofolasayo, Olawunmi A; Watts, Beverley M

    2009-10-28

    Commercial yellow pea seed flours prepared by a patented wet-milling process and pea protein isolate (PPI) were analyzed for emulsifying and foaming properties at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 and compared to soybean protein isolate (SPI). PPI and SPI formed emulsions with significantly smaller (p < 0.05) oil droplet sizes, 16-30 and 23-54 microm, respectively, than flours that primarily contained fiber such as Centara III and IV, or those that consisted mainly of starch: Centu-tex, Uptake 80 and Accu-gel. PPI was a better emulsifier than SPI at pH 7.0, and a better foaming agent at pH 3.0 and pH 7.0, although foaming capacity varied with sample concentration. Centu-tex and Uptake 80 have exactly the same chemical composition, but the latter has a much smaller flour particle size range, and had significantly smaller (p < 0.05) emulsion oil droplets. Incorporation of pea starch into SPI emulsions produced a synergistic effect that led to significant increases (p < 0.05) in emulsification capacity (reduced emulsion oil droplet size) when compared to SPI or starch alone. These results showed that PPI had generally significantly higher (p < 0.05) emulsion and foam forming properties than SPI, and that pea starch could be used to improve the quality of SPI-stabilized food emulsions.

  17. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions. PMID:24786094

  18. Functional Properties of Pea (Pisum sativum, L.) Protein Isolates Modified with Chymosin

    PubMed Central

    Barać, Miroljub; Čabrilo, Slavica; Pešić, Mirjana; Stanojević, Slađana; Pavlićević, Milica; Maćej, Ognjen; Ristić, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of limited hydrolysis on functional properties, as well as on protein composition of laboratory-prepared pea protein isolates, were investigated. Pea protein isolates were hydrolyzed for either 15, 30 and 60 min with recombined chymosin (Maxiren). The effect of enzymatic action on solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties at different pH values (3.0; 5.0; 7.0 and 8.0) was monitored. Chymosin can be a very useful agent for improvement of functional properties of isolates. Action of this enzyme caused a low degree of hydrolysis (3.9–4.7%), but improved significantly functional properties of pea protein isolates (PPI), especially at lower pH values (3.0–5.0). At these pH values all hydrolysates had better solubility, emulsifying activity and foaming stability, while longer-treated samples (60 min) formed more stable emulsions at higher pH values (7.0, 8.0) than initial isolates. Also, regardless of pH value, all hydrolysates showed improved foaming ability. A moderate positive correlation between solubility and emulsifying activity index (EAI) (0.74) and negative correlation between solubility and foam stability (−0.60) as well as between foam stability (FS) and EAI (−0.77) were observed. Detected enhancement in functional properties was a result of partial hydrolysis of insoluble protein complexes. PMID:22272078

  19. Quality traits analysis and protein profiling of field pea (Pisum sativum) germplasm from Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Rana, Jai Chand

    2015-04-01

    The grain and flour characteristics of different field pea (FP) accessions were evaluated. Accessions with higher grain weight had less compact structure with a greater proportion of large-sized starch granules. Accessions with higher protein content had lower starch content, blue value and λ(max) whereas accessions with higher amylose showed higher resistant starch (RS) and final viscosity and lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ca, Zn, K and Fe content vary significantly amongst different accessions and creamish green and white seeds accessions showed higher Fe and Zn content. Yellow coloured accessions (1.36-3.71%) showed lower antioxidant activity as compared to brownish and green coloured accessions (4.06-9.30%). Out of 21 major polypeptides observed (9-100 kDa), 11 showed differential trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) under non-reducing conditions. Polypeptides of 68, 46, 33 and 22 kDa showed prominent TIA.

  20. Auxin regulation of a proton translocating ATPase in pea root plasma membrane vesicles. [Pisum sativum. L

    SciTech Connect

    Gabathuler, R.; Cleland, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    Pea root microsomal vesicles have been fractionated on a Dextran step gradient to give three fractions, each of which carries out ATP-dependent proton accumulation as measured by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The fraction at the 4/6% Dextran interface is enriched in plasma membrane, as determined by UDPG sterol glucosyltransferase and vanadate-inhibited ATPase. The vanadate-sensitive phosphohydrolase is not specific for ATP, has a K/sub m/ of about 0.23 millimolar for MgATP, is only slightly affected by K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/ and is insensitive to auxin. Proton transport, on the other hand, is more specific for ATP, enhanced by anions (NO/sub 3//sup -/ > Cl/sup -/) and has a K/sub m/ of about 0.7 millimolar. Auxins decrease the K/sub m/ to about 0.35 millimolar, with no significant effect on the V/sub max/, while antiauxins or weak acids have no such effect. It appears that auxin has the ability to alter the efficiency of the ATP-driven proton transport.

  1. Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity on the Chloroplast Envelope in Tendrils of Pisum sativum1

    PubMed Central

    Sabnis, Dinkar D.; Gordon, Mildred; Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    When samples of pea tendril tissue were incubated in the Wachstein-Meisel medium for the demonstration of adenosine triphosphatases, deposits of lead reaction product were localized between the membranes of the chloroplast envelope. The presence of Mg2+ was necessary for adenosine triphosphatase activity, and Ca2+ could not substitute for this requirement. Varying the pH of incubation to 5.5 or 9.4 inhibited enzyme activity, as did the addition of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or N-ethylmaleimide. The adenosine triphosphatase was apparently inactivated or degraded when the plants were grown in the dark for 24 hours prior to incubation. The enzyme was substrate-specific for adenosine triphosphate; no reaction was obtained with adenosine diphosphate, uridine triphosphate, inosine triphosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and sodium β-glycerophosphate. Sites of nonspecific depositions of lead are described. The adenosine triphosphatase on the chloroplast envelope may be involved in the light-induced contraction of this organelle. Images PMID:4245003

  2. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  3. Cannibalism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Lucy C; Desjonqueres, Camille; Leather, Simon R

    2014-12-01

    Previous observations of cannibalism have been made in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (L.): this article seeks to quantify factors contributing to such behaviors. We observed and quantified the responses of a number of clones and life stages to varying levels of starvation, in the form of increasingly desiccated Vica faba L. plants (receiving 50, 25, or 10 mL every second day) or a complete absence of host plant. We found that, while the longest incidences of cannibalism are carried out by juveniles (F = 3.45, P = 0.019, df = 3) and targeted at adults, the starvation treatments had the most significant effect on the prevalence of cannibalism in mature A. pisum (F = 2.24, P = 0.025, df = 9). Furthermore, there was no difference between the prevalence or duration of cannibalistic activities within and between different clones (P ≥ 0.05 in all cases), though juveniles were more likely to target unrelated aphids (V = 6 112, P = 0.011), and spent more time feeding on aphids from the same culture (V = 6 062, P = 0.018).

  4. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Transcriptome of Dickeya dadantii Infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum Reveals a Strong Defense against Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Costechareyre, Denis; Chich, Jean-François; Strub, Jean-Marc; Rahbé, Yvan; Condemine, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii has recently been shown to be able to kill the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. While the factors required to cause plant disease are now well characterized, those required for insect pathogeny remain mostly unknown. To identify these factors, we analyzed the transcriptome of the bacteria isolated from infected aphids. More than 150 genes were upregulated and 300 downregulated more than 5-fold at 3 days post infection. No homologue to known toxin genes could be identified in the upregulated genes. The upregulated genes reflect the response of the bacteria to the conditions encountered inside aphids. While only a few genes involved in the response to oxidative stress were induced, a strong defense against antimicrobial peptides (AMP) was induced. Expression of a great number of efflux proteins and transporters was increased. Besides the genes involved in LPS modification by addition of 4-aminoarabinose (the arnBCADTEF operon) and phosphoethanolamine (pmrC, eptB) usually induced in Gram negative bacteria in response to AMPs, dltBAC and pbpG genes, which confer Gram positive bacteria resistance to AMPs by adding alanine to teichoic acids, were also induced. Both types of modification confer D. dadantii resistance to the AMP polymyxin. A. pisum harbors symbiotic bacteria and it is thought that it has a very limited immune system to maintain these populations and do not synthesize AMPs. The arnB mutant was less pathogenic to A. pisum, which suggests that, in contrast to what has been supposed, aphids do synthesize AMP. PMID:23342088

  6. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  7. New anthocyanins from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.).

    PubMed

    Terahara, N; Honda, T; Hayashi, M; Ishimaru, K

    2000-12-01

    Two new anthocyanins were isolated from purple pods of pea (Pisum spp.). Their structures were identified as delphinidin 3-xylosylgalactoside-5-acetylglucoside and its deacetylated derivative by the usual chemical degradation methods and by spectroscopic methods such as UV-VIS, MS and NMR. Both pigments showed moderate stability and antioxidative activity in a neutral aqueous solution.

  8. Isolation of high salinity stress tolerant genes from Pisum sativum by random overexpression in Escherichia coli and their functional validation.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amita; Dang, Hung Quang; Vaid, Neha; Tuteja, Narendra

    2009-05-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major factors which reduce crop plants growth and productivity resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Therefore, it would be fruitful to isolate and functionally identify new salinity stress-induced genes for understanding the mechanism and developing salinity stress tolerant plants. Based on functional gene screening assay, we have isolated few salinity tolerant genes out of one million Escherichia coli (SOLR) transformants containing pea cDNAs. Sequence analysis of three of these genes revealed homology to Ribosomal-L30E (RPL30E), Chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein (Chla/bBP) and FIDDLEHEAD (FDH). The salinity tolerance of these genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5alpha) transformants. The homology based computational modeling of these proteins suggested the high degree of conservation with the conserved domains of their homologous partners. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of these cDNAs (except the FDH) was upregulated in pea plants in response to NaCl stress. We observed that there was no significant effect of Li(+) ion on the expression level of these genes, while an increase in response to K(+) ion was observed. Overall, this study provides an evidence for a novel function of these genes in high salinity stress tolerance. The PsFDH showed constitutive expression in planta suggesting that it can be used as constitutively expressed marker gene for salinity stress tolerance in plants. This study brings new direction in identifying novel function of unidentified genes in abiotic stress tolerance without previous knowledge of the genome sequence.

  9. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  10. Comparison of the morphogenesis of three genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum) grown in pure stands and wheat-based intercrops.

    PubMed

    Barillot, Romain; Combes, Didier; Pineau, Sylvain; Huynh, Pierre; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2014-01-01

    Cereal-legume intercrops represent a promising way of combining high productivity and agriculture sustainability. The benefits of cereal-legume mixtures are highly affected by species morphology and functioning, which determine the balance between competition and complementarity for resource acquisition. Studying species morphogenesis, which controls plant architecture, is therefore of major interest. The morphogenesis of cultivated species has been mainly described in mono-specific growing conditions, although morphogenetic plasticity can occur in multi-specific stands. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize the variability of the morphogenesis of pea plants grown either in pure stands or mixed with wheat. This was achieved through a field experiment that included three pea cultivars with contrasting earliness (hr and HR type) and branching patterns. Results show that most of the assessed parameters of pea morphogenesis (phenology, branching, final number of vegetative organs and their kinetics of appearance) were mainly dependent on the considered genotype, which highlights the importance of the choice of cultivars in intercropping systems. There was however a low variability of pea morphogenesis between sole and mixed stands except for plant height and branching of the long-cycle cultivar. The information provided in the present study at stand and plant scale can be used to build up structural-functional models. These models can contribute to improving the understanding of the functioning of cereal-legume intercrops and also to the definition of plant ideotypes adapted to the growth in intercrops.

  11. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate induced physio-hormonal changes in Pisum sativum under diverse temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-11-01

    Global climate change brings with it unwarranted shifts in both abiotic (heat stress, cold stress, wind, precipitation) and biotic (pathogens, pests) environmental factors, thus posing a threat to agricultural productivity across the world. In plants, lodging due to storms or herbivory causes wounding stress and consequently enhances endogenous jasmonates. In response, the plant growth is arrested as plant defense is prioritized. We pre-treated pea plants with elevated methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels i.e. 50 μM, 100 μM and 200 μM under controlled growth chamber conditions. The pre-treated plants were then kept at 40 °C (heat stress--HS), 4 °C (cold stress--CS) and 20 °C (optimum/control temperature--OT) for 72 h. The effect of such treatments on plant growth attributes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, cell death rate, and regulation of endogenous hormones were observed. Elevated MeJA application hindered plant growth attributes under HS, CS and OT conditions. Moreover, elevated MeJA levels lowered the rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, induced stomatal closure, caused higher cells mortality in leaves under HS, CS, and OT conditions. Endogenous ABA contents significantly declined in all MeJA treatments under HS and OT, but increased under CS conditions. Exogenous MeJA enhanced endogenous jasmonic acid contents of pea plants, but altered endogenous salicylic acid contents under varying temperatures. Current study shows that higher concentrations of exogenous MeJA strengthen plant defense mechanism by hindering plant growth under stress conditions.

  12. Development of SCAR markers linked to sin-2, the stringless pod locus in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing consumer demand for vegetables, edible-podded peas have become more popular. Stringlessness is one of most important traits for snap peas. A single recessive gene, sin-2, controls this trait. Because pollen carrying the stringless gene is less competitive than pollen carrying the str...

  13. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  14. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    PubMed

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  15. The influence of dietary field peas (Pisum sativum L.) on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Everts, A K R; Sweeter, K K; Peters, D N; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M; Pedersen, C

    2006-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that field peas may replace soybean meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs without negatively influencing pig performance, carcass quality, or pork palatability. Forty-eight pigs (initial average BW 22.7 +/- 1.21 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 2 pigs per pen. There were 8 replications per treatment, 4 with barrows and 4 with gilts. The treatments were control, medium field peas, and maximum field peas. Pigs were fed grower diets for 35 d, early finisher diets for 35 d, and late finisher diets for 45 d. Pigs receiving the control treatment were fed corn-soybean meal diets. All diets fed to pigs receiving the medium field peas treatment contained 36% field peas and varying amounts of corn; soybean meal was also included in the grower and the early finisher diets fed to pigs on this treatment. In contrast, no soybean meal was included in diets fed to pigs on the maximum field peas treatment, and field peas were included at concentrations of 66, 48, and 36% in the grower, early finisher, and late finisher diets, respectively. Pig performance was monitored within each phase and for the entire experimental period. At the conclusion of the experiment, carcass composition, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork chops and pork patties were measured. Results showed that there were no effects of dietary treatments on ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in carcass composition among the treatment groups, but gilts had larger (P = 0.001) and deeper (P = 0.003) LM, less backfat (P = 0.007), and a greater (P = 0.002) lean meat percentage than barrows. The pH and marbling of the LM, and the 10th rib backfat were not influenced by treatment, but there was a trend (P = 0.10) for more marbling in barrows than in gilts. The subjective color scores (P = 0.003) and the objective color score (P = 0.06) indicated that dietary field peas made the LM darker and more desirable. Pork chops from pigs fed field peas also had less (P = 0.02) moisture loss compared with chops from pigs fed the control diet. Treatment or sex did not influence palatability of pork chops or pork patties. In conclusion, field peas may replace all of the soybean meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs without negatively influencing pig performance, carcass composition, carcass quality, or pork palatability.

  16. The vicilin gene family of pea (Pisum sativum L.): a complete cDNA coding sequence for preprovicilin.

    PubMed Central

    Lycett, G W; Delauney, A J; Gatehouse, J A; Gilroy, J; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA plasmid bank has been constructed using mRNA from developing pea seeds and three cDNAs coding for vicilin polypeptides have been selected. These cDNAs have been sequenced and between them cover the whole of the coding sequence plus part of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Comparison with amino acid sequence data from the protein indicates that vicilin is synthesised as preprovicilin with subsequent removal of a signal peptide and a C-terminal peptide as well as post translational endo-proteolytic cleavage. The cDNAs represent two different classes of vicilin genes whilst amino acid data show that there are at least three major classes of vicilin polypeptide. The vicilin sequences show extensive homology with conglycinin and phaseolin except in the regions of the internal proteolytic cleavages. The evolutionary significance of this relationship is discussed. Images PMID:6687941

  17. A novel nuclear DNA helicase with high specific activity from Pisum sativum catalytically translocates in the 3'-->5' direction.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tuan-Nghia; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2003-04-01

    A novel ATP-dependent nuclear DNA unwinding enzyme from pea has been purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. This enzyme is present at extremely low abundance and has the highest specific activity among plant helicases. It is a heterodimer of 54 and 66 kDa polypeptides as determined by SDS/PAGE. On gel filtration chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation it gives a native molecular mass of 120 kDa and is named as pea DNA helicase 120 (PDH120). The enzyme can unwind 17-bp partial duplex substrates with equal efficiency whether or not they contain a fork. It translocates unidirectionally along the bound strand in the 3'-->5' direction. The enzyme also exhibits intrinsic single-stranded DNA- and Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity. ATP is the most favoured cofactor but other NTPs and dNTPs can also support the helicase activity with lower efficiency (ATP > GTP = dCTP > UTP > dTTP > CTP > dATP > dGTP) for which divalent cation (Mg2+ > Mn2+) is required. The DNA intercalating agents actinomycin C1, ethidium bromide, daunorubicin and nogalamycin inhibit the DNA unwinding activity of PDH120 with Ki values of 5.6, 5.2, 4.0 and 0.71 micro Ms, respectively. This inhibition might be due to the intercalation of the inhibitors into duplex DNA, which results in the formation of DNA-inhibitor complexes that impede the translocation of PDH120. Isolation of this new DNA helicase should make an important contribution to our better understanding of DNA transaction in plants.

  18. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  19. Soil and foliar zinc biofortification in field pea (Pisum sativum L.): Grain accumulation and bioavailability in raw and cooked grains.

    PubMed

    Poblaciones, M J; Rengel, Z

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the potential of cooked field peas to be used in Zn biofortification programs, all combinations of soil Zn application of 0, 4 and 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) and foliar Zn application of 0 and two sprays of 0.25% or 0.5% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O before flowering and at early grain-filling stage were tested. Soil Zn application increased Zn-DTPA concentration 3.7- to 5.6-times depending on the Zn soil treatments. Grain Zn concentrations higher than 60mgZnkg(-1) were obtained with all foliar Zn applications, alone or in combination with soil Zn applications, and grain Zn bioavailability was adequate (phytate:Zn ratios lower than 15). Processing (freezing and cooking) caused a decrease of about 30% in grain Zn concentration and a 17%-increase in phytate:Zn ratios (to ⩽9.5). The combined application of 8mgZnSO4·7H2Okg(-1) soil+0.25% (w/v) ZnSO4·7H2O foliarly could be a good option for biofortifying field peas.

  20. [Structural and functional organization of chloroplasts in leaves of Pisum sativum L. under conditions of root hypoxia and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G; Semenova, G A

    2003-01-01

    A combined effect of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the biochemical composition activity and structure of chloroplasts in pea leaves have been studied. Both factors are shown to affect the accumulation of chlorophyll causing leaf chlorosis. At iron deficiency chlorosis occurs from the top of plant leaves. At root hypoxia chlorosis starts from the lower strata. At a combined action of both factors the destructive effects are summarized. It was established that light-harvesting complexes of photosystems were reduced stronger at iron deficiency, while complexes of reaction centers of photosystem I and photosystem II are lessened at root hypoxia. Nevertheless, even at a combined effect of both factors yellow leaves preserved small amounts of any pigment-protein complexes and their functional activities. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts during leaf chlorosis was gradually reduced. At first, intergranal sites of thylakoids and then granal ones were destroyed, that was typical of iron deficiency. However, even yellow and almost white leaves kept small thylakoids, capable of forming stacking and small grana made of 2-3 thylakoids. It has been concluded that the destructive effects are summarized due to different kinds of action of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the structure and functioning of leaves at their combined action.

  1. Response of mitochondrial thioredoxin PsTrxo1, antioxidant enzymes, and respiration to salinity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Martí, María C; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Camejo, Daymi; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Lázaro, Juan J; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondria play an essential role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction in plants. Redox regulation is an essential feature of mitochondrial function, with thioredoxin (Trx), involved in disulphide/dithiol interchange, playing a prominent role. To explore the participation of mitochondrial PsTrxo1, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), peroxiredoxin (PsPrxII F), and alternative oxidase (AOX) under salt stress, their transcriptional and protein levels were analysed in pea plants growing under 150 mM NaCl for a short and a long period. The activities of mitochondrial Mn-SOD and Trx together with the in vivo activities of the alternative pathway (AP) and the cytochrome pathway (CP) were also determined, combined with the characterization of the plant physiological status as well as the mitochondrial oxidative indicators. The analysis of protein and mRNA levels and activities revealed the importance of the post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of these proteins in the response to salt stress. Increases in AOX protein amount correlated with increases in AP capacity, whereas in vivo AP activity was maintained under salt stress. Similarly, Mn-SOD activity was also maintained. Under all the stress treatments, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and CP activity were decreased although the oxidative stress in leaves was only moderate. However, an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was found in mitochondria isolated from leaves under the short-term salinity conditions. In addition, an increase in mitochondrial Trx activity was produced in response to the long-term NaCl treatment. The results support a role for PsTrxo1 as a component of the defence system induced by NaCl in pea mitochondria, providing the cell with a mechanism by which it can respond to changing environment protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress together with Mn-SOD, AOX, and PrxII F.

  2. Mid-Infrared and Near Infrared Calibrations for Nutritional Parameters of Triticale (Triticosecale) and Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data is lacking about the relative effectiveness of diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared (MidIR) versus near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for calibration development of forage constituents. The objective of this study was to develop MidIR and NIR calibrations for acid detergent fiber ...

  3. Sensory and nutritional quality of split peas (Pisum sativum) stored up to 34 y in residential storage.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Jefferies, L K; Pike, O A

    2010-04-01

    The sensory and nutritional quality of split peas stored up to 34 y was determined. Nine samples of split peas representing 5 retail brands packaged in Nr 10 cans and stored at room temperature were obtained from donors. Duplicate cans of a fresh sample of split peas were purchased as controls. Can head space oxygen ranged from 0.255% to 20.1%. Water activity of the raw split peas ranged from 0.41 to 0.56. The green color of the raw split peas decreased over time as shown by increasing CIE a* values. Flavor, appearance, texture, and overall liking hedonic scores (9-point scale) of split-pea soup made from each sample ranged from 3.7 to 6.7 and decreased over time. Hedonic scores for appearance were correlated with the decrease in raw product green color (r(2)= 0.65). Hedonic scores for soup texture declined over time, which corresponded with increasing hardness of the cooked peas as measured by a TA.XT2 texture analyzer. All samples were judged to be acceptable in an emergency situation by over 75% of sensory panelists. Available thiamin was significantly lower in older samples while riboflavin remained unchanged. The results indicate that split pea quality declines over time, but the product maintains sufficient sensory acceptance to be considered for potential use in emergency storage and other applications where minimal stock rotation is a common practice.

  4. Comparison of the morphogenesis of three genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum) grown in pure stands and wheat-based intercrops

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Combes, Didier; Pineau, Sylvain; Huynh, Pierre; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2014-01-01

    Cereal–legume intercrops represent a promising way of combining high productivity and agriculture sustainability. The benefits of cereal–legume mixtures are highly affected by species morphology and functioning, which determine the balance between competition and complementarity for resource acquisition. Studying species morphogenesis, which controls plant architecture, is therefore of major interest. The morphogenesis of cultivated species has been mainly described in mono-specific growing conditions, although morphogenetic plasticity can occur in multi-specific stands. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize the variability of the morphogenesis of pea plants grown either in pure stands or mixed with wheat. This was achieved through a field experiment that included three pea cultivars with contrasting earliness (hr and HR type) and branching patterns. Results show that most of the assessed parameters of pea morphogenesis (phenology, branching, final number of vegetative organs and their kinetics of appearance) were mainly dependent on the considered genotype, which highlights the importance of the choice of cultivars in intercropping systems. There was however a low variability of pea morphogenesis between sole and mixed stands except for plant height and branching of the long-cycle cultivar. The information provided in the present study at stand and plant scale can be used to build up structural–functional models. These models can contribute to improving the understanding of the functioning of cereal–legume intercrops and also to the definition of plant ideotypes adapted to the growth in intercrops. PMID:24790127

  5. A Comparison of Dryland Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and Admiral Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Grown Under Different Row Spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (GP) is a drought-tolerant legume grown for forage and grain in Europe and the Middle East. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in rotation with common grain crops in the High Plains. However, the agronomics of GP for our region have not been investigated to date. W...

  6. Insertional mutation at the Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase gene reduces virulence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold disease on pea and on many other economically important pulse, vegetable and field crops, demonstrating a non-host-specific pathogenic mechanism. Despite extensive studies on this pathogen, its pathogenic mechanisms are still incompletely understood. In ord...

  7. Evaluation of the potential of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to be used in selenium biofortification programs under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Poblaciones, María J; Rodrigo, Sara M; Santamaría, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se), which has antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral properties, is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals. This micronutrient is found in high quantity in legumes. Peas have an ever-increasing importance in Spain, and to increase their nutritional value, two foliar Se fertilizers: sodium selenate and sodium selenite, at five different rates: 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 g ha(-1), were studied during the 2010/2011 crop season on semiarid Mediterranean conditions. Sodium selenate was much more effectively taken up by plants compared to sodium selenite. There was a strong linear relationship between the total Se content and Se rate in both sodium selenate and selenite. For each gram of Se fertilization as either sodium selenate or sodium selenite, the increase of total Se concentration in the grain was 148 and 19 μg Se kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Ingestion of 100 g of peas previously fertilized with 10 g of sodium selenate per hectare would result in an intake of 179 μg of Se. This is almost 90 % of the daily recommended dose needed to reduce the chance of some cancers and about 179 % of the minimum concentration required to prevent Se deficiency diseases in animals. The pea has shown to have a strong ability to uptake and accumulate Se under Mediterranean conditions; therefore, this would make it a very strong candidate for inclusion in biofortification programs aiming to increase Se in the food chain.

  8. Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

    2014-02-01

    Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 μg ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 μg ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation.

  9. Effect of CO sub 2 enriched air on the kinetics of leaf expansion. [Pisum sativa; Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Vegetative plants of Pisum sativum (pea) and Glycine max (soybean) were transferred from 350 to 1,200 ppm CO{sub 2} when they had one (pea) or two (soybean) mature leaves and several developing leaves. Controls were kept at 350 ppm. For pea, high CO{sub 2} for 8 days increased dry mass of root, stem, and leaf fractions by 30-50%. Leaf dry mass increase was due primarily to carbohydrate, particularly starch. Dawn levels of starch increased 10-fold within 1 day at high CO{sub 2} and 20-fold at 2 days. At 2 days after transfer leaf starch levels were 1.0 mg cm{sup {minus}2} of leaf area or nearly 30% of leaf dry weight. Soybean data are less complete, but 10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased leaf + stem dry mass by 50% and leaf weight per unit area increased by 14 and 48% at dawn within 1 and 2 days, respectively, at high CO{sub 2}. However 8-10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased total leaf area only slightly (about 15%) for both species, with all the leaf area increase occurring at nodes that were nearly microscopic at the time of transfer. For soybean, most of the increased leaf area due to high CO{sub 2} was from lateral bud break despite a high CO{sub 2} did not stimulated more leaves per plant. Apparently, extra photosynthate had a delayed effect on leaf expansion and did not increase nodes along the main axis. Leaf expansion under high CO{sub 2} was not limited by photosynthate.

  10. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on Cyclosporine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, F. I.; Al-Suwayeh, S. A.; Muzaffar, Iqbal; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M.; Korashy, Hesham M.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Raish, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, and 24 hrs) from marginal ear vein. Cyclosporine was analyzed using UPLC/MS method. The coadministration of Nigella sativa significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0−∞ of cyclosporine; the change was observed by 35.5% and 55.9%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Lepidium sativum did not produce any significant change in Cmax of cyclosporine, although its absorption was significantly delayed compared with control group. A remarkable change was observed in Tmax and AUC0−t of Lepidium sativum treated group. Our findings suggest that concurrent consumption of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum could alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine at various levels. PMID:23957013

  11. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  12. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    2010-02-23

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.

  13. Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems. PMID:20186266

  14. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Tian, Hong-Gang; Fan, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-03-23

    Herbivores can ingest and store plant-synthesized toxic compounds in their bodies, and sequester those compounds for their own benefits. The broad bean, Vicia faba L., contains a high quantity of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is toxic to many insects. However, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can feed on V. faba normally, whereas many other aphid species could not. In this study, we investigated how A. pisum utilizes plant-derived L-DOPA for their own benefit. L-DOPA concentrations in V. faba and A. pisum were analyzed to prove L-DOPA sequestration. L-DOPA toxicity was bioassayed using an artificial diet containing high concentrations of L-DOPA. We found that A. pisum could effectively adapt and store L-DOPA, transmit it from one generation to the next. We also found that L-DOPA sequestration verity differed in different morphs of A. pisum. After analyzing the melanization efficiency in wounds, mortality and deformity of the aphids at different concentrations of L-DOPA under ultraviolet radiation (UVA 365.0 nm for 30 min), we found that A. pisum could enhance L-DOPA assimilation for wound healing and UVA-radiation protection. Therefore, we conclude that A. pisum could acquire L-DOPA and use it to prevent UVA damage. This study reveals a successful co-evolution between A. pisum and V. faba.

  15. Large-scale gene discovery in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Legeai, Fabrice; Rispe, Claude; Bonhomme, Joël; Dearden, Peter; Dossat, Carole; Duclert, Aymeric; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Ducray, Danièle Giblot; Hunter, Wayne; Dang, Phat; Kambhampati, Srini; Martinez-Torres, David; Cortes, Teresa; Moya, Andrès; Nakabachi, Atsushi; Philippe, Cathy; Prunier-Leterme, Nathalie; Rahbé, Yvan; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Stern, David L; Wincker, Patrick; Tagu, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Aphids are the leading pests in agricultural crops. A large-scale sequencing of 40,904 ESTs from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum was carried out to define a catalog of 12,082 unique transcripts. A strong AT bias was found, indicating a compositional shift between Drosophila melanogaster and A. pisum. An in silico profiling analysis characterized 135 transcripts specific to pea-aphid tissues (relating to bacteriocytes and parthenogenetic embryos). This project is the first to address the genetics of the Hemiptera and of a hemimetabolous insect. PMID:16542494

  16. Escherichia coli K-12 pathogenicity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, reveals reduced antibacterial defense in aphids.

    PubMed

    Altincicek, Boran; Ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M; Udekwu, Klas I; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    To better understand the molecular basis underlying aphid immune tolerance to beneficial bacteria and immune defense to pathogenic bacteria, we characterized how the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum responds to Escherichia coli K-12 infections. E. coli bacteria, usually cleared in the hemolymph of other insect species, were capable of growing exponentially and killing aphids within a few days. Red fluorescence protein expressing E. coli K-12 laboratory strain multiplied in the aphid hemolymph as well as in the digestive tract, resulting in death of infected aphids. Selected gene deletion mutants of the E. coli K-12 predicted to have reduced virulence during systemic infections showed no difference in either replication or killing rate when compared to the wild type E. coli strain. Of note, however, the XL1-Blue E. coli K-12 strain exhibited a significant lag phase before multiplying and killing aphids. This bacterial strain has recently been shown to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other E. coli K-12 strains, revealing a potential role for reactive oxygen species-mediated defenses in the otherwise reduced aphid immune system.

  17. Dickeya dadantii, a Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Producing Cyt-Like Entomotoxins, Causes Septicemia in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 108 cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria. PMID:22292023

  18. Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-04

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months) produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE) containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic.

  19. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the genetic diversity of the USDA pisum diversity collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA expanded Pisum Single Plant (PSP) core collection is a unique resource that represents the breadth of the genetic diversity of the genus in an inbred format that facilitates genetic study. The collection includes inbred accessions from the refined pea core collection, parent lines of USDA r...

  20. The power of EST sequence data: Relation to Acyrthosiphon pisum genome annotation and functional genomics initiatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes important to aphid biology, survival and reproduction were successfully identified by use of a genomics approach. We created and described the Sequencing, compilation, and annotation of the approxiamtely 525Mb nuclear genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which represents an important ...

  1. Identification and Characterization of Partial Resistance to Fusarium root rot in the Pisum Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) is a serious seed and root rot pathogen found in both dryland and irrigated peas in the USA. Resistance to Fsp in 44 wild pea accessions from the Pisum Core Collection located in Pullman, WA, USA was characterized under greenhouse conditions. Germination rates, ro...

  2. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research.

  3. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    PubMed

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Evidence for Osmoregulation of the Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase (proC) Gene in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) 12

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Cynthia L.; Slocum, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Several cDNA clones encoding Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR, l-proline:NAD[P]+ 5-oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.2), which catalyzes the terminal step in proline biosynthesis, were isolated from a pea leaf library screened with a 32P-labeled Aval fragment of a soybean nodule P5CR cDNA (A.J. Delauney, D.P.S. Verma [1990] Mol Gen Genet 221: 299-305). DNA sequence analysis of one full-length 1.3-kb clone (pPPS3) indicated that the pea P5CR gene contains a single major open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 28,242 Da. Genomic analysis suggested that two to three copies of the P5CR gene are present per haploid genome in pea. The primary structure of pea P5CR is 85% identical with that of soybean and exhibits significant homology to human, yeast, and Escherichia coli P5CR. The sequence of one of four highly conserved domains found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic P5CRs is similar to the consensus sequence for the NAD(P)H-binding site of other enzymes. The pea P5CR cDNA hybridized to two transcripts, 1.3 and 1.1 kb in size, in polyadenylated RNA purified from leaf tissues of mature, light-grown plants (4 weeks old). Only the 1.3-kb transcript was detected in younger (1 week old) greened seedlings or in etiolated seedlings. In greened seedlings, steady-state levels of this 1.3-kb mRNA increased approximately 5-fold in root tissues within 6 h after plants were irrigated with 0.4 m NaCl, suggesting that expression of the P5CR gene is osmoregulated. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:11537868

  5. Translational Genomics in Legumes Allowed Placing In Silico 5460 Unigenes on the Pea Functional Map and Identified Candidate Genes in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bordat, Amandine; Savois, Vincent; Nicolas, Marie; Salse, Jérome; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bourgeois, Michael; Potier, Jean; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Murat, Florent; Marget, Pascal; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2011-07-01

    To identify genes involved in phenotypic traits, translational genomics from highly characterized model plants to poorly characterized crop plants provides a valuable source of markers to saturate a zone of interest as well as functionally characterized candidate genes. In this paper, an integrated view of the pea genetic map was developed. A series of gene markers were mapped and their best reciprocal homologs were identified on M. truncatula, L. japonicus, soybean, and poplar pseudomolecules. Based on the syntenic relationships uncovered between pea and M. truncatula, 5460 pea Unigenes were tentatively placed on the consensus map. A new bioinformatics tool, http://www.thelegumeportal.net/pea_mtr_translational_toolkit, was developed that allows, for any gene sequence, to search its putative position on the pea consensus map and hence to search for candidate genes among neighboring Unigenes. As an example, a promising candidate gene for the hypernodulation mutation nod3 in pea was proposed based on the map position of the likely homolog of Pub1, a M. truncatula gene involved in nodulation regulation. A broader view of pea genome evolution was obtained by revealing syntenic relationships between pea and sequenced genomes. Blocks of synteny were identified which gave new insights into the evolution of chromosome structure in Papillionoids and Eudicots. The power of the translational genomics approach was underlined.

  6. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P < 0.05). Additionally, significant improvement of blood lipid indices was recorded. The share of the irradiated pea seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05).

  7. Growth performance and carcass and meat quality of broiler chickens fed diets containing micronized-dehulled peas (Pisum sativum cv. Spirale) as a substitute of soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of diets containing peas on productive traits, carcass yields, and fatty acid profiles (breast and drumstick meat) of broiler chickens. Hubbard strain broiler chicks, divided into 2 groups, received from 14 d to slaughtering age (49 d) a wheat middlings-based diet containing soybean (190 g/kg) or micronized-dehulled peas (400 g/kg) as the main protein source. The inclusion of peas did not significantly change the growth performance of birds. The pea level had no effect on the dressing percentage, the percentage of breast or drumstick muscles, and abdominal fat. The muscles of birds fed the pea diet had significant (P < 0.05) lower L* (lightness) and b* (yellowness, drumstick muscle) values and fat content. Instead, total collagen and water-holding capacity values were higher in the pea treatment. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and drumstick muscles was significantly increased with the alternative protein source inclusion, whereas the saturated fatty acid was similar among treatments. The n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the broiler drumstick meat decreased significantly in the pea group. Dietary pea inclusion improved the saturation index of meat without altering atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. It can be concluded that the pea treatment tested had a positive effect on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens.

  8. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (To), peak (Tp), and conclusion (Tc) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities.

  9. Expression of the chloroplast thioredoxins f and m is linked to short-term changes in the sugar and thiol status in leaves of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Sahrawy, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxins (TRXs) f and m are key components in the light regulation of photosynthetic metabolism via thiol–dithiol modulation in chloroplasts of leaves; however, little is known about the factors modulating the expression of these proteins. To investigate the effect of sugars as photosynthetic products on the expression of PsTRX f and m1 genes, sucrose and glucose were externally supplied to pea plants during the day. There was an increase in the mRNA levels of PsTRX f and m1 genes in response mainly to glucose. When leaf discs were incubated for up to 4h in the dark, glucose also led to an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of TRXs f and m, while sucrose had no substantial effect. Expression of PsDOF7, a carbon metabolism-related transcription factor gene, was also induced by glucose. Protein–DNA interaction showed that PsDOF7 binds specifically to the DOF core located in PsTRX f and m1 gene promoters. Transient expression in agroinfiltrated pea leaves demonstrated that PsDOF7 activated transcription of both promoters. The incubation of leaf discs in dithiotreitol (DTT) to increase the redox status led to a marked increase in the mRNA and protein levels of both TRXs within 4h. The increase in TRX protein levels occurred after 1h DTT feeding, implying a rapid effect of the thiol status on TRX f and m1 protein turnover rates, while transcriptional regulation took 3h to proceed. These results show that the protein levels of both TRXs are under short-term control of the sugar and thiol status in plants. PMID:22791824

  10. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  11. Melatonin Application to Pisum sativum L. Seeds Positively Influences the Function of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Growing Seedlings during Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Reiter, Russel J.; Posmyk, Małgorzata M.

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, due to its pleiotropic effects plays an important role improving tolerance to stresses. Plants increase endogenous melatonin synthesis when faced with harsh environments as well as exogenously applied melatonin limits stress injuries. Presented work demonstrated that single melatonin application into the seeds during pre-sowing priming improved oxidative stress tolerance of growing seedlings exposed to paraquat (PQ). PQ is a powerful herbicide which blocks the process of photosynthesis under light conditions due to free radicals excess production, when O2 is rapidly converted to O2•– and subsequently to other reactive oxygen species. The parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence [Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Rfd, ΦPSII, qP, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)] in all variants of pea leaves (derived from control non-treated seeds – C, and those hydroprimed with water – H, and hydroprimed with melatonin water solution 50 or 200 μM – H-MEL50 and H-MEL200, respectively) were analyzed as a tool for photosynthetic efficacy testing. Moreover stability of the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids) was also monitored under oxidative stress conditions. The results suggest that melatonin applied into the seed significantly enhances oxidative stress tolerance in growing seedlings. This beneficial effect was reflected in reduced accumulation of O2•– in leaf tissues, preservation of photosynthetic pigments, improved functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and higher water content in the tissues during PQ-mediated stress. Our findings provide evidence for the physiological role of this molecule and serve as a platform for its possible applications in agricultural or related areas of research. PMID:27867393

  12. Nitric oxide production occurs downstream of reactive oxygen species in guard cells during stomatal closure induced by chitosan in abaxial epidermis of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nupur; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Puli, Mallikarjuna R; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chitosan (beta-1,4 linked glucosamine, a fungal elicitor), on the patterns of stomatal movement and signaling components were studied. cPTIO (NO scavenger), sodium tungstate (nitrate reductase inhibitor) or L: -NAME (NO synthase inhibitor) restricted the chitosan induced stomatal closure, demonstrating that NO is an essential factor. Similarly, catalase (H(2)O(2) scavenger) or DPI [NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor] and BAPTA-AM or BAPTA (calcium chelators) prevented chitosan induced stomatal closure, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium were involved during such response. Monitoring the NO and ROS production in guard cells by fluorescent probes (DAF-2DA and H(2)DCFDA) indicated that on exposure to chitosan, the levels of NO rose after only 10 min, while those of ROS increased already by 5 min. cPTIO or sodium tungstate or L: -NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but did not restrict the ROS production. In contrast, catalase or DPI restricted the chitosan-induced production of both ROS and NO in guard cells. The calcium chelators, BAPTA-AM or BAPTA, did not have a significant effect on the chitosan induced rise in NO or ROS. We propose that the production of NO is an important signaling component and participates downstream of ROS production. The effects of chitosan strike a marked similarity with those of ABA or MJ on guard cells and indicate the convergence of their signal transduction pathways leading to stomatal closure.

  13. High irradiance increases NH(4)(+) tolerance in Pisum sativum: Higher carbon and energy availability improve ion balance but not N assimilation.

    PubMed

    Ariz, Idoia; Artola, Ekhiñe; Asensio, Aaron Cabrera; Cruchaga, Saioa; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro María; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The widespread use of NO(3)(-) fertilization has had a major ecological impact. NH(4)(+) nutrition may help to reduce this impact, although high NH(4)(+) concentrations are toxic for most plants. The underlying tolerance mechanisms are not yet fully understood, although they are thought to include the limitation of C, the disruption of ion homeostasis, and a wasteful NH(4)(+) influx/efflux cycle that carries an extra energetic cost for root cells. In this study, high irradiance (HI) was found to induce a notable tolerance to NH(4)(+) in the range 2.5-10mM in pea plants by inducing higher C availability, as shown by carbohydrate content. This capacity was accompanied by a general lower relative N content, indicating that tolerance is not achieved through higher net N assimilation on C-skeletons, and it was also not attributable to increased GS content or activity in roots or leaves. Moreover, HI plants showed higher ATP content and respiration rates. This extra energy availability is related to the internal NH(4)(+) content regulation (probably NH(4)(+) influx/efflux) and to an improvement of the cell ionic balance. The limited C availability at lower irradiance (LI) and high NH(4)(+) resulted in a series of metabolic imbalances, as reflected in a much higher organic acid content, thereby suggesting that the origin of the toxicity in plants cultured at high NH(4)(+) and LI is related to their inability to avoid large-scale accumulation of the NH(4)(+) ion.

  14. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was <5% after 8 days at 0.63 μl/ml furfural. The same furfural concentrations after 12 h caused 57.25% loss of viability in J2. Moreover, the penetration rate of juveniles to pea roots was suppressed when furfural was even applied at low rates. In pot experiments, furfural was applied as liquid (direct) or vapor (indirect) treatments at rates of 0-1.5 ml/kg soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides.

  15. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculants on subsequent arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization in pot-cultured field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongyan; Germida, James J; Walley, Fran L

    2013-01-01

    The use of commercial inoculants containing non-resident arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is an emerging technology in field crop production in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of AMF inoculants containing either a single species (Glomus irregulare) or mixed species (G. irregulare, Glomus mosseae, and Glomus clarum) on AMF root colonization and consequent plant growth parameters of field pea grown using pot cultures. Field pea was grown in both sterilized and non-sterile (i.e., natural) field-collected soil containing resident AMF and received three inoculation treatments: uninoculated control, G. irregulare only, and a mixture of AMF species of G. irregulare, G. mosseae, and G. clarum. After 42 days, the AMF community assembled in field pea roots was assessed by cloning and sequencing analysis on the LSU-ITS-SSU rDNA gene, together with a microscopic assessment of colonization, biomass production, nutrient uptake, and N(2) fixation. The identity of AMF inoculants had a significant effect on field pea performance. The mixed species AMF inoculant performed better than the single species G. irregulare alone by promoting mycorrhizal colonization, field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation and did not result in a significant compositional change of the AMF community that subsequently assembled in field pea roots. In contrast, the single species G. irregulare inoculant did not significantly enhance field pea biomass, N and P uptake, and N(2) fixation, although a significant compositional change of the subsequent AMF community was observed. No significant interactions affecting these measurements were detected between the resident AMF and the introduced AMF inoculants. The observation that the mixed species AMF inoculant promoted plant growth parameters without necessarily affecting the subsequent AMF community may have important implications regarding the use of non-resident AMF inoculants in agricultural production.

  16. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  17. Identification of Diaporthe longicolla on dry edible peas (Pisum sativum), dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybeans (Glycine max) in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaporthe longicolla is a fungal pathogen that causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem disease of soybean, economically important diseases in some U.S. states. Dry edible bean, dry edible pea and soybean stems with unidentified lesions were collected from fields in North Dakota. Diaporthe longicolla ...

  18. Inhibitory effects of Enteromorpha linza polysaccharide on micronucleus of Allium sativum root cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Liu, Chongbin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the antimutagenic function of the polysaccharide from Enteromorpha linza with the micronucleus test of Allium sativum root cells induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet was studied. The concentration-effect relation of the two inducers was firstly evaluated. The results showed that an increase of genotoxicity damage was demonstrated and micronuclei frequency induced by sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet displayed dose dependent increases. All the doses of polysaccharide did affect the micronuclei frequency formation compared with the negative control. And also, the significant increase in inhibition rate of micronuclei frequency was observed with the increase of the dose of polysaccharide. It was showed maximum inhibition of micronuclei frequency cells (71.74% and 66.70%) at a concentration of 200g/mL in three experiments. The low molecular weight polysaccharide showed higher inhibition rate than raw polysaccharide at the higher concentration (50g/mL) in the absence of sulfur dioxide and ultraviolet. It was confirmed to be a good mutant inhibitor.

  19. Coriandrum sativum Suppresses Aβ42-Induced ROS Increases, Glial Cell Proliferation, and ERK Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan Feng; Jeong, Haemin; Lee, Jang Ho; Hong, Yoon Ki; Oh, Youngje; Kim, Young-Mi; Suh, Yoon Seok; Bang, Semin; Yun, Hye Sup; Lee, Kyungho; Cho, Sung Man; Lee, Sung Bae; Jeon, Songhee; Chin, Young-Won; Koo, Byung-Soo; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease, has a complex and widespread pathology that is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid [Formula: see text]-peptide (A[Formula: see text]) in the brain and various cellular abnormalities, including increased oxidative damage, an amplified inflammatory response, and altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Based on the complex etiology of AD, traditional medicinal plants with multiple effective components are alternative treatments for patients with AD. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) leaves on A[Formula: see text] cytotoxicity and examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects. Although recent studies have shown the benefits of the inhalation of C. sativum oil in an animal model of AD, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which C. sativum exerts its neuroprotective effects are unclear. Here, we found that treatment with C. sativum extract increased the survival of both A[Formula: see text]-treated mammalian cells and [Formula: see text]42-expressing flies. Moreover, C. sativum extract intake suppressed [Formula: see text]-induced cell death in the larval imaginal disc and brain without affecting A[Formula: see text]42 expression and accumulation. Interestingly, the increases in reactive oxygen species levels and glial cell number in AD model flies were reduced by C. sativum extract intake. Additionally, C. sativum extract inhibited the epidermal growth factor receptor- and A[Formula: see text]-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The constitutively active form of ERK abolished the protective function of C. sativum extract against the [Formula: see text]-induced eye defect phenotype in Drosophila. Taken together, these results suggest that C. sativum leaves have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ERK signaling inhibitory properties that

  20. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus.

  1. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of water extract of Coriander sativum leaves.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Mariana Ramírez; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Angeles, Oscar Torres; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Coriander has been used as a spice and medicinal plant for centuries. Several studies have described its biological properties and some reports have indicated its pharmacological actions in some human pathology. However, data on its toxicity and metabolism are limited or null, and no research has been conducted with mammalian cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and safety of Coriandrum sativum extract. The mutagenic effects of C. sativum extract were evaluated by Ames test. Mutagenicity was present when the C. sativum extract was used in high concentrations in both tested strains (Salmonella typhimurium TA97 and TA102). Our research showed that C. sativum extract reduced the cell survival of human cell lines (WRL-68 and 293Q cells) by inducing apoptosis and necrosis in the cases where extract concentration was the highest. The C. sativum extract altered the cell cycle; it increased the G1 phase of hepatic cells and reduced the G2+M phase in both cell lines in a dose-response manner. These results showed correlation with a reduction in the mitotic index. The extract also induced severe malformations during embryonic development. Exposure of chicken embryos to the C. sativum extract resulted in a dose-dependent increase of anomalies. Present results show that C. sativum extract reduced the axial skeleton and affected the neural tube, the somites, the cardiovascular structures, and the eye. According to the present results, the C. sativum aqueous extract cannot be considered safe. These results indicate that some significant adverse effects of C. sativum extract could be observed in vivo.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-04

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (p<0.05) and albendazole (p<0.001). On days 7 and 14 post treatment, significant FECR was not detected for both doses of Coriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (p<0.05) TWCR was detected only for higher dose of Coriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  3. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  4. Sleep-prolonging effect of Coriandrum sativum hydro-alcoholic extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of C. sativum. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) and its three fractions namely water (WF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and N-butanol (NBF) were prepared from C. sativum aerial parts and administrated to mice. Also, the possible cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested using cultured PC12 cells. The HAE, EAF and NBF significantly prolonged sleep duration. Only the NBF could significantly decrease sleep latency. No decrease in the neuronal surviving was observed either by HAE or by its fractions. The present data indicate that C. sativum exert sleep-prolonging action without major neurotoxic effect.

  5. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-09-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  6. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  7. The Analgesic Effects of Different Extracts of Aerial Parts of Coriandrum Sativum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh Kazempor, Seyedeh; Vafadar langehbiz, Shabnam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Naser Shafei, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourganji, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) on central nervous system, in the present study analgesic properties of different extracts of C. sativum aerial partswere investigated. The mice were treated by saline, morphine, three doses (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous, ethanolic, choloroformic extracts of C. sativum and one dose (100 mg/kg) of aqueous, two doses of ethanolic (100 and 500 mg/kg) and one dose of choloroformic (20 mg/kg) extracts of C. sativum pretreated by naloxone. Recording of the hot plate test was performed 10 min before injection of the drugs as a base and it was consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the extracts injection. The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the groups treated by three doses of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts were significantly higher than saline group which were comparable to the effect of morphine. The effects of most effective doses of extracts were reversed by naloxone. The results of present study showed analgesic effect of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of C. sativum extract. These effects of the extracts may be mediated by opioid system. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact responsible mechanism(s) and the effective compound(s).

  8. Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sendl, A; Elbl, G; Steinke, B; Redl, K; Breu, W; Wagner, H

    1992-02-01

    Extracts of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) and garlic (A. sativum) with defined chemical compositions were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potential on 5-lipoxygenase (LO), cyclooxygenase (CO), thrombocyte aggregation (TA), and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The inhibition rates as IC50 values of both extracts for 5-LO, CO, and TA showed a good correlation with the %-content of the major S-containing compounds (thiosulfinates and ajoenes) of the various extracts. In the 5-LO and CO test the garlic extracts are slightly superior to the wild garlic extracts whereas, in the TA test, no differences could be found. In the ACE test the water extract of the leaves of wild garlic containing glutamyl-peptides showed the highest inhibitory activity followed by that of the garlic leaf and the bulbs of both drugs. The comparative studies underline the usefulness of wild garlic as a substitute of garlic.

  9. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    PubMed

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  10. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    PubMed

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant.

  11. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldolase mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Z

    1984-01-01

    Six mutants lacking the glycolytic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been isolated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inositol starvation. The mutants grown on gluconeogenic substrates, such as glycerol or alcohol, and show growth inhibition by glucose and related sugars. The mutations are recessive, segregate as one gene in crosses, and fall in a single complementation group. All of the mutants synthesize an antigen cross-reacting to the antibody raised against yeast aldolase. The aldolase activity in various mutant alleles measured as fructose 1,6-bisphosphate cleavage is between 1 to 2% and as condensation of triose phosphates to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is 2 to 5% that of the wild-type. The mutants accumulate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate from glucose during glycolysis and dihydroxyacetone phosphate during gluconeogenesis. This suggests that the aldolase activity is absent in vivo. PMID:6384192

  13. Molecular Characterization and Mitogenic Activity of a Lectin from Purse Crab Philyra Pisum

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jong Cheon; Park, Byung Tae; Chung, Woo Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    A lectin from the hemolymph of purse crab, Philyra pisum, was found to have anti-proliferative activity on human lung cancer cells by our laboratory. In this study, P. pisum lectin (PPL) was molecularly characterized including molecular mass, amino acid sequences, amino acid composition, and the effects of metal ions, temperature, and pH on the activity. We found that PPL showed mitogenic activity on human lymphocytes and BALB/c mouse splenocytes. The mitogenic activity (maximum stimulation index, SI=9.57±0.59) of PPL on human lymphocytes was higher than that of a standard well-known plant mitogen, concanavalin A (maximum SI=8.80±0.59). The mitogenic activity mediated by PPL is required for optimum dosing, and higher or lower concentrations caused decreases in mitogenic response. PPL also induced mitogenic activity on mouse splenocytes, however, the maximum SI (1.77±0.09) on mouse splenocytes of PPL was lower than that (2.14±0.15) of concanavalin A. In conclusion, PPL is a metal ion-dependent monomer lectin with mitogenic activity, and could be used as a lymphocyte or splenocyte stimulator. PMID:21994481

  14. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. PMID:24717526

  15. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice's footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine.

  16. New report of Phoma glomerata on Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Rodeva, R; Carrieri, R; Stoyanova, Z; Dacheva, S; Lahoz, E; Fanigliulo, A; Crescenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, coriander plants (Coriandrum sativum L.), showing symptoms of greyish to hell brown lesions with dark brown border between discoloured and asymptomatic tissues, were observed in Bulgaria. Pycnidia with small unicellular conidia appeared in the pale centre of the lesions. In this work, the identification of the causal agent of this disease was made applying Koch's postulates. Moreover, for a rapid and unambiguous identification of the fungal species, the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8 rDNA gene (ITS1-5.8-ITS2) were amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from the isolated colonies. The amplicon was sequenced and analyzed using BLASTn, and showed a homology of 100% with a corresponding sequence of Phoma glomerata (accession number DQ093699). The fungus isolated, after the morphological and molecular characterization, was ascribed to the species Phoma glomerata (Corda) Wollenweber and Hochapfel. This is the first report of P. glomerata as agent of stem rot of coriander in Bulgaria and elsewhere.

  17. EDTA and urease effects on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum.

    PubMed

    Smolińska, Beata; Cedzyńska, Krystyna

    2007-11-01

    The phytoextraction process was conducted under laboratory conditions with the use of garden cress plants (Lepidium sativum). The experiment was carried out in a model soil, which was characterized before conducting the process. Inorganic forms of mercury (HgCl(2), HgSO(4), Hg(NO(3))(2)) were used for contamination of the soil. The phytoextraction process was conducted after EDTA application to the soil and after urease application. Also the influence of simultaneous addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and urease into the soil on phytoextraction process was measured. In all variants of phytoextraction process the total mercury concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of garden cress were determined. The result showed that garden cress accumulated mercury from soil. The overall maximum concentration of mercury in its compounds was found in roots of the plant. In all cases, before addition of urease and EDTA, the translocation process and distribution of mercury in the plant tissues were limited. The addition of urease caused an increase of enzyme activity in the soil and at the same time caused an increase of mercury concentration in plant tissues. Application of EDTA increased solubility of mercury and caused an increase of metal accumulation by plants. After simultaneous addition of EDTA and urease into the soil garden cress accumulated about 20% of total mercury concentration in the soil. Most of mercury compounds were accumulated in leaves and stems of the plants (46.0-56.9% of total mercury concentration in the plant tissues).

  18. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  19. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-06-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components.

  20. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components. PMID:27486367

  1. Effect on active oxygen species of alliin and Allium sativum (garlic) powder.

    PubMed

    Kourounakis, P N; Rekka, E A

    1991-11-01

    Considering that oxygen toxicity and the related free radical attack are involved in many pathophysiological conditions, and that Allium sativum (ASP) has been used therapeutically for many of them since antiquity, we examined the intervention of ASP and alliin in free radical processes. It was found that ASP presented antioxidant activity and alliin was a very good hydroxyl radical scavenger. ASP presented good reducing ability, interacting with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical (DPPH). These results indicate an involvement of the active Alluim sativum ingredients in free radical processes.

  2. PDGFRA-mutant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Carbone, Arnaldo; Lanza, Paola; Biondi, Alberto; Rindi, Guido; Cassano, Alessandra; Larghi, Alberto; Persiani, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi M

    2015-07-01

    Germline PDGFRA mutations cause multiple heterogeneous gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. In its familial form this disease, which was formerly termed intestinal neurofibromatosis/neurofibromatosis 3b (INF/NF3b), has been included among familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) because of its genotype, described when GIST was the only known PDGFRA-mutant gastrointestinal tumor. Shortly afterwards, however, inflammatory fibroid polyps also revealed PDGFRA mutations. Subsequently, gastrointestinal CD34+ 'fibrous tumors' of uncertain classification were described in a germline PDGFRA-mutant context. Our aim was to characterize the syndrome produced by germline PDGFRA mutations and establish diagnostic criteria and management strategies for this hitherto puzzling disease. We studied a kindred displaying multiple gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors, comparing it with published families/individuals with possible analogous conditions. We identified a novel inherited PDGFRA mutation (P653L), constituting the third reported example of familial PDGFRA mutation. In adult mutants we detected inflammatory fibroid polyps, gastric GISTs and gastrointestinal fibrous tumors of uncertain nosology. We demonstrate that the syndrome formerly defined as INF/NF3b (exemplified by the family reported herein) is simplistically considered a form of familial GIST, because inflammatory fibroid polyps often prevail. Fibrous tumors appear variants of inflammatory fibroid polyps. 'INF/NF3b' and 'familial GIST' are misleading terms which we propose changing to 'PDGFRA-mutant syndrome'. In this condition, unlike KIT-dependent familial GIST syndromes, if present, GISTs are stomach-restricted and diffuse Cajal cell hyperplasia is not observed. This restriction of GISTs to the stomach in PDGFRA-mutant syndrome: (i) focuses oncological concern on gastric masses, as inflammatory fibroid polyps are benign; (ii) supports a selective role of gastric environment for PDGFRA mutations to elicit GISTs

  3. Comparative phloem Mobility of nickel in nonsenescent plants. [Pisum sativa L. ; Pelargonium zonale L

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, P.M.; Chamel, A.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 63/Ni was applied to nonsenescent source leaves and found to be transported to sink tissues in pea (Pisum saativum L.) and geranium plants (Pelargonium zonale L.). The comparative mobilities (percent tracer transported out of source leaf division % /sup 86/Rb transported) for /sup 63/Ni in peas was 2.12 and in geranium 0.25. The value for the phloem mobile /sup 86/Rb was 1.00. By contrast, the comparative mobility of /sup 45/Ca, which is relatively immobile in the phloem, was low (0.05 in peas, 0.00 in geranium). Interruption of the phloem pathway between source and sink leaves by steam girdling almost completely inhibited /sup 63/Ni accumulation in the sink leaves of both species. The authors conclude that Ni is transported from nonsenescent source leaves to sink tissues via the phloem of leguminous and nonleguminous plants.

  4. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  5. Uptake of arsenic by New Zealand watercress (Lepidium sativum).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett; Duwig, Céline; Bolan, Nanthi; Kannathasan, M; Saravanan, A

    2003-01-01

    Watercress (Lepidium sativum) is consumed as a vegetable, especially by the indigenous community in New Zealand. An investigation was carried out on the accumulation of arsenic by watercress, following earlier reports of inordinate arsenic concentrations in some aquatic macrophytes collected from the Waikato River, North Island, New Zealand. The Waikato River and some other aquatic systems in Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand have elevated arsenic concentrations due to geothermal activity. Watercress, river water and sediment samples were collected from 27 sites along the Waikato river and analysed for arsenic. Greenhouse trials with watercress grown in beakers containing added arsenic were conducted to confirm the ability of this species to accumulate arsenic. At a number of sites, the concentration of arsenic in both the water and the watercress samples exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) limit for drinking water (0.01 mg l(-1)) and foodstuffs (2 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis). The average leaf and stem arsenic concentrations were, respectively, 29.0 and 15.9 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Plants grown in solutions of >0.4 mg l(-1) arsenic concentration had fresh weight arsenic concentrations above the WHO limit. Despite these higher concentrations, arsenic levels in plants grown under greenhouse conditions were approximately fivefold lower than in plants growing in the Waikato River, possibly because under natural conditions, the watercress is rooted in sediment containing on average approximately 35 mg kg(-1) arsenic. It is recommended that watercress from the Waikato River, or other areas with elevated water arsenic concentrations, should not be consumed.

  6. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety.

  7. Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants elicit feedback regulation of nodule formation in alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Caetano-Anolles, G.; Lagares, A.; Bauer, W.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Nodule formation by wild-type Rhizobium meliloti is strongly suppressed in younger parts of alfalfa (Medicago sativum L.) root systems as a feedback response to development of the first nodules. Mutants of R. meliloti deficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis can induce the formation of organized nodular structures (pseudonodules) on alfalfa roots but are defective in their ability to invade and multiply within host tissues. The formation of empty pseudonodules by exo mutants was found to elicit a feedback suppression of nodule formation similar to that elicited by the wild-type bacteria. Inoculation of an exo mutant onto one side of a split-root system 24 hours before inoculation of the second side with wild-type cells suppressed wild-type nodule formation on the second side in proportion to the extent of pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants. The formation of pseudonodules is thus sufficient to elicit systemic feedback control of nodulation in the host root system: infection thread development and internal proliferation of the bacteria are not required for elicitation of feedback. Pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants was found to be strongly suppressed in split-root systems by prior inoculation on the opposite side with the wild type. Thus, feedback control elicited by the wild-type inhibits Rhizobium-induced redifferentiation of host root cells.

  8. Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum on neuronal damages in pentylentetrazole-induced seizure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Homayoun, Mansour; Sadeghi, Saeed; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) as a medicinal plant has been pointed to have analgesic, hypnotic and anti-oxidant effects. In the current study, a possible preventive effect of the hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant on neuronal damages was examined in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) rat model of seizure. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into five main groups and treated by (1) saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg PTZ (i.p) and (3-5) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. sativum during seven consecutive days before PTZ injection. After electrocorticography (ECoG), the brains were removed to use for histological examination. Results: All doses of the extract reduced duration, frequency and amplitude of the burst discharges while prolonged the latency of the seizure attacks (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001). Administration of all 3 doses of the extract significantly prevented from production of dark neurons (p<0.01, and p<0.001) and apoptotic cells (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001) in different areas of the hippocampus compared to PTZ group. Conclusion: The results of this study allow us to conclude that C. sativum, because of its antioxidant properties, prevents from neuronal damages in PTZ rat model of seizure. PMID:28348967

  9. Influence of combined use of iodide and compost on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the influence of adding iodide (KI) and compost in different soil/compost ratios on the efficiency of Hg phytoextraction by Lepidium sativum L. Plant growth and non-enzymatic antioxidants are studied to understand metabolic plant adaptations to Hg stress during soil reclamation and their relations to Hg accumulation. Due to the use of relatively high chelant dosages in current plant-based soil remediation techniques and associated environmental risks, it is necessary to explore alternative approaches to the phytoextraction of Hg from contaminated soils. The results show a coordinated increase in non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants cultivated in growing media containing polluted soil, compost and KI. This indicates that the non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system of L. sativum L. is involved in its strategy to survive conditions of mercury-induced stress. Adding compost and iodide to Hg polluted soil also increases the total accumulation of Hg by L. sativum L. and the translocation of pollutants to aerial plant tissues. Simultaneous application of compost and KI promoted the Hg accumulation by L. sativum L. in a pot experiment.

  10. Effects of steam distillation on extraction, composition, and functional properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. A newly-developed process combined steam distillation and mechanical pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil, respectively, from dehulled coriander seeds. The c...

  11. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-01-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the “mind” is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum. PMID:22022003

  12. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  13. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative.

  14. Atypical Cyclic Sulfides, Garlicnins G, I, and J, Extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Pan, Cheng; El-Aasr, Mona; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Newly characterized, atypical sulfides, garlicnins G (1), I (2), and J (3), were isolated from the acetone extracts of garlic bulbs, Allium sativum. Their production pathways are regarded as different from those of cyclic sulfoxides, 3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives such as onionins A1-A3, garlicnins B1-B4 and C1-C3.

  15. De novo assembly and characterization of the garlic (Allium sativum) bud transcriptome by Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiudong; Zhou, Shumei; Meng, Fanlu; Liu, Shiqi

    2012-10-01

    Garlic is widely used as a spice throughout the world for the culinary value of its flavor and aroma, which are created by the chemical transformation of a series of organic sulfur compounds. To analyze the transcriptome of Allium sativum and discover the genes involved in sulfur metabolism, cDNAs derived from the total RNA of Allium sativum buds were analyzed by Illumina sequencing. Approximately 26.67 million 90 bp paired-end clean reads were achieved in two libraries. A total of 127,933 unigenes were generated by de novo assembly and were compared with the sequences in public databases. Of these, 45,286 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the Nr database, 29,514 showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and, 20,706 and 21,952 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Moreover, genes involved in organic sulfur biosynthesis were identified. These unigenes data will provide the foundation for research on gene expression, genomics and functional genomics in Allium sativum. Key message The obtained unigenes will provide the foundation for research on functional genomics in Allium sativum and its closely related species, and fill the gap of the existing plant EST database.

  16. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  17. Acyclic sulfides, garlicnins L-1-L-4, E, and F, from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Koki; Manabe, Hideyuki; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2014-01-01

    Six novel acyclic sulfides, named garlicnins L-1-L-4 (1-4), E (5), and F (6), were isolated from the acetone extracts, with the ability to suppress M2 macrophage activation, of the bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their chemical structures were characterized.

  18. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. PMID:27379342

  19. Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum and protection against DNA damage and cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coriandrum sativum is a popular culinary and medicinal herb of the Apiaceae family. Health promoting properties of this herb have been reported in pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. However, studies on C. sativum have always focused on the aerial parts of the herb and scientific investigation on the root is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum root, leaf and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against DNA damage, with special focus on the roots. Methods Powdered roots, leaves and stems of C. sativum were extracted through sequential extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured. Anti-proliferative activitiy on the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was assayed using the MTT assay. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and of the caspases-3, -8 and -9 were assayed on treatment with the extract. Cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry. The scratch motility assay was used to assess inhibition of MCF-7 cell migration. DNA damage in 3 T3-L1 fibroblasts was evaluated by the comet assay. The components in the extract were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. Results The ethyl acetate extract of C. sativum roots showed the highest antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 200.0 ± 2.6 μg/mL) and had the highest phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. C. sativum root inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration induced by H2O2, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention and inhibition of metastasis. The extract exhibited anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells by affecting antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by

  20. Parasites and pathogens of the endosymbiotic pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum) from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in England.

    PubMed

    Longshaw, Matt; Feist, Stephen W; Bateman, Kelly S

    2012-02-01

    A histopathological survey of the commensal pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum) from the mantle cavities of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) has been conducted. A total of 266 pea crabs from eight sites around the English coastline were examined. Of these, 82 were negative for any visible infections by histology. The remaining pea crabs were infected with an intranuclear bacilliform virus designated as P. pisum bacilliform virus (PpBV) in the hepatopancreatic epithelial cells, peritrichous ciliates on the gills, an intracytoplasmic microsporidian infection of the hepatopancreatocytes, a myophilic microsporidian infection, the gregarine Cephaloidophora fossor in the hepatopancreas, the entoniscid isopod Pinnotherion vermiforme, a low level nematode infection and an acanthocephalan cystacanth. Host reactions to infections were generally subdued. Results are discussed in relation to the endocommensal habitat of the pea crabs.

  1. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  2. Impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Maria Isabel

    Studies have shown that plants exposed to ENPs suffer different types of stress. Other studies have revealed that plants can take up and accumulate CeO2 NPs without modification. Thus, these NPs could enter the food chain through edible plants, posing a threat for human health. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) is a worldwide culinary and medicinal plant consumed either as a fresh herb or a spice. In this research, cilantro plants were germinated and cultivated for 30 days in organic soil treated with CeO2 NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 500 mg kg -1. Subsequently, plant organs were analyzed by using spectroscopic techniques and biochemical assays. Results indicate that at 125 mg kg -1, the CeO2 NPs significantly increased the root size compared with the other treatments. The ICP-OES results showed that plants exposed to 500 mg kg-1 had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more Ce in shoots and roots compared to the other treatments. Results from the biochemical assays showed that at 125 mg kg-1, catalese activity significantly increased in shoots and ascorbate peroxidase in roots (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the FTIR analyses revealed that at 125 mg kg-1, the CeO2 NPs changed the chemical environment of the carbohydrates within the cilantro shoots, for which changes in the area of the stretching frequencies were observed. Moreover, analyses of antioxidant compounds showed a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction on total phenolic content in shoots of cilantro plants treated with 500 mg CeO2 NPs kg-1 . This suggests that the CeO2 NPs have the potential to diminish the ability of cilantro plants to scavenge reactive oxygen species. The multi-elemental analysis showed that plants treated with CeO2 at the 500 mg kg-1 treatment had a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction in shoots' sulfur, silicon, and zinc accumulation. The results of this research indicate that the CeO2 NPs at 500 mg CeO2 kg-1 concentration cause a reduction in the antioxidant ability and nutritional properties

  3. Vipp1 deletion mutant of Synechocystis: a connection between bacterial phage shock and thylakoid biogenesis?

    PubMed

    Westphal, S; Heins, L; Soll, J; Vothknecht, U C

    2001-03-27

    Plant chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event by which an ancestor of contemporary cyanobacteria was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell and then transformed into an organelle. Oxygenic photosynthesis is the specific feature of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, and the photosynthetic machinery resides in an internal membrane system, the thylakoids. The origin and genesis of thylakoid membranes, which are essential for oxygenic photosynthesis, are still an enigma. Vipp1 (vesicle-inducing protein in plastids 1) is a protein located in both the inner envelope and the thylakoids of Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis disruption of the VIPP1 gene severely affects the plant's ability to form properly structured thylakoids and as a consequence to carry out photosynthesis. In contrast, Vipp1 in Synechocystis appears to be located exclusively in the plasma membrane. Yet, as in higher plants, disruption of the VIPP1 gene locus leads to the complete loss of thylakoid formation. So far VIPP1 genes are found only in organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis. They share sequence homology with a subunit encoded by the bacterial phage shock operon (PspA) but differ from PspA by a C-terminal extension of about 30 amino acids. In two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Anabaena, both a VIPP1 and a pspA gene are present, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that VIPP1 originated from a gene duplication of the latter and thereafter acquired its new function. It also appears that the C-terminal extension that discriminates VIPP1 proteins from PspA is important for its function in thylakoid formation.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of seed extract of Coriandrum sativum compared to Niclosamid against Hymenolepis nana infection.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian; Azami, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Ghomashlooyan, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in human and animals. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal plant which grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds of this plant have been used to treat parasitic disease, indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Niclosamid and alcoholic seed extract of C. sativum on Hymenolepis nana infection, in vivo and vitro. For in vivo study, Balb/c mice were used, to compare the efficacy of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W) of Niclosamid with different doses of alcoholic extracts of C. sativum (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg B.W). It was found that the efficacy of Niclosamid had reached 100 % after 11 days post treatment, while the efficacy of 500 and 750 mg/kg B.W of C. sativum reached to 100 % after 15 days after treatment. For in vitro study, special nutrient broth media was used. It was found that the addition of 1000 mg/ml of Niclosamid had paralyzed and killed worms within 5 min, while C. sativum killed them within 30 min. Our results showed that extract of C. sativum has good effect against H. nana and could be use in traditional medicine for treatment of parasitic disease.

  5. Strategies used by two apterous strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum for passive dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Tian, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wingless forms of aphids are relatively sedentary, and have a limited ability to migrate or disperse. However, they can drop off hosts or walk away if disturbed, or their food quality or quantity become deteriorated. Earlier, we found that the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776), could use differed strategies to escape danger and locate new host plants. To determine the mechanisms behind the different strategies, we undertook a series of studies including the aphids' host location, energy reserves under starvation, glycogenesis, sugar assimilation, olfactory and probing behaviors. We found that in our controlled laboratory conditions, one strain (local laboratory strain) moved longer distances and dispersed wider ranges, and correspondingly these aphids assimilated more sugars, synthesized more glycogen, and moved faster than another strain (collected from Gansu Province, northwestern China). However, the latter strain could locate the host faster, probed leaves more frequently, and identified plant leaves more accurately than the former strain after they were starved. Our results explained how flightless or wingless insects adapt to fit biotic and abiotic challenges in the complex processes of natural selection. PMID:27628035

  6. Determination of melatonin in Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, Laura; Manyes, Lara; Barberà, Miquel; Martínez-Torres, David; Meca, Guiseppe

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite the identification of melatonin in many insects, its involvement in the insect seasonal response remains unclear. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for melatonin analysis in aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for the first time. After comparing two different procedures and five extraction solvents, a sample preparation procedure with a mixture of methanol/water (50:50) was selected for melatonin extraction. The method was validated by analyzing melatonin recovery at three spiked concentrations (5, 50 and 100 pg/mg) and showed satisfactory recoveries (75-110%), and good repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (<10%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 pg/mg and 5 pg/mg, respectively. Eight concentration levels were used for constructing the calibration curves which showed good linearity between LOQ and 200 times LOQ. The validated method was successfully applied to 26 aphid samples demonstrating its usefulness for melatonin determination in insects. This is -to our knowledge- the first identification of melatonin in aphids by LC-MS/MS.

  7. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration.

  8. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  11. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  12. Contact dermatitis due to Allivum sativum and Ranunculus illyricus: two cases.

    PubMed

    Polat, Muhterem; Oztas, Pinar; Yalcin, Basak; Tamer, Emine; Gur, Gunes; Alli, Nuran

    2007-10-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for medical care. As alternative herbal remedies are becoming more widely used there is an increase in phytocontact dermatitis. Here we document two patients who developed contact dermatitis due to Allivum sativum, and Ranunculus illyricus after applying to the skin in order to relieve the rheumatological joint pain.

  13. Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 μg/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 μg/ml and above of PSA and 100 μg/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells.

  14. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. Patients and Methods: A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Results: Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P < 0.001). To be more precise, the mean migraine duration, severity and frequency, in the intervention group, were 5.7 hours, 3.65 units and about 50% less than control group, respectively. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree. PMID:26889386

  15. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  16. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity. PMID:27916876

  17. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB; and also significantly (P < 0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group. Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (i.e. SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  18. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P < 0.05); however, better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  19. Coriandrum sativum and Lavandula angustifolia Essential Oils: Chemical Composition and Activity on Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Lucia; Souza, Lucéia Fátima; Alloisio, Susanna; Cornara, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-30

    The aims of this study are to determine the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Coriandrum sativum L. essential oils, to evaluate their cytotoxic effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, to investigate whether an alteration of adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression can take part in the molecular mechanisms of the essential oils, and to study their possible neuronal electrophysiological effects. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and studied by GC and GC-MS. In the oils from L. angustifolia and C. sativum, linalool was the main component (33.1% and 67.8%, respectively). SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations of essential oils and of linalool. Cell viability and effects on ADCY1 and ERK expression were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT and Western blotting, respectively. Variation in cellular electrophysiology was studied in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons with a multi-electrode array (MEA)-based approach. The essential oils and linalool revealed different cytotoxic activities. Linalool inhibited ADCY1 and ERK expression. Neuronal networks subjected to L. angustifolia and C. sativum essential oils showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity.

  20. Photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted Hg phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2017-04-06

    The study was conducted to evaluate metabolic answer of Lepidium sativum L. on Hg, compost, and citric acid during assisted phytoextraction. The chlorophyll a and b contents, total carotenoids, and activity of peroxidase were determined in plants exposed to Hg and soil amendments. Hg accumulation in plant shoots was also investigated. The pot experiments were provided in soil artificially contaminated by Hg and/or supplemented with compost and citric acid. Hg concentration in plant shoots and soil substrates was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) method after acid mineralization. The plant photosynthetic pigments and peroxidase activity were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods. The study shows that L. sativum L. accumulated Hg in its aerial tissues. An increase in Hg accumulation was noticed when soil was supplemented with compost and citric acid. Increasing Hg concentration in plant shoots was correlated with enhanced activation of peroxidase activity and changes in total carotenoid concentration. Combined use of compost and citric acid also decreased the chlorophyll a and b contents in plant leaves. Presented study reveals that L. sativum L. is capable of tolerating Hg and its use during phytoextraction assisted by combined use of compost and citric acid lead to decreasing soil contamination by Hg.

  1. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  2. Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Khasaki, Mohammad; Aazam, Maryam Fath

    2005-01-15

    The clinical applications of benzodiazepines as anxiolytics are limited by their unwanted side effects. Therefore, the development of new pharmacological agents is well justified. Among medicinal plants, Coriandrum sativum L. has been recommended for relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine. Nevertheless, no pharmacological studies have thus far evaluated its effects on central nervous system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect in mice. Additionally, its effect on spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination were evaluated. The anxiolytic effect of aqueous extract (10, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was examined in male albino mice using elevated plus-maze as an animal model of anxiety. The effects of the extract on spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination were assessed using Animex Activity Meter and rotarod, respectively. In the elevated plus-maze, aqueous extract at 100 mg/kg showed an anxiolytic effect by increasing the time spent on open arms and the percentage of open arm entries, compared to control group. Aqueous extract at 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced spontaneous activity and neuromuscular coordination, compared to control group. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect and may have potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects.

  3. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  4. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments.

  5. Studies on antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum crude extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Najeeb-ur; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Lepidium sativum in diarrhea using in vivo and in vitro assays. The seed extract of Lepidium sativum (Ls.Cr) at 100 and 300 mg/kg inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. In isolated rat ileum, Ls.Cr (0.01-5 mg/mL) reversed carbachol (CCh, 1 µM) and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions with higher potency against CCh, similar to dicyclomine. Preincubation of rat ileum with a lower concentration of Ls.Cr (0.03 mg/mL) caused a rightward parallel shift in the concentration-response curves (CRCs) of CCh without suppression of the maximum response, while at the next higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL), it produced a non-parallel rightward shift with suppression of the maximum response, similar to that of dicyclomine. Ls.Cr shifted the CRCs of Ca(++) to the right with suppression of the maximum response, similar to verapamil. These data suggest that Lepidium sativum seed extract possesses antidiarrheal and spasmolytic activities mediated possibly through dual blockade of muscarinic receptors and Ca(++) channels, though additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out and this study explains its medicinal use in diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

  6. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management.

  7. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-06-10

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in

  8. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome encodes two divergent early developmental programs.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elizabeth J; Leask, Megan P; Dearden, Peter K

    2013-05-01

    The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can reproduce either sexually or asexually (parthenogenetically), giving rise, in each case, to almost identical adults. These two modes of reproduction are accompanied by differences in ovarian morphology and the developmental environment of the offspring, with sexual forms producing eggs that are laid, whereas asexual development occurs within the mother. Here we examine the effect each mode of reproduction has on the expression of key maternal and axis patterning genes; orthodenticle (otd), hunchback (hb), caudal (cad) and nanos (nos). We show that three of these genes (Ap-hb, Ap-otd and Ap-cad) are expressed differently between the sexually and asexually produced oocytes and embryos of the pea aphid. We also show, using immunohistochemistry and cytoskeletal inhibitors, that Ap-hb RNA is localized differently between sexually and asexually produced oocytes, and that this is likely due to differences in the 3' untranslated regions of the RNA. Furthermore, Ap-hb and Ap-otd have extensive expression domains in early sexually produced embryos, but are not expressed at equivalent stages in asexually produced embryos. These differences in expression likely correspond with substantial changes in the gene regulatory networks controlling early development in the pea aphid. These data imply that in the evolution of parthenogenesis a new program has evolved to control the development of asexually produced embryos, whilst retaining the existing, sexual, developmental program. The patterns of modification of these developmental processes mirror the changes that we see in developmental processes between species, in that early acting pathways in development are less constrained, and evolve faster, than later ones. We suggest that the evolution of the novel asexual development pathway in aphids is not a simple modification of an ancestral system, but the evolution of two very different developmental mechanisms occurring within a single

  9. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue: evaluation by in vivo stress relaxation. [Pisum sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1985-06-01

    Growing pea stem tissue, when isolated from an external supply of water, undergoes stress relaxation because of continued loosening of the cell wall. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that such stress relaxation should result in an exponential decrease in turgor pressure down to the yield threshold (Y), with a rate constant given by phi epsilon where phi is the metabolically maintained irreversible extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T/sub 1/2/ of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T/sub 1/2/ of 2.0 minutes, corresponding to a relative hydraulic conductance of about 2.0 per megapascal per hour. This value is at least 8 times larger than phi. From these data and from computer modeling, it appears that the radial gradient in water potential which sustains water uptake in growing pea segments is small (0.04 megapascal). This means that hydraulic conductance does not substantially restrict growth. The results also demonstrate that the stimulation of growth by auxin can be entirely accounted for by the change in phi.

  10. Deciphering the Function of Octopaminergic Signaling on Wing Polyphenism of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Tian, Hong-Gang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Aphids exhibit wing polyphenism (winged or wingless) for adaption to predictable or temporally heterogeneous environmental changes; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This morphological change could be stimulated by high aphid density, which in turn could affect octopaminergic signaling in aphids. Octopamine is a neurotransmitter synthesized in insects that can modify their physiological metabolism, locomotion, and other behaviors. We designed experiments to determine whether octopamine functions in wing formation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). We determined gene expression of tyramine β-hydroxylase (TβH), a key enzyme in octopamine synthesis at different developmental stages, in different body parts, and in different densities of aphids. We also used TβH RNAi, octopamine receptor agonists (octopamine and synephrine), and an antagonist (mianserin) to modify octopaminergic signaling. We found that transcription of TβH was related to aphid density, which affected the proportion of winged offspring. By manually modifying the mother's octopaminergic signaling, TβH expression was suppressed, and TβH (enzyme) activity decreased. The proportion of winged offspring was also affected. Our results showed that octopamine could be a link in the wing determination system, as well as environmental stimulation. The RNAi results showed that the decrease of TβH expression increased aphid's reproduction; however, the decrease of TβH expression declined the numbers of winged-offspring producers, but did not affect the proportion of winged nymphs produced by the winged-offspring producer. In conclusion, the decline in the proportion of winged daughters in the next generation was caused by the decline of winged nymph producers. PMID:28018234

  11. Quantitative genetics of feeding behavior in two ecological races of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, M C; Via, S

    2012-01-01

    Much of the diversity of herbivorous insects stems from the adaptive divergence of populations onto different host plants. This often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host acceptance that in turn lead to assortative mating for insects that mate exclusively on their hosts. Here, we explore the genetic architecture of feeding behavior in a herbivorous insect that has become a model for the study of incipient speciation, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). We use crosses between individuals specialized to either alfalfa or red clover in order to perform both a biometrical analysis and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of key feeding behaviors. For each character in each environment, Castle–Wright's estimator for the number of effective factors segregating ranged from 0.11 to 2.54. Similarly, between 0 and 3 QTLs were detected. In one case, a single QTL explained over 50% of the variance in the F2, suggesting that at least one gene (or a complex of tightly linked genes) has a major effect on feeding behavior in the pea aphid. However, the identified QTL explain only 23–73% of the genetic variance for these characters thus additional genes of minor effect are also involved. We found a variety of modes of gene action, including several cases of non-additive gene action. Our results suggest that feeding behavior in pea aphids is neither simple nor highly polygenic. The oligogenetic basis of variation in feeding behavior may facilitate host shifts, providing one explanation for the frequent divergence and speciation of herbivorous insects. PMID:21897437

  12. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  13. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars. PMID:26312232

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves and Seeds of Coriandrum sativum toward Food-borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, M; Karimi, F; Shariatifar, N; Mohammadpourfard, I; Shiri Malekabad, E

    2015-06-03

    The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and toxicity of existing antibacterial compounds has drawn attention toward the antimicrobial activity of natural products. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum. The five strains of bacteria comprising Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio cholerae were used for the antibacterial tests. In this study, antimicrobial effects of the essential oil from the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum are evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the inhibition zone and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The essential oil from Coriandrum sativum was extracted by steam distillation. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the five pathogens were in the range of 2.5- 320 µg/mL. Increase in essential oil concentration caused significant increase in inhibitory feature. The essential oil of the leaves and seeds of Coriandrum sativum showed antimicrobial activity against the food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Thus, its oil can be used as an alternative to synthetic food preservative without toxic effects. Also, it can be used in biotechnological fields as ingredients in antibiotics and the pharmaceutical industry. These results suggest that the essential oil of C sativum leaves and seeds may have potential use in pharmaceutical and food industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  15. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets increased (P < 0.05) plasma urea and total protein. Forage mix had no effect (P > 0.05) on carcass composition except for fat depth, which was greater (P < 0.05) in lambs offered WCP silage. Diets containing the HP increased (P < 0.05) carcass weight, hind leg circumference, chop dimensions, and kidney weight. It was concluded that lambs offered LTPS performed better than those offered GS and that LTPS has a concentrate sparing effect. Additionally, the increased tannin concentration in HTPS did not increase performance over lambs offered either GS or LTPS.

  16. Replication of the rRNA and legumin genes in synchronized root cells of pea (Pisum sativum): evidence for transient EcoR I sites in replicating rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Hof, J V; Hernandez, P; Bjerknes, C A; Kraszewska, E K; Lamm, S S

    1987-03-01

    The temporal pattern of replication of the rRNA and legumin genes differs in synchronized pea root cells. The relative number of rRNA genes replicated hourly during the first five hours of S phase ranges between 5 and 10 percent. In late S phase, during hours six through nine, the number of rRNA genes replicated increases reaching a maximum of about 25 percent at the ninth hour. Unlike the rRNA genes, the legumin genes have a wave-like pattern of replication peaking in early S phase at the third hour and again in late S phase at the eighth hour.Replicating rDNA, isolated by benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-column chromatography, has EcoR I restriction sites that are absent in non-replicating rDNA sequences. The cleavage of these sites is independent of the time of rDNA replication. The transient nature of the EcoR I sites suggests that they exist in a hemimethylated state in parental DNA.The two Hind III repeat-size classes of rDNA of var. Alaska peas are replicated simultaneously as cells progress through S phase. Thus, even if the 9.0 kb and 8.6 kb repeat classes are located on different chromosomes, their temporal order of replication is the same.

  17. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    PubMed

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea.

  18. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  19. Chemical Composition and Behavioral Effects of Five Plant Essential Oils on the Green Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Abir; Hammami, Majdi; Raoelison, Emmanuel G; Abderrabba, Manef; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ducamp, Christine

    2017-01-25

    Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids' behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids' responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of Vermicompost against fertilizers on Cicer and Pisum and on population diversity of N2 fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Biswas, Chanchal Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Saha, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Vermicompost is a very important biofertilizer produced through the artificial cultivation of worms i.e. Vermiculture. Vermicompost is enriched with all beneficial soil bacteria and also contain many of the essential plant nutrients like N, P, K and micronutrients. It increases soil aeration, texture and jilt. In this work, study is being carried out to find out the effect of different fertilizers such as DAF, FYM and Vermicompost on various morphological parameters and on the in vitro growth of bacterial colonies and its diversity in relation to two important leguminous plants such as Pisum sp. and Cicer sp. Results showed that plant grown in Vermicompost pretreated soil exhibited maximum increase in all morphological parameters such as root length, shoot length, number of root branches, number of stem branches, number of leaves, number of flowers, number of pods and number of root nodules in four months sampling in comparison to untreated, FYM treated and DAP treated soils. Further in Vermicompost pretreated soil, number of N2 fixing bacterial colony was maximum and showed highest diversity indices (1.6 and 0.99 and 2.0 and 0.99 for Cicer sp. and Pisum sp. respectively) than FYM, DAP and untreated control. Thus not only does the Vermicompost stimulate plant growth but also it increases the N2 fixing bacterial population in soil and also its diversity.

  1. Revisiting the anatomy of the central nervous system of a hemimetabolous model insect species: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Martin; Minoli, Sebastian; Bonhomme, Joël; Homberg, Uwe; Schachtner, Joachim; Tagu, Denis; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    Aphids show a marked phenotypic plasticity, producing asexual or sexual and winged or wingless morphs depending on environmental conditions and season. We describe here the general structure of the brain of various morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first detailed anatomical study of the central nervous system of an aphid by immunocytochemistry (synapsin, serotonin, and several neuropeptides), ethyl-gallate staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The study has revealed well-developed optic lobes composed of lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. Ocelli are only present in males and winged parthenogenetic females. The central complex is well-defined, with a central body divided into two parts, a protocerebral bridge, and affiliated lateral accessory lobes. The mushroom bodies are ill-defined, lacking calyces, and only being visualized by using an antiserum against the neuropeptide orcokinin. The antennal lobes contain poorly delineated glomeruli but can be clearly visualized by performing antennal backfills. On the basis of our detailed description of the brain of winged and wingless parthenogenetic A. pisum females, an anatomical map is now available that should improve our knowledge of the way that these structures are involved in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity.

  2. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Karami, Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg). Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects. PMID:27222836

  3. Biostable and PEG polymer-conjugated insect pyrokinin analogs demonstrate antifeedant activity and induce high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable pyrokinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the ...

  4. Variations in the essential oil composition from different parts of Coriandrum sativum L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Msaada, Kamel; Hosni, Karim; Taarit, Mouna Ben; Chahed, Thouraya; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-03-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems and roots) of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) was analyzed. GC and GC-MS analysis enabled us to identify 64 compounds and revealed great qualitative and quantitative differences between the analyzed parts. In all organs, the main compound was (E)-2-dodecenal, followed by (E)-2-tridecenal, gamma-cadinene, (Z)-myroxide, neryl acetate and eugenol. Multivariate analysis (PCA) revealed a high similarity in the essential oils composition between upper leaves and flowers in one hand and basal leaves, roots and stems on the other hand. Further, it has been reported an organ-dependant distribution of essential oil compounds.

  5. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2007-01-01

    Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

  6. Cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1, K2, and H1-extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komota, Yusuke; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Saku, Taiki; Yamaguchi, Koki; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Newly identified cyclic sulfoxides-garlicnins K1 (1), K2 (2), and H1 (3)-were isolated from the acetone extracts of the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum. Garlicnin H1 (3) demonstrated potential to suppress tumor cell proliferation by regulating macrophage activation. The structures of garlicnins K1 and K2, 3,4-dimethyl-5-allyl-tetrahydrothiophen-2-one-S-oxides, and the structure of garlicnin H1, 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-allylsulfoxide-tetrahydrothiophen-2-(ethane-1,2-diol)-S-oxide were characterized by spectroscopic analysis.

  7. An inhibitive enzyme assay to detect mercury and zinc using protease from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC₅₀ values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in the aquatic environments.

  8. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%); P<0.0001. Conclusion We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol. PMID:27849301

  9. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on rat appetite

    PubMed Central

    Nematy, Mohsen; Kamgar, Maryam; Mohajeri, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Tabatabaei Zadeh, Seyed Amir; Jomezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Akbarieh Hasani, Omid; Kamali, Najmeh; Vojouhi, Shohreh; Baghban, Sara; Aghaei, Azita; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing weight in consequence of appetite loss can be a sign of a serious underlying condition. Currently, the most widely prescribed medication for anorexia is cyproheptadine hydrochloride. However, the clinical use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride is limited by its side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, Coriandrum sativum stimulates the appetite. Therefore, the effect of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) hydroalcoholic extract was investigated on food intake in rats. Material and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were used, one group received 0.5 ml water per day (vehicle group), and another group did not receive anything (control group). The other 3 groups were daily treated by 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of coriander for 7 days, respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 days. The amount of energy intake of each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Result: There was no significant change in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. The change in energy intake after treatment by 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract was significantly higher than other groups (p=0.030 and p=0.007) Conclusion: This study indicated that coriander had positive effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms of the effects of this plant on appetite. PMID:25050262

  10. An Inhibitive Enzyme Assay to Detect Mercury and Zinc Using Protease from Coriandrum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Zn2+, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg2+ and Zn2+ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC50 values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg2+ and Zn2+ in the aquatic environments. PMID:24194687

  11. Evaluation of bioactivity of linalool-rich essential oils from Ocimum basilucum and Coriandrum sativum varieties.

    PubMed

    Duman, Ahmet D; Telci, Isa; Dayisoylu, Kenan S; Digrak, Metin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Alma, Mehmet H

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. varieties originating from Turkey were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effects of the oil varieties were evaluated by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against eight bacteria and three fungi. The compositions of the essential oils were analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MS. O. basilicum, C. sativum var. macrocarpum and var. microcarpum oils revealed the presence of linalool (54.4%), eugenol (9.6%), methyl eugenol (7.6%); linalool (78.8%), gamma-terpinene (6.0%), nerol acetate (3.5%); and linalool (90.6%), and nerol acetate (3.3%) as the major components, respectively. The oils exhibited antibacterial activity ranging from 1.25 to 10 microL disc(-1) against the test organisms with inhibition zones of 9.5-39.0 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations values in the range 0.5- > or =1 microL/L. Linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol at 1.25 microL disc(-1) had antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 19 mm.

  12. Protective effects of Coriandrum sativum extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R; Umadevi, M

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of various liver injuries. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum on CCl(4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. CCl(4) injection induced oxidative stress by a significant rise in serum marker enzymes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes. In serum, the activities of enzymes like ALP, ACP and protein and bilirubin were evaluated. Pretreatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (100 and 200mg/kg) significantly lowered SGOT, SGPT and TBARS levels against CCl(4) treated rats. Hepatic enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx were significantly increased by treatment with plant extract, against CCl(4) treated rats. Histopathological examinations showed extensive liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation. Oral administration of the leaf extract at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the toxic effects of CCl(4). The activity of leaf extract at the dose of 200mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin. Based on these results, it was observed that C. sativum extract protects liver from oxidative stress induced by CCl(4) and thus helps in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant.

  13. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2012-07-11

    The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC₅₀ value of 23 μg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 μg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 μg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  14. Species differences in the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of Lepidium sativum and insight into underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to see if the crude extract of Lepidium sativum (Ls.Cr) exhibits species specificity in its antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities along with insight into the underlying mechanisms using the in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. Ls.Cr inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice at doses (300 and 1000 mg/kg) three times higher dose than for rats. In isolated rat ileum and jejunum, Ls.Cr completely inhibited carbachol (CCh), low K⁺ (25 mM) and high K⁺ (80 mM)-induced contractions, while in guinea-pig tissues, Ls.Cr caused complete inhibition of only CCh-induced contraction. In rabbit tissues, Ls.Cr completely inhibited CCh and low K⁺-induced contractions sensitive to K⁺ channel antagonists. Pretreatment of guinea-pig and rat tissues with Ls.Cr caused a rightward shift in CCh-induced contractions in a pattern similar to dicyclomine, while in rabbit and rat tissues, Ls.Cr shifted isoprenaline curves to the left similar to papaverine. These data indicate that the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of L. sativum are species dependent, mediating its antispasmodic effect through combinations of multiple pathways including activation of K⁺ channels, and inhibition of muscarinic receptors, Ca⁺⁺ channels and PDE enzyme. Rat tissues showed the highest potency. Based on the results, we recommend using multiple species to know the real pharmacological profile of medicinal products.

  15. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  16. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. Results: A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. Conclusion: A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. PMID:25628480

  17. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial activity of aqueous decoction of Coriandrum sativum, and Dentol Drop with chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Moradian, Hamid; Bazargani, Abdollah; Rafiee, Azade; Nazarialam, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Dental caries is still remained as a major health problem. This problem has created a new interest to search for new antimicrobial agents from various sources including medicinal plants. Since limited data is available so far regarding the antibacterial effect of Coriandrum sativum seed and Dentol Drop against Streptococcus mutans, this study aims to assess this activity. Materials and Methods This experimental study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In vitro comparison of antimicrobial activity of aqueous decoction of Coriandrum sativum seed and Dentol drop with chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Positive and negative controls were considered. The data was statistically analyzed by applying Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey post-hoc test to compare the groups using SPSS software (version 17). Results Dentol drop showed a remarkable antibacterial activity, in comparison with chlorhexidine, against S. mutans in the disk diffusion (p value = 0.005), and broth microdilution assays (p value = 0.0001). Based on the results of this study, Coriandrum sativum seed did not posses any antibacterial property. Conclusion Coriandrum sativum seed showed no anti-Streptococcus mutans activity. Dentol drop exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against S. mutans when tested in vitro. Dentol drop can be further studied as a preventive measure for dental caries. PMID:24475330

  18. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; dos Santos, Jessica Maria Leite; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-01-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camara essential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  19. Histopathological, oxidative damage, biochemical, and genotoxicity alterations in hepatic rats exposed to deltamethrin: modulatory effects of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Ncir, Marwa; Ben Salah, Ghada; Kamoun, Hassen; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; Khabir, Abdelmajid; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Saoudi, Mongi

    2016-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a pesticide widely used as a synthetic pyrethroid. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of deltamethrin to induce oxidative stress and changes in biochemical parameters, hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in female rats following a short-term (30 days) oral exposure and attenuation of these effects by Allium sativum extract. Indeed, Allium sativum is known to be a good antioxidant food resource which helps destroy free radical particles. Our results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase in liver enzyme activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. However, it induced a decrease in activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (p < 0.01). Allium sativum extract normalized significantly (p < 0.01) the mentioned parameters in deltamethrin-treated rats. For genotoxic evaluation, deltamethrin treatment showed a significant increase in frequencies of micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. Micronucleus formation is an indicator of chromosomal damage which has been increasingly used to detect the genotoxic potential of environmental pests. The present study showed that Allium sativum diminished the adverse effects induced by this synthetic pyrethroid insecticide.

  20. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead.

  1. Mutant Peas as Probes in the Understanding of Growth and Gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Takashi, H.

    1985-01-01

    One mutant of Pism sativum CREEP grows normally up to the first internode stage, and then begins to grow plagiotropically. The upper internodes bend slowly downward according to a programmed sequence which follows circumnutation of the previous internode and opening of the previous leaves, but preceeds expansion of the previous leaves. The bending is partially inhibited by excission of the opposing stipules. The second mutant, AGEOTROPUM is gravitropically incompetant when grown etiolated, in the dark. When etiolated plants are illuminated with white light, the stems become gravitropically competant, but the roots do not. If the plants are grown in the light in particulate medium, some secondary roots, growing randomly, emerge into the air, and turn and grow downward toward moist soil. When etiolated AGEOTROPUM plants are illuminated, the shoots then become able to respond to gravity in a normal, negatively orthogravitropic manner. The response is to red light and is reversed by far red light. The mutation may involve one or more of the following: (1) release of sequestered calcium for redistribution; (2) radial transport of released calcium; or (3) net calcium flux in the upward direction.

  2. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system.

  3. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. SUMMARY The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three

  4. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size.

  5. Larval Performance and Kill Rate of Convergent Ladybird Beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on Black Bean Aphids, Aphis fabae, and Pea Aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Hinkelman, Travis M.; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size. PMID:23909291

  6. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  7. Evaluation of the Susceptibility of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, to a Selection of Novel Biorational Insecticides using an Artificial Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Amin; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    An improved technique was developed to assay the toxicity of insecticides against aphids using an artificial diet. The susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) was determined for a selection of novel biorational insecticides, each representing a novel mode of action. Flonicamid, a novel systemic insecticide with selective activity as feeding blocker against sucking insects, showed high toxicity against first-instar A. pisum nymphs with an LC50 of 20.4 μg/ml after 24 h, and of 0.24 µg/ml after 72 h. The toxicity was compared with another feeding blocker, pymetrozine, and the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid. In addition, four insect growth regulators were tested. The chitin synthesis inhibitor flufenoxuron, the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen, and the azadirachtin compound Neem Azal-T/S showed strong effects and reduced the aphid population by 50% after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 7–9 µg/ml. The ecdysone agonist tested, halofenozide, was less potent. In conclusion, the improved aphid feeding apparatus can be useful as a miniature screening device for insecticides against different aphid pests. The present study demonstrated rapid and strong toxicity of flonicamid, and other biorational insecticides towards A. pisum. PMID:20053120

  8. Crayfish chitosan for microencapsulation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Duman, Fatih; Kaya, Murat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, chitosan, which was obtained from the waste shells of crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus), was used for the encapsulation of the essential oil isolated from coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) via the spray drying method. The obtained capsules were characterized using SEM, FT-IR, TGA and XRD. The size of the microcapsules was between 400nm - 7μm. It was determined that the swelling characteristic of the capsules was pH sensitive. The release showed bi-phasic characteristics and the maximum degree was reached after 72h. Antimicrobial activity studies showed that pure chitosan more effective than the capsule. The antioxidant activity was recorded concentration-dependent. In contrast the antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity of the capsule was found much higher than the oil and the pure chitosan. Consequently, it was determined that this product could be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  9. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  10. Essential oil compositions of different accessions of Coriandrum sativum L. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad Ebrahimi, Samad; Hadian, Javad; Ranjbar, Hamid

    2010-09-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) has been cultivated for a many years in different parts of Iran. The chemical profiles of different accessions were analysed by means of GC-MS. The essential oil content of the dried seeds varied from 0.1% to 0.36%. Thirty-four different compounds were identified in the essential oil of all accessions. Linalool (40.9-79.9%), neryl acetate (2.3-14.2%), gamma-terpinene (0.1-13.6%) and alpha-pinene (1.2-7.1%) were identified as main components in the oil of the coriander accessions. Almost all of the studied accessions contained more that 60% linalool, showing the high quality of coriander seeds produced in Iran and the suitability of the accessions as initial genetic materials for the breeding of homogenous and talented Coriander cultivars.

  11. Picosecond nonlinear optical studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal Rao, S.

    2011-07-01

    The results are presented from the experimental picosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum) extract. Nanoparticles with an average size of ∼30 nm (distribution of 5-70 nm) were synthesised according to the procedure reported by Narayanan et al. [Mater. Lett. 2008, 62, 4588-4591]. NLO studies were carried out using the Z-scan technique using 2 ps pulses near 800 nm. Open-aperture data suggested saturation absorption as the nonlinear absorption mechanism, whereas closed-aperture data suggested a positive nonlinearity. The magnitude of third-order nonlinearity was estimated to be (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10-13 esu. A solvent contribution to the nonlinearity was also identified and estimated. A comparison is attempted with some recently reported NLO studies of similar gold nanostructures.

  12. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop.

  13. Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Passa, Ourania; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; Müller, Carsten T.; Plummer, Sue; O’Rourke, Brian; Lloyd, David

    2009-01-01

    Both the growth and respiration of Candida albicans are sensitive to extracts of Allium sativum and investigations into the anticandidal activities are now focussing on the purified constituents to determine the targets of inhibition. Of particular interest is allyl alcohol (AA), a metabolic product that accumulates after trituration of garlic cloves. Putative targets for AA were investigated by monitoring changes in intracellular responses after exposure of C. albicans cells to AA or a commercially available garlic extract. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy and other techniques were used. Changes typical of oxidative stress – NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species – were observed microscopically and by flow cytometry. Known targets for AA are alcohol dehydrogenases Adh1 and 2 (in the cytosol) and Adh3 (mitochondrial), although the significant decrease in NAD(P)H after addition of AA is indicative of another mechanism of action. PMID:16207909

  14. Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghua; Jiang, Wusheng; Meng, Qingmin; Zou, Jin; Gu, Jiegang; Zeng, Muai

    2009-04-01

    Different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (Allium sativum L.) meristem cells. Results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. Some particulates containing the argyrophilic NOR-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. Finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.

  15. Purification and characterization of a soluble glycoprotein from garlic (Allium sativum) and its in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zou, Tingting; Xiang, Minghui; Jin, Chenzhong; Zhang, Xuejiao; Chen, Yong; Jiang, Qiuqing; Hu, Yihong

    2016-10-02

    A soluble glycoprotein was purified to homogeneity from ripe garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs using ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography. A native mass of 55.7 kDa estimated on gel permeation chromatography and a molecular weight of 13.2 kDa observed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis supported that the glycoprotein is a homotetramer. β-Elimination reaction result suggested that the glycoprotein is an N-linked type. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy proved that it contains sugar. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis showed that its sugar component was galactose. The glycoprotein has 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil free radical scavenging activity and the peroxidation inhibition ability to polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results indicated that the glycoprotein has potential for food additives, functional foods, and even biotechnological and medical applications.

  16. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm.

  17. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera.

    PubMed

    Lanzotti, Virginia; Barile, Elisa; Antignani, Vincenzo; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., var. Voghiera, typical of Voghiera, Ferrara (Italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside A1/A2 and voghieroside B1/B2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside C1/C2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside D1/D2 and E1/E2, based on gitogenin aglycone. In addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-O-trisaccharide and gitogenin 3-O-tetrasaccharide. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of two eugenol diglycosides were also found for the first time in Allium spp. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity towards two fungal species, the air-borne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

  18. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology.

  19. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    PubMed

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  20. Analysis of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum Using GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Ling-Yun; Shen, Mei; Ma, An-De; Yang, Xue-Mei; Zou, Fei

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils extracted from Coriandrum sativum L. were analyzed by GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution methods. Through the chemometric resolution methods, peak clusters were uniquely resolved into the pure chromatographic profiles and mass spectra of each component. Qualitative analysis was performed by comparing the pure mass spectra with those in the NIST 05 mass spectral library. Quantitative analysis was performed using the total volume integration method. A total of 118 constituents were detected, of which 104 were identified, accounting for 97.27% of the total content. The results indicate that GC-MS combined with chemometric resolution methods can greatly enhance the capability of separation and the reliability of qualitative and quantitative results. The combined method is an economical and accurate approach for the rapid analysis of the complex essential oil samples in Coriandrum sativum L.

  1. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  2. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  3. Therapeutic efficacies of Coriandrum sativum aqueous extract against metronidazole-induced genotoxicity in Channa punctatus peripheral erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Soumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Subham; Guha, Gunjan; Auddy, Moumita; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha

    2010-12-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ), a nitroimidazole drug, is primarily used as an anti-protozoan or an anti-bacterial agent in humans, although its genotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been widely reported, particularly in aquatic organisms. MTZ may induce DNA damages through single-strand breaks, modification of bases, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links, ultimately leading to apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we have assessed the genotoxicity of MTZ in the peripheral erythrocytes of Channa punctatus, using micronucleation (MN) and binucleation (BN) as genotoxicity markers. The therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum against MTZ-induced genotoxicity has also been examined. The results show significant (P<0.05) increase in both MN and BN formation due to MTZ treatment. Such aberrations were higher in smaller fish samples for a particular dosage of MTZ, as established by correlation analysis between fish body weight and MN/BN count at P<0.05. However, such degenerative damages were found to be alleviated by a great extent due to treatment with C. sativum leaf extract. Hence, we establish that MTZ can produce considerable degrees of micronucleus and binucleus formation in peripheral erythrocytes of C. punctatus, and such deleterious effect of MTZ treatment can be mitigated by aqueous extract of C. sativum leaves.

  4. Characterisation, analysis of expression and localisation of circadian clock genes from the perspective of photoperiodism in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Barberà, Miquel; Collantes-Alegre, Jorge Mariano; Martínez-Torres, David

    2017-02-22

    Aphids are typical photoperiodic insects that switch from viviparous parthenogenetic reproduction typical of long day seasons to oviparous sexual reproduction triggered by the shortening of photoperiod in autumn yielding an overwintering egg in which an embryonic diapause takes place. While the involvement of the circadian clock genes in photoperiodism in mammals is well established, there is still some controversy on their participation in insects. The availability of the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum places this species as an excellent model to investigate the involvement of the circadian system in the aphid seasonal response. In the present report, we have advanced in the characterisation of the circadian clock genes and showed that these genes display extensive alternative splicing. Moreover, the expression of circadian clock genes, analysed at different moments of the day, showed a robust cycling of central clock genes period and timeless. Furthermore, the rhythmic expression of these genes was shown to be rapidly dampened under DD (continuous darkness conditions), thus supporting the model of a seasonal response based on a heavily dampened circadian oscillator. Additionally, increased expression of some of the circadian clock genes under short-day conditions suggest their involvement in the induction of the aphid seasonal response. Finally, in situ localisation of transcripts of genes period and timeless in the aphid brain revealed the site of clock neurons for the first time in aphids. Two groups of clock cells were identified: the Dorsal Neurons (DN) and the Lateral Neurons (LN), both in the protocerebrum.

  5. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Michael A.; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Deist, Benjamin R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  6. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Louis, Joe; Pappan, Loretta K; Pappan, Kirk; Begum, Khurshida; Chen, Ming-Shun; Park, Yoonseong; Dittmer, Neal; Marshall, Jeremy; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R

    2008-07-22

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Here, we focus on a salivary protein we have arbitrarily designated Protein C002. We have shown, by using RNAi-based transcript knockdown, that this protein is important in the survival of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on fava bean, a host plant. Here, we further characterize the protein, its transcript, and its gene, and we study the feeding process of knockdown aphids. The encoded protein fails to match any protein outside of the family Aphididae. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the transcript and the protein were localized to a subset of secretory cells in principal salivary glands. Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. By using the electrical penetration graph method on c002-knockdown aphids, we find that the knockdown affects several aspects of foraging and feeding, with the result that the c002-knockdown aphids spend very little time in contact with phloem sap in sieve elements. Thus, we infer that Protein C002 is crucial in the feeding of the pea aphid on fava bean.

  7. The Differential Effect of Low-Dose Mixtures of Four Pesticides on the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Thany, Steeve H.

    2016-01-01

    The modes of action of most insecticides are known, but little information exists regarding the toxicological interactions involving insecticide mixtures at low doses. The effects of mixtures of four insecticides were investigated using LC10 values (concentration leading to 10% mortality), acetamiprid (ACE, 0.235 µg/mL), chlorpyriphos (CHL, 107.0 µg/mL), deltamethrin (DEL, 5.831 µg/mL), and fipronil (FIP, 3.775 µg/mL) on the larvae of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. After 24 h exposure, 6 of the 11 tested combinations, DEL/FIP, ACE/DEL, CHL/FIP, ACE/DEL/FIP, ACE/CHL/FIP, and ACE/DEL/CHL/FIP, were toxic through an additive effect. Four combinations, ACE/FIP, DEL/CHL, ACE/CHL, and ACE/DEL/CHL had a synergistic effect, whereas only one DEL/CHL/FIP showed an antagonistic effect. The toxic effect of these mixtures was confirmed after 48 h of exposure, revealing an enhanced toxicity of CHL, DEL, and FIP in combination with ACE. We suggest that an insect pest management strategy should be evaluated in the future using different combinations of insecticides. PMID:27754329

  8. Characterization of pea vicilin. 1. Denoting convicilin as the alpha-subunit of the Pisum vicilin family.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Francesca E; Happe, Randolph P; Vereijken, Johan M; Gruppen, Harry; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2004-05-19

    Vicilin, a major globulin protein of pea that has been described as "extremely heterogeneous in terms of its polypeptide composition", was extracted from pea flour under alkaline conditions and subsequently fractionated by salt under acid conditions. This procedure induced the separation of vicilin into two fractions, which, after purification, were called vicilin 1 degrees and vicilin 2 degrees. Vicilin 2 degrees was seen on SDS-PAGE to contain the third globulin protein of pea, convicilin (a band at approximately 70 kDa). Vicilin fractions were thus characterized using gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and pH-dependent solubility in order to determine whether the convicilin should in fact be considered as a third separate globulin protein of pea. On the basis of the results obtained it was concluded that this distinct polypeptide of the Pisum vicilin gene family should be further denoted as a subunit of the salt extractable protein vicilin. The definition of vicilin heterogeneity should therefore be extended to acknowledge the possible oligomeric inclusion of the 70 kDa polypeptide that is here denoted as the alpha-subunit.

  9. Life-history trade-offs mediate 'personality' variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Kloesener, Michaela H; Baeumer, Jana; Beinlich, Felix; Eggers, Till

    2015-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, life span) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was measured repeatedly to classify individuals as consistent droppers, consistent nondroppers or inconsistents. Red morphs experienced stronger trade-offs between early reproduction and life span than green morphs; and red consistent (non)droppers had highest lifetime reproductive success. Red droppers followed a risk-averse life-history strategy (high late reproduction), red nondroppers a risk-prone strategy (high early reproduction), while reproductive rates were equivalent for all green behavioural types and red inconsistents. This suggests that red morphs suffer the highest costs of dropping (they are most conspicuous to predators), which 'equivalates' fitness payoffs to both risk-takers (red non-droppers) and risk-averse red droppers. The strong trade-off also means that committing to a particular lifestyle (being consistent) maximises fitness. Our study suggests that life-history trade-offs likely mediate personality variation but effects might depend on interactions with other organismal characteristics (here: colour morph).

  10. The Combined Effects of Bacterial Symbionts and Aging on Life History Traits in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maretta H.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    While many endosymbionts have beneficial effects on hosts under specific ecological conditions, there can also be associated costs. In order to maximize their own fitness, hosts must facilitate symbiont persistence while preventing symbiont exploitation of resources, which may require tight regulation of symbiont populations. As a host ages, the ability to invest in such mechanisms may lessen or be traded off with demands of other life history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, we measured survival, lifetime fecundity, and immune cell counts (hemocytes, a measure of immune capacity) in the presence of facultative secondary symbionts. Additionally, we quantified the densities of the obligate primary bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and secondary symbionts across the host's lifetime. We found life history costs to harboring some secondary symbiont species. Secondary symbiont populations were found to increase with host age, while Buchnera populations exhibited a more complicated pattern. Immune cell counts peaked at the midreproductive stage before declining in the oldest aphids. The combined effects of immunosenescence and symbiont population growth may have important consequences for symbiont transmission and maintenance within a host population. PMID:24185857

  11. Sex versus parthenogenesis: a transcriptomic approach of photoperiod response in the model aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Cortés, T; Tagu, D; Simon, J C; Moya, A; Martínez-Torres, D

    2008-01-31

    Most aphids develop a cyclic parthenogenesis life-cycle. After several generations of viviparous parthenogenetic females, it follows a single annual generation of sexual individuals, usually in autumn, that mate and lay the sexual eggs. Shortening of photoperiod at the end of the summer is a key factor inducing the sexual response. With the survey here reported we aimed at identifying a collection of candidate genes to participate at some point in the cascade of events that lead to the sexual phenotypes. Following a suppression subtractive hybridization methodology (SSH) on the model aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we built and characterised two reciprocal cDNA libraries (SDU and SDD) enriched respectively in genes up-regulated or down-regulated by short photoperiod conditions that lead to the sexual response in this aphid species. A total of 557 ESTs were obtained altogether representing 223 non-overlapping contigs. 29% of these were new sequences not present in previous aphid EST libraries. BLAST searches allowed putative identification of about 54% of the contigs present in both libraries. Relative quantification of expression through real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the differential expression in relation with the photoperiod of 6 genes (3 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated by shortening the day length). Among these, expression of a tubulin gene, two cuticular proteins and a yet unidentified sequence along the day-night cycle was further investigated. Implications for current studies on gene regulation of the dichotomy sex vs. parthenogenesis in aphids are discussed.

  12. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  13. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  15. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  16. Toxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants grown in organic soil.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria Isabel; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose Angel; Nunez, Jose E; Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Tafoya, Alejandro; Flores-Marges, Juan Pedro; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2013-07-03

    Studies have shown that CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) can be accumulated in plants without modification, which could pose a threat for human health. In this research, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants were germinated and grown for 30 days in soil amended with 0 to 500 mg kg⁻¹ CeO₂ NPs and analyzed by spectroscopic techniques and biochemical assays. At 125 mg kg⁻¹, plants produced longer roots (p ≤ 0.05), and at 500 mg kg⁻¹, there was higher Ce accumulation in tissues (p ≤ 0.05). At 125 mg, catalase activity significantly increased in shoots and ascorbate peroxidase in roots (p ≤ 0.05). The FTIR analyses revealed that at 125 mg kg⁻¹ the CeO₂ NPs changed the chemical environment of carbohydrates in cilantro shoots, for which changes in the area of the stretching frequencies were observed. This suggests that the CeO₂ NPs could change the nutritional properties of cilantro.

  17. Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

    2012-07-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance.

  18. Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

    2012-06-01

    The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), α-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, α,α,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-α-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55 ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79 ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti.

  19. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2009-01-01

    Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.

  20. Study of toxicity of imidazolium ionic liquids to watercress (Lepidium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Studzińska, Sylwia; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-02-01

    The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum L. germination to three imidazolium ionic liquids was investigated in solutions and soils artificially contaminated with mixtures of those compounds. In case of aquatic solutions, the toxic character of analyzed compounds is connected with their hydrophobicity. The seedling growth is increasing with the decrease in ionic liquid hydrophobicity. The novelty of those studies is the application of high-performance liquid chromatography, which was used for the determination of ionic liquid quantity absorbed by cress. There was almost linear relationship between decrease in root germination and amount of ionic liquid uptaken by cress. Furthermore, the systematic studies on the influence of total organic carbon content in soil on the toxicity of ionic liquids to cress were performed for the first time. Hazardous effects appeared to be closely connected with organic matter: with the decrease of total organic carbon quantity, the inhibition of plant growth was more significant. Visual effects of ionic liquid toxic activity to garden cress are similar as in the case of nutrient deficit in plants.

  1. New mannose-specific lectins from garlic (Allium sativum) and ramsons (Allium ursinum) bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Goldstein, I J; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J

    1992-05-22

    Two new mannose-binding lectins were isolated from garlic (Allium sativum, ASA) and ramsons (Allium ursinum, AUA) bulbs, of the family Alliaceae, by affinity chromatography on immobilized mannose. The carbohydrate-binding specificity of these two lectins was studied by quantitative precipitation and hapten-inhibition assay. ASA reacted strongly with a synthetic linear (1----3)-alpha-D-mannan and S. cerevisiae mannan, weakly with a synthetic (1----6)-alpha-D-mannan, and failed to precipitate with galactomannans from T. gropengiesseri and T. lactis-condensi, a linear mannopentaose, and murine IgM. On the other hand, AUA gave a strong reaction of precipitation with murine IgM, and good reactions with S. cerevisiae mannan and both synthetic linear mannans, suggesting that the two lectins have somewhat different binding specificities for alpha-D-mannosyl units. Of the saccharides tested as inhibitors of precipitation, those with alpha-(1----3)-linked mannosyl units were the best inhibitors of ASA, the alpha-(1----2)-, alpha-(1----4)-, and alpha-(1----6)-linked mannobioses and biosides having less than one eighth the affinity of the alpha-(1----3)-linked compounds. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of ASA exhibits 79% homology with that of AUA, and moderately high homology (53%) with that of snowdrop bulb lectin, also an alpha-D-mannosyl-binding lectin.

  2. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species. PMID:25987765

  3. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  4. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-06-17

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant.

  5. Characterization of Ca2+ Transport in Purified Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Vesicles from Lepidium sativum L. Roots

    PubMed Central

    Buckhout, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of Ca2+ transport into endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from roots of Lepidium sativum L. cv Krause have been investigated. The concentration of free Ca2+ and ATP needed for half-maximal activity were 2.5 and 73 micromolar, respectively, and the enzyme obeyed Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics. The pH maximum occurred at 7.5 and the activity was greatly reduced at either pH 7.0 or 8.0. The Ca2+-dependent modulation protein, calmodulin, was tested for its effect on Ca2+ transport into endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Although the phenothiazine inhibitors chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, and trifluoperazine all inhibited Ca2+ transport activity with a half-maximal effect at approximately 35 micromolar, authentic bovine brain calmodulin did not alter the activity at concentrations of 0.5 to 8 micrograms per milliliter. Calmodulin also showed no influence on the time-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ into vesicles. The membranes did not contain endogenously bound calmodulin since washing with (ethylenebis[oxyethylenenitrile])tetraacetic acid or fluphenazine, treatments which disrupt calmodulin binding, did not alter Ca2+ transport activity. The inhibition of Ca2+ transport by phenothiazine drugs was likely related to their nonspecific interaction with the membrane. Thus, there was no indication that calmodulin regulated Ca2+ uptake into root endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16663981

  6. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.

  7. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  8. Allium sativum L. extract prevents methyl mercury-induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood leukocytes (LS).

    PubMed

    Abdalla, F H; Bellé, L P; De Bona, K S; Bitencourt, P E R; Pigatto, A S; Moretto, M B

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is involved in purine metabolism and plays a significant role in the immune system. The focus of this investigation was to examine the effects of low concentrations of organic mercury on ADA activity in human leukocytes and to investigate the relationship between these effects and cell death. We have examined the protective potential effects of Allium sativum extract (GaE) against Methylmercury (MeHg)-induced cytotoxic effects on human leucocytes under in vitro conditions. MeHg (0.05-10 microM) significantly decreased leukocyte viability (58.97% for MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and 51.67% for Alamar Blue (AB) and this decrease was positively correlated to the MeHg-induced inhibition of ADA activity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and GaE prevented both the MeHg-induced cytotoxic effects on leukocytes according to MTT and AB assays and the effects on the ADA activity. The present results suggest that the protective effects of GaE against MeHg-induced leukocyte damage is related to the removal of oxidant species generated in the presence of MeHg due to the antioxidant efficacy of garlic constituents. It is important to point out that the intense presence of ADA in Leukocyte suspension (LS) highlights the relevant effects in the immune system and in vitro cytotoxicity of MeHg exposure.

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed.

  10. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Allium sativum extract and their assessment as SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Cristina; Leopold, Loredana Florina; Rugină, Olivia Dumitriţa; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Leopold, Nicolae; Tofană, Maria; Socaciu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    A green synthesis was used for preparing stable colloidal gold nanoparticles by using Allium sativum aqueous extract both as reducing and capping agent. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, their potential to be used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was investigated. The obtained gold nanoparticles have spherical shape with mean diameters of 9-15 nm (depending on the amount of reducing agent used under boiling conditions) and are stable up to several months. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the nanoparticles are capped by protein molecules from the extract. The protein shell offers a protective coating, relatively impervious to external molecules, thus, rendering the nanoparticles stable and quite inert. These nanoparticles have the potential to be used as SERS substrates, both in solution and inside human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 living cells. We were able to demonstrate both the internalization of the nanoparticles inside HFL-1 cells and their ability to preserve the SERS signal after cellular internalization.

  12. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

  13. Stable isotope studies reveal pathways for the incorporation of non-essential amino acids in Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphids).

    PubMed

    Haribal, Meena; Jander, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. Given the preponderance of these four amino acids, phloem sap is a nutritionally unbalanced diet for phloem-feeding insects. Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. To investigate the metabolism of the four main transport amino acids by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), and its Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts, aphids were fed defined diets with stable isotope-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid (U-(13)C, U-(15)N; U-(15)N; α-(15)N; or γ-(15)N). The metabolic fate of the dietary (15)N and (13)C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of (13)C atoms into essential amino acids. GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo, most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes.

  14. Post-reproductive parthenogenetic pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are visually identifiable and disproportionately positioned distally to clonal colonies

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Julia Daisy; Henneman, Nathaniel Fath; Levitis, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce. Pea aphids, (Acyrthosiphon pisum), common, tractable organisms, frequently outlive their reproductive ages in laboratories, live in tight interacting groups that are often clonal, and therefore should be evaluated as potential model organisms for the study of adaptive post-reproductive life. The first major step in this process is to identify an optimal method for assessing if a parthenogenetic adult is post-reproductive. We evaluated three methods, relying respectively on isolation in clip cages, visual examination for embryonic eyespots, and dissection. In every case each method identified the same individuals as reproductive versus post-reproductive. While the clip-cage method requires a multi-day wait to produce data, and dissection is inevitably fatal, the eyespot method is quick (under one minute per individual) easy, and non-invasive. This method makes it possible to accurately assess the post-reproductive status of a large number of parthenogenetic pea aphids. We demonstrate the usefulness of the eyespot method in showing that while reproductively valuable adults tend to place themselves near the centers of clonal colonies, less valuable post-reproductive adults are more often at or beyond the edges of colonies. These encouraging early results provide both

  15. Post-reproductive parthenogenetic pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are visually identifiable and disproportionately positioned distally to clonal colonies.

    PubMed

    Saberski, Erik T; Diamond, Julia Daisy; Henneman, Nathaniel Fath; Levitis, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce. Pea aphids, (Acyrthosiphon pisum), common, tractable organisms, frequently outlive their reproductive ages in laboratories, live in tight interacting groups that are often clonal, and therefore should be evaluated as potential model organisms for the study of adaptive post-reproductive life. The first major step in this process is to identify an optimal method for assessing if a parthenogenetic adult is post-reproductive. We evaluated three methods, relying respectively on isolation in clip cages, visual examination for embryonic eyespots, and dissection. In every case each method identified the same individuals as reproductive versus post-reproductive. While the clip-cage method requires a multi-day wait to produce data, and dissection is inevitably fatal, the eyespot method is quick (under one minute per individual) easy, and non-invasive. This method makes it possible to accurately assess the post-reproductive status of a large number of parthenogenetic pea aphids. We demonstrate the usefulness of the eyespot method in showing that while reproductively valuable adults tend to place themselves near the centers of clonal colonies, less valuable post-reproductive adults are more often at or beyond the edges of colonies. These encouraging early results provide both

  16. Selection of chemotaxis mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed for the efficient selection of chemotaxis mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum. Mutants defective in the chemotactic response to folate could be enriched up to 30-fold in one round of selection using a chamber in which a compartment that contained the chemoattractant was separated by a sandwich of four nitrocellulose filters from a compartment that contained buffer. Mutagenized cells were placed in the center of the filter layer and exposed to the attractant gradient built up between the compartments for a period of 3-4 h. While wild-type cells moved through the filters in a wave towards the compartment that contained attractant, mutant cells remained in the filter to which they were applied. After several repetitions of the selection procedure, mutants defective in chemotaxis made up 10% of the total cell population retained in that filter. Mutants exhibiting three types of alterations were collected: motility mutants with either reduced speed of movement, or altered rates of turning; a single mutant defective in production of the attractant- degrading enzyme, folate deaminase; and mutants with normal motility but reduced chemotactic responsiveness. One mutant showed drastically reduced sensitivity in folate-induced cGMP production. Morphogenetic alterations of mutants defective in folate chemotaxis are described. PMID:3793759

  17. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and lead in the selected brain regions, liver, and kidney of lead-exposed group compared with their respective controls. Blood delta-ALAD activity showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the lead-exposed rats. However, the concomitant administration of A. sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  18. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0360 TITLE: Targeting ESR1- Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Geoffrey L. Greene, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE September 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2014 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1- Mutant ...approved hormonal therapies and that more potent, selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) will enable complete inhibition of mutant ER signaling and

  19. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1- Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1- Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...current FDA approved hormonal therapies and that more potent, selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) will enable complete inhibition of mutant

  20. Infection Dynamic of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Gut and Host Immune Response at the Early Steps in the Infection Process

    PubMed Central

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid. PMID:25811863

  1. Electrophysiological study of Drosophila rhodopsin mutants

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Electrophysiological investigations were carried out on several independently isolated mutants of the ninaE gene, which encodes opsin in R1-6 photoreceptors, and a mutant of the ninaD gene, which is probably important in the formation of the rhodopsin chromophore. In these mutants, the rhodopsin content in R1-6 photoreceptors is reduced by 10(2)-10(6)-fold. Light-induced bumps recorded from even the most severely affected mutants are physiologically normal. Moreover, a detailed noise analysis shows that photoreceptor responses of both a ninaE mutant and a ninaD mutant follow the adapting bump model. Since any extensive rhodopsin-rhodopsin interactions are not likely in these mutants, the above results suggest that such interactions are not needed for the generation and adaptation of light-induced bumps. Mutant bumps are strikingly larger in amplitude than wild-type bumps. This difference is observed both in ninaD and ninaE mutants, which suggests that it is due to severe depletion of rhodopsin content, rather than to any specific alterations in the opsin protein. Lowering or buffering the intracellular calcium concentration by EGTA injection mimics the effects of the mutations on the bump amplitude, but, unlike the mutations, it also affects the latency and kinetics of light responses. PMID:3097245

  2. Identifying representative drug resistant mutants of HIV

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is one of the most important causes for failure of anti-AIDS treatment. During therapy, multiple mutations accumulate in the HIV genome, eventually rendering the drugs ineffective in blocking replication of the mutant virus. The huge number of possible mutants precludes experimental analysis to explore the molecular mechanisms of resistance and develop improved antiviral drugs. Results In order to solve this problem, we have developed a new algorithm to reveal the most representative mutants from the whole drug resistant mutant database based on our newly proposed unified protein sequence and 3D structure encoding method. Mean shift clustering and multiple regression analysis were applied on genotype-resistance data for mutants of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. This approach successfully chooses less than 100 mutants with the highest resistance to each drug out of about 10K in the whole database. When considering high level resistance to multiple drugs, the numbers reduce to one or two representative mutants. Conclusion This approach for predicting the most representative mutants for each drug has major importance for experimental verification since the results provide a small number of representative sequences, which will be amenable for in vitro testing and characterization of the expressed mutant proteins. PMID:26678327

  3. Transcriptome profiling, and cloning and characterization of the main monoterpene synthases of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Galata, Mariana; Sarker, Lukman S; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2014-06-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of specialized metabolites that are essential for the growth and development of plants, and have tremendous industrial applications. The mericarps of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) produce an essential oil (EO) rich in monoterpenes, volatile C10 terpenoids. To investigate EO metabolism, the transcriptome of coriander mericarps, at three developmental stages (early, mid, late) was sequenced via Illumina technology and a transcript library was produced. To validate the usability of the transcriptome sequences, two terpene synthase candidate genes, CsγTRPS and CsLINS, encoding 558 and 562 amino acid proteins were expressed in bacteria, and the recombinant proteins purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The 65.16 (CsγTRPS) and 65.91 (CsLINS)kDa recombinant proteins catalyzed the conversion of geranyl diphosphate, the precursor to monoterpenes, to γ-terpinene and (S)-linalool, respectively, with apparent Vmax and Km values of 2.24±0.16 (CsγTRPS); 19.63±1.05 (CsLINS)pkat/mg and 66.25±13 (CsγTRPS); 2.5±0.6 (CsLINS)μM, respectively. Together, CsγTRPS and CsLINS account for the majority of EO constituents in coriander mericarps. Investigation of the coriander transcriptome, and knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies concerning essential and fatty acid oil production in coriander. They also enable efforts to improve the coriander oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding.

  4. Enhancement of folate content and its stability using food grade elicitors in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Folate (vitamin B₉) content was evaluated in 10 varieties of coriander with the aim of enhancing its concentration and stability, because of three reasons: 1) coriander is among a few widely used greens in the world and suits many cuisines, 2) folate deficiency is prevalent in developing countries causing anaemia, infant mortality and neural tube closure defects, and 3) natural folate is preferred due to doubts about health risks associated with the synthetic form. In C. sativum, the highest folate content of 1,577 μg/100 g DW was found in var. GS4 Multicut foliage of mature plants (marketable stage) with an insignificantly higher content (1,599.74 μg/100 g DW) at flowering, which is a stage not preferred in markets. In callus cultures treated with plant growth regulators (GRs) (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and abscisic acid) substantial increase in folate occurred after 6 h, whereas elicitors (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) caused rapid 2-fold increase of folate, particularly in response to salicylic acid. Based on these observations, foliar applications were done for in vivo plants, where salicylic acid (250 μM, 24 h) also enhanced folate level by 2-folds (3,112.33 μg/100 g DW), although the content varied with diurnal rhythms. Stability of folates in treated coriander foliage was 10 % higher than in untreated foliage when stored at 25 °C and 4 °C. This study has established for the first time that coriander foliage is rich in folates, which can be doubled by elicitation and impart 10 % more stability than control during processing and storage.

  5. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition.

  6. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2004-11-02

    Aromatic amines are metabolically activated into mutagenic compounds by both animal and plant systems. The 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP) is a well-known direct-acting mutagen whose mutagenic potential can be enhanced by plant metabolism; m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) is converted to mutagenic products detected by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain, and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) is the plant-activated promutagen most extensively studied. Plant cells activate both 2-AF and m-PDA into potent mutagens producing DNA frameshift mutations. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a common plant included in the Mexican diet, usually consumed uncooked. The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected antimutagenic effect. Protein content and peroxidase activity were also determined. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic inhibition could be involved. The negative correlation between chlorophyll content and mutagenic response of the promutagenic and direct-acting used amines allows us to deduce that a chemical interaction takes place between the two molecules

  7. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  8. Opiate System Mediate the Antinociceptive Effects of Coriandrum sativum in Mice.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Abbas Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ameri, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study showed that Coriandrum sativum (CS) has antinociceptive effects, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect are not clear. The present study was designed to test the role of opiate system in the antinociceptive effects of CS on acute and chronic pain in mice using Hot Plate (HP), Tail Flick (TF) and Formalin (FT) tests and also to compare its effect with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST). Young adult male albino mice (25-30 g) in 33 groups (n = 8 in each group) were used in this study. CS (125 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg IP), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/Kg IP), vehicle (VEH) or swim stress were used 30 min before the pain evaluation tests. Acute and chronic pain was assessed by HP, TF and FT models. In addition, Naloxone (NAL, 2 mg/Kg, IP) was injected 15 min before the CS extract administration in order to assess the role of opiate system in the antinociception of CS. Results indicated that CS, DEX and ST have analgesic effects (p < 0.01) in comparison with the control group and higher dose of CS was more effective (p < 0.001). Besides, pretreatment of NAL modulates the antinociceptive effects of CS in all models (p < 0.001). The above findings showed that CS, DEX and ST have modulator effects on pain. These findings further indicate that the CS extract has more analgesic effects than DEX and ST and also provides the evidence for the existence of an interaction between antinociceptive effects of CS and opiate system.

  9. Effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus.

    PubMed

    Aboelhadid, S M; Kamel, A A; Arafa, W M; Shokier, K A

    2013-05-01

    The study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of Boophilus annulatus hard tick. Engorged B. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. A number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °C and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. The used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography. These oils were dissolved in ethanol, methanol alcohols, and, partially, in water. The oils were tested in different concentrations; 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 %. These concentrations were applied on adult ticks by adult immersion test; on larvae by larval immersion technique and on eggs. The 20, 10, and 5 % of garlic oil dilutions in ethanol and methanol killed all adult ticks and larvae within 24 h. Similar results were obtained for 10 and 20 % garlic oil dissolved in water. The effect of 10 % aqueous solution of garlic oil on embryonated eggs was clear as its addition to these eggs led to their in ability to hatch, deformity in shape, and change in color. The 10 and 20 % onion oil in ethanol and methanol alcohols killed 76-86 % of the adult ticks within 72 h post-application. While, all larvae died within 24 h postsubjected to these two concentrations. These concentrations (10 and 20 %) of onion oil in water killed 56-80 % of the treated ticks. Moreover, 10 % aqueous solution of onion oil prevented hatching of embyonated eggs. We concluded that garlic and onion oils have acaricidal effect on all stages of B. annulatus at concentrations higher than 5 %. Only garlic oil could kill 100 % of adult ticks at concentrations from 5 % in alcohols.

  10. Mutant calreticulin requires both its mutant C-terminus and the thrombopoietin receptor for oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Chen, Edwin; Perales-Patón, Javier; Rosen, Emily A.; Ko, Amy; Peisker, Fabian; Florescu, Natalie; Giannini, Silvia; Wolach, Ofir; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Tothova, Zuzana; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Schneider, Rebekka K.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Mullally, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in calreticulin (CALR) are present in approximately 40% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) but the mechanism by which mutant CALR is oncogenic remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that expression of mutant CALR alone is sufficient to engender MPN in mice and recapitulates the disease phenotype of CALR-mutant MPN patients. We further show that the thrombopoietin receptor, MPL is required for mutant CALR-driven transformation through JAK-STAT pathway activation, thus rendering mutant CALR-transformed hematopoietic cells sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the oncogenicity of mutant CALR is dependent on the positive electrostatic charge of the C-terminus of the mutant protein, which is necessary for physical interaction between mutant CALR and MPL. Together, our findings elucidate a novel paradigm of cancer pathogenesis and reveal how CALR mutations induce MPN. PMID:26951227

  11. Enhancers of Conidiation Mutants in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Gems, D. H.; Clutterbuck, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Mutants at a number of loci, designated sthenyo, have been isolated as enhancers of the oligoconidial mutations at the medA locus. Two loci have been mapped: sthA on linkage group I, and sthB on linkage group V. Two probable alleles have been identified at each locus but two further mutants were unlinked to either sthA or sthB. Neither sthA nor sthB mutants have conspicuous effects on morphology on their own, nor could the sthA1 sthB2 double mutant be distinguished from wild type. Mutants at both loci also interact with the temperature-sensitive brlA42 mutant at the permissive temperature to give a phenotype described as ``Abacoid.'' sthA1 also induces a slight modification of the phenotype of an abaA mutant. We conclude that sthenyo genes act mainly at the phialide stage of conidiation. We also describe the isolation of new medA mutants arising spontaneously as outgrowths on brlA42 colonies. PMID:8056325

  12. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation.

  13. A halotolerant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Gaxiola, R; Corona, M; Zinker, S

    1996-01-01

    FRD, a nuclear and dominant spontaneous mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of growing in up to 2 M NaCl, was isolated. Compared with parental cells, the mutant cells have a lower intracellular Na+/K+ ratio, shorter generation times in the presence of 1 M NaCl, and alterations in gene expression. PMID:8631691

  14. Acaricidal activities of apiol and its derivatives from Petroselinum sativum seeds against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yun; Yang, Ji Yeon; Suh, Joo Won; Lee, Hoi Seon

    2011-07-27

    The acaricidal effects of an active constituent derived from Petroselinum sativum seeds and its derivatives were determined using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of synthetic acaricide. The acaricidal constituent of P. sativum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and identified as apiol. On the basis of LD(50) values against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, apiol (0.81 and 0.94 μg/cm(2)) was 12.4 and 10.2 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0 and 9.58 μg/cm(2)), respectively. In acaricidal studies of apiol derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzonitrile (0.04, 0.03, and 0.59 μg/cm(2)) was 250, 319, and 20.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0, 9.58, and 12.2 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae. In structure-activity relationships, the acaricidal activities of apiol derivatives could be related to allyl (-C(3)H(5)) and methoxy (-OCH(3)) functional groups. Furthermore, apiol and its derivatives could be useful for natural acaricides against these three mite species.

  15. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  16. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-06-30

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  17. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1-7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC(50) values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC(50) = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC(50) = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.

  18. Effects of steam distillation and screw-pressing on extraction, composition and functional properties of protein in dehulled coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. An integrated process combined steam distillation, dehulling, and screw pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil from coriander fruit. The current work determine...

  19. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  20. crl mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resemble both mutants affecting general control of amino acid biosynthesis and omnipotent translational suppressor mutants.

    PubMed

    McCusker, J H; Haber, J E

    1988-06-01

    Cyocloheximide resistant lethal (crl) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defining 22 unlinked complementation groups, are unable to grow at 37 degrees. They are also highly pleiotropic at their permissive temperature of 25 degrees. The mutants are all unable to arrest at the G1 stage of the cell cycle when grown to stationary phase or when starved for a single amino acid, though they do arrest at G1 when deprived of all nitrogen. The crl mutants are also hypersensitive to various amino acid analogs and to 3-aminotriazole. These mutants also "tighten" leaky auxotrophic mutations that permit wild-type cells to grow in the absence of the appropriate amino acid. All of these phenotypes are also exhibited by gcn mutants affecting general control of amino acid biosynthesis. In addition, the crl mutants are all hypersensitive to hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that stimulates translational misreading. The crl mutations also suppress one nonsense mutation which is phenotypically suppressed by hygromycin B. Many crl mutants are also osmotically sensitive. These are phenotypes which the crl mutations have in common with previously isolated omnipotent suppressors. We suggest that the the crl mutations all affect the fidelity of protein translation.

  1. Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R P; Saporito, S M; Spitzer, S G; Weiss, B

    1986-01-01

    A cloned gene, designated nfo, caused overproduction of an EDTA-resistant endonuclease specific for apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in DNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme was similar to that of endonuclease IV. An insertion mutation was constructed in vitro and transferred from a plasmid to the Escherichia coli chromosome. nfo mutants had an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C and to the oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bleomycin. The nfo mutation enhanced the killing of xth (exonuclease III) mutants by methyl methanesulfonate, H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and gamma rays, and it enhanced their mutability by methyl methanesulfonate. It also increased the temperature sensitivity of an xth dut (dUTPase) mutant that is defective in the repair of uracil-containing DNA. These results are consistent with earlier findings that endonuclease IV and exonuclease III both cleave DNA 5' to an apurinic-apyrimidinic site and that exonuclease III is more active. However, nfo mutants were more sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and to bleomycin than were xth mutants, suggesting that endonuclease IV might recognize some lesions that exonuclease III does not. The mutants displayed no marked increase in sensitivity to 254-nm UV radiation, and the addition of an nth (endonuclease III) mutation to nfo or nfo xth mutants did not significantly increase their sensitivity to any of the agents tested. Images PMID:2430946

  2. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol < n- > (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al < 2E > (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol < 2E- > (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %).

  3. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis and genome size analysis of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muzamil; Mujib, A; Tonk, Dipti; Zafar, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, an improved plant regeneration protocol via primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis was established in two Co-1 and Rajendra Swathi (RS) varieties of Coriandrum sativum L. Callus was induced from root explants on 2, 4-D (0.5-2.0 mg/l) supplemented MS. The addition of BA (0.2 mg/l) improved callus induction and proliferation response significantly. The maximum callus induction frequency was on 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.2 mg/l BA added MS medium (77.5 % in Co-1 and 72.3 % in RS). The callus transformed into embryogenic callus on 2, 4-D added MS with maximum embryogenic frequency was on 1.0 mg/l. The granular embryogenic callus differentiated into globular embryos on induction medium, which later progressed to heart-, torpedo- and cotyledonary embryos on medium amended with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.2 mg/l BA. On an average, 2-3 secondary somatic embryos (SEs) were developed on mature primary SEs, which increased the total embryo numbers in culture. Histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies are presented for the origin, development of primary and secondary embryos in coriander. Later, these induced embryos converted into plantlets on 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.2 mg/l NAA-amended medium. The regenerated plantlets were cultured on 0.5 mg/l IBA added ½ MS for promotion of roots. The well-rooted plantlets were acclimatized and transferred to soil. The genetic stability of embryo-regenerated plant was analyzed by flow cytometry with optimized Pongamia pinnata as standard. The 2C DNA content of RS coriander variety was estimated to 5.1 pg; the primary and secondary somatic embryo-derived plants had 5.26 and 5.44 pg 2C DNA content, respectively. The regenerated plants were genetically stable, genome size similar to seed-germinated coriander plants.

  4. Salmonella typhimurium mutants lacking NAD pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Park, U E; Roth, J R; Olivera, B M

    1988-01-01

    NAD can serve as both a purine and a pyridine source for Salmonella typhimurium. Exogenous NAD is rapidly broken down into nicotinamide mononucleotide and AMP by an NAD pyrophosphatase, the first step in the pathway for the assimilation of exogenous NAD. We isolated and characterized mutants of S. typhimurium lacking NAD pyrophosphatase activity; such mutants were identified by their failure to use exogenous NAD as a purine source. These mutants carry mutations that map at a new locus, designated pnuE, between 86 and 87 min on the Salmonella chromosome. PMID:2841298

  5. To be or noot to be

    PubMed Central

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Mondy, Samuel; Sahl, Lucien; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Legume plants develop symbiosis specific organs on their roots as a result of their interaction with rhizobia. These organs, called nodules, house the nitrogen fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of this organ are still poorly understood, but it is supposed that root and nodule development share common features. We have identified the Medicago truncatula nodule root (NOOT) and Pisum sativum cochleata (COCH) orthologous genes as necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis blade-on-petiole (BOP) orthologs and NOOT and COCH show functions in leaf and flower development in M. truncatula and P. sativum respectively that are conserved with the functions of BOP in Arabidopsis. The characterization of the noot and coch mutants highlights the root evolutionary origin of nodule vascular strands and suggests that the NOOT and COCH genes were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23733067

  6. To be or noot to be: evolutionary tinkering for symbiotic organ identity.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Mondy, Samuel; Sahl, Lucien; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    Legume plants develop symbiosis specific organs on their roots as a result of their interaction with rhizobia. These organs, called nodules, house the nitrogen fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of this organ are still poorly understood, but it is supposed that root and nodule development share common features. We have identified the Medicago truncatula nodule root (NOOT) and Pisum sativum cochleata (COCH) orthologous genes as necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis blade-on-petiole (BOP) orthologs and NOOT and COCH show functions in leaf and flower development in M. truncatula and P. sativum respectively that are conserved with the functions of BOP in Arabidopsis. The characterization of the noot and coch mutants highlights the root evolutionary origin of nodule vascular strands and suggests that the NOOT and COCH genes were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ.

  7. Characterization of rag1 mutant zebrafish leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Hanson, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Zebrafish may prove to be one of the best vertebrate models for innate immunology. These fish have sophisticated immune components, yet rely heavily on innate immune mechanisms. Thus, the development and characterization of mutant and/or knock out zebrafish are critical to help define immune cell and immune gene functions in the zebrafish model. The use of Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) and recombination activation gene 1 and 2 mutant mice has allowed the investigation of the specific contribution of innate defenses in many infectious diseases. Similar zebrafish mutants are now being used in biomedical and fish immunology related research. This report describes the leukocyte populations in a unique model, recombination activation gene 1-/- mutant zebrafish (rag1 mutants). Results Differential counts of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) showed that rag1 mutants had significantly decreased lymphocyte-like cell populations (34.7%) compared to wild-types (70.5%), and significantly increased granulocyte populations (52.7%) compared to wild-types (17.6%). Monocyte/macrophage populations were similar between mutants and wild-types, 12.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Differential leukocyte counts of rag1 mutant kidney hematopoietic tissue showed a significantly reduced lymphocyte-like cell population (8%), a significantly increased myelomonocyte population (57%), 34.8% precursor cells, and 0.2% thrombocytes, while wild-type hematopoietic kidney tissue showed 29.4% lymphocytes/lymphocyte-like cells, 36.4% myelomonocytes, 33.8% precursors and 0.5% thrombocytes. Flow cytometric analyses of kidney hematopoietic tissue revealed three leukocyte populations. Population A was monocytes and granulocytes and comprised 34.7% of the gated cells in rag1 mutants and 17.6% in wild-types. Population B consisted of hematopoietic precursors, and comprised 50% of the gated cells for rag1 mutants and 53% for wild-types. Population C consisted of lymphocytes and lymphocyte

  8. Characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic mutant infectivity.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, B B; Lippincott, J A

    1966-10-01

    Lippincott, Barbara B. (Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.), and James A. Lippincott. Characteristics of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic mutant infectivity. J. Bacteriol. 92:937-945. 166.-Mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens auxotrophic for adenine, methionine, or asparagine are less infectious than the wild-type strain B6 from which they were derived and show increased infectivity on pinto bean leaves when the specific compounds required for growth of the mutants are added to the infected leaf. Reversion to a prototrophic form of nutrition is accompanied by increased infectivity. Tumors initiated by these auxotrophic mutants are shown to arise only at large wound sites where nutritional conditions may be less restricting. The data indicate that, after inoculation, the bacteria pass through a phase in which host-supplied nutrients are utilized for the production of one or more factors necessary for successful tumor initiation.

  9. Mutant IDH1 and thrombosis in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Dusten; Schwarze, Steven R; Khoury, Laith; Thomas, Cheddhi; Wu, Meijing; Chen, Li; Chen, Rui; Liu, Yinxing; Schwartz, Margaret A; Amidei, Christina; Kumthekar, Priya; Benjamin, Carolina G; Song, Kristine; Dawson, Caleb; Rispoli, Joanne M; Fatterpekar, Girish; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas; Karajannis, Matthias; Pacione, Donato; Zagzag, David; McIntyre, Thomas; Snuderl, Matija; Horbinski, Craig

    2016-12-01

    Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is common in gliomas, and produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). The full effects of IDH1 mutations on glioma biology and tumor microenvironment are unknown. We analyzed a discovery cohort of 169 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-IV gliomas, followed by a validation cohort of 148 cases, for IDH1 mutations, intratumoral microthrombi, and venous thromboemboli (VTE). 430 gliomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for mRNAs associated with coagulation, and 95 gliomas in a tissue microarray were assessed for tissue factor (TF) protein. In vitro and in vivo assays evaluated platelet aggregation and clotting time in the presence of mutant IDH1 or D-2-HG. VTE occurred in 26-30 % of patients with wild-type IDH1 gliomas, but not in patients with mutant IDH1 gliomas (0 %). IDH1 mutation status was the most powerful predictive marker for VTE, independent of variables such as GBM diagnosis and prolonged hospital stay. Microthrombi were far less common within mutant IDH1 gliomas regardless of WHO grade (85-90 % in wild-type versus 2-6 % in mutant), and were an independent predictor of IDH1 wild-type status. Among all 35 coagulation-associated genes, F3 mRNA, encoding TF, showed the strongest inverse relationship with IDH1 mutations. Mutant IDH1 gliomas had F3 gene promoter hypermethylation, with lower TF protein expression. D-2-HG rapidly inhibited platelet aggregation and blood clotting via a novel calcium-dependent, methylation-independent mechanism. Mutant IDH1 glioma engraftment in mice significantly prolonged bleeding time. Our data suggest that mutant IDH1 has potent antithrombotic activity within gliomas and throughout the peripheral circulation. These findings have implications for the pathologic evaluation of gliomas, the effect of altered isocitrate metabolism on tumor microenvironment, and risk assessment of glioma patients for VTE.

  10. Isolation and characterization of unusual gin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Klippel, A; Cloppenborg, K; Kahmann, R

    1988-01-01

    Site-specific inversion of the G segment in phage Mu DNA is promoted by two proteins, the DNA invertase Gin and the host factor FIS. Recombination occurs if the recombination sites (IR) are arranged as inverted repeats and a recombinational enhancer sequence is present in cis. Intermolecular reactions as well as deletions between direct repeats of the IRs rarely occur. Making use of a fis- mutant of Escherichia coli we have devised a scheme to isolate gin mutants that have a FIS independent phenotype. This mutant phenotype is caused by single amino acid changes at five different positions of gin. The mutant proteins display a whole set of new properties in vivo: they promote inversions, deletions and intermolecular recombination in an enhancer- and FIS-independent manner. The mutants differ in recombination activity. The most active mutant protein was analysed in vitro. The loss of site orientation specificity was accompanied with the ability to recombine even linear substrates. We discuss these results in connection with the role of the enhancer and FIS protein in the wild-type situation. Images PMID:2974801

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Triple Mutant Genetic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E.; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven effective for characterizing cellular functions but can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, that is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principle actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete, and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1536 single mutants. PMID:25010907

  12. Salicylic acid-induced elicitation of folates in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) improves bioaccessibility and reduces pro-oxidant status.

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2013-01-15

    Foliage of Coriandrum sativum is a rich source of natural folates amenable for enhancement through salicylic acid-mediated elicitation, thereby holding a great promise for natural-mode alleviation of this vitamin (B(9)) deficiency. In the present study we report salicylic acid-mediated differential elicitation of different forms of folates - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate - their stabilities during microwave-drying and bioaccessibilities from fresh and dried foliage. The first two compounds nearly doubled and the third increased sixfold post-elicitation, with all three showing concomitant increase in bioaccessibilities. Although a slight decrease in bioaccessibility was observed in dried foliage, over twofold increase of each form of folate upon elicitation would deliver much higher levels of natural folates from this traditional culinary foliage, which is widely used in many cuisines. Elicitor-mediated folate enhancement also imparted reduction of oxidative status and the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities in coriander foliage.

  13. Coupled extruder-headspace, a new method for analysis of the essential oil components of Coriandrum sativum fruits.

    PubMed

    Sriti, Jazia; Msaada, Kamel; Talou, Thierry; Faye, Mamadou; Vilarem, Gerard; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-10-15

    A new method involving concurrent single screw extruder combined with continuous headspace dynamic for the extraction and identification of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruit was developed. The effect of six different nozzle diameters (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 mm) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of coriander fruit was studied. The oils from fruit samples were obtained by OMEGA 20 extruder. The result showed that the highest yield (0.53%) was obtained by the diameter of the nozzle was 8mm. Twenty-nine components were determined in essential oils, which were mostly hydrocarbons and alcohol monoterpenes. The main components linalool, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene and limonene showed significant variations with drying trials.

  14. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filomena; Ferreira, Susana; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antibacterial effect of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) essential oil against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated using classical microbiological techniques concomitantly with the use of flow cytometry for the evaluation of cellular physiology. Our results showed that coriander oil has an effective antimicrobial activity against all bacteria tested. Also, coriander oil exhibited bactericidal activity against almost all bacteria tested, with the exception of Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis. Propidium iodide incorporation and concomitant loss of all other cellular functions such as efflux activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential seem to suggest that the primary mechanism of action of coriander oil is membrane damage, which leads to cell death. The results obtained herein further encourage the use of coriander oil in antibacterial formulations due to the fact that coriander oil effectively kills pathogenic bacteria related to foodborne diseases and hospital infections.

  15. Cyclic sulfoxides garlicnins B2, B3, B4, C2, and C3 from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kohtaro; Ono, Masateru; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2013-01-01

    Several novel sulfides, called garlicnins B2 (1), B3 (2), B4 (3), C2 (4), and C3 (5), were isolated from acetone extracts of garlic, Allium sativum L. and characterized. These garlicnins are capable of suppressing M2 macrophage activation and they have a novel skeleton of cyclic sulfoxide. The structures of the former 3 and latter of 2 were deduced to be 2-(sulfenic acid)-5-(allyl)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides and 2-(allyldithiine)-5-(propenylsulfoxide)-3,4-dimethyltetrahydrothiophene-S-oxides, respectively. The mechanism of the proposed production of these compounds is discussed. The identification of these novel sulfoxides from garlic accumulates a great deal of new chemistry in the Allium sulfide field, and future pharmacological investigations of these compounds will aid the development of natural, healthy foods and anti-cancer agents that may prevent or combat disease.

  16. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) diallyl disulfide (DADS) on human non-small cell lung carcinoma H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Hui, C; Jun, W; Ya, L N; Ming, X

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of diallyl disulfide from Allium sativum, an oil-soluble organosulfur compound found in garlic, in suppressing human non-small cell lung carcinoma H1299 cells. A potent increase in apoptotic cells has accompanied 1) a decrease in cell viability, 2) an increase of the fraction of G2/M-phase cells by up to 48.80 %, and 3) a transient increase of the phospho-p42/44 (phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that diallyl disulfide could induce apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma H1299 cells via, at least partly, G2/M-phase block of the cell cycle, related to a rise in MAPK phosphorylation.

  17. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  18. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells.

  19. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bahareh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil. Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27222834

  20. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  1. Characterization of shrunken endosperm mutants in barley.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Long; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Liu, Ya-Xi; Li, Wei; Wei, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, You-Liang

    2014-04-10

    Despite numerous studies on shrunken endosperm mutants caused by either maternal tissues (seg) or kernel per se (sex) in barley, the molecular mechanism for all of the eight seg mutants (seg1-seg8) and some sex mutants is yet to be uncovered. In this study, we determined the amylose content, characterized granule-binding proteins, analyzed the expression of key genes involved in starch synthesis, and examined starch granule structure of both normal (Bowman and Morex) and shrunken endosperm (seg1, seg3, seg4a, seg4b, seg5, seg6, seg7, and sex1) barley accessions. Our results showed that amylose contents of shrunken endosperm mutants ranged from 8.9% (seg4a) to 25.8% (seg1). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 87 kDa proteins corresponding to the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) and starch synthase II (SSII) were not present in seg1, seg3, seg6, and seg7 mutants. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated that waxy expression levels of seg1, seg3, seg6, and seg7 mutants decreased in varying degrees to lower levels until 27 days after anthesis (DAA) after reaching the peak at 15-21 DAA, which differed from the pattern of normal barley accessions. Further characterization of waxy alleles revealed 7 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequences and 16 SNPs and 8 indels in the promoter sequences of the mutants. Results from starch granule by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that, in comparison with normal barley accessions, seg4a, seg4b, and sex1 had fewer starch granules per grain; seg3 and seg6 had less small B-type granules; some large A-type granules in seg7 had a hollow surface. These results improve our understanding about effects of seg and sex mutants on starch biosynthesis and granule structure during endosperm development and provide information for identification of key genes responsible for these shrunken endosperm mutants.

  2. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  3. Computing border bases using mutant strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, E.; Abbas Khan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Border bases, a generalization of Gröbner bases, have actively been addressed during recent years due to their applicability to industrial problems. In cryptography and coding theory a useful application of border based is to solve zero-dimensional systems of polynomial equations over finite fields, which motivates us for developing optimizations of the algorithms that compute border bases. In 2006, Kehrein and Kreuzer formulated the Border Basis Algorithm (BBA), an algorithm which allows the computation of border bases that relate to a degree compatible term ordering. In 2007, J. Ding et al. introduced mutant strategies bases on finding special lower degree polynomials in the ideal. The mutant strategies aim to distinguish special lower degree polynomials (mutants) from the other polynomials and give them priority in the process of generating new polynomials in the ideal. In this paper we develop hybrid algorithms that use the ideas of J. Ding et al. involving the concept of mutants to optimize the Border Basis Algorithm for solving systems of polynomial equations over finite fields. In particular, we recall a version of the Border Basis Algorithm which is actually called the Improved Border Basis Algorithm and propose two hybrid algorithms, called MBBA and IMBBA. The new mutants variants provide us space efficiency as well as time efficiency. The efficiency of these newly developed hybrid algorithms is discussed using standard cryptographic examples.

  4. Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2008-08-27

    Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.

  5. Effects of irrigation with wastewater on the physiological properties and heavy metal content in Lepidium sativum L. and Eruca sativa (Mill.).

    PubMed

    Keser, Gonca

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological properties of and heavy metal content in Lepidium sativum L. and Eruca sativa (Mill.) irrigated with municipal wastewater for 20 days. Wastewater was taken from a section where all wastewater of Adiyaman is collected. We analysed the soil for physicochemical properties, heavy metals and nutrient content and the plants for photosynthetic pigment content, dry weight and length. Irrigation wastewater increased the electrical conductivity and organic matter content in plant soil. In both plant soils, Cd and Ni content significantly increased with respect to control. Dry matter content decreased significantly in the edible parts, and the length of the edible parts increased significantly in E. sativa. Photosynthetic pigment content increased in L. sativum and decreased in E. sativa. Nutrient content changed significantly in both plants. In the edible parts of L. sativum, Cd and Ni content increased significantly compared to Pb and Cr. The edible parts of E. sativa also showed a higher Cd level than the control plant. The enrichment factor of the heavy metals in the edible parts of L. sativum followed this order: Cu > Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr and of E. sativa: Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Ni. The edible parts of both plants showed a high transfer factor (TF > 1) for Cd, which points to high mobility of Cd from soil to plant. In conclusion, the use of wastewater for irrigation increased heavy metal content in both plants and affected their physiological and morphological properties.

  6. Genomic structures and characterization of the 5'-flanking regions of acyl carrier protein and Delta4-palmitoyl-ACP desaturase genes from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Shin, Jeong Sheop; Kim, Jeong-Kook; Suh, Mi Chung

    2005-09-25

    The seed-specific or seed-predominant promoters of acyl carrier protein (Cs-ACP1) and Delta4-palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (Cs-4PAD) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of petroselinic acid, were isolated from coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and analyzed in coriander endosperms and transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression of Cs-ACP1 and Cs-4PAD genes was coordinately regulated during seed development.

  7. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    PubMed

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall.

  8. Isolation and characterization of transcription fidelity mutants.

    PubMed

    Strathern, Jeffrey N; Jin, Ding Jun; Court, Donald L; Kashlev, Mikhail

    2012-07-01

    Accurate transcription is an essential step in maintaining genetic information. Error-prone transcription has been proposed to contribute to cancer, aging, adaptive mutagenesis, and mutagenic evolution of retroviruses and retrotransposons. The mechanisms controlling transcription fidelity and the biological consequences of transcription errors are poorly understood. Because of the transient nature of mRNAs and the lack of reliable experimental systems, the identification and characterization of defects that increase transcription errors have been particularly challenging. In this review we describe novel genetic screens for the isolation of fidelity mutants in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli RNA polymerases. We obtained and characterized two distinct classes of mutants altering NTP misincorporation and transcription slippage both in vivo and in vitro. Our study not only validates the genetic schemes for the isolation of RNA polymerase mutants that alter fidelity, but also sheds light on the mechanism of transcription accuracy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space.

  9. Sleep restores behavioral plasticity to Drosophila mutants.

    PubMed

    Dissel, Stephane; Angadi, Veena; Kirszenblat, Leonie; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff; Klose, Markus; Koch, Zachary; English, Denis; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; van Swinderen, Bruno; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-18

    Given the role that sleep plays in modulating plasticity, we hypothesized that increasing sleep would restore memory to canonical memory mutants without specifically rescuing the causal molecular lesion. Sleep was increased using three independent strategies: activating the dorsal fan-shaped body, increasing the expression of Fatty acid binding protein (dFabp), or by administering the GABA-A agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP). Short-term memory (STM) or long-term memory (LTM) was evaluated in rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc) mutants using aversive phototaxic suppression and courtship conditioning. Each of the three independent strategies increased sleep and restored memory to rut and dnc mutants. Importantly, inducing sleep also reverses memory defects in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease. Together, these data demonstrate that sleep plays a more fundamental role in modulating behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated and suggest that increasing sleep may benefit patients with certain neurological disorders.

  10. Nonphotic phase shifting in hamster clock mutants.

    PubMed

    Mrosovsky, N; Salmon, P A; Menaker, M; Ralph, M R

    1992-01-01

    Golden hamsters with the tau mutation were kept in the dark and induced to become active through confinement to a novel running wheel for 3 hr. The response of the mutants to this nonphotic phase-shifting stimulus differed from that of wild-type hamsters. The mutants showed larger phase shifts, and their phase response curves differed in shape, with an advance portion at about circadian time 24, a phase at which wild types show delays. The results establish that the tau mutation, in addition to its already known effects, alters the response of the circadian system to nonphotic events.

  11. Fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Burkholderia cepacia.

    PubMed

    Pope, C F; Gillespie, S H; Pratten, J R; McHugh, T D

    2008-03-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Burkholderia cepacia mutants were selected on ciprofloxacin. The rate of mutation in gyrA was estimated to be 9.6 x 10(-11) mutations per division. Mutations in gyrA conferred 12- to 64-fold increases in MIC, and an additional parC mutation conferred a large increase in MIC (>256-fold). Growth rate, biofilm formation, and survival in water and during drying were not impaired in strains containing single gyrA mutations. Double mutants were impaired only in growth rate (0.85, relative to the susceptible parent).

  12. Agravitropic mutants of the moss Ceratodon purpureus do not complement mutants having a reversed gravitropic response.

    PubMed

    Cove, David J; Quatrano, Ralph S

    2006-07-01

    New mutants of the moss Ceratodon purpureus have been isolated, which showed abnormal gravitropic responses. The apical cells of protonemal filaments of wild-type strains respond to gravity by growing upwards and are well aligned to the gravity vector. This response only occurs in darkness. Mutants show a range of phenotypes. Some are insensitive to gravity, showing symmetrical growth, while others align to the gravity vector but orient growth downwards. A further class grows in darkness as though it were in light, showing insensitivity to gravity and continued chlorophyll synthesis. Somatic hybrids between mutants and wild-type strains and between pairs of mutants have been selected using transgenic antibiotic resistance as selective markers. Hybrids between wild-type strains and all of the mutants have a wild-type phenotype, and so all mutants therefore have recessive phenotypes. Mutants comprise three complementation groups. One group has a single member, while another has three members. The third has at least 16 members and shows a complex pattern of complementation consistent with a single gene product functioning in both orientation and alignment to gravity, as well as contributing more than one subunit to the mature product.

  13. Activation of the thrombopoietin receptor by mutant calreticulin in CALR-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Araki, Marito; Yang, Yinjie; Masubuchi, Nami; Hironaka, Yumi; Takei, Hiraku; Morishita, Soji; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Kan, Shin; Shirane, Shuichi; Edahiro, Yoko; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent somatic mutations of calreticulin (CALR) have been identified in patients harboring myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, their role in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here, we found that the expression of mutant but not wild-type CALR induces the thrombopoietin (TPO)-independent growth of UT-7/TPO cells. We demonstrated that c-MPL, the TPO receptor, is required for this cytokine-independent growth of UT-7/TPO cells. Mutant CALR preferentially associates with c-MPL that is bound to Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) over the wild-type protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutant-specific carboxyl terminus portion of CALR interferes with the P-domain of CALR to allow the N-domain to interact with c-MPL, providing an explanation for the gain-of-function property of mutant CALR. We showed that mutant CALR induces the phosphorylation of JAK2 and its downstream signaling molecules in UT-7/TPO cells and that this induction was blocked by JAK2 inhibitor treatment. Finally, we demonstrated that c-MPL is required for TPO-independent megakaryopoiesis in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells harboring the CALR mutation. These findings imply that mutant CALR activates the JAK2 downstream pathway via its association with c-MPL. Considering these results, we propose that mutant CALR promotes myeloproliferative neoplasm development by activating c-MPL and its downstream pathway.

  14. Ascochyta blight of peas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification, taxonomy & nomenclature, epidemiology, symptoms, host ranges, and management are described for three fungal pathogens which collectively and individually cause Ascochyta blight of field pea (Pisum sativum): Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta pinodes, and Ascochyta pinodella. The first two are...

  15. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    current FDA approved hormonal therapies and that more potent, selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERDs) will enable complete inhibition of mutant...resistance to current FDA approved ER antagonists, but that more potent and selective estrogen receptor antagonists will be sufficiently active to...Antagonist Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Selective Estrogen Receptor Degrader Tamoxifen Fulvestrant Bazedoxifene Raloxifene GDC-0810

  16. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  17. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Michael A.; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V.; Manoil, Colin

    2003-01-01

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering. PMID:14617778

  18. Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Alwood, Ashley; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Spencer, David; Haugen, Eric; Ernst, Stephen; Will, Oliver; Kaul, Rajinder; Raymond, Christopher; Levy, Ruth; Chun-Rong, Liu; Guenthner, Donald; Bovee, Donald; Olson, Maynard V; Manoil, Colin

    2003-11-25

    We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen with a 6.3-Mbp genome. The library that was generated consists of 30,100 sequence-defined mutants, corresponding to an average of five insertions per gene. About 12% of the predicted genes of this organism lacked insertions; many of these genes are likely to be essential for growth on rich media. Based on statistical analyses and bioinformatic comparison to known essential genes in E. coli, we estimate that the actual number of essential genes is 300-400. Screening the collection for strains defective in two defined multigenic processes (twitching motility and prototrophic growth) identified mutants corresponding to nearly all genes expected from earlier studies. Thus, phenotypic analysis of the collection may produce essentially complete lists of genes required for diverse biological activities. The transposons used to generate the mutant collection have added features that should facilitate downstream studies of gene expression, protein localization, epistasis, and chromosome engineering.

  19. Yeast mutants overproducing iso-cytochromes c

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, F.; Cardillo, T.S.; Errede, B.; Friedman, L.; McKnight, G.; Stiles, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    For over 15 years, the iso-cytochrome c system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to investigate a multitude of problems in genetics and molecular biology. More recently, attention has been focused on using mutants for examining translation and transcriptional processes and for probing regulatory regions governing gene expression. In an effort to explore regulatory mechanisms and to investigate mutational alterations that lead to increased levels of gene products, we have isolated and characterized mutants that overproduce cytochrome c. In this paper we have briefly summarized background information of some essential features of the iso-cytochrome c system and we have described the types of mutants that overproduce iso-1-cytochrome c or iso-2-cytochrome c. Genetic procedures and recombinant DNA procedures were used to demonstrate that abnormally high amounts of gene products occur in mutants as result of duplications of gene copies or of extended alteration of regulatory regions. The results summarized in this paper point out the requirements of gross mutational changes or rearrangements of chromosomal segments for augmenting gene products.

  20. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  1. Genotyping-by-sequencing of glossy mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glossy mutants are a common occurrence in Brassica oleracea L. and they have been documented in most crop varieties of the species including cabbage, kale, broccoli, and collard. Glossy phenotypes have been of particular interest to researchers due to observations that they influence insect behavior...

  2. Phenotypic mutant library: potential for gene discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid development of high throughput and affordable Next- Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques has renewed interest in gene discovery using forward genetics. The conventional forward genetic approach starts with isolation of mutants with a phenotype of interest, mapping the mutation within a s...

  3. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M. Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg prod