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Sample records for mutant pisum sativum

  1. Genetic interaction and mapping studies on the leaflet development (lld) mutant in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Mishra, Raghvendra Kumar; Kumar, Arvind; Chaudhary, Swati; Sharma, Vishakha; Kumari, Renu

    2012-01-01

    In Pisum sativum, the completely penetrant leaflet development (lld) mutation is known to sporadically abort pinnae suborgans in the unipinnate compound leaf. Here, the frequency and morphology of abortion was studied in each of the leaf suborgans in 36 genotypes and in presence of auxin and gibberellin, and their antagonists. Various lld genotypes were constructed by multifariously recombining lld with a coch homeotic stipule mutation and with af, ins, mare, mfp, tl and uni-tac leaf morphology mutations. It was observed that the suborgans at all levels of pinna subdivisions underwent lld-led abortion events at different stages of development. As in leafblades, lld aborted the pinnae in leaf-like compound coch stipules. The lld mutation interacted with mfp synergistically and with other leaf mutations additively. The rod-shaped and trumpet-shaped aborted pea leaf suborgans mimicked the phenotype of aborted leaves in HD-ZIP-III-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Suborganwise aborted morphologies in lld gnotypes were in agreement with basipetal differentiation of leaflets and acropetal differentiation in tendrils. Altogether, the observations suggested that LLD was the master regulator of pinna development. On the basis of molecular markers found linked to lld, its locus was positioned on the linkage group III of the P. sativum genetic map. PMID:23271018

  2. Branching Mutant rms-2 in Pisum sativum (Grafting Studies and Endogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels).

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, C. A.; Ross, J. J.; Murfet, I. C.

    1994-01-01

    Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were used to determine the physiological site of action of the Rms-2 gene, which maintains apical dominance, and its effect on endogenous free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. In mutant rms-2 scions, which normally produce lateral branches below node 3 and above node 7, apical dominance was almost fully restored by grafting to Rms-2 (wild-type) stocks. In the reciprocal grafts, rms-2 stocks did not promote branching in wild-type shoots. Together, these results suggest that the Rms-2 gene inhibits branching in the shoot of pea by controlling the synthesis of a translocatable (hormone-like) substance that is produced in the roots and/or cotyledons and in the shoot. At all stages, including the stage at which aerial lateral buds commence outgrowth, the level of IAA in rms-2 shoots was elevated (up to 5-fold) in comparison with that in wild-type shoots. The internode length of rms-2 plants was 40% less than in wild-type plants, and the mutant plants allocated significantly more dry weight to the shoot than to the root in comparison with wild-type plants. Grafting to wild-type stocks did not normalize IAA levels or internode length in rms-2 scions, even though it inhibited branching, suggesting that the involvement of Rms-2 in the control of IAA level and internode length may be confined to processes in the shoot. PMID:12232140

  3. Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly.

    PubMed

    Côté, R; Gerrath, J M; Peterson, C A; Grodzinski, B

    1992-12-01

    Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO(2) exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, (14)C-partitioning, and (11)C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. PMID:16653179

  4. A Chemically Induced New Pea (Pisum sativum) Mutant SGECdt with Increased Tolerance to, and Accumulation of, Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Tsyganov, Viktor E.; Belimov, Andrei A.; Borisov, Alexey Y.; Safronova, Vera I.; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims To date, there are no crop mutants described in the literature that display both Cd accumulation and tolerance. In the present study a unique pea (Pisum sativum) mutant SGECdt with increased Cd tolerance and accumulation was isolated and characterized. Methods Ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis of the pea line SGE was used to obtain the mutant. Screening for Cd-tolerant seedlings in the M2 generation was performed using hydroponics in the presence of 6 µm CdCl2. Hybridological analysis was used to identify the inheritance of the mutant phenotype. Several physiological and biochemical characteristics of SGECdt were studied in hydroponic experiments in the presence of 3 µm CdCl2, and elemental analysis was conducted. Key Results The mutant SGECdt was characterized as having a monogenic inheritance and a recessive phenotype. It showed increased Cd concentrations in roots and shoots but no obvious morphological defects, demonstrating its capability to cope well with increased Cd levels in its tissues. The enhanced Cd accumulation in the mutant was accompanied by maintenance of homeostasis of shoot Ca, Mg, Zn and Mn contents, and root Ca and Mg contents. Through the application of La+3 and the exclusion of Ca from the nutrient solution, maintenance of nutrient homeostasis in Cd-stressed SGECdt was shown to contribute to the increased Cd tolerance. Control plants of the mutant (i.e. no Cd treatment) had elevated concentrations of glutathione (GSH) in the roots. Through measurements of chitinase and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase activities, as well as proline and non-protein thiol (NPT) levels, it was shown that there were lower levels of Cd stress both in roots and shoots of SGECdt. Accumulation of phytochelatins [(PCcalculated) = (NPT)−(GSH)] could be excluded as a cause of the increased Cd tolerance in the mutant. Conclusions The SGECdt mutant represents a novel and unique model to study adaptation of plants to toxic heavy metal concentrations

  5. Physiological Characteristics of Fe Accumulation in the ;Bronze' Mutant of Pisum sativum L., cv ;Sparkle' E107 (brz brz).

    PubMed

    Welch, R M; Larue, T A

    1990-06-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant, E107 (brz, brz) accumulated extremely high concentrations of Fe in its older leaves when grown in light rooms in either defined nutrient media or potting mix, or outdoors in soil. Leaf symptoms (bronze color and necrosis) were correlated with very high Fe concentrations. When E107 plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied 10 mum Fe, as the Fe(III)-N,N'-ethylenebis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)glycine] chelate, their roots released higher concentrations of Fe(III) reducing substances to the nutrient media than did roots of the normal parent cv, ;Sparkle.' Reciprocal grafting experiments demonstrated that the high concentrations of Fe in the shoot was controlled by the genotype of the root. In short-term (59)Fe uptake studies, 15-day-old E107 seedlings exhibited higher rates of Fe absorption than did ;Sparkle' seedlings under Fe-adequate growth conditions. Iron deficiency induced accelerated short-term Fe absorption rates in both mutant and normal genotypes. Iron-treated E107 roots also released larger amounts of both protons and Fe(III) reductants into their nutrient media than did iron-treated ;Sparkle' roots. Furthermore, the mutant translocated proportionately more Fe to its shoot than did the parent regardless of Fe status. PMID:16667529

  6. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations.

    PubMed

    Belimov, Andrey A; Dodd, Ian C; Safronova, Vera I; Malkov, Nikita V; Davies, William J; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECd(t) and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECd(t) accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECd(t). Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECd(t) in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECd(t) plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECd(t) mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation.

  7. The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations

    PubMed Central

    Belimov, Andrey A.; Dodd, Ian C.; Safronova, Vera I.; Malkov, Nikita V.; Davies, William J.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have multiple effects on plant growth and physiology, including perturbation of plant water status. These effects were assessed by exposing the unique Cd-tolerant and Cd-accumulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt and its wild-type (WT) line SGE to either cadmium (1, 4 μM CdCl2) or mercury (0.5, 1, 2 μM HgCl2) in hydroponic culture for 12 days. When exposed to Cd, SGECdt accumulated more Cd in roots, xylem sap, and shoot, and had considerably more biomass than WT plants. WT plants lost circa 0.2 MPa turgor when grown in 4 μM CdCl2, despite massive decreases in whole-plant transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. In contrast, root Hg accumulation was similar in both genotypes, but WT plants accumulated more Hg in leaves and had a higher stomatal conductance, and root and shoot biomass compared with SGECdt. Shoot excision resulted in greater root-pressure induced xylem exudation of SGECdt in the absence of Cd or Hg and following Cd exposure, whereas the opposite response or no genotypic differences occurred following Hg exposure. Exposing plants that had not been treated with metal to 50 μM CdCl2 for 1h increased root xylem exudation of WT, whereas 50 μM HgCl2 inhibited and eliminated genotypic differences in root xylem exudation, suggesting differences between WT and SGECdt plants in aquaporin function. Thus, root water transport might be involved in mechanisms of increased tolerance and accumulation of Cd in the SGECdt mutant. However, the lack of cross-tolerance to Cd and Hg stress in the mutant indicates metal-specific mechanisms related to plant adaptation. PMID:25694548

  8. Pisum sativum wild-type and mutant stipules and those induced by an auxin transport inhibitor demonstrate the entire diversity of laminated stipules observed in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-02-01

    About a quarter of angiosperm species are stipulate. They produce stipule pairs at stem nodes in association with leaves. Stipule morphology is treated as a species-specific characteristic. Many species bear stipules as laminated organs in a variety of configurations, including laterally free large foliaceous, small, or wholly leaf-like stipules, and as fused intrapetiolar, opposite, ochreate or interpetiolar stipules. In Pisum sativum, the wild-type and stipule-reduced and cochleata mutants are known to form free large, small, and leaf-like stipules, respectively. Auxin controls initiation and development of plant organs and perturbations in its availability and distribution in the meristems, caused by auxin transport inhibitor(s) (ATIs), lead to aberrations in leaf development. The effect(s) of ATI(s) on stipule development are unexplored. To study the effect of the ATI 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on stipule morphogenesis, P. sativum explants were grown in vitro in presence of a sublethal concentration of NPA. The NPA-treated shoots produced fused stipules of all the different types described in angiosperms. The observations indicate that (a) the gene sets for stipule differentiation may be common in angiosperms and (b) the interspecies stipule architectural differences are due to mutations, affecting gene expression or activity that got selected in the course of evolution. PMID:22456952

  9. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found. PMID:27529974

  10. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found.

  11. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses.

  12. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, James M. C.; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S.; Weiner, Catherine A.; Emery, R. J. Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses. PMID:25948707

  13. [Pigment accumulation and functional activity of chloroplasts in common Pisum sativum L. mutants with low chlorophyll level (chlorotica)].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 with a low content of chlorophyll were studied. The mutant 2004 has light green leaves and stem, and the mutant 2014 has yellow green leaves and stem. They accumulate approximately 80 and 50% chlorophylls of the parent form of pea Torsdag cv. The content of carotene in carotenoids of the mutant 2004 was much lower, and the accumulation of lutein and violaxanthine was increased. The accumulation of all carotenoids in the mutant 2014 decreased almost proportionally to a decrease in the chlorophyll content. The rate of CO2 evolution in mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 was established to be lower. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants was 29-30% lower as compared to the control, and in hybrid plants it was 1.5-2-fold higher. It is assumed that the increase in the activity of the night-time respiration in gas exchange of chlorotica mutants and the drop of photosynthesis lead to a decrease in biomass increment. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the mutation of chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affects the genes controlling the formation and functioning of different components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  14. Biosynthesis of the phytoalexin pisatin. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Preisig, C.L.; Bell, J.N.; Matthews, D.E.; VanEtten, H.D. ); Sun, Yuejin; Hrazdina, G. )

    1990-11-01

    NADPH-dependent reduction of 2{prime},7-dihydroxy-4{prime},5{prime}-methylenedioxyisoflavone to the isoflavanone sophorol, a proposed intermediate step in pisatin biosynthesis, was detected in extracts of Pisum sativum. This isoflavone reductase activity was inducible by treatment of pea seedlings with CuCl{sub 2}. The timing of induction coincided with that of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain 3-O-methyltransferase, which catalyzes the terminal biosynthetic step. Neither enzyme was light inducible. Further NADPH-dependent metabolism of sophorol by extracts of CuCl{sub 2}-treated seedlings was also observed; three products were radiolabeled when ({sup 3}H)sophorol was the substrate, one of which is tentatively identified as maackiain.

  15. Glucolipids of Zea mays and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Morohashi, Y; Bandurski, R S

    1976-06-01

    The glucolipids formed upon feeding (U-(14)C)glucose to embryos of Zea mays were partially characterized with respect to: (a) metabolic turnover, (b) acid lability, (c) phosphorus content, (d) chromatographic properties, and (e) hydrolysis products. The chloroform-methanol-soluble assimilated radioactivity was examined specifically for occurrence of a glycosylated prenol phosphate. With the extraction conditions used, no evidence was found for formation of a glucosylated prenol phosphate. Several, as yet unidentified, acid-labile glucolipids undergoing metabolic turnover were observed. Four diglycerides were characterized as hydrolysis products of a fraction that contained (14)C-glucose and phosphorus, and was subject to metabolic turnover. Examination of the 1-butanol-soluble glucolipids from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings also demonstrated anionic glucolipids, evidencing metabolic turnover but none with the properties of glucosylated prenol phosphate.

  16. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile ({sup 3}H)methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the ({sup 3}H)methyl group.

  17. Gravity-controlled asymmetrical transport of auxin regulates a gravitropic response in the early growth stage of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls: studies using simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat and using an agravitropic mutant, ageotropum.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2007-09-01

    Increased expression of the auxin-inducible gene PsIAA4/5 was observed in the elongated side of epicotyls in early growth stages of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown in a horizontal or an inclined position under 1 g conditions. Under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, accumulation of PsIAA4/5 mRNA was found throughout epicotyls showing automorphosis. Polar auxin transport in the proximal side of epicotyls changed when the seedlings were grown in a horizontal or an inclined position under 1 g conditions, but that under clinorotation did not, regardless of the direction of seed setting. Accumulation of PsPIN1 and PsPIN2 mRNAs in epicotyls was affected by gravistimulation, but not by clinorotation. Under 1 g conditions, auxin-transport inhibitors made epicotyls of seedlings grown in a horizontal or inclined position grow toward the proximal direction to cotyledons. These inhibitors led to epicotyl bending toward the cotyledons in seedlings grown in an inclined position under clinorotation. Polar auxin transport, as well as growth direction, of epicotyls of the agravitropic mutant ageotropum did not respond to various gravistimulation. These results suggest that alteration of polar auxin transport in the proximal side of epicotyls regulates the graviresponse of pea epicotyls. PMID:17712525

  18. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Hindala, Mali Ram; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations. (i) Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions. (ii) Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOx1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them. (iii) Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible. (vi) Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOx1 orthologues do not become compound. (v) All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum.

  19. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Hindala, Mali Ram; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations. (i) Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions. (ii) Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOx1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them. (iii) Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible. (vi) Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOx1 orthologues do not become compound. (v) All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum. PMID:23640405

  20. Identification of the 64 kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein as phosphoglucomutase. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Salvucci, M.E.; Drake, R.R.; Broadbent, K.P.; Haley, B.E. ); Hanson, K.R.; McHale, N.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Phosphorylation of the 64 kilodalton stromal phosphoprotein by incubation of pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP decreased in the presence of Glc-6-P and Glc-1,6-P{sub 2}, but was stimulated by glucose. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis following incubation of intact chloroplasts and stromal extracts with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP, or incubation of stromal extracts and partially purified phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) with ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P showed that the identical 64 kilodalton polypeptide was labeled. A 62 kilodalton polypeptide was phosphorylated by incubation of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) stromal extracts with either ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP or ({sup 32}P)Glc-1-P. In contrast, an analogous polypeptide was not phosphorylated in extracts from a tobacco mutant deficient in plastid phosphoglucomutase activity. The results indicate that the 64 (or 62) kilodalton chloroplast stromal phosphoprotein is phosphoglucomutase.

  1. [Inactivated pea flour (Pisum sativum) in bread making].

    PubMed

    Alasino, María Celia; Andrich, Oscar Daniel; Sabbag, Nora Guadalupe; Costa, Silvia Claudia; de la Torre, María Adela; Sánchez, Hugo Diego

    2008-12-01

    Pea flour (Pisum sativum) is a relatively cheap protein source and it is scarcely utilized in making widely consumed products. It provides a good opportunity to improve the amino acidic profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the enzymatic inactivation of pea on bread characteristics, made with levels of 5, 10 and 15% of pea flour. Protein and lysine contents were determined and then chemical score obtained considering lysine as limiting amino acid. Sensory evaluation was carry out by six trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p = 0.05. Residual lipoxygenase activity was 48.6% when heat treatment was made during 1 minute, and only 2.1% when the heat treatment was carry out during 1.5 minutes. Highest specific volumes of bread were obtained with pea flour treated during 1 minute. The sensory evaluation by panel determined that pea flour at a level of 5% could be successfully substituted for both heat treatments. But pea flour substitution at levels of 10 and 15% had adverse effects on specific volume and sensory characteristics. PMID:19368302

  2. A dynamic role for sterols in embryogenesis of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Schrick, Kathrin; Cordova, Cindy; Li, Grace; Murray, Leigh; Fujioka, Shozo

    2011-04-01

    Molecular roles of sterols in plant development remain to be elucidated. To investigate sterol composition during embryogenesis, the occurrence of 25 steroid compounds in stages of developing seeds and pods of Pisum sativum was examined by GC-MS analysis. Immature seeds containing very young embryos exhibited the greatest concentrations of sterols. Regression models indicated that the natural log of seed or pod fr. wt was a consistent predictor of declining sterol content during embryonic development. Although total sterol levels were reduced in mature embryos, the composition of major sterols sitosterol and campesterol remained relatively constant in all 12 seed stages examined. In mature seeds, a significant decrease in isofucosterol was observed, as well as minor changes such as increases in cycloartenol branch sterols and campesterol derivatives. In comparison to seeds and pods, striking differences in composition were observed in sterol profiles of stems, shoots, leaves, flowers and flower buds, as well as cotyledons versus radicles. The highest levels of isofucosterol, a precursor to sitosterol, occurred in young seeds and flower buds, tissues that contain rapidly dividing cells and cells undergoing differentiation. Conversely, the highest levels of stigmasterol, a derivative of sitosterol, were found in fully-differentiated leaves while all seed stages exhibited low levels of stigmasterol. The observed differences in sterol content were correlated to mRNA expression data for sterol biosynthesis genes from Arabidopsis. These findings implicate the coordinated expression of sterol biosynthesis enzymes in gene regulatory networks underlying the embryonic development of flowering plants.

  3. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production.

  4. Burdock fructooligosaccharide induces stomatal closure in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanling; Guo, Moran; Zhao, Wenlu; Chen, Kaoshan; Zhang, Pengying

    2013-09-12

    Burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) isolated from the root tissue of Arctium lappa is a reserve carbohydrate that can induce resistance against a number of plant diseases. Stomatal closure is a part of plant innate immune response to restrict bacterial invasion. In this study, the effects of BFO on stomata movement in Pisum sativum and the possible mechanisms were studied with abscisic acid (ABA) as a positive control. The results showed that BFO could induce stomatal closure accompanied by ROS and NO production, as is the case with ABA. BFO-induced stomatal closure was inhibited by pre-treatment with L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, hydrochloride; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) and catalase (hydrogen peroxide scavenger). Exogenous catalase completely restricted BFO-induced production of ROS and NO in guard cells. In contrast, L-NAME prevented the rise in NO levels but only partially restricted the ROS production. These results indicate that BFO-induced stomatal closure is mediated by ROS and ROS-dependent NO production. PMID:23911508

  5. Further characterization of ribosome binding to thylakoid membranes. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Hurewitz, J.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1987-05-01

    Previous work indicated more polysomes bound to pea (Pisum sativum cv Progress No. 9) thylakoids in light than in the dark, in vivo. With isolated intact chloroplasts incubated in darkness, addition of MgATP had no effect but 24 to 74% more RNA was thylakoid-bound at pH 8.3 than at pH 7. Thus, the major effect of light on ribosome-binding in vivo may be due to higher stroma pH. In isolated pea chloroplasts, initiation inhibitors (pactamycin and kanamycin) decreased the extent of RNA binding, and elongation inhibitors (lincomycin and streptomycin) increased it. Thus, cycling of ribosomes is controlled by translation, initiation, and termination. Bound RNA accounted for 19 to 24% of the total chloroplast RNA and the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine into thylakoids was proportional to the amount of this bound RNA. These data support the concept that stroma ribosomes are recruited into thylakoid polysomes, which are active in synthesizing thylakoid proteins.

  6. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  7. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Chloroplasts of Pisum sativum L 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael; Randall, Douglas D.

    1979-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is associated with intact chloroplasts and mitochondria of 9-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The ratio of the mitochondrial complex to the chloroplast complex activities is about 3 to 1. Maximal rates observed for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity ranged from 6 to 9 micromoles of NADH produced per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. Osmotic rupture of pea chloroplasts released 88% of the complex activity, indicating that chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a stromal complex. The pH optimum for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was between 7.8 and 8.2, whereas the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex had a pH optimum between 7.3 and 7.7. Chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was specific for pyruvate, dependent upon coenzyme A and NAD and partially dependent upon Mg2+ and thiamine pyrophosphate. Chloroplast-associated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex provides a direct link between pyruvate metabolism and chloroplast fatty acid biosynthesis by providing the substrate, acetyl-CoA, necessary for membrane development in young plants. Images PMID:16661100

  8. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  9. Pea (Pisum sativum) diamine oxidase contains pyrroloquinoline quinone as a cofactor.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Z; Kovár, J; Macholán, L; Pec, P

    1987-03-01

    Diamine oxidase was prepared from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings by a new purification procedure involving two h.p.l.c. steps. We studied the optical and electrochemical properties of the homogeneous enzyme and also analysed the hydrolysed protein by several methods. The data presented here suggest that the carbonyl cofactor of diamine oxidase is firmly bound pyrroloquinoline quinone.

  10. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  11. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Global Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Collections.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food and feed legume grown across many temperate regions of the world, especially from Asia to Europe and North America. The goal of this study was to use 30 informative pea microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in a global core from the USDA and ...

  12. Roles for auxin during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea ( Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    DeMason, Darleen A; Chawla, Rekha

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the impact of the plant growth regulator auxin on the development of compound leaves in pea. Wildtype ( WT) plantlets, as well as those of two leaf mutants, acacia ( tl) and tendrilled acacia ( uni-tac) of pea ( Pisum sativum L.), were grown on media containing the auxin-transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), or the auxin antagonist, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB). The resulting plantlets were carefully analyzed morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy and for Uni gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Auxin transport was measured in WT leaf parts using [(14)C]indole-3-acetic acid. Relative Uni gene expression was determined in shoot tips of a range of leaf-form mutants. Morphological abnormalities were observed for all genotypes examined. The terminal tendrils on WT plants were converted to leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of pinna pairs produced on leaves was reduced, with the distal forms being eliminated before the proximal ones. Some leaves were converted to simple, including tri-and bilobed, forms. These treatments phenocopy the uni-tac and unifoliata ( uni) mutants of pea. In the most extreme situations, leaf blades were completely lost leaving only a pair of stipules or scale leaves. Polar auxin transport was basipetal for all leaf parts. Uni gene expression in shoot tips was significantly reduced in 60 microM NPA and TIBA. Uni mRNA was more abundant in tl, af and af tl and reduced in the uni mutants compared to WT. These results indicate that an auxin gradient plays fundamental roles in controlling morphogenesis in the compound leaves of pea and specifically it: (i). is the driving force for leaf growth and pinna determination; (ii). is necessary for pinna initiation; and (iii). controls subsequent pinna development. PMID:12942326

  13. Kinetic features of gravicurvature of pea (Pisum sativum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishchuk, O. V.

    The upper sides of roots oriented horizontally grow more rapidly than the lower sides, causing the root ultimately to grow downward; this phenomenon is known as positive gravitropism. This ability is based on implicit mechanism which is being extensively investigated. Elaborate analysis of kinetic features of gravicurvature may complement the investigation. Pea and cress roots have positive gravitropism as roots of majority of higher plants. Mainly we investigated dependence of gravicurvature angle on time of gravistimulation. Two-day-old seedlings of cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896) and four-day-old pea ones (Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2) were placed on 1% agar medium in Petri dishes and turned on angle of gravistimulation. Then they were photographed at the same position each hour of gravistimulation. Photographs were analyzed with the help of Image Tool software program. Both pea and cress roots showed two phases of gravitropic response during gravistimulation for 6 hours when the initial angle of gravistimulation was 135 degrees. Two peaks of the rate of bending were observed. In cress roots, the first peak was much lower and the distance between the two peaks was greater than in pea roots. Curves of gravitropic bending of cress roots grown in agar had one or two inflections while in the case of roots grown on filter paper curves had no inflections. These data are in agreement with the effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice roots reported by Staves et al. (1997). Our results may reflect the fact that at least two systems that contribute to gravicurvature may exist in roots. These systems may be ligand-receptor complexes that may be formed with different kinetics in two different regions of the root. The most probable ligand is auxin and the regions appear to be central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), that were reported to be centers of tropic bending in roots. Thus, dependence of rate of root bending on

  14. Roots of Pisum sativum L. exhibit hydrotropism in response to a water potential gradient in vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Shogo; Miyamoto, Naoko; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Kuni; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, root hydrotropism in an agravitropic mutant of Pisum sativum L. grown in vermiculite with a steep water potential gradient was examined. When wet and dry vermiculite were placed side by side, water diffused from the wet (-0.04 MPa) to the dry (-1.2 MPa) and a steep water potential gradient became apparent in the dry vermiculite close to the boundary between the two. The extent and location of the gradient remained stable between the fourth and sixth day after filling a box with vermiculite, and the steepest gradient (approx. 0.02 MPa mm-1) was found in the initially dry vermiculite between 60 and 80 mm from the boundary. When seedlings with 25-35 mm long roots were planted in the initially dry vermiculite near where the gradient had been established, each of the main roots elongated toward the wet vermiculite, i.e. toward the high water potential. Control roots elongated without curvature in both the wet and the dry vermiculite, in which no water potential gradient was detectable. These results show that pea roots respond to the water potential gradient around them and elongate towards the higher water potential. Therefore, positive hydrotropism occurs in vermiculite just as it does in air. Hydrotropism in soil may be significant when a steep water potential gradient is apparent, such as when drip irrigation is applied.

  15. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-07-01

    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity.

  16. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen.

  17. The tropic response of plant roots to oxygen: oxytropism in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Musgrave, M E

    1998-09-01

    Plant roots are known to orient growth through the soil by gravitropism, hydrotropism, and thigmotropism. Recent observations of plant roots that developed in a microgravity environment in space suggested that plant roots may also orient their growth toward oxygen (oxytropism). Using garden pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Weibul's Apollo) and an agravitropic mutant (cv. Ageotropum), root oxytropism was studied in the controlled environment of a microrhizotron. A series of channels in the microrhizotron allowed establishment of an oxygen gradient of 0.8 mmol mol-1 mm-1. Curvature of seedling roots was determined prior to freezing the roots for subsequent spectrophotometric determinations of alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Oxytropic curvature was observed all along the gradient in both cultivars of pea. The normal gravitropic cultivar showed a maximal curvature of 45 degrees after 48 h, while the agravitropic mutant curved to 90 degrees. In each cultivar, the amount of curvature declined as the oxygen concentration decreased, and was linearly related to the root elongation rate. Since oxytropic curvature occurred in roots exposed to oxygen concentrations that were not low enough to induce the hypoxically responsive protein alcohol dehydrogenase, we suspect that the oxygen sensor associated with oxytropism does not control the induction of hypoxic metabolism. Our results indicate that oxygen can play a critical role in determining root orientation as well as impacting root metabolic status. Oxytropism allows roots to avoid oxygen-deprived soil strata and may also be the basis of an auto-avoidance mechanism, decreasing the competition between roots for water and nutrients as well as oxygen. PMID:11536884

  18. Callose deposition during gravitropism of Zea mays and Pisum sativum and its inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-glucose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, M. J.; Leopold, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) and etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings, a gravitropic stimulation induces the deposition of callose. In the corn coleoptiles this occurs within 5 min of gravity stimulation, and prior to the beginning of curvature. Both gravitropic curvature and callose deposition reach their maxima by 12 h. Within the first 2 h more callose is deposited on the upper (concave) side, but after 2-3 h, this deposition pattern is reversed. An inhibitor of protein glycosylation, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DDG), inhibits callose production and considerably retards gravitropic bending in both species of plants. Mannose can relieve the inhibition of gravitropic bending by DDG. The pea mutant "Ageotropum", which does not respond to gravity when etiolated, also fails to produce callose in response to a gravitic stimulus. These correlations indicate that callose deposition may be a biochemical component of gravitropism in plant shoots.

  19. Auxin-cytokinin and auxin-gibberellin interactions during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    DeMason, Darleen A

    2005-09-01

    A number of mutations that alter the form of the compound leaf in pea (Pisum sativum) has proven useful in elucidating the role that auxin might play in pea leaf development. The goals of this study were to determine if auxin application can rescue any of the pea leaf mutants and if gibberellic acid (GA) plays a role in leaf morphogenesis in pea. A tissue culture system was used to determine the effects of various auxins, GA or a GA biosynethesis inhibitor (paclobutrazol) on leaf development. The GA mutant, nana1 (na1) was analyzed. The uni-tac mutant was rescued by auxin and GA and rescue involved both a conversion of the terminal leaflet into a tendril and an addition of a pair of lateral tendrils. This rescue required the presence of cytokinin. The auxins tested varied in their effectiveness, although methyl-IAA worked best. The terminal tendrils of wildtype plantlets grown on paclobutrazol were converted into leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of lateral pinna pairs produced was reduced and leaf initiation was impaired. These abnormalities resembled those caused by auxin transport inhibitors and phenocopy the uni mutants. The na1 mutant shared some morphological features with the uni mutants; including, flowering late and producing leaves with fewer lateral pinna pairs. These results show that both auxin and GA play similar and significant roles in pea leaf development. Pea leaf morphogenesis might involve auxin regulation of GA biosynthesis and GA regulation of Uni expression. PMID:15809864

  20. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate in plant tissues. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.F.; Letcher, A.J.; Lander, D.J. ); Dawson, A.P. ); Musgrave, A. ); Drobak, B.K. )

    1989-03-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) leaf discs or swimming suspensions of Chlamydomonas eugametos were radiolabeled with ({sup 3}H)myo-inositol or ({sup 32}P)Pi and the lipids were extracted, deacylated, and their glycerol moieties removed. The resulting inositol trisphosphate and bisphosphate fractions were examined by periodate degradation, reduction and dephosphorylation, or by incubation with human red cell membranes. Their likely structures were identified as D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate and D-myo-inositol(1,4,)-bisphosphate. It is concluded that plants contain phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate; no other polyphosphoinositides were detected.

  2. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the cDNA of cop1 gene from Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Wang, C; Zhu, Y; Zhao, J; Wu, X

    1998-02-11

    Cop1 protein plays an important role in seedling development of higher plants. The cDNA of cop1 gene from pea (Pisum sativum) was cloned and sequenced. Cop1 protein of pea is predicted to have 672 amino acids and a molecular mass of 76 kDa. Sequence comparison between Cop1 proteins of pea and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the two Cop1 proteins were highly homologous in the regions with functional domains and at the C-terminus. Immunoblotting performed with polyclonal antibodies against recombinant Cop1 of pea showed that Cop1 protein was present in seedlings germinated both in light and darkness.

  3. Fucosylation of xyloglucan: localization of the transferase in dictyosomes of pea stem cells. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, A.; Brummell, D.; MacLachlan, G.

    1987-07-01

    Microsomal membranes from elongating regions of etiolated Pisum sativum stems were separated by rate-zonal centrifugation on Renografin gradients. The transfer of labeled fucose and xylose from GDP-(/sup 14/C) fucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)xylose to xyloglucan occurred mainly in dictyosome-enriched fractions. No transferase activity was detected in secretory vesicle fractions. Pulse-chase experiments using pea stem slices incubated with (/sup 3/H)fucose suggest that xyloglucan chains are fucosylated and their structure completed within the dictyosomes, before being transported to the cell wall by secretory vesicles.

  4. Products of dark CO sub 2 fixation in pea root nodules support bacteroid metabolism. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, L.; Pedersen, W.B. ); Vance, C.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Products of the nodule cytosol in vivo dark ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} fixation were detected in the plant cytosol as well as in the bacteroids of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Bodil) nodules. The distribution of the metabolites of the dark CO{sub 2} fixation products was compared in effective (fix{sup +}) nodules infected by a wild-type Rhizobium leguminosarum (MNF 300), and ineffective (fix{sup {minus}}) nodules of the R. leguminosarum mutant MNF 3080. The latter has a defect in the dicarboxylic acid transport system of the bacterial membrane. The {sup 14}C incorporation from ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} was about threefold greater in the wild-type nodules than in the mutant nodules. Similarly, in wild-type nodules the in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity was substantially greater than that of the mutant. Almost 90% of the {sup 14}C label in the cytosol was found in organic acids in both symbioses. The results indicate a central role for nodule cytosol dark CO{sub 2} fixation in the supply of the bacteroids with dicarboxylic acids.

  5. Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Jing; Zheng, Wen Tao; Everall, Isobel; Young, J Peter W; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Tian, Chang Fu; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2015-09-01

    Four rhizobia-like strains, isolated from root nodules of Pisum sativum and Vicia faba grown in Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces of China, were grouped into the genus Rhizobium but were distinct from all recognized species of the genus Rhizobium by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes. The combined sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII for strain CCBAU 23252(T) showed 86.9 to 95% similarity to those of known species of the genus Rhizobium. All four strains had nodC and nifH genes and could form effective nodules with Pisum sativum and Vicia faba, and ineffective nodules with Phaseolus vulgaris, but did not nodulate Glycine max, Arachis hypogaea, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens or Lablab purpureus in cross-nodulation tests. Fatty acid composition, DNA-DNA relatedness and a series of phenotypic tests also separated these strains from members of closely related species. Based on all the evidence, we propose a novel species, Rhizobium anhuiense sp. nov., and designate CCBAU 23252(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12621(T) = LMG 27729(T)) as the type strain. This strain was isolated from a root nodule of Vicia faba and has a DNA G+C content of 61.1 mol% (Tm).

  6. Growth and some physiological attributes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by salinity.

    PubMed

    Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, R A; Rastgar-Jazii, F; Sticklen, M

    2007-08-15

    The effects of salt stress were studied on growth and physiology of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Green Arrow) in a pot study. Pea plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 mM in Hoagland solution. Plants were harvested after 21 days for measurements of physiological parameters. The highest NAR and RGR were found in 10 mM NaCl. However, in 70 mM NaCl, RGR and RLGR were significantly decreased in respect of other concentrations of NaCl. In 50 and 70 mM NaCl, chlorophylls contents and photosynthetic rate, were significantly decreased and CO2 compensation concentration and respiration rate increased in comparison with control. In 10 and 30 mM NaCl gas exchanges and chlorophyll contents were not significantly decrease in respect of control. Results indicated that Pisum sativum L. cv. Green Arrow can tolerate to 70 mM NaCl, also growth of plants in 10 and 30 mM NaCl was better than that of those in 0 mM NaCl.

  7. Effect of clinorotation on the leaf mesophyll structure and pigment content in Arabidopsis thaliana L. and Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Adamchuk, N I

    2004-07-01

    Properties of mesophyll cells and photosynthetic membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Pisum sativum (L.) plants grown in a horizontal clinostat and in control conditions were compared. Obtained data have show that under clinorotation conditions seedlings have experienced the following cell morphology changes structural chloroplast rearrangement in palisade cells, pigment content alteration, and cell aging acceleration.

  8. SGRL can regulate chlorophyll metabolism and contributes to normal plant growth and development in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew; Moreau, Carol; Chinoy, Catherine; Spanner, Rebecca; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdel; Klenell, Markus; Domoney, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Among a set of genes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) that were induced under drought-stress growth conditions, one encoded a protein with significant similarity to a regulator of chlorophyll catabolism, SGR. This gene, SGRL, is distinct from SGR in genomic location, encoded carboxy-terminal motif, and expression through plant and seed development. Divergence of the two encoded proteins is associated with a loss of similarity in intron/exon gene structure. Transient expression of SGRL in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana promoted the degradation of chlorophyll, in a manner that was distinct from that shown by SGR. Removal of a predicted transmembrane domain from SGRL reduced its activity in transient expression assays, although variants with and without this domain reduced SGR-induced chlorophyll degradation, indicating that the effects of the two proteins are not additive. The combined data suggest that the function of SGRL during growth and development is in chlorophyll re-cycling, and its mode of action is distinct from that of SGR. Studies of pea sgrL mutants revealed that plants had significantly lower stature and yield, a likely consequence of reduced photosynthetic efficiencies in mutant compared with control plants under conditions of high light intensity.

  9. Nitrogen deficiency hinders etioplast development in stems of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Kósa, Annamária; Preininger, Éva; Böddi, Béla

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) deprivation were studied in etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Zsuzsi) grown in shoot cultures. The average shoot lengths decreased and the stems significantly altered considering their pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence spectra and ultrastructural properties. The protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) content and the relative contribution of the 654-655 nm emitting flash-photoactive Pchlide form significantly decreased. The etioplast inner membrane structure characteristically changed: N deprivation correlated with a decrease in the size and number of prolamellar bodies (PLBs). These results show that N deficiency directly hinders the pigment production, as well as the synthesis of other etioplast inner membrane components in etiolated pea stems.

  10. Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. : Influence of vegetative parts.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, J; García-Martínez, J L

    1980-02-01

    The influence of removing the apical shoot and different leaves above and below the flower on the fruit-set of unpollinated pea ovaries (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) has been studied. Unpollinated ovaries were induced to set and develop either by topping or by removing certain developing leaves of the shoot. Topping had a maximum effect when carried out before or on the day of anthesis, and up to four consecutive ovaries were induced to set in the same plant. The inhibition of fruit-set was due to the developing leaves and not to the apex. The third leaf above the first flower, which had a simultaneous development to the ovary, had the stronger inhibitory effect on parthenocarpic fruit-set. The application of different plant-growth regulators (indoleacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, gibberellic acid, benzyladenine and abscisic acid) did not mimic the negative effect of the shoot. PMID:24311167

  11. Binding of mannose-functionalized dendrimers with pea (Pisum sativum) lectin.

    PubMed

    Schlick, Kristian H; Udelhoven, Rachel A; Strohmeyer, Gregory C; Cloninger, Mary J

    2005-01-01

    Lectins are invaluable tools for chemical biology because they recognize carbohydrate arrays. Multivalent carbohydrate binding by lectins is important for processes such as bacterial and viral adhesion and cancer metastasis. A better understanding of mammalian lectin binding to carbohydrate arrays is critical for controlling these and other cellular recognition processes. Plant lectins are excellent model systems for the study of multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions because of their robustness and ready availability. Here, we describe binding studies of mannose-functionalized poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to a mitogenic lectin from Pisum sativum (pea lectin). Hemagglutination and precipitation assays were performed, and results were compared to those obtained from concanavalin A (Con A), a lectin that has been studied in more detail. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments are also described.

  12. Effect of Ethylene on Cell Division and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Pisum sativum1

    PubMed Central

    Apelbaum, Akiva; Burg, Stanley P.

    1972-01-01

    Ethylene and supraoptimal levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid inhibit the growth of the apical hook region of etiolated Pisum sativum (var. Alaska) seedlings by stopping almost all cell divisions. Cells are prevented from entering prophase. The hormones also retard cell division in intact root tips and completely stop the process in lateral buds. The latter inhibition is reversed partially by benzyl adenine. In root tips and the stem plumular and subhook regions, ethylene inhibits DNA synthesis. The magnitude of this inhibition is correlated with the degree of repression of cell division in meristematic tissue, suggesting that the effect on cell division results from a lack of DNA synthesis. Ethylene inhibits cell division within a few hours with a dose-response curve similar to that for most other actions of the gas. Experiments with seedlings grown under hypobaric conditions suggest that the gas naturally controls plumular expansion and cell division in the apical region. Images PMID:16658105

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Jamie A.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Maule, Andrew J.; Lawson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of an N-terminally truncated 20 kDa fragment of Pisum sativum eIF4E (ΔN-eIF4E) were grown by vapour diffusion. X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.2 Å from a single crystal in-house. Indexing was consistent with primitive monoclinic symmetry and solvent-content estimations suggested that between four and nine copies of the eIF4E fragment were possible per crystallographic asymmetric unit. eIF4E is an essential component of the eukaryotic translation machinery and recent studies have shown that point mutations of plant eIF4Es can confer resistance to potyvirus infection. PMID:19652353

  14. DNA Strand-Transfer Activity in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Chloroplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, H.; Jagendorf, A. T.

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of DNA recombination in plastids of higher plants is well documented. However, little is known at the enzymic level. To begin dissecting the biochemical mechanism(s) involved we focused on a key step: strand transfer between homologous parental DNAs. We detected a RecA-like strand transfer activity in stromal extracts from pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplasts. Formation of joint molecules requires Mg2+, ATP, and homologous substrates. This activity is inhibited by excess single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), suggesting a necessary stoichiometric relation between enzyme and ssDNA. In a novel assay with Triton X-100-permeabilized chloroplasts, we also detected strand invasion of the endogenous chloroplast DNA by 32P-labeled ssDNA complementary to the 16S rRNA gene. Joint molecules, analyzed by electron microscopy, contained the expected displacement loops. PMID:12231805

  15. Root and foliar uptake, translocation, and distribution of [14C] fluoranthene in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zezulka, Stěpán; Klemš, Marek; Kummerová, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Uptake of (14)C-labeled fluoranthene ([(14)C]FLT) via both roots and leaves of Pisum sativum seedlings and distribution of [(14) C] in plants by both acropetal and basipetal transport was evaluated. The highest [(14)C] level was found in the root base (≈270 × 10(4) dpm/g dry wt) and the lowest level in the stem apex (<2 × 10(4) dpm/g dry wt) after just 2 h of root exposure. For foliar uptake, the highest level of [(14)C] was found in the stem and root apex (both ≈2 × 10(4) dpm/g dry wt) (except for treated leaves), while the lowest level was found in the root base (<0.6 × 10(4) dpm/g dry wt).

  16. On the shock response of Pisum Sativum (a.k.a the Common Pea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighs, James; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    The high strain-rate response of biological and organic structures is of interest to numerous fields ranging from the food industry (dynamic pasteurisation) to astrobiology (e.g. the theory of panspermia, which suggests that planets could be `seeded' with life `piggy-backing' of interplanetary bodies). Consequently, knowledge of the damage mechanisms and viability of shocked organic material is of paramount importance. In this study a single-stage gas-gun has been employed to subject samples of Pisum Sativum (the Common Pea) to semi-planar shock loading, corresponding to impact pressures of up to c.3 GPa. The experimental approach adopted is discussed along with results from Manganin gauges embedded in the target capsule which show the loading history. Further, the viability of the shock-loaded peas was investigated via attempts at germination. Finally, microscopic examination of the impacted specimens allowed a qualitative assessment of damage mechanisms to be made.

  17. Isolation and characterization of phytoferritin from pea (Pisum sativum) and Lentil (Lens esculenta).

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, R R; Ponce-Ortiz, Y; Koch, M H; Parfait, R; Stuhrmann, H B

    1978-01-01

    Ferritin was isolated from the seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and lentil (Lens esculenta). The homogeneity of the phytoferritins was established by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The subunit molecular weights were respectively 20 300 and 21 400 for hte pea and lentil proteins. A neutron low-angle scattering study established the molecular weight of the oligomer as 480 000 for pea apoferritin and 510 000 for lentil apoferritin. Although the quaternary structure of 24 polypeptide chains is preserved, the phytoferritins have a larger cavity in the interior than mammalian ferritins and can thus potentially store 1.2-1.4 times as much iron. The amino acid composition of the phytoferritins show some similarities to those of mammalian apoferritins; tryptic 'fingerprinting' reveals that there are many differences in the amino acid sequence of plant and mammalian apoferritins. Images Fig. 1. PMID:656049

  18. Extraction, purification, kinetic and thermodynamic properties of urease from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urease, one of the highly efficient known enzymes, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The present study aimed to extract urease from pea seeds (Pisum Sativum L). The enzyme was then purified in three consequence steps: acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-200 column). Results The purification fold was 12.85 with a yield of 40%. The molecular weight of the isolated urease was estimated by chromatography to be 269,000 Daltons. Maximum urease activity (190 U/g) was achieved at the optimum conditions of 40°C and pH of 7.5 after 5 min of incubation. The kinetic parameters, K m and V max , were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk fits and found to be 500 mM and 333.3 U/g, respectively. The thermodynamic constants of activation, ΔH, E a , and ΔS, were determined using Arrhenius plot and found to be 21.20 kJ/mol, 23.7 kJ/mol, and 1.18 kJ/mol/K, respectively. Conclusions Urease was purified from germinating Pisum Sativum L. seeds. The purification fold, yield, and molecular weight were determined. The effects of pH, concentration of enzyme, temperature, concentration of substrate, and storage period on urease activity were examined. This may provide an insight on the various aspects of the property of the enzyme. The significance of extracting urease from different sources could play a good role in understanding the metabolism of urea in plants. PMID:25065975

  19. Rubisco activity in guard cells compared with the solute requirement for stomatal opening. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Reckmann, U.; Scheibe, R.; Raschke, K. )

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether the reductive pentose phosphate path in guard cells of Pisum sativum had the capacity to contribute significantly to the production of osmotica during stomatal opening in the light. Amounts of ribulose 1,5-bisphophate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were determined by the ({sup 14}C) carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate assay. A guard cell contained about 1.2 and a mesophyll cell about 324 picograms of the enzyme; the ratio was 1:270. The specific activities of Rubisco in guard cells and in mesophyll cells were equal; there was no indication of a specific inhibitor of Rubisco in guard cells. Rubisco activity was 115 femtomol per guard-cell protoplast and hour. This value was different from zero with a probability of 0.99. After exposure of guard-cell protoplasts to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} for 2 seconds in the light, about one-half of the radioactivity was in phosphorylated compounds and <10% in malate. Guard cells in epidermal strips produced a different labelling pattern; in the light, <10% of the label was in phosphorylated compounds and about 60% in malate. The rate of solute accumulation in intact guard cells was estimated to have been 900 femto-osmol per cell and hour. If Rubisco operated at full capacity in guard cells, and hexoses were produced as osmotica, solutes could be supplied at a rate of 19femto-osmol per cell and hour, which would constitute 2% of the estimated requirement. The capacity of guard-cell Rubisco to meet the solute requirement for stomatal opening in leaves of Pisum sativum is insignificant.

  20. Cloning, overexpression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco-Medina, Sergio; López-Jaramillo, Francisco Javier; Bernier-Villamor, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Lázaro, Juan-José

    2006-07-01

    The isolation, purification, crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of mitochondrial type II peroxiredoxin from P. sativum is reported. A cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 199 amino acids corresponding to a type II peroxiredoxin from Pisum sativum with its transit peptide was isolated by RT-PCR. The 171-amino-acid mature protein (estimated molecular weight 18.6 kDa) was cloned into the pET3d vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set (98.2% completeness) was collected using a rotating-anode generator to a resolution of 2.8 Å from a single crystal flash-cooled at 100 K. X-ray data revealed that the protein crystallizes in space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.88, b = 66.40, c = 77.23 Å, α = 102.90, β = 104.40, γ = 99.07°, and molecular replacement using a theoretical model predicted from the primary structure as a search model confirmed the presence of six molecules in the unit cell as expected from the Matthews coefficient. Refinement of the structure is in progress.

  1. Palladium uptake by Pisum sativum: partitioning and effects on growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ronchini, Matteo; Cherchi, Laura; Cantamessa, Simone; Lanfranchi, Marco; Vianelli, Alberto; Gerola, Paolo; Berta, Graziella; Fumagalli, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    Environmental palladium levels are increasing because of anthropogenic activities. The considerable mobility of the metal, due to solubilisation phenomena, and its known bioavailability may indicate interactions with higher organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the Pd uptake and distribution in the various organs of the higher plant Pisum sativum and the metal-induced effects on its growth and reproduction. P. sativum was grown in vermiculite with a modified Hoagland's solution of nutrients in the presence of Pd at concentrations ranging 0.10-25 mg/L. After 8-10 weeks in a controlled environment room, plants were harvested and dissected to isolate the roots, stems, leaves, pods and peas. The samples were analysed for Pd content using AAS and SEM-EDX. P. sativum absorbed Pd, supplied as K₂PdCl₄, beginning at seed germination and continuing throughout its life. Minimal doses (0.10-1.0 mg Pd/L) severely inhibited pea reproductive processes while showing a peculiar hormetic effect on root development. Pd concentrations ≥1 mg/L induced developmental delay, with late growth resumption, increased leaf biomass (up to 25%) and a 15-20% reduction of root mass. Unsuccessful repeated blossoming efforts led to misshapen pods and no seed production. Photosynthesis was also disrupted. The absorbed Pd (ca. 0.5 % of the supplied metal) was primarily fixed in the root, specifically in the cortex, reaching concentrations up to 200 μg/g. The metal moved through the stem (up to 1 μg/g) to the leaves (2 μg/g) and pods (0.3 μg/g). The presence of Pd in the pea fruits, together with established evidence of environmental Pd accumulation and bioavailability, suggests possible contamination of food plants and propagation in the food chain and must be the cause for concern.

  2. Primary and Secondary Abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima—How Do They Compare and How Do They Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Hvoslef-Eide, Anne K.; Munster, Cristel M.; Mathiesen, Cecilie A.; Ayeh, Kwadwo O.; Melby, Tone I.; Rasolomanana, Paoly; Lee, YeonKyeong

    2016-01-01

    Abscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in 1 week. AFLP differential display (DD) was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two pea (Pisum sativum) mutants in the def (Developmental funiculus) gene, which was compared with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases) was performed. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first 2 days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions), enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis. This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94–98 million years in evolution, hence any genes or processes in common

  3. Primary and Secondary Abscission in Pisum sativum and Euphorbia pulcherrima-How Do They Compare and How Do They Differ?

    PubMed

    Hvoslef-Eide, Anne K; Munster, Cristel M; Mathiesen, Cecilie A; Ayeh, Kwadwo O; Melby, Tone I; Rasolomanana, Paoly; Lee, YeonKyeong

    2015-01-01

    Abscission is a highly regulated and coordinated developmental process in plants. It is important to understand the processes leading up to the event, in order to better control abscission in crop plants. This has the potential to reduce yield losses in the field and increase the ornamental value of flowers and potted plants. A reliable method of abscission induction in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) flowers has been established to study the process in a comprehensive manner. By correctly decapitating buds of the third order, abscission can be induced in 1 week. AFLP differential display (DD) was used to search for genes regulating abscission. Through validation using qRT-PCR, more information of the genes involved during induced secondary abscission have been obtained. A study using two pea (Pisum sativum) mutants in the def (Developmental funiculus) gene, which was compared with wild type peas (tall and dwarf in both cases) was performed. The def mutant results in a deformed, abscission-less zone instead of normal primary abscission at the funiculus. RNA in situ hybridization studies using gene sequences from the poinsettia differential display, resulted in six genes differentially expressed for abscission specific genes in both poinsettia and pea. Two of these genes are associated with gene up- or down-regulation during the first 2 days after decapitation in poinsettia. Present and previous results in poinsettia (biochemically and gene expressions), enables a more detailed division of the secondary abscission phases in poinsettia than what has previously been described from primary abscission in Arabidopsis. This study compares the inducible secondary abscission in poinsettia and the non-abscising mutants/wild types in pea demonstrating primary abscission zones. The results may have wide implications on the understanding of abscission, since pea and poinsettia have been separated for 94-98 million years in evolution, hence any genes or processes in common

  4. Sativin: a novel antifungal miraculin-like protein isolated from legumes of the sugar snap Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2000-07-01

    An antifungal protein designated sativin was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap (also known as honey pea) Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. The procedure entailed extraction, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose. The protein exhibited a molecular weight of 38 kDa in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It possessed an N-terminal amino acid sequence which showed similarity to those of miraculin (a sweet protein) and pisavin (a ribosome-inactivating protein from Pisum sativum var arvense Poir manifesting similarity to miraculin). Unlike pisavin, however, sativin demonstrated negligible ribonuclease activity and inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with a very low potency (IC50= 14 microM). Sativin exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus ostreatus but not against Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:10968407

  5. Genetic Dissection of the Initiation of the Infection Process and Nodule Tissue Development in the Rhizobium–Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    TSYGANOV, V. E.; VOROSHILOVA, V. A.; PRIEFER, U. B.; BORISOV, A. Y.; TIKHONOVICH, I. A.

    2002-01-01

    Twelve non‐nodulating pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants were studied to identify the blocks in nodule tissue development. In nine, the reason for the lack of infection thread (IT) development was studied; this had been characterized previously in the other three mutants. With respect to IT development, mutants in gene sym7 are interrupted at the stage of colonization of the pocket in the curled root hair (Crh– phenotype), mutants in genes sym37 and sym38 are blocked at the stage of IT growth in the root hair cell (Ith– phenotype) and mutants in gene sym34 at the stage of IT growth inside root cortex cells (Itr– phenotype). With respect to nodule tissue development, mutants in genes sym7, sym14 and sym35 were shown to be blocked at the stage of cortical cell divisions (Ccd– phenotype), mutants in gene sym34 are halted at the stage of nodule primordium (NP) development (Npd– phenotype) and mutants in genes sym37 and sym38 are arrested at the stage of nodule meristem development (Nmd– phenotype). Thus, the sequential functioning of the genes Sym37, Sym38 and the gene Sym34 apparently differs in the infection process and during nodule tissue development. Based on these data, a scheme is suggested for the sequential functioning of early pea symbiotic genes in the two developmental processes: infection and nodule tissue formation. PMID:12096795

  6. First report of the inhibition of arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of Pisum sativum by specific and irreversible inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis or by gibberellic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    El Ghachtouli, N; Martin-Tanguy, J; Paynot, M; Gianinazzi, S

    1996-05-01

    DFMO (alpha-DL-difluoromethylornithine), a specific irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a polyamine biosynthetic pathway enzyme, strongly inhibits root growth and arbuscular mycorrhizal infection of Pisum sativum (P56 myc+, isogenic mutant of cv. Frisson). This inhibition is reversed when exogenous polyamine (putrescine) is included in the DFMO treatment, showing that the effect of DFMO on arbuscular mycorrhizal infection is indeed due to putrescine limitation and suggesting that ODC may have a role in root growth and mycorrhizal infection. However, treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) which increased root titers of polyamines strongly inhibited arbuscular mycorrhizal development. The possible role of polyamines in the regulation of the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal infection is discussed. PMID:8647248

  7. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Jiao, Chengjin; Su, Miao; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Lina; Peng, Renyi; Wang, Ranran; Wang, Chongying

    2013-09-01

    Flooding of soils often results in hypoxic conditions surrounding plant roots, which is a harmful abiotic stress to crops. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible, gaseous molecule that modulates cell signaling and is involved in hypoxia signaling in animal cells. However, there have been no previous studies of H2S in plant cells in response to hypoxia. The effects of H2S on hypoxia-induced root tip death were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) via analysis of endogenous H2S and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The activities of key enzymes involved in antioxidative and H2S metabolic pathways were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Ethylene was measured by gas chromatography. We found that exogenous H2S pretreatment dramatically alleviated hypoxia-induced root tip death by protecting root tip cell membranes from ROS damage induced by hypoxia and by stimulating a quiescence strategy through inhibiting ethylene production. Conversely, root tip death induced by hypoxia was strongly enhanced by inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S biosynthesis. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S pretreatment significantly alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in pea seedlings and, therefore, enhances the tolerance of the plant to hypoxic stress.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Mitochondrial Acetyl-Coenzyme A Hydrolase from Pisum sativum L. Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Zeiher, Carolyn A.; Randall, Douglas D.

    1990-01-01

    Mitochondria from Pisum sativum seedlings purified free of peroxisomal and chlorophyll contamination were examined for acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydrolase activity. Acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity was latent when assayed in isotonic media. The majority of the enzyme activity was found in the soluble matrix of the mitochondria. The products, acetate and CoA, were quantified by two independent methods and verified that the observed activity was an acetyl-CoA hydrolase. The pea mitochondrial acetyl-CoA hydrolase showed a Km for acetyl-CoA of 74 micromolar and a Vmax of 6.1 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein. CoA was a linear competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with a Kis of 16 micromolar. The sensitivity of the enzyme to changes in mole fraction of acetyl-CoA suggested that the changes in the intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio may be an effective mechanism of control. The widespread distribution of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity among different plant species indicated that this may be a general mechanism in plants for synthesizing acetate. PMID:16667687

  10. Study of DC and AC electric field effect on Pisum sativum seeds growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Bahar; Jaleh, Sojoodi; Yasaman, Yasaie

    2014-07-01

    In this research the effect of electric field on two groups of wet and dry Pisum sativum seeds growth was studied. To generate the required electric field a parallel-plate capacitor with round copper plates of 30 cm diameter was used. The experiments were performed once in fixed exposure duration of 8 min in variable DC electric field of 0.25-1.5 kV/m. The other experiments were performed in variable fields of 50-125 kV/m in fixed exposure duration of 8 min, in two groups of AC and DC electric fields. The experiments were repeated three times. In each experiment 10 seeds were used and there was a sham exposed group for comparison, too. After application of electric field, the seeds were kept for six days in the same growth chamber with the temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and 12 h light/12 h darkness. On the 6th day length of stems and height of roots were measured. After doing statistical analysis, in low intensities of DC electric field, the highest significant increase of mean growth (The average of stem length and the height of roots) was seen in 1.5 kV/m in wet seeds. In high intensities of DC and AC electric fields, the highest significant increase of mean growth was seen in AC electric field of 100 kV/m in wet seeds.

  11. Nutritional assessment in vitro and in vivo of raw and extruded peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Alonso, R; Grant, G; Dewey, P; Marzo, F

    2000-06-01

    The effects of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties of Pisum sativum L. have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The treatment greatly elevated protein and starch digestibility in vitro. Also, the amounts of intact starch diminished while total free sugars increased. In addition, the levels of antinutritional factors, such as protease inhibitors and lectins, were greatly decreased. Concentrations of methionine and cystine were low in raw peas and were further reduced by extrusion treatment. The nutritional performance of rats fed extruded pea diets for 15 days was no better than that of rats given raw pea diet. This was due to the overriding effects of amino acid deficiencies in the diets. Weight gains by rats fed extruded pea diets supplemented with amino acids were, however, much higher than those achieved by rats fed supplemented raw pea diets. Food transformation index and protein efficiency ratio values were also greatly improved. Extrusion treatment did therefore significantly improve the nutritional quality of peas. PMID:10888538

  12. Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductase Is in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Leaf Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Rayapati, P J; Stewart, C R; Hack, E

    1989-10-01

    Proline accumulation is a well-known response to water deficits in leaves. The primary cause of accumulation is proline synthesis. Delta(1)-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PCR) catalyzes the final reaction of proline synthesis. To determine the subcellular location of PCR, protoplasts were made from leaves of Pisum sativum L., lysed, and fractionated by differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. PCR activity comigrated on the gradient with the activity of the chloroplast stromal marker NADPH-dependent triose phosphate dehydrogenase. We conclude that PCR is located in chloroplasts, and therefore that chloroplasts can synthesize proline. PCR activities from chloroplasts and etiolated shoots were compared. PCR activity from both extracts is stimulated at least twofold by 100 millimolar KCl or 10 millimolar MgCl(2). The pH profiles of PCR activity from both extracts reveal two separate optima at pH 6.5 and 7.5. Native isoelectric focusing gels of sampies from etiolated tissue reveal a single band of PCR activity with a pl of 7.8.

  13. Pb2+ exposure induced microsatellite instability in Pisum sativum in a locus related with glutamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E; Azevedo, R; Moreira, H; Souto, L; Santos, Conceição

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic element, but its putative mutagenic effects in plant cells, using molecular markers, remain to unveil. To evaluate if Pb induces mutagenicity, Pisum sativum L. seedlings were exposed to Pb(2+) (up to 2000 mg L(-1)) for 28 days and the instability of microsatellites (or Simple Sequence Repeats, SSR) was analyzed in leaves and roots. The analysis of eight selected microsatellites (SSR1-SSR8) demonstrated that only at the highest dosage microsatellite instability (MSI) occurred, at a frequency of 4.2%. Changes were detected in one microsatellite (SSR6) that is inserted in the locus for glutamine synthetase. SSR6 products of roots exposed to the highest concentration of Pb were 3 bp larger than those of the control. Our data demonstrate that: (a) SSR technique is sensitive to detect Pb-induced mutagenicity in plants. MSI instability is Pb dose dependent and organ dependent (roots are more sensitive); (b) the Pb-sensitive SSR6 is inserted in the glutamine synthetase locus, with still unknown relation with functional changes of this enzyme; (c) Pb levels inducing MSI are much above the maximum admitted levels in some European Union countries for agricultural purpose waters. In conclusion, we propose here the potential use of SSR to evaluate Pb(2+)-induced mutagenicity, in combination with other genetic markers.

  14. Pyruvate decarboxylase from Pisum sativum. Properties, nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Mücke, U; Wohlfarth, T; Fiedler, U; Bäumlein, H; Rücknagel, K P; König, S

    1996-04-15

    To study the molecular structure and function of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) from plants the protein was isolated from pea seeds and partially characterised. The active enzyme which occurs in the form of higher oligomers consists of two different subunits appearing in SDS/PAGE and mass spectroscopy experiments. For further experiments, like X-ray crystallography, it was necessary to elucidate the protein sequence. Partial cDNA clones encoding pyruvate decarboxylase from seeds of Pisum sativum cv. Miko have been obtained by means of polymerase chain reaction techniques. The first sequences were found using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designated according to conserved amino acid sequences of known pyruvate decarboxylases. The missing parts of one cDNA were amplified applying the 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends systems. The amino acid sequence deduced from the entire cDNA sequence displays strong similarity to pyruvate decarboxylases from other organisms, especially from plants. A molecular mass of 64 kDa was calculated for this protein correlating with estimations for the smaller subunit of the oligomeric enzyme. The PCR experiments led to at least three different clones representing the middle part of the PDC cDNA indicating the existence of three isozymes. Two of these isoforms could be confirmed on the protein level by sequencing tryptic peptides. Only anaerobically treated roots showed a positive signal for PDC mRNA in Northern analysis although the cDNA from imbibed seeds was successfully used for PCR.

  15. Physiology of Movements in the Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska 1

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    Phototropic response in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) seedlings is poor. However, the curvature induced by unilateral blue light can be hastened and increased in magnitude by a previously administered red light pulse followed by several hours of darkness. Phytochrome is involved in the red light effect. Phototropic response was almost completely inhibited by removal of the apical bud and hook, but it was restored if exogenous indole-3-acetic acid was applied apically to the cut stump. Therefore, the stem contains both the phototropic photoreceptor and response mechanism. Perception of gravity and gravitropic response were also localized in the stem, but gravitropism was scarcely inhibited by decapitation. It was also observed that the kinetics and curvature pattern of gravitropism differed greatly from those of phototropism. Like phototropism, stem nutation required auxin and was promoted by red light. Unlike phototropism, photoenhanced nutational curvature required the apical hook and was propagated as a wave down the stem. Naphthylphthalamic acid inhibited, in order of decreasing effect, nutation, phototropism/gravitropism, and growth. Phototropism, gravitropism, and nutation appear to represent distinct forms of stem movement with fundamental differences in the mechanisms of curvature development. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16662824

  16. Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. : Influence of plant-growth regulators.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, J L; Carbonell, J

    1980-02-01

    The development of parthenocarpic fruits of Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska was induced by the application of different plant-growth regulators in aqueous solution to the emasculated ovaries in untopped plants. At least one compound in each of the groups of auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), cytokinins (benzyladenine), and gibberellins (gibberellic acid) was found active. Gibberellic acid (GA3), however, was the only substance which produced pods similar to those of fruits with seeds. The length of the pods obtained by GA3 was a linear function of the logarithm of the concentration of GA3 in the solution. The effect of GA3 (at a concentration which produced 50% of the maximum pod length) was enhanced by a simultaneous application of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Abscisic acid (ABA) counteracted the effect of GA3 and of topping. The results suggest that gibberellins and ABA may exert a major regulatory control in natural fruit-set. Peas can be used for the assay of fructigenic activity and is an advantageous material for the study of the mode of action of gibberellins on fruit-set. PMID:24311168

  17. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  18. Gibberellin Substitution for the Requirement of the Cotyledons in Stem Elongation in Pisum sativum Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shininger, T L

    1972-03-01

    The removal of the cotyledons from 8-day-old light-grown Pisum sativum cv. Alaska seedlings caused a reduction in the rate of stem elongation to 50% of the intact control value. Gibberellic acid restored the stem elongation rate of decotylized plants to the level of the intact controls. The effect of decotylization was to lower both the rate of node formation and the rate of internode elongation. The steady state rate of internode elongation was reduced to 50% of the control rate by decotylization. Applied gibberellic acid did not restore the normal rate of node formation nor the lag in internode elongation caused by decotylization, but gibberellic acid did restore the normal steady state rate of internode elongation. Analysis of variance demonstrated an interaction between the cotyledons and applied gibberellic acid. 2-Isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methyl phenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride inhibited internode elongation to the same extent in both intact and decotylized plants. The results indicate that the cotyledons are an effective source of gibberellin for the young pea seedling. PMID:16657957

  19. NADH induces the generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    del Rio, L.A.; Sandalio, L.M.; Palma, J.M. ); Fernandez, V.M.; Ruperez, F.L. )

    1989-03-01

    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive against xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes suggests that O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related roles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism.

  20. Changes in free polyamines and related enzymes during stipule and pod wall development in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Lahiri, Kajari; Bharati, Ghosh

    2002-08-01

    Level of free polyamines, their key metabolic enzymes, and other features related to ageing were examined during stipule and pod wall development in pea (Pisum sativum). Free polyamine titre (per unit fresh mass) in both the organs, the specific activities of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the pod wall, gradually decreased with maturation. In stipule, these enzymes attained peak activity at 15 days after pod emergence and declined thereafter. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was greater in pod wall than in stipule; while, arginine decarboxylase activity was higher in stipule. Activity of degradative enzyme diamine oxidase increased with the onset of senescence in both the organs. Chlorophyll and electrical conductance had a inverse relationship throughout the experimental period, whereas, the chlorophyll content was directly related with polyamine levels in both stipule and pod wall during aging. On the other hand, protein and RNA contents were positively correlated with free polyamines throughout the test period in stipule, but in the pod wall this was true only for the later stages of development.

  1. Studies on antioxidative enzymes induced by cadmium in pea plants (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Singh, Gaurav Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Swati) exposed to different concentration of cadmium (50,100, 200 microM Cd) under controlled glass house conditions were quantified for different physiological parameters and antioxidative enzymes. In pea plants, Cd produced a significant inhibition of growth and induced chlorosis, marginal yellowing and necrosis in young leaves, the effect being most pronounced at 200 microM Cd supply. An alteration in the activated oxygen metabolism of pea plants were also detected as evidenced by an increase in concentration of H2O2 and TBARS along with decrease in the chlorophyll and carotenoid concentration in leaves. Cadmium toxicity induced an increase in non-protein thiol, ascorbate, proline and cysteine concentration. A significant increment in the activity of SOD, APX and GR, and a decrease in CAT was observed as a result of Cd treatment. The enhanced activity of SOD and inhibition of CAT and POD produces a high build up of H2O2 which appears to be the main cause of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  2. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  3. Phytochrome regulation of gibberellin metabolism in shoots of dwarf Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Campell, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of light on the recessive dwarfing allele, le, of Pisum sativum L., etiolated, paclobutrazol treated LeLe (cv. Alaska) and lele (cv. Progress) pea seedlings were transferred to different light regimes. The growth response of both genotypes to applications of GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 20/, and steviol was measured over 48 hours using position transducers. Both genotypes responded to GA/sub 1/ under red irradiation and in darkness. The LeLe plants grew in response to steviol and GA/sub 20/ under red irradiation and in darkness. The lele plants responded to steviol and GA/sub 20/ in darkness, but showed a much smaller response when red irradiated. The red effect on lele plants was reversible by far-red irradiation. (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 20/ was applied to nana pea seedlings, homozygous for le, grown under different light regimes. Radioactive metabolites were later extracted from the shoots of the treated plants. Both the free acid and conjugate pools were analyzed by reversed phase HPLC, and some radioactive metabolites were tentatively identified by comparing their retention times to those of authentic (/sup 3/H)GAs.

  4. Rapid wall relaxation in elongating tissues. [Glycine max (L. ); Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Matyssek, R.; Maruyama, S.; Boyer, J.S. )

    1988-01-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, the authors investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. The authors found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached to the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species.

  5. Auxin effects on in vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in pea. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.R.; Ray, P.M.

    1987-04-01

    Terminal 8mm sections from the third internode of dark grown 7 day old Pisum sativum cv Alaska seedlings were separated into membrane and soluble fractions. SDS gradient PAGE identified approximately 50 in vivo phosphorylated proteins and proved superior to 2-D SDS PAGE in terms of resolution and repeatability. Addition of indoleacetic acid (IAA), fusicoccin, or 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to membranes resulted in no detectable change in the number or phosphorylation level of the labeled proteins during in vitro phosphorylation in the presence of submicromolar concentrations of calcium. Similar results were obtained with soluble proteins. In the absence of calcium, the level of in vitro protein phosphorylation was much less, but not auxin effects could be identified. Furthermore, treatment of the sections with IAA in vivo followed by cell fractionation and in vitro phosphorylation failed to identify auxin responsive proteins. Lastly, when sections were labeled with /sup 32/P inorganic phosphate in the presence of 17 uM IAA, no auxin specific changes were found in the level of phosphorylation or in the number of phosphorylated proteins. Auxin effects on phosphorylation are thus slight or below their detection limit.

  6. Control of storage-protein synthesis during seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Gatehouse, J A; Evans, I M; Bown, D; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1982-01-01

    The tissue-specific syntheses of seed storage proteins in the cotyledons of developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have been demonstrated by estimates of their qualitative and quantitative accumulation by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. Vicilin-fraction proteins initially accumulated faster than legumin, but whereas legumin was accumulated throughout development, different components of the vicilin fraction had their predominant periods of synthesis at different stages of development. The translation products in vitro of polysomes isolated from cotyledons at different stages of development reflected the synthesis in vivo of storage-protein polypeptides at corresponding times. The levels of storage-protein mRNA species during development were estimated by 'Northern' hybridization using cloned complementary-DNA probes. This technique showed that the levels of legumin and vicilin (47000-Mr precursors) mRNA species increased and decreased in agreement with estimated rates of synthesis of the respective polypeptides. The relative amounts of these messages, estimated by kinetic hybridization were also consistent. Legumin mRNA was present in leaf poly(A)+ RNA at less than one-thousandth of the level in cotyledon poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) RNA, demonstrating tissue-specific expression. Evidence is presented that storage-protein mRNA species are relatively long-lived, and it is suggested that storage-protein synthesis is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6897609

  7. Evidence that the mature leaves contribute auxin to the immature tissues of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Glancy, Naomi E; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2007-07-01

    In plants such as the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), it is widely thought that the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is synthesised mainly in the immature tissues of the apical bud and then transported basipetally to other parts of the plant. Consistent with this belief are results showing that removal of the apical bud markedly reduces the IAA content in the stem. However, it has also been suggested that the mature leaves may synthesise substantial amounts of IAA, which enters the basipetal transport stream after being transported to the shoot apex in the phloem (Cambridge and Morris in Planta 99:583-588, 1996). To examine this theory, we defoliated pea plants and measured the effect on IAA content in the remaining shoot tissues. IAA levels were reduced in the internodes, and to a lesser extent in the apical bud, after defoliation, suggesting that mature leaves are indeed an important source of auxin for the shoot. Consistent with this idea, we have demonstrated that mature, fully expanded leaves are capable of de novo IAA synthesis. Furthermore, we report evidence for the presence of IAA in the phloem sap of pea. Together these results support those of Cambridge and Morris, suggesting that mature leaves are a source of the IAA in the basipetal transport stream. PMID:17308928

  8. Marked changes in volume of mesophyll protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) on exposure to growth hormones.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Venkat Apparao; Suhita, Dontamala; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2004-05-01

    The present study reports quick and significant changes induced by plant hormones in the volume of mesophyll protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum). Four plant hormones: gibberellic acid (GA3), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA)(+/-) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), caused marked changes in the volume of mesophyll protoplasts. GA3 and IAA increased the volume of the protoplasts (up to 90%) whereas the ABA and MJ decreased (by about 40%) the volume. Aquaporins or water channels appear to play an important role in swelling/shrinkage of the protoplasts as indicated by the suppression of volume changes by HgCl2 and reversal by mercaptoethanol. The possible role of secondary messengers in volume changes induced by GA3 was investigated by using selected pharmacological reagents. The GA3 induced swelling was restricted by GDP-beta-S (G-protein antagonist), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), and TFP (calmodulin antagonist), but was not affected by 1-butanol (phospholipase D inhibitor), GTP-gamma-S (G-protein agonist), or verapamil (calcium channel blocker). The results suggest that the mesophyll protoplasts can be a simple and useful system for further studies on volume changes in plant tissues. PMID:15202712

  9. PsPMEP, a pollen-specific pectin methylesterase of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Gómez, María Dolores; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Roque, Edelín; Polaina, Julio; Beltrán, José Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2013-09-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are a family of enzymes involved in plant reproductive processes such as pollen development and pollen tube growth. We have isolated and characterized PsPMEP, a pea (Pisum sativum L.) pollen-specific gene that encodes a protein with homology to PMEs. Sequence analysis showed that PsPMEP belongs to group 2 PMEs, which are characterized by the presence of a processable amino-terminal PME inhibitor domain followed by the catalytic PME domain. Moreover, PsPMEP contains several motifs highly conserved among PMEs with the essential amino acid residues involved in enzyme substrate binding and catalysis. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses showed that PsPMEP is expressed in pollen grains from 4 days before anthesis till anther dehiscence and in pollinated carpels. In the PsPMEP promoter region, we have identified several conserved cis-regulatory elements that have been associated with gene pollen-specific expression. Expression analysis of PsPMEP promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants showed a similar expression pattern when compared with pea, indicating that this promoter is also functional in a non-leguminous plant. GUS expression was detected in mature pollen grains, during pollen germination, during pollen tube elongation along the transmitting tract, and when the pollen tube reaches the embryo sac in the ovule.

  10. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Green Split Peas (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Charlene Cheuk Wing; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-11-01

    Lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. A mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of Pisum sativum) and characterized. The purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on Superdex 200. The purified lectin had a native molecular mass of around 50 kDa as determined by size exclusion chromatography. It appeared as a heterotetramer, composed of two distinct polypeptide bands with a molecular mass of 6 and 19 kDa, respectively, in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The N-terminal sequence of green split pea lectin shows some degree of homology compared to lectins from other legume species. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by glucose, mannose, and sucrose, and attenuated at pH values higher than 12 or lower than 3. Hemagglutinating activity was preserved at temperatures lower than 80 °C. The lectin did not show antifungal activity toward fungi including Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Green split pea lectin showed a mitogenic effect toward murine splenocytes and could inhibit the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:26304129

  11. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Nodule Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zhukov, Vladimir A.; Zhernakov, Alexander I.; Kulaeva, Olga A.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Borisov, Alexey Y.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR. PMID:26688806

  12. [Biochemical changes associated with cadmium and copper stress in germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.)].

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Asma; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were germinated for four days over two sheets of filter paper moistened with H2O (control) and 5 mM Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4 (treated). The relationship between heavy-metal stress and breakdown of storage compounds was studied. Germination rate and growth of radicle decreased, while the water content in stressed seeds remained around the control values. Cotyledons changed their biochemical constituents: disorders in the contents of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn), free amino acids and soluble sugars were found. Decline of alpha-amylase activity as well as acid phosphatase were also observed, whereas beta-amylase and alkaline phosphatase ones were not modified by heavy-metal treatments. These results suggest that the inhibition of seed germinations after exposure to cadmium or copper is not the consequence of starvation in water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in the reserve mobilization process from cotyledons.

  13. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae in symbiosis with host plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, R; Ramachandran, V K; Seaman, J C; East, A K; Mouhsine, B; Mauchline, T H; Prell, J; Skeffington, A; Poole, P S

    2009-06-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on several legumes, including pea (Pisum sativum) and vetch (Vicia cracca), and has been widely used as a model to study nodule biochemistry. To understand the complex biochemical and developmental changes undergone by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae during bacteroid development, microarray experiments were first performed with cultured bacteria grown on a variety of carbon substrates (glucose, pyruvate, succinate, inositol, acetate, and acetoacetate) and then compared to bacteroids. Bacteroid metabolism is essentially that of dicarboxylate-grown cells (i.e., induction of dicarboxylate transport, gluconeogenesis and alanine synthesis, and repression of sugar utilization). The decarboxylating arm of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is highly induced, as is gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism, particularly in bacteroids from early (7-day) nodules. To investigate bacteroid development, gene expression in bacteroids was analyzed at 7, 15, and 21 days postinoculation of peas. This revealed that bacterial rRNA isolated from pea, but not vetch, is extensively processed in mature bacteroids. In early development (7 days), there were large changes in the expression of regulators, exported and cell surface molecules, multidrug exporters, and heat and cold shock proteins. fix genes were induced early but continued to increase in mature bacteroids, while nif genes were induced strongly in older bacteroids. Mutation of 37 genes that were strongly upregulated in mature bacteroids revealed that none were essential for nitrogen fixation. However, screening of 3,072 mini-Tn5 mutants on peas revealed previously uncharacterized genes essential for nitrogen fixation. These encoded a potential magnesium transporter, an AAA domain protein, and proteins involved in cytochrome synthesis.

  15. Pea (Pisum sativum) cells arrested in G2 have nascent DNA with breaks between replicons and replication clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1980-01-01

    DNA fiber autoradiography and alkaline sucrose sedimentation of DNA of cultured pea-root cells (Pisum sativum) arrested in G2 by carbohydrate starvation demonstrated that nascent DNA molecules of replicon (16 to 27 x 10/sup 6/D) and apparent cluster (approx. 330 x 10/sup 6/D) size were not joined. That the arrested cells were in G2 was confirmed by single-cell autoradiography and cytophotometry. In pea there are about 18 replicons per average cluster, 4.2 x 10/sup 3/ clusters, and 7.7 x 10/sup 4/ replicons per genome.

  16. Light-induced wilting and its molecular mechanism in epicotyls of dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Erdei, Noémi; Barta, Csengele; Hideg, Eva; Böddi, Béla

    2005-01-01

    Possible mechanisms behind the light-induced wilting of dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were studied. Illumination with photosynthetically active radiation caused a fast turgor loss and wilting in the middle segments of the epicotyls accompanied by accumulation of water in the intercellular cavities. During this process, room temperature fluorescence emission spectra showed gradual bleaching of porphyrin-type pigments, which was lessened by incubating the epicotyls with excess ascorbate before illumination. Detection of singlet oxygen and lipid peroxidation products in the illuminated epicotyls suggested the occurrence of porphyrin-photosenzitized membrane damage as a cause of disordered water status and sequential wilting.

  17. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  18. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  19. Rapidly Induced Wound Ethylene from Excised Segments of Etiolated Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Saltveit, Mikal E.; Dilley, David R.

    1978-01-01

    Wound-induced ethylene synthesis by subapical stem sections of etiolated Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska seedlings, as described by Saltveit and Dilley (Plant Physiol 1978 61: 447-450), was half-saturated at 3.6% (v/v) O2 and saturated at about 10% O2. Corresponding values for CO2 production during the same period were 1.1% and 10% O2, respectively. Anaerobiosis stopped all ethylene evolution and delayed the characteristic pattern of wound ethylene synthesis. Exposing tissue to 3.5% CO2 in air in a flow-through system reduced wound ethylene synthesis by 30%. Enhancing gas diffusivity by reducing the total pressure to 130 mm Hg almost doubled the rate of wound ethylene synthesis and this effect was negated by exposure to 250 μl liter−1 propylene. Applied ethylene or propylene stopped wound ethylene synthesis during the period of application, but unlike N2, no lag period was observed upon flushing with air. It is concluded that the characteristic pattern of wound-induced ethylene synthesis resulted from negative feedback control by endogenous ethylene. No wound ethylene was produced for 2 hours after excision at 10 or 38 C. Low temperatures prolonged the lag period, but did not prevent induction of the wound response, since tissue held for 2 hours at 10 C produced wound ethylene immediately when warmed to 30 C. In contrast, temperatures above 36 C prevented induction of wound ethylene synthesis, since tissue cooled to 30 C after 1 hour at 40 C required 2 hours before ethylene production returned to normal levels. The activation energy between 15 and 36 C was 12.1 mole kilocalories degree−1. PMID:16660362

  20. Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska 12

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (∥) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (⊥), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ∥-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, α-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458

  1. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  2. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells.

  3. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies.

  4. Physiological effects of nanoparticulate ZnO in green peas (Pisum sativum L.) cultivated in soil.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    The toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in plants are still largely unknown. In the present study, green pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were treated with 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) of either ZnO NPs or bulk ZnO in organic matter enriched soil. Corresponding toxicological effects were measured on the basis of plant growth, chlorophyll production, Zn bioaccumulation, H2O2 generation, stress enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation using different cellular, molecular, and biochemical approaches. Compared to control, all ZnO NP concentrations significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) root elongation but no effects were observed in the stem. Whereas all bulk ZnO treatments significantly increased both root and stem length. After 25 days, chlorophyll in leaves decreased, compared to control, by ~61%, 67%, and 77% in plants treated with 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) ZnO NPs, respectively. Similar results were found in bulk ZnO treated plants. At all ZnO NP concentrations CAT was significantly reduced in leaves (p ≤ 0.05), while APOX was reduced in both roots and leaves. In the case of bulk ZnO, APOX activity was down-regulated in the root and leaf and CAT was unaffected. At 500 mg kg(-1) treatment, the H2O2 in leaves increased by 61% with a twofold lipid peroxidation, which would be a predictive biomarker of nanotoxicity. This study could be pioneering in evaluating the phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs to green peas and can serve as a good indicator for measuring the effects on ZnO NPs in plants grown in organic matter enriched soil.

  5. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies. PMID:26896301

  6. Responses of Pisum sativum L. to exogenous indole acetic acid application under manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gangwar, Savita; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Maurya, Jagat Narayan

    2011-06-01

    Responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings to manganese (50, 100 and 250 μM) and indole acetic acid (10 and 100 μM) treatments were investigated. Single and combined exposure of pea to manganese and 100 μM indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot fresh mass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein and nitrogen while ammonium content increased compared to the control. Combined treatment of pea with 250 μM manganese and 100 μM indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot fresh mass by 54% and 51%, chlorophyll and carotenoids by 31% and 26%, root and shoot protein by 47% and 44%, and root and shoot nitrogen by 44% and 40%, respectively. Activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were decreased by the exposure of manganese and 100 μM indole acetic acid while glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased. Combined application of 250 μM manganese and 100 μM indole acetic acid decreased root and shoot glutamine synthetase activity by 44% and 39%, and glutamate synthase activity by 39% and 37% while root and shoot glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased by 47% and 42%, respectively compared to the control. In contrast, application of 10 μM indole acetic acid together with manganese decreased the negative impacts of manganese, and promoted seedling growth compared to the manganese treatments alone. This study has shown that 10 μM indole acetic acid protected pea seedlings appreciably from manganese toxicity by regulating ammonium content and the activities of enzymes of ammonium assimilation, while 100 μM of indole acetic acid exhibited opposite response under manganese toxicity. PMID:21516457

  7. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  8. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt).

  9. Antifungal Pisum sativum defensin 1 interacts with Neurospora crassa cyclin F related to the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Denise S; Pereira, Iuri B; Fragel-Madeira, Lucianne; Medeiros, Luciano N; Cabral, Luiz M; Faria, Jane; Bellio, Maria; Campos, Reinaldo C; Linden, Rafael; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2007-01-30

    Plant defensins, components of the plant innate immune system, are cationic cysteine-rich antifungal peptides. Evidence from the literature [Thevissen, K., et al. (2003) Peptides 24, 1705-1712] has demonstrated that patches of fungi membrane containing mannosyldiinositolphosphorylceramide and glucosylceramides are selective binding sites for the plant defensins isolated from Dahlia merckii and Raphanus sativus, respectively. Whether plant defensins interact directly or indirectly with fungus intracellular targets is unknown. To identify physical protein-protein interactions, a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system was performed using the antifungal plant peptide Pisum sativum defensin 1 (Psd1) as the bait. Target proteins were screened within a Neurospora crassa cDNA library. Nine out of 11 two-hybrid candidates were nuclear proteins. One clone, detected with high frequency per screening, presented sequence similarity to a cyclin-like protein, with F-box and WD-repeat domains, related to the cell cycle control. GST pull-down assay corroborated in vitro this two-hybrid interaction. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of FITC-conjugated Psd1 and DAPI-stained fungal nuclei showed in vivo the colocalization of the plant peptide Psd1 and the nucleus. Analysis of the DNA content of N. crassa conidia using flow cytometry suggested that Psd1 directed cell cycle impairment and caused conidia to undergo endoreduplication. The developing retina of neonatal rats was used as a model to observe the interkinetic nuclear migration during proliferation of an organized tissue from the S toward the M phase of the cell cycle in the presence of Psd1. The results demonstrated that the plant defensin Psd1 regulates interkinetic nuclear migration in retinal neuroblasts. PMID:17240982

  10. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor A.; Herle, Carolyn E.; Lupwayi, Newton Z.

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  11. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs.

  12. Physical basis for altered stem elongation rates in internode length mutants of Pisum

    SciTech Connect

    Behringer, F.J.; Davies, P.J. ); Cosgrove, D.J. ); Reid, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    Biophysical parameters related to gibberellin (GA)-dependent stem elongation were examined in dark-grown stem-length genotypes of Pisum sativum L. The rate of internode expansion in these genotypes is altered due to recessive mutations which affect either the endogenous levels of, or response to, GA. The GA deficient dwarf L181 (ls), two GA insensitive semierectoides dwarfs NGB5865 and NGB5862 (lka and lkb, respectively) and the slender line L197 (la cry{sup s}), which is tall regardless of GA content, were compared to the wild-type tall cultivar, Torsdag. Osmotic pressure, estimated by vapor pressure osmometry, and turgor pressure, measured directly with a pressure probe, did not correlate with the differences in growth rate among the genotypes. Mechanical wall properties of frozen-thawed tissue were measured using a constant force assay. GA deficiency resulted in increased wall stiffness judged both on the basis of plastic compliance and plastic extensibility normalized for equal stem circumference. Plastic compliance was not reduced in the GA insensitive dwarfs, though lka reduced circumference-normalized plasticity. In contrast, in vivo wall relaxation, determined by the pressure-block technique, differed among genotypes in a manner which did correlate with extension rates. The wall yield threshold was 1 bar or less in the tall lines, but ranged from 3 to 6 bars in the dwarf genotypes. The results with the ls mutant indicate that GA enhances stem elongation by both decreasing the wall yield threshold and increasing the wall yield coefficient. In the GA-insensitive mutants, lka and lkb, the wall yield threshold is substantially elevated. Plants possessing lka may also possess a reduced wall yield coefficient.

  13. Physical basis for altered stem elongation rates in internode length mutants of Pisum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, F. J.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Reid, J. B.; Davies, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Biophysical parameters related to gibberellin (GA)-dependent stem elongation were examined in dark-grown stem-length genotypes of Pisum sativum L. The rate of internode expansion in these genotypes is altered due to recessive mutations which affect either the endogenous levels of, or response to, GA. The GA deficient dwarf L181 (ls), two GA insensitive semierectoides dwarfs NGB5865 and NGB5862 (lka and lkb, respectively) and the slender' line L197 (la crys), which is tall regardless of GA content, were compared to the wild-type tall cultivar, Torsdag. Osmotic pressure, estimated by vapor pressure osmometry, and turgor pressure, measured directly with a pressure probe, did not correlate with the differences in growth rate among the genotypes. Mechanical wall properties of frozen-thawed tissue were measured using a constant force assay. GA deficiency resulted in increased wall stiffness judged both on the basis of plastic compliance and plastic extensibility normalized for equal stem circumference. Plastic compliance was not reduced in the GA insensitive dwarfs, though lka reduced circumference-normalized plasticity. In contrast, in vivo wall relaxation, determined by the pressure-block technique, differed among genotypes in a manner which did correlate with extension rates. The wall yield threshold was 1 bar or less in the tall lines, but ranged from 3 to 6 bars in the dwarf genotypes. The results with the ls mutant indicate that GA enhances stem elongation by both decreasing the wall yield threshold and increasing the wall yield coefficient. In the GA-insensitive mutants, lka and lkb, the wall yield threshold is substantially elevated. Plants possessing lka may also possess a reduced wall yield coefficient.

  14. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  15. High-throughput development of SSR markers from pea (Pisum sativum L.) based on next generation sequencing of a purified Chinese commercial variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lag...

  16. Differential changes in size distribution of xyloglucan in the cell walls of gravitropically responding Pisum sativum epicotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbott, L. D.; Pickard, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    Growth-related change in the size distribution of hemicellulosic wall polymers during the gravitropic curvature response of intact pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls was examined by gel-filtration chromatography. The gravitropic response was characterized by the appearance of curvature 20 to 30 min after horizontal placement, with 35 degrees of curvature attained by 80 min. Correlated with the onset of curvature, on the upper side of the epicotyl, there was a conspicuous transient increase in the abundance of relatively large hemicellulosic xyloglucan polymers, similar to increases previously found under conditions where diminished wall extensibility was expected. On the lower side there was a moderate, slower, and longer-term increase in abundance of small xyloglucan, similar to changes previously found in connection with auxin-stimulated growth responses. Both shifts occurred primarily in the epidermis. They appear to represent two coordinated physiological mechanisms contributing to differential growth.

  17. Induction by gamma-radiation of DNA synthesis in radicle cells of germinating seeds of Pisum sativum l.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Grodzinsky, D M

    1976-05-01

    In radicle meristem cells of germinating seeds of the pea (Pisum sativum L) before the onset of replicative synthesis of DNA, irradiation with 2-3 krad of gamma-rays induced the incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR). Maximum isotope incorporation was noted during the first 2 hours after irradiation. Higher doses of radiation suppressed 3H-TdR incorporation. It was not seen after gamma-irradiation of air-dried seeds, nor after fast-neutron irradiation. The replication inhibitors hydroxyurea and 5-aminouracil had no effect on the gamma-induced incorporation of 3H-TdR, Whereas caffeine and acriflavine inhibited it to some extent. It is suggested that the gamma-radiation-induced incorporation of 3H-TdR in meristem cells during the pre-replicative period may be connected with repair phenomena.

  18. Differential changes in size distribution of xyloglucan in the cell walls of gravitropically responding Pisum sativum epicotyls.

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, L D; Pickard, B G

    1994-01-01

    Growth-related change in the size distribution of hemicellulosic wall polymers during the gravitropic curvature response of intact pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls was examined by gel-filtration chromatography. The gravitropic response was characterized by the appearance of curvature 20 to 30 min after horizontal placement, with 35 degrees of curvature attained by 80 min. Correlated with the onset of curvature, on the upper side of the epicotyl, there was a conspicuous transient increase in the abundance of relatively large hemicellulosic xyloglucan polymers, similar to increases previously found under conditions where diminished wall extensibility was expected. On the lower side there was a moderate, slower, and longer-term increase in abundance of small xyloglucan, similar to changes previously found in connection with auxin-stimulated growth responses. Both shifts occurred primarily in the epidermis. They appear to represent two coordinated physiological mechanisms contributing to differential growth. PMID:11536651

  19. Effects of 3,5-Dibromo-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile (Bromoxynil) on Bioenergetics of Higher Plant Mitochondria (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed Central

    Zottini, M.; Scoccianti, V.; Zannoni, D.

    1994-01-01

    The herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) was tested on mitochondria from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) stems. This compound when used at micromolar concentrations ([almost equal to]20 [mu]M) inhibited malate- and succinate-dependent respiration by intact mitochondria but not oxidation of exogenously added NADH. Bromoxynil did not affect the activities of the succinic and the internal NADH dehydrogenases. Analyses of the effects induced by this herbicide on the membrane potential, [delta]pH, matrix Ca2+ movements, and dicarboxylate transport demonstrated that bromoxynil is likely to act as an inhibitor of the dicarboxylate carrier. In addition, bromoxynil caused a mild membrane uncoupling at concentrations [greater than or equal to]20 [mu]M. No effect on the ATPase activity was observed. PMID:12232423

  20. [Developmental stability of a leaf of Pisum sativum L. under the influence of formaldehyde in a wide range of doses].

    PubMed

    Erofeeva, E A

    2012-01-01

    The influence of formaldehyde in a wide range of doses on the stability of development of the third leaf of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was studied. The developmental stability of the leaf was assessed by the change in the value of the directional asymmetry of the right and left leaflets caused by the fluctuating asymmetry of these morphological structures. When subjected to a toxic agent, the studied parameter exhibited a paradoxical effect. In minimum studied concentrations, formaldehyde disturbed stability of leaf development, which was manifested in an increase in the asymmetry of the right and left leaflets. At medium concentrations of the toxicant, the asymmetry was less than the control level, which indicated an increase in the developmental stability of the pea leaf. Maximum studied concentrations of formaldehyde, close to sublethal, again reduced the stability of development of the pea leaf and led to an increase in the asymmetry of its leaflets compared with the controls.

  1. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and detection of terminal residues in plants.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) at 0 to 110 days, and terminal residues in green and mature pea were studied under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied as pre-emergence herbicide at 750, to 185 g a.i. ha(-1) in winter, in field peas. Dissipation of pendimethalin in the soil at 0 to 110 days followed first-order kinetics showing a half-life of 19.83 days averaged over all doses. Low pendimethalin residues were found in mature pea grain (0.004, 0.003, <0.001 μg g(-1)), and straw (0.007, 0.002, <0.001 μg g(-1)) at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. The study indicated that residues of pendimethalin in green and mature pea were within the prescribed MRL limits.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of a complementary DNA encoding pea cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.A.; Zilinskas, B.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors now report the nucleotide sequence of the cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD cloned from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from mRNA extracted from leaves of 7- to 10-d pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.). The clone was isolated using a 22-base synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the amino acid sequence CGIIGLQG. This sequence, found at the protein's carboxy terminus, is highly conserved among plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but not chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs. The 738-base pair sequence contains an open reading frame specifying 152 codons and a predicted M{sub r} of 18,024 D. The deduced amino acid sequence is highly homologous (79-82% identity) with the sequences of other known plant cytosolic Cu/Zn SODs but less highly conserved (63-65%) when compared with several chloroplastic Cu/Zn SODs including pea (10).

  3. Identification of enzyme activity that conjugates indole-3-acetic acid to aspartate in immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Jakubowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the first identification of plant enzyme activity catalyzing the conjugation of indole-3-acetic acid to amino acids. Enzymatic synthesis of indole-3-acetylaspartate (IAA-Asp) by a crude enzyme preparation from immature seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) was observed. The reaction yielded a product with the same Rf as IAA-Asp standard after thin layer chromatography. The identity of IAA-Asp was verified by HPLC analysis. IAA-Asp formation was dependent on ATP and Mg2+, and was linear during a 60 min period. The enzyme preparation obtained after poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 fractionation showed optimum activity at pH 8.0, and the temperature optimum for IAA-Asp synthesis was 30 degrees C. PMID:17920159

  4. The effect of propionic acid and valeric acid on the cell cycle in root meristems of Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Tramontano, W.A.; Yang, Shauyu; Delillo, A.R. )

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acid and valeric acid at 1mM reduced the mitotic index of root meristem cells of Pisum sativum to < 1% after 12 hr in aerated White's medium. This effect varied with different acid concentrations. After a 12 hr exposure to either acid, seedlings transferred to fresh medium without either acid, resumed their normal mitotic index after 12 hr, with a burst of mitosis 8 hr post-transfer. Exposure of root meristem cells to either acid also inhibited ({sup 3}H)-TdR incorporation. Neither acid significantly altered the distribution of meristematic cells in G1 and G2 after 12 hr. The incorporation of ({sup 3}H) - uridine was also unaltered by the addition of either acid. This information suggests that propionic acid and valeric acid, limit progression through the cell cycle by inhibiting DNA synthesis and arresting cells in G1 and G2. These results were consistent with previous data which utilized butyric acid.

  5. Effects of Filipin and Cholesterol on K+ Movement in Etiolated Stem Cells of Pisum sativum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Hendrix, Donald L.; Higinbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Filipin, a polyene antibiotic known to induce leakage of materials from various cells, depresses K+ and NO3− uptake in etiolated pea epicotyl segments. Filipin concentrations which strongly reduce K+ influx have little effect on efflux; however, high concentrations enhance K+ efflux. Filipin has no effect on respiration rates or cell electropotentials; its action is presumed to be on the cell membranes. Cholesterol, but not a thiol-protecting agent (dithiothreitol), enhances K+ influx and counteracts the inhibition by filipin. Although this effect of cholesterol may be due to an interaction with filipin in the outer solution, there is reason to believe that its major effect is to impart stability to the membrane; filipin is believed to act by interfering with sterol stabilization of phospholipid layers. The predominant native sterols of etiolated pea stem (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska), which cholesterol probably mimics, are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. PMID:16658528

  6. The Conformational Stability and Biophysical Properties of the Eukaryotic Thioredoxins of Pisum Sativum Are Not Family-Conserved

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Llera, David; Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Prieto, Jesús; Marenchino, Marco; Traverso, José Angel; Gómez, Javier; Chueca, Ana; Neira, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxins (TRXs) are ubiquitous proteins involved in redox processes. About forty genes encode TRX or TRX-related proteins in plants, grouped in different families according to their subcellular localization. For instance, the h-type TRXs are located in cytoplasm or mitochondria, whereas f-type TRXs have a plastidial origin, although both types of proteins have an eukaryotic origin as opposed to other TRXs. Herein, we study the conformational and the biophysical features of TRXh1, TRXh2 and TRXf from Pisum sativum. The modelled structures of the three proteins show the well-known TRX fold. While sharing similar pH-denaturations features, the chemical and thermal stabilities are different, being PsTRXh1 (Pisum sativum thioredoxin h1) the most stable isoform; moreover, the three proteins follow a three-state denaturation model, during the chemical-denaturations. These differences in the thermal- and chemical-denaturations result from changes, in a broad sense, of the several ASAs (accessible surface areas) of the proteins. Thus, although a strong relationship can be found between the primary amino acid sequence and the structure among TRXs, that between the residue sequence and the conformational stability and biophysical properties is not. We discuss how these differences in the biophysical properties of TRXs determine their unique functions in pea, and we show how residues involved in the biophysical features described (pH-titrations, dimerizations and chemical-denaturations) belong to regions involved in interaction with other proteins. Our results suggest that the sequence demands of protein-protein function are relatively rigid, with different protein-binding pockets (some in common) for each of the three proteins, but the demands of structure and conformational stability per se (as long as there is a maintained core), are less so. PMID:21364950

  7. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum). PMID:26870060

  8. Cell Wall Pectin and its Methyl-esterification in Transition Zone Determine Al Resistance in Cultivars of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Li, Xuewen; Li, Yalin; Qu, Mei; Xiao, Hongdong; Feng, Yingming; Liu, Jiayou; Wu, Lishu; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The initial response of plants to aluminum (Al) is the inhibition of root elongation, while the transition zone is the most Al sensitive zone in the root apex, which may sense the presence of Al and regulate the responses of root to Al toxicity. In the present study, the effect of Al treatment (30 μM, 24 h) on root growth, Al accumulation, and properties of cell wall of two pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars, cv Onward (Al-resistant) and cv Sima (Al-sensitive), were studied to disclose whether the response of root transition zone to Al toxicity determines Al resistance in pea cultivars. The lower relative root elongation (RRE) and higher Al content were founded in cv Sima compared with cv Onward, which were related to Al-induced the increase of pectin in root segments of both cultivars. The increase of pectin is more prominent in Al-sensitive cultivar than in Al-resistant cultivar. Aluminum toxicity also induced the increase of pectin methylesterases (PME), which is 2.2 times in root transition zone in Al-sensitive cv Sima to that of Al resistant cv Onward, thus led to higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone of Al-sensitive cv Sima. The higher demethylesterified pectin content in root transition zone resulted in more Al accumulation in the cell wall and cytosol in Al-sensitive cv Sima. Our results provide evidence that the increase of pectin content and PME activity under Al toxicity cooperates to determine Al sensitivity in root transition zone that confers Al resistance in cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum).

  9. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  10. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  11. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  12. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  13. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of the pyrB1 and pyrB2 genes encoding aspartate transcarbamoylase in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Williamson, C L; Slocum, R D

    1994-05-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding two different pea (Pisum sativum L.) aspartate transcarbamoylases (ATCases) by complementation of an Escherichia coli delta pyrB mutant. The two cDNAs, designated pyrB1 and pyrB2, encode polypeptides of 386 and 385 amino acid residues, respectively, both of which exhibit typical chloroplast transit peptide sequences. Wheat germ ATCase antibody recognizes a 36.5-kD polypeptide in pea leaf and root tissues that is similar in size to other plant ATCase polypeptides and to the catalytic polypeptides of bacterial ATCases. Northern analyses indicate that the pyrB1 and pyrB2 transcripts are 1.6 kb in size and are differentially expressed in pea tissues. The small transcript size and data from biochemical studies indicate that plant ATCases are simple homotrimers of 36- to 37-kD catalytic subunits, rather than part of a multifunctional enzyme containing glutamine-dependent carbamoylphosphate synthetase and dihydroorotase activities, as is seen in other eukaryotes. In the pea ATCases, the carbamoylphosphate- and aspartate-binding domains are highly homologous to those of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic ATCases and critical active-site residues are completely conserved. The pea ATCases also exhibit a putative pyrimidine-binding site, consistent with the known allosteric regulation of plant ATCases by UMP in vitro. PMID:8029359

  15. Arginine Decarboxylase and Putrescine Oxidase in Ovaries of Pisum sativum L. (Changes during Ovary Senescence and Early Stages of Fruit Development).

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.

    1995-01-01

    Enzymatic activities involved in putrescine metabolism in ovaries of Pisum sativum L. during ovary senescence and fruit set were investigated. Accumulation of putrescine was observed during incubation of extracts from gibberellic acid-treated unpollinated ovaries (young developing fruits) but not in extracts from untreated ovaries (senescent ovaries). Extracts from pea ovaries showed arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity, but ornithine decarboxylase and arginase activity were not detected. ADC activity decreased in presenescent ovaries and increased markedly after induction of fruit set with gibberellic acid. Increases in ADC activity were also observed with application of other plant growth substances (benzy-ladenine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), after pollination, and in the slender (la crys) pea mutant. By contrast, putrescine oxidase activity increased in presenescent ovaries but did not increase during early fruit development. All of these results suggest that ADC and putrescine oxidase are involved in the control of putrescine metabolism. Ovary senescence is characterized by the absence of putrescine biosynthesis enzymes and increased levels of putrescine oxidase and fruit development by an increase in ADC and a constant level of putrescine oxidase. PMID:12228409

  16. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    DOE PAGES

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; et al

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75more » RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  17. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30; an effective microsymbiont of Pisum sativum growing in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Andrzej; De Meyer, Sofie E.; Tian, Rui; Wielbo, Jerzy; Zebracki, Kamil; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B.K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-07-16

    We report that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae GB30 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Pisum sativum. GB30 was isolated in Poland from a nodule recovered from the roots of Pisum sativum growing at Janow. GB30 is also an effective microsymbiont of the annual forage legumes vetch and pea. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GB30, together with sequence and annotation. The 7,468,464 bp high-quality permanent draft genome is arranged in 78 scaffolds of 78 contigs containing 7,227 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  18. Hypoxic stress triggers a programmed cell death pathway to induce vascular cavity formation in Pisum sativum roots.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Gladish, Daniel K

    2012-12-01

    Flooding at warm temperatures induces hypoxic stress in Pisum sativum seedling roots. In response, some undifferentiated cells in the primary root vascular cylinder start degenerating and form a longitudinal vascular cavity. Changes in cellular morphology and cell wall ultrastructure detected previously in the late stages of cavity formation suggest possible involvement of programmed cell death (PCD). In this study, cytological events occurring in the early stages of cavity formation were investigated. Systematic DNA fragmentation, a feature of many PCD pathways, was detected in the cavity-forming roots after 3 h of flooding in situ by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay and in isolated total DNA by gel electrophoresis. High molecular weight DNA fragments of about 20-30 kb were detected by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, but no low-molecular weight internucleosomal DNA fragments were detected by conventional gel electrophoresis. Release of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein into the cytosol, an integral part of mitochondria-dependent PCD pathways, was detected in the cavity-forming roots within 2 h of flooding by fluorescence microscopy of immunolabeled cytochrome c in situ and in isolated mitochondrial and cytosolic protein fractions by western blotting. DNA fragmentation and cytochrome c release remained confined to the undifferentiated cells in center of the root vascular cylinders, even after 24 h of flooding, while outer vascular cylinder cells and cortical cells maintained cellular integrity and normal activity. These findings confirm that hypoxia-induced vascular cavity formation in P. sativum roots involves PCD, and provides a chronological model of cytological events involved in this rare and understudied PCD system.

  19. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  20. A proposed interplay between peroxidase, amine oxidase and lipoxygenase in the wounding-induced oxidative burst in Pisum sativum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Colville, Louise; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Havaux, Michel; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Plant surfaces form the barrier between a plant and its environment. Upon damage, the wound healing process begins immediately and is accompanied by a rapid production of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), essential in deterring pathogens, signalling responses and cell wall restructuring. Although many enzymes produce extracellular ROS, it is unclear if ROS-producing enzymes act synergistically. We characterised the oxidative burst of superoxide (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that follows wounding in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Rates of ROS production were manipulated by exogenous application of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. The results indicate significant roles for di-amine oxidases (DAO) and peroxidases (Prx) rather than NADPH oxidase. The burst of O2(·-) was strongly dependent on the presence of H2O2 produced by DAO. Potential substrates released from wounded seedlings included linoleic acid that, upon exogenous application, strongly stimulated catalase-sensitive O2(·-) production. Moreover, a 65kD plasma membrane (PM) guaiacol Prx was found in the secretome of wounded seedlings and showed dependence on linoleic acid for O2(·-) production. Lipoxygenases are suggested to modulate O2(·-) production by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids in the apoplast. Overall, a O2(·-)-producing mechanism involving H2O2-derived from DAO, linoleic acid and a PM-associated Prx is proposed. PMID:24996671

  1. Remote sensing study of the influence of herbicides on the spectral reflectance of pea plant leaves (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, D.; Alexieva, V.; Yanev, T.; Ivanov, S.

    Results from a remote sensing study of spectral reflectance of leaves of pea plants Pisum sativum L treated by the herbicides atrazine 2 4-D glyphosate fluridone and chlorsulfuron are reported According to the classification of the Herbicide Action Committee reflecting their mode of action they belong to different groups photosystem II bloker - C1 atrazine synthetic auxins - O 2 4-D inhibition of EPSP synthase - G glyphosate photobleaching - F1 fluridone and inhibition of acetoctate synthase - B chlorsulfuron The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at three low concentrations 1 mu M 0 1 mu M and 0 01 mu M with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice The spectral measurements of the leaf spectral reflectance were carried out in laboratory using a multichannel spectrometer in the visible and near infrared regions of the spectrum 480 div 810 nm Data was registered in 128 channels at a high spectral resolution of 2 6 nm halfwidth and a spatial resolution of 2 mm 2 The reflectance spectra were obtained from the leaf-reflected radiation referenced against a standard white screen To assess the changes arising in the leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action the developed by us approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods was applied The spectral reflectance characteristics SRC were investigated in three spectral intervals 520 div 580 nm region of maximal

  2. A proposed interplay between peroxidase, amine oxidase and lipoxygenase in the wounding-induced oxidative burst in Pisum sativum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Colville, Louise; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Havaux, Michel; Kranner, Ilse

    2015-04-01

    Plant surfaces form the barrier between a plant and its environment. Upon damage, the wound healing process begins immediately and is accompanied by a rapid production of extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), essential in deterring pathogens, signalling responses and cell wall restructuring. Although many enzymes produce extracellular ROS, it is unclear if ROS-producing enzymes act synergistically. We characterised the oxidative burst of superoxide (O2(·-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that follows wounding in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Rates of ROS production were manipulated by exogenous application of enzyme substrates and inhibitors. The results indicate significant roles for di-amine oxidases (DAO) and peroxidases (Prx) rather than NADPH oxidase. The burst of O2(·-) was strongly dependent on the presence of H2O2 produced by DAO. Potential substrates released from wounded seedlings included linoleic acid that, upon exogenous application, strongly stimulated catalase-sensitive O2(·-) production. Moreover, a 65kD plasma membrane (PM) guaiacol Prx was found in the secretome of wounded seedlings and showed dependence on linoleic acid for O2(·-) production. Lipoxygenases are suggested to modulate O2(·-) production by consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids in the apoplast. Overall, a O2(·-)-producing mechanism involving H2O2-derived from DAO, linoleic acid and a PM-associated Prx is proposed.

  3. Gibberellic Acid-Promoted Lignification and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activity in a Dwarf Pea (Pisum sativum) 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Christina K.-C.; Marsh, H. V.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid on lignification in seedlings of a dwarf and a tall cultivar of pea (Pisum sativum) grown under red or white light or in the darkness, were studied. Gibberellic acid (10−6-10−4 m) promoted stem elongation in both light and dark and increased the percentage of lignin in the stems of the light-grown dwarf pea. The gibberellin had no effect on the lignin content of the tall pea although high concentrations (10−4 m) promoted growth of the tall plants. Time course studies indicated that the enhanced lignification in the gibberellin-treated dwarf plants occurred only after a lag period of several days. It was concluded that gibberellic acid-enhanced ligmification had no direct relation to gibberellic acid-promoted growth. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 4.3.1.5) was higher in gibberellin-treated dwarf plants grown under white or red light than in untreated dwarf plants. Gibberellic acid had no detectable effect on the activity of this enzyme when the plants were grown in darkness, just as it had no effect on lignification under dark conditions. The data suggest that in gibberellin-deficient peas the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is one of the limiting factors in lignification. PMID:16656968

  4. Gibberellic Acid-Promoted Lignification and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activity in a Dwarf Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, C K; Marsh, H V

    1968-11-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid on lignification in seedlings of a dwarf and a tall cultivar of pea (Pisum sativum) grown under red or white light or in the darkness, were studied. Gibberellic acid (10(-6)-10(-4)m) promoted stem elongation in both light and dark and increased the percentage of lignin in the stems of the light-grown dwarf pea. The gibberellin had no effect on the lignin content of the tall pea although high concentrations (10(-4)m) promoted growth of the tall plants. Time course studies indicated that the enhanced lignification in the gibberellin-treated dwarf plants occurred only after a lag period of several days. It was concluded that gibberellic acid-enhanced ligmification had no direct relation to gibberellic acid-promoted growth. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (E.C. 4.3.1.5) was higher in gibberellin-treated dwarf plants grown under white or red light than in untreated dwarf plants. Gibberellic acid had no detectable effect on the activity of this enzyme when the plants were grown in darkness, just as it had no effect on lignification under dark conditions. The data suggest that in gibberellin-deficient peas the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase is one of the limiting factors in lignification. PMID:16656968

  5. Correlation of Pectolytic Enzyme Activity with the Programmed Release of Cells from Root Caps of Pea (Pisum sativum) 1

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Martha C.; Lin, Hao-Jan

    1990-01-01

    In many plant species, the daily release of hundreds to thousands of healthy cells from the root cap into the soil is a normal process, whose function is unknown. We studied the separation of the cells in pea (Pisum sativum) using an aeroponic system in which separated cells were retained on the root until they were washed off for counting. We found that cell separation is a developmentally regulated, temperature-sensitive process that appears to be regulated independently of root growth. No cells were released from very young roots. When plants were grown aeroponically, cell numbers increased with increasing root length to a mean of 3400 cells per root, at which point the release of new cells ceased. The process could be reset and synchronized by washing the root in water to remove shed cells. Cell separation from the root cap was correlated with pectolytic enzyme activity in root cap tissue. Because these cells that separate from the root cap ensheath the root as it grows and thus provide a cellular interface between the root surface and the soil, we propose to call the cells “root border cells.” Images Figure 1 PMID:16667927

  6. Sucrose Loading in Isolated Veins of Pisum sativum: Regulation by Abscisic Acid, Gibberellic Acid, and Cell Turgor.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Peretó, J G; Vercher, Y; Beltrán, J P

    1989-09-01

    Enzymatically isolated vein networks from mature pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) leaves were employed to investigate the properties of sucrose loading and the effect of phytohormones and cell turgor on this process. The sucrose uptake showed two components: a saturable and a first-order kinetics system. The high affinity system (K(m), 3.3 millimolar) was located at the plasmalemma (p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and orthovanadate sensitivity). Further characterization of this system, including pH dependence and effects of energy metabolism inhibitors, supported the H(+)-sugar symport concept for sucrose loading. Within a physiological range (0.1-100 micromolar) and after 90 min, abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) promoted 1 millimolar sucrose uptake. These responses were partially (ABA) or totally (GA(3)) turgor-dependent. In experiments of combined hormonal treatments, ABA counteracted the GA(3) positive effects on sucrose uptake. The abolishment of these responses by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and experiments on proton flux suggest that both factors (cell turgor and hormones) are modulating the H(+) ATPase plasmalemma activity. The results are discussed in terms of their physiological relevance. PMID:16667007

  7. Ultraviolet-B induced changes in morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of two cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Krishna Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2014-02-01

    Increase in perception of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on Earth's surface due to anthropogenic activities has potential in causing detrimental effects on plants. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of elevated UV-B on Pisum sativum L., a leguminous plant with emphasis on nitrogen metabolism, flavonoids and hormonal changes. Elevated UV-B (ambient+7.2 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) negatively affected the growth, biomass, yield and its quality by generating oxidative stress directly or due to elevation of salicylic acid in two cultivars with higher magnitude being observed in HUP-2 as compared to HUDP-15. The increased accumulation of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) under elevated UV-B neither provided sufficient protection to the photosynthetic machinery nor helped in elevation of biological nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation and its assimilation were negatively affected under elevated UV-B as observed by the decline in nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase activities and leghaemoglobin contents. Higher accumulation of salicylic acid in HUP-2 might be associated with its higher degree of sensitivity against UV-B, while higher induction of jasmonic acid and antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities) provided resistance to HUDP-15 against applied stress vis-a-vis exhibited less reduction in biomass, yield and quality of produce.

  8. Non-host disease resistance response in pea (Pisum sativum) pods: Biochemical function of DRR206 and phytoalexin pathway localization.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Herana Kamal; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Kim, Kye-Won; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Yang, Hong; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2015-05-01

    Continually exposed to potential pathogens, vascular plants have evolved intricate defense mechanisms to recognize encroaching threats and defend themselves. They do so by inducing a set of defense responses that can help defeat and/or limit effects of invading pathogens, of which the non-host disease resistance response is the most common. In this regard, pea (Pisum sativum) pod tissue, when exposed to Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli spores, undergoes an inducible transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and also produces (+)-pisatin, its major phytoalexin. One of the inducible pathogenesis-related genes is Disease Resistance Response-206 (DRR206), whose role in vivo was unknown. DRR206 is, however, related to the dirigent protein (DP) family. In this study, its biochemical function was investigated in planta, with the metabolite associated with its gene induction being pinoresinol monoglucoside. Interestingly, both pinoresinol monoglucoside and (+)-pisatin were co-localized in pea pod endocarp epidermal cells, as demonstrated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging. In addition, endocarp epidermal cells are also the site for both chalcone synthase and DRR206 gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that both (+)-pisatin and pinoresinol monoglucoside function in the overall phytoalexin responses.

  9. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  10. Foliar Application of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Antifungal Compounds in Pea (Pisum sativum) Against Erysiphe pisi

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, A.; Sarma, B. K.; Singh, D. P.; Singh, K. P.; Singh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Systemic effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains,viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4) and P. aeruginosa (Pag), was evaluated on pea (Pisum sativum) against the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe pisi. Foliar spray of the two PGPR strains was done on specific nodal leaves of pea and conidial germination of E. pisi was observed on other nodal leaves,distal to the treated ones. Conidial germination was reduced on distant leaves and at the same time,specific as well as total phenolic compounds increased in the leaves distal to those applied with PGPR strains,thereby indicating a positive correlation. The strains induced accumulation of phenolic compounds in pea leaves and the amount increased when such leaves were get inoculated with E. pisi conidia. Between the two strains, Pag was found to be more effective than Pf4 as its effect was more persistent in pea leaves. Foliar application of PGPR strains for the control of powdery mildew of pea is demonstrated in vitro while correlating it with the increased accumulation of plant phenolics. PMID:24015083

  11. Expression of small heat shock protein (sHSP) genes in the garden pea (Pisum sativum) under slow horizontal clinorotation

    PubMed Central

    Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Korduym, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells respond to stress conditions, such as high temperatures, by synthesizing small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). sHSPs are molecular chaperones that assist in protein folding and prevent irreversible protein aggregation. Although many sHSP genes are temperature-inducible, other variables, such as altered gravity, can induce significant changes in plant cell gene expression. Furthermore, not all subfamilies of sHSP genes share the same expression pattern. The objective of our research was to determine the effect of simulated microgravity (clinorotation) on the expression of sHSP gene subfamilies with different subcellular locations in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. sHSP gene expression levels were examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). qPCR results demonstrated that sHSP genes were constitutively expressed in seedlings. High temperatures increased the expression of sHSP genes by several thousand-fold. However, simulated microgravity did not have any significant effects on sHSP gene expression. PMID:24786104

  12. Digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Goodlad, J S; Mathers, J C

    1991-03-01

    The digestion by pigs of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in wheat and raw peas (Pisum sativum) fed in mixed diets was measured. In the four experimental diets, wheat was included at a constant 500 g/kg whilst peas contributed 0-300 g/kg and these were the only dietary sources of NSP. Separate estimates of digestibility for wheat and peas were obtained by using a multiple linear regression technique which also tested the possibility that the presence of peas might influence the digestibility of wheat NSP. There was little evidence of the latter and it was found that the digestibility of peas NSP (0.84) was considerably greater than that of wheat (0.65). The non-cellulosic polysaccharides (NCP) had twofold greater digestibilities than had cellulose for both foods with essentially all the peas NCP being digested. Faecal alpha, epsilon-diaminopimelic acid concentration increased with feeding of peas, suggesting stimulation of bacterial biomass production in the large intestine using the readily fermented peas NSP. All three major volatile fatty acids produced by large intestinal fermentation were detected in jugular blood and increased significantly with increasing peas inclusion rate in the diet.

  13. Optimization of Agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum Provides a New Tool for Studying the Salivary Protein Functions in the Pea Aphid Complex.

    PubMed

    Guy, Endrick; Boulain, Hélène; Aigu, Yoann; Le Pennec, Charlotte; Chawki, Khaoula; Morlière, Stéphanie; Schädel, Kristina; Kunert, Grit; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Sugio, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary) proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from 3 to 10 days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that transient expression of

  14. Optimization of Agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum Provides a New Tool for Studying the Salivary Protein Functions in the Pea Aphid Complex

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Endrick; Boulain, Hélène; Aigu, Yoann; Le Pennec, Charlotte; Chawki, Khaoula; Morlière, Stéphanie; Schädel, Kristina; Kunert, Grit; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Sugio, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant–aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary) proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from 3 to 10 days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that transient expression of

  15. Nickel and ultraviolet-B stresses induce differential growth and photosynthetic responses in Pisum sativum L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Garima; Kumar, Sushil; Dubey, Gunjan; Mishra, Vagish; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2012-10-01

    Enhanced level of UV-B radiation and heavy metals in irrigated soils due to anthropogenic activities are deteriorating the environmental conditions necessary for growth and development of plants. The present study was undertaken to study the individual and interactive effects of heavy metal nickel (NiCl(2)·6H(2)O; 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mM) and UV-B exposure (0.4 W m(-2); 45 min corresponds to 1.08 KJ m(-2)) on growth performance and photosynthetic activity of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Ni treatment at high doses (0.1 and 1.0 mM Ni) and UV-B alone reduced chlorophyll content and photosynthetic activity (oxygen yield, carbon fixation, photorespiration, and PSI, PSII, and whole chain electron transport activities), and declining trends continued with combined doses. In contrast to this, Ni at 0.01 mM appeared to be stimulatory for photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity, thereby enhanced biomass was observed at this concentration. However, combined dose (UV-B + 0.01 mM Ni) caused inhibitory effects. Carotenoids showed different responses to each stress. Nickel at high doses strongly inhibited PSII activity and the inhibition was further intensified when chloroplasts were simultaneously exposed to UV-B radiation. PSI activity appeared to be more resistant to each stress. High doses of Ni (0.1 and 1.0 mM) and UV-B alone interrupted electron flow at the oxygen evolving complex. Similar damaging effects were caused by 0.01 and 0.1 mM Ni together with UV-B, but the damage extended to PSII reaction center in case of 1.0 mM Ni in combination with UV-B. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that low dose of Ni stimulated the growth performance of pea seedlings in contrast to its inhibitory role at high doses. However, UV-B alone and together with low as well as high doses of Ni proved to be toxic for P. sativum L. PMID:22528776

  16. Diamine Oxidase in Cotyledons of Pisum sativum Develops as a Result of the Supply of Oxygen through the Embryonic Axis during Germination 1

    PubMed Central

    Hirasawa, Eiji

    1988-01-01

    The activity of diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6.) in pea, Pisum sativum cv Alaska, cotyledons was studied. The rapid hydration caused by soaking seeds in water, the excision of the embryonic axis, and the suppression of the elongation of the embryonic axis by indoleacetic acid generate anaerobic conditions in these cotyledons that suppress diamine oxidase activity. These results show that oxygen is essential for the induction of diamine oxidase activity in pea cotyledons. During germination cotyledonary diamine oxidase develops as a result of the supply of oxygen through the embryonic axis of the intact pea seedling. PMID:16666323

  17. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins. PMID:19559910

  18. Determination of cadmium and lead species and phytochelatins in pea (Pisum sativum) by HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Kózka, Małgorzata; Piechalak, Aneta; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Sobczak, Paweł

    2009-07-15

    An analytical approach based on hyphenated techniques was used for studying the speciation of cadmium and lead in Pisum sativum. Proper preservation conditions were employed to avoid the oxidation of -SH groups and corresponding decomposition of metal-binding complexes. SEC column was washed with 5 mM beta-mercaptoethanol and then samples were analysed using ICP-MS as a detector. Results showed that cadmium is the inhibitor of lead uptake. HPLC-ESI-MS(n) assays revealed fragmentation pathways of phytochelatins.

  19. Cadmium accumulation and buffering of cadmium-induced stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza in three Pisum sativum L. genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Calantzis, Catherine; Turnau, Katarzyna; Caussanel, Jean-Pierre; Belimov, Andrei A; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Strasser, Reto J; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    2002-05-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in reducing Cd stress was investigated in three genotypes of Pisum sativum L. (cv. Frisson, VIR4788, VIR7128), grown in soil/sand pot cultures in the presence and absence of 2-3 mg kg(-1) bioavailable Cd, and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Shoot, root and pod biomass were decreased by Cd in non-mycorrhizal plants. The presence of mycorrhiza attenuated the negative effect of Cd so that shoot biomass and activity of photosystem II, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, were not significantly different between mycorrhizal plants growing in the presence or absence of the heavy metal (HM). Total P concentrations were not significantly different between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants treated with Cd. From 20-50-fold more Cd accumulated in roots than in shoots of Cd-treated plants, and overall levels were comparable to other metal-accumulating plants. Genetic variability in Cd accumulation existed between the pea genotypes. Concentration of the HM was lowest in roots of VIR4788 and in pods of VIR4788 and VIR7128. G. intraradices inoculation decreased Cd accumulation in roots and pods of cv. Frisson, whilst high concentrations were maintained in roots and pods of mycorrhizal VIR7128. Shoot concentrations of Cd increased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR4788. Sequestration of Cd in root cell walls and/or cytoplasm, measured by EDS/SEM, was comparable between non-mycorrhizal pea genotypes but considerably decreased in mycorrhizal cv. Frisson and VIR7128. Possible mechanisms for mycorrhiza buffering of Cd-induced stress in the pea genotypes are discussed.

  20. High irradiance induces photoprotective mechanisms and a positive effect on NH4+ stress in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Ariz, Idoia; Esteban, Raquel; García-Plazaola, Jose Ignacio; Becerril, José María; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro María; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Photosynthesis provides plant metabolism with reduced carbon (C) but is also the main source of oxidative stress in plants. Likewise, high doses of NH(4)(+) as sole N source have been reported to be toxic for most plants, resulting in reduced plant growth and restricting C availability. The combination of high photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) and NH(4)(+) nutrition may provide higher C availability but could also have a detrimental effect on the plants, therefore the objective of this study is to evaluate whether NH(4)(+) induces photo-oxidative stress that is exacerbated under high light conditions. Pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. sugar-snap) were grown hydroponically with NH(4)(+) (0.5, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM) under high (750 micromol photons m(-2)s(-1)) or low PPFD conditions (350 micromol photons m(-2)s(-1)). High PPFD contributes to a higher tolerance to ammonium by pea plants, as it originated higher biomass content due to higher photosynthetic rates. However, a deficit of N (0.5 and 2.5 mM NH(4)(+)) under high PPFD conditions caused an antioxidant response, as indicated by increased photoprotective pigment and chloroplastic superoxide dismutase contents. Plants grown with higher doses of N and high PPFD showed less need for photoprotection. An increase in the specific leaf weight (SLW) ratio was observed associated not only with high PPFDs but also with the highest NH(4)(+) dose. Overall, these results demonstrate that, despite the activation of some photoprotective responses at high PPFD, there were no photoinhibitory symptoms and a positive effect on NH(4)(+) toxicity, thus suggesting that the harmful effects of NH(4)(+) are not directly related to the generation of photo-oxidative stress.

  1. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote growth and activate cellulase: Evidence for a role of cellulase in cell expansion. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, G.J.; Fry, S.C. )

    1990-07-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by the action of fungal cellulase on xyloglucans promoted the elongation of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) stem segments in a straight-growth bioassay designed for the determination of auxins. The oligosaccharides were most active at about 1 micromolar. We tested the relative growth-promoting activities of four HPLC-purified oligosaccharides which shared a common glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} (XG7) core. The substituted oligosaccharides XG8 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose) and XG9n (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose{sub 2}) were more effective than XG7 itself and XG9 (glucose{sub 4} {center dot} xylose{sub 3} {center dot} galactose {center dot} fucose). The same oligosaccharides also promoted the degradation, assayed viscometrically, of xyloglucan by an acidic cellulase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves. The oligosaccharides were highly active at 10{sup {minus}4} molar, causing up to a fourfold increase in activity, but the effect was still detectable at 1 micromolar. Those oligosaccharides (XG8 and XG9n) which best promoted growth, stimulated cellulase activity to the greatest extent. The oligosaccharides did not stimulate the action of the cellulase in an assay based on the conversion of ({sup 3}H)xyloglucan to ethanol-soluble fragments. This suggests that the oligosaccharides enhanced the midchain hydrolysis of xyloglucan molecules (which would rapidly reduce the viscosity of the solution), at the expense of cleavage near the termini (which would yield ethanol-soluble products).

  2. Expression of arginine decarboxylase is induced during early fruit development and in young tissues of Pisum sativum (L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Amador, M A; Carbonell, J; Granell, A

    1995-09-01

    A cDNA coding for arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.19) has been isolated from a cDNA library of parthenocarpic young fruits of Pisum sativum (L.). The deduced aminoacid sequence is 74%, 46% and 35% identical to ADCs from tomato, oat and Escherichia coli, respectively. When the pea ADC cDNA was put under the control of the galactose inducible yeast promoter CYC1-GAL10 and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it conferred galactose-regulated expression of the ADC activity. The ADC activity expressed in S. cerevisiae was inhibited 99% by alpha-DL-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific inhibitor of ADC activity. No activity was detected in the untransformed S. cerevisiae, nor when it was transformed with an antisense ADC construct. This provides direct evidence that the ADC cDNA from pea encoded a functional, specific ADC activity and that S. cerevisiae is able to process correctly the protein. In the pea plant, gene expression of the ADC is high in young developing tissues like shoot tips, young leaflets and flower buds. Fully expanded leaflets and roots have much lower, but still detectable, levels of the ADC transcript. In the ovary and fruit, they are developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression during the early stages of fruit growth, which in pea is mainly due to cell expansion. The observed changes in the steady-state levels of ADC mRNA alone, however, cannot account for the differences in ADC activity suggesting that other regulatory mechanisms must be acting.

  3. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K. ); Chattaway, J.A. Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich ); Dawson, A.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-{sup 32}P)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and (2-{sup 3}H)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)P{sub 2}) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P{sub 2}) was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4}. Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} and Ins(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4} was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca{sup 2+}. This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom.

  4. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaflets, stipules and tendrils of Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.; Grodzinski, B. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism have been investigated for each of the dominant parts of the pea leaf (P. sativum) in a normal and a semi-leafless phenotype (cv. Improved Laxton's Progress, and cv. Curly, respectively). On a fresh weight basis, net photosynthesis of leaflets and stipules have similar rates, while in tendrils the rte is 40% lower. However, on a surface area basis, tendrils are only 5-10% less efficient photosynthetically when the area is corrected by a factor {pi}/2. Transpiration rates are similar for leaflets and stipules, but double for tendrils even though stomatal frequency on tendrils is reduced by 50%. Dark respiration is higher in tendrils than leaflets and stipules. Gas exchange is comparable in both cultivars. The early {sup 14}C-labelled products of stipules, leaflets and tendrils are similar in both phenotypes, however the tendrils clearly partition about 2-3 times more of the newly fixed {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into the amino acid fraction. These data will be discussed in relation to the anatomy and function of pea tendrils.

  5. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Fang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

  6. SNP marker discovery, linkage map construction and identification of QTLs for enhanced salinity tolerance in field pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a self-pollinating, diploid, cool-season food legume. Crop production is constrained by multiple biotic and abiotic stress factors, including salinity, that cause reduced growth and yield. Recent advances in genomics have permitted the development of low-cost high-throughput genotyping systems, allowing the construction of saturated genetic linkage maps for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of interest. Genetic markers in close linkage with the relevant genomic regions may then be implemented in varietal improvement programs. Results In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were developed and used to generate comprehensive linkage maps for field pea. From a set of 36,188 variant nucleotide positions detected through in silico analysis, 768 were selected for genotyping of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. A total of 705 SNPs (91.7%) successfully detected segregating polymorphisms. In addition to SNPs, genomic and EST-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were assigned to the genetic map in order to obtain an evenly distributed genome-wide coverage. Sequences associated with the mapped molecular markers were used for comparative genomic analysis with other legume species. Higher levels of conserved synteny were observed with the genomes of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) than with soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), Lotus japonicus L. and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Parents and RIL progeny were screened at the seedling growth stage for responses to salinity stress, imposed by addition of NaCl in the watering solution at a concentration of 18 dS m-1. Salinity-induced symptoms showed normal distribution, and the severity of the symptoms increased over time. QTLs for salinity tolerance were identified on linkage groups Ps III and VII, with flanking SNP markers suitable for

  7. Photosynthesis light-independent reactions are sensitive biomarkers to monitor lead phytotoxicity in a Pb-tolerant Pisum sativum cultivar.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eleazar; da Conceição Santos, Maria; Azevedo, Raquel; Correia, Carlos; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel Pimenta; Dias, Maria Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) environmental contamination remains prevalent. Pisum sativum L. plants have been used in ecotoxicological studies, but some cultivars showed to tolerate and accumulate some levels of Pb, opening new perspectives to their use in phytoremediation approaches. However, the putative use of pea plants in phytoremediation requires reliable toxicity endpoints. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of a large number of photosynthesis-related biomarkers in Pb-exposed pea plants. Plants (cv. "Corne de Bélier") were exposed to Pb concentrations up to 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil during 28 days. The photosynthetic potential biomarkers that were analyzed included pigments, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, gas exchange, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) activity, and carbohydrates. Flow cytometry (FCM) was also used to assess the morpho-functional status of chloroplasts. Finally, Pb-induced nutrient disorders were also evaluated. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and RuBisCO activity decreased strongly in Pb-exposed plants. Plant dry mass (DM) accumulation, however, was only reduced in the higher Pb concentrations tested (500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1) soil). Pigment contents increased solely in plants exposed to the largest Pb concentration, and in addition, the parameters related to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, were not affected by Pb exposure. In contrast to this, carbohydrates showed an overall tendency to increase in Pb-exposed plants. The morphological status of chloroplasts was affected by Pb exposure, with a general trend of volume decrease and granularity increase. These results point the endpoints related to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis as more sensitive predictors of Pb-toxicity than the light-dependent reactions ones. Among the endpoints related to the light-independent photosynthesis reactions, RuBisCO activity and A were found to be the most sensitive. We discuss here the advantages of using

  8. Inheritance of quantitative traits in crosses between two Pisum sativum subspecies with particular reference to their breeding value.

    PubMed

    Kosev, V; Pachev, I; Angelova, S; Mikić, A

    2012-01-01

    The experimental study was conducted during the period of 2008-2010 at the experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven. The hybridization scheme included direct and back crosses covering four varieties of forage pea (Pisum sativum L.), namely two spring ones, Usatii 90 and Kamerton from Ukraine, and a winter one from Bulgaria, Pleven 10. There was analyzed the inheritance of quantitative traits such as plant height, height to first pod, pod number per plant, seed number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight per plant and number of fertile nodes per plant of parental components (P1 and P2) and both first (F1) and second (F2) hybrid generations. The cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10 showed the highest real heterosis effect for plant height (8.26%), pods per plant (158.79%), seeds per plant (272.16%), seeds per pod (42.09%), seed weight per plant (432.43%) and number of fertile nodes per plant (117.14%). The cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90 had the highest real heterosis effect height to first pod (11.06%). In F2 plants, the strongest depression for plant height (5.88%), seeds per plant (57.88%), seeds per pod (55.93%) and seed weight per plant (55.99%) was in the cross Usatii 90 x Pleven 10, for height to first pod (1.47%) in the cross Kamerton x Pleven 10 and for number of fertile nodes per plant (15.91%) in the cross Pleven 10 x Usatii 90. The highest positive degree of transgression for number of fertile nodes per plant (165.64%) and seed weight per plant (162.10%) was in the cross Pleven 10 x Kamerton and for pod number per plant (102.54%) and seeds per plant (99.13%) in Kamerton x Pleven 10. The stability of the characters was determined. Low variability in F1 and F2 was found in plant height (3.97-6.85%). Variability of number seeds per plant in F1 was highest (11.86-33.23%). For all other traits, the variability varied from average to high. A lower narrow-sense heritability coefficient was observed for plant height, height to first pod, pods per

  9. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  10. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders.

  11. Discovery of a Novel er1 Allele Conferring Powdery Mildew Resistance in Chinese Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Fu, Haining; Wang, Zhongyi; Duan, Canxing; Zong, Xuxiao; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Pea powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is an important disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant varieties is the main way to control this disease. This study aimed to screen Chinese pea (Pisum sativum L.) landraces resistant to E. pisi, and to characterize the resistance gene(s) at the er1 locus in the resistant landraces, and to develop functional marker(s) specific to the novel er1 allele. The 322 landraces showed different resistance levels. Among them, 12 (3.73%), 4 (1.24%) and 17 (5.28%) landraces showed immunity, high resistance and resistance to E. pisi, respectively. The other landraces appeared susceptible or highly susceptible to E. pisi. Most of the immune and highly resistant landraces were collected from Yunnan province. To characterize the resistance gene at the er1 locus, cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 gene were determined in 12 immune and four highly resistant accessions. The cDNAs of PsMLO1 from the immune landrace G0005576 produced three distinct transcripts, characterized by a 129-bp deletion, and 155-bp and 220-bp insertions, which were consistent with those of er1-2 allele. The PsMLO1 cDNAs in the other 15 resistant landraces produced identical transcripts, which had a new point mutation (T→C) at position 1121 of PsMLO1, indicating a novel er1 allele, designated as er1-6. This mutation caused a leucine to proline change in the amino acid sequence. Subsequently, the resistance allele er1-6 in landrace G0001778 was confirmed by resistance inheritance analysis and genetic mapping on the region of the er1 locus using populations derived from G0001778 × Bawan 6. Finally, a functional marker specific to er1-6, SNP1121, was developed using the high-resolution melting technique, which could be used in pea breeding via marker-assisted selection. The results described here provide valuable genetic information for Chinese pea landraces and a powerful tool for pea breeders. PMID:26809053

  12. Differential Toxicity of Bare and Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles in Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.): A Life Cycle Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Sun, Youping; Morelius, Erving; Tamez, Carlos; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Niu, Genhua; White, Jason C.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface or lattice modification of nanoparticles (NPs) on terrestrial plants is poorly understood. We investigated the impact of different zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on green pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the highest consumed legumes globally. Pea plants were grown for 65 d in soil amended with commercially available bare ZnO NPs (10 nm), 2 wt% alumina doped (Al2O3@ZnO NPs, 15 nm), or 1 wt% aminopropyltriethoxysilane coated NPs (KH550@ZnO NP, 20 nm) at 250 and 1000 mg NP/kg soil inside a greenhouse. Bulk (ZnO) and ionic Zn (zinc chloride) were included as controls. Plant fresh and dry biomass, changes in leaf pigment concentrations, elements (Zn, Al, Si), and protein and carbohydrate profile of green pees were quantified upon harvest at 65 days. With the exception of the coated 1000 mg/kg NP treatment, fresh and dry weight were unaffected by Zn exposure. Although, all treated plants showed higher tissue Zn than controls, those exposed to Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg had greater Zn concentration in roots and seeds, compared to bulk Zn and the other NP treatments, keeping Al and Si uptake largely unaffected. Higher Zn accumulation in green pea seeds were resulted in coated ZnO at 250 mg/kg treatments. In leaves, Al2O3@ZnO NP at 250 mg/kg significantly increased Chl-a and carotenoid concentrations relative to the bulk, ionic, and the other NP treatments. The protein and carbohydrate profiles remained largely unaltered across all treatments with the exception of Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg where sucrose concentration of green peas increased significantly, which is likely a biomarker of stress. Importantly, these findings demonstrate that lattice and surface modification can significantly alter the fate and phytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in food crops and seed nutritional quality. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a life cycle study on comparative toxicity of bare, coated, and doped ZnO NPs on a soil-grown food crop. PMID:26793219

  13. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  14. Induction of host defences by Rhizobium during ineffective nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) carrying symbiotically defective mutations sym40 (PsEFD), sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS) and sym42.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kira A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Brewin, Nicholas J; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2015-11-01

    Rhizobia are able to establish a beneficial interaction with legumes by forming a new organ, called the symbiotic root nodule, which is a unique ecological niche for rhizobial nitrogen fixation. Rhizobial infection has many similarities with pathogenic infection and induction of defence responses accompanies both interactions, but defence responses are induced to a lesser extent during rhizobial infection. However, strong defence responses may result from incompatible interactions between legumes and rhizobia due to a mutation in either macro- or microsymbiont. The aim of this research was to analyse different plant defence reactions in response to Rhizobium infection for several pea (Pisum sativum) mutants that result in ineffective symbiosis. Pea mutants were examined by histochemical and immunocytochemical analyses, light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis. It was observed that mutations in pea symbiotic genes sym33 (PsIPD3/PsCYCLOPS encoding a transcriptional factor) and sym40 (PsEFD encoding a putative negative regulator of the cytokinin response) led to suberin depositions in ineffective nodules, and in the sym42 there were callose depositions in infection thread (IT) and host cell walls. The increase in deposition of unesterified pectin in IT walls was observed for mutants in the sym33 and sym42; for mutant in the sym42, unesterified pectin was also found around degrading bacteroids. In mutants in the genes sym33 and sym40, an increase in the expression level of a gene encoding peroxidase was observed. In the genes sym40 and sym42, an increase in the expression levels of genes encoding a marker of hypersensitive reaction and PR10 protein was demonstrated. Thus, a range of plant defence responses like suberisation, callose and unesterified pectin deposition as well as activation of defence genes can be triggered by different pea single mutations that cause perception of an otherwise

  15. Influence of s-Triazines on Some Enzymes of Carbohydrates and Nitrogen Metabolism in Leaves of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M. T.; Singh, B.; Salunkhe, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Foliar applications of 2 milligrams per liter of 2-chloro-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-s-triazine, 2-methylmercapto-4-ethylamino-6-isobutylamino-s-triazine, and 2-methoxy-4-isopropylamino-6-butylamino-s-triazine caused increases in the activities of starch phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, cytochrome oxidase, and glutamate dehydrogenase 5, 10, and 15 days after treatment in the leaves of 3-week-old seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The results indicate that sublethal concentrations of s-triazine compounds affect the physiological and biochemical events in plants which favor more utilization of carbohydrates for nitrate reduction and synthesis of amino acids and proteins. PMID:16657830

  16. Stomatal Response and Leaf Injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO(2) and O(3) Exposures : II. INFLUENCE OF MOISTURE STRESS AND TIME OF EXPOSURE.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, D M; Tibbitts, T W

    1981-03-01

    Stomatal response during exposure to SO(2) and O(3) and subsequent leaf injury were examined in plants of Pisum sativum L. ;Alsweet' grown in a peat-vermiculite medium in controlled environment chambers. Plants developing under moisture stress, induced by drying the medium to 50% of field capacity, exhibited greater stomatal closure during exposures and less than one-fourth the necrosis compared to plants developing in a medium maintained at field capacity. Plants under moisture stress had only a slightly more negative plant water potential ( approximately -4.0 bars) than at field capacity ( approximately -3.4 bars). Plants exposed to pollutants for 2 hours near the beginning or end of a 16-hour light period had greater stomatal closure during exposures and less leaf necrosis than plants exposed during the middle of the light period. PMID:16661711

  17. Polysaccharide fraction from higher plants which strongly interacts with the cytosolic phosphorylase isozyme. I. Isolation and characterization. [Spinacia oleracea L. ; Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yi; Steup, M. )

    1990-11-01

    From leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. or from Pisum sativum L. and from cotyledons of germinating pea seeds a high molecular weight polysaccharide fraction was isolated. The apparent size of the fraction, as determined by gel filtration, was similar to that of dextran blue. Following acid hydrolysis the monomer content of the polysaccharide preparation was studied using high pressure liquid and thin layer chromatography. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and ribose were the main monosaccharide compounds. The native polysaccharide preparation interacted strongly with the cytosolic isozyme of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). Interaction with the plastidic phosphorylase isozyme(s) was by far weaker. Interaction with the cytosolic isozyme was demonstrated by affinity electrophoresis, kinetic measurements, and by {sup 14}C-labeling experiments in which the glucosyl transfer from ({sup 14}C)glucose 1-phosphate to the polysaccharide preparation was monitored.

  18. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  19. ( sup 14 C)-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K. )

    1991-05-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated ({sup 14}C)-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of {sup 14}C-sorbitol and {sup 3}H{sub 2}O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K{sub m} 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours.

  20. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  1. Seasonal patterns of 13C partitioning between shoots and nodulated roots of N2- or nitrate-fed Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Voisin, A S; Salon, C; Jeudy, C; Warembourg, F R

    2003-04-01

    The effect of nitrogen source (N(2) or nitrate) on carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and on carbon partitioning between shoots and roots was investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L. 'Baccara') plants at different growth stages using (13)C labelling. Plants were grown in the greenhouse on different occasions in 1999 and 2000. Atmospheric [CO(2)] and growth conditions were varied to alter the rate of photosynthesis. Carbon allocation to nodulated roots was unaffected by N source. At the beginning of the vegetative period, nodulated roots had priority for assimilates over shoots; this priority decreased during later stages and became identical to that of the shoot during seed filling. Carbon allocation to nodulated roots was always limited by competition with shoots, and could be predicted for each phenological stage: during vegetative and flowering stages a single, negative exponential relationship was established between sink intensity (percentage of C allocated to the nodulated root per unit biomass) and net photosynthesis. At seed filling, the amount of carbon allocated to the nodulated root was directly related to net photosynthesis. Respiration of nodulated roots accounted for more than 60 % of carbon allocated to them during growth. Only at flowering was respiration affected by N supply: it was significantly higher for strictly N(2)-fixing plants (83 %) than for plants fed with nitrate (71 %). At the vegetative stage, the increase in carbon in nodulated root biomass was probably limited by respiration losses.

  2. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective. PMID:27176469

  3. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  4. Reactive oxygen species from type-I photosensitized reactions contribute to the light-induced wilting of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) epicotyls.

    PubMed

    Hideg, Eva; Vitányi, Beáta; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Won, Sungae; Inoue, Yumi; Ridge, Robert W; Böddi, Béla

    2010-04-01

    Type-II, singlet oxygen-mediated photosensitized damage has already been shown to occur in epicotyls of dark-germinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings upon illumination, resulting in fast turgor loss and wilting. In this study we show evidence that the palette of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is more complex. Hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals are also formed, suggesting the occurrence of type-I reactions as well. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide injection into the epicotyls in the dark was able to provoke wilting directly. Formation of hydroxyl radicals could also be triggered by the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the dark, preferentially in the mid-sections where wilting occurs, showing that potential mediators of a Fenton reaction are present in the epicotyls, but unevenly distributed. Localization of light-inducible ROS formation fully (hydrogen peroxide) or partially (superoxide radicals) overlaps with the distribution of monomer protochlorophyllide complexes, showing that these pigment forms are capable of provoking both type-I and type-II reactions.

  5. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Seed Coats of Differently Colored European Varieties of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Characterization of Their Antioxidant and In Vitro Anticancer Activities.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja S; Ilić, Marija D; Matić, Ivana Z; Jovanović, Živko S; Čupić, Tihomir; Dabić, Dragana Č; Natić, Maja M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2016-01-01

    To date little has been done on identification of major phenolic compounds responsible for anticancer and antioxidant properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed coat extracts. In the present study, phenolic profile of the seed coat extracts from 10 differently colored European varieties has been determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer technique. Extracts of dark colored varieties with high total phenolic content (up to 46.56 mg GAE/g) exhibited strong antioxidant activities (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH assay, and ferric ion reducing and ferrous ion chelating capacity assays) which could be attributed to presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and apigenin. The aqueous extracts of dark colored varieties exert concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on all tested malignant cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma LS174, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453, human lung carcinoma A594, and myelogenous leukemia K562). Correlation analysis revealed that intensities of cytotoxic activity of the extracts strongly correlated with contents of epigallocatechin and luteolin. Cell cycle analysis on LS174 cells in the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor points out that extracts may activate other cell death modalities besides caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The study provides evidence that seed coat extracts of dark colored pea varieties might be used as potential cancer-chemopreventive and complementary agents in cancer therapy. PMID:27348025

  6. Inducible expression of Pisum sativum xyloglucan fucosyltransferase in the pea root cap meristem, and effects of antisense mRNA expression on root cap cell wall structural integrity.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fushi; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Nguyen, Trang; Zeng, Weiqing; Keegstra, Kenneth; Immerzeel, Peter; Pauly, Markus; Hawes, Martha C

    2008-07-01

    Mitosis and cell wall synthesis in the legume root cap meristem can be induced and synchronized by the nondestructive removal of border cells from the cap periphery. Newly synthesized cells can be examined microscopically as they differentiate progressively during cap development, and ultimately detach as a new population of border cells. This system was used to demonstrate that Pisum sativum L. fucosyl transferase (PsFut1) mRNA expression is strongly expressed in root meristematic tissues, and is induced >2-fold during a 5-h period when mitosis in the root cap meristem is increased. Expression of PsFut1 antisense mRNA in pea hairy roots under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, which exhibits meristem localized expression in pea root caps, resulted in a 50-60% reduction in meristem localized endogenous PsFut1 mRNA expression measured using whole mount in situ hybridization. Changes in gross levels of cell wall fucosylated xyloglucan were not detected, but altered surface localization patterns were detected using whole mount immunolocalization with CCRC-M1, an antibody that recognizes fucosylated xyloglucan. Emerging hairy roots expressing antisense PsFut1 mRNA appeared normal macroscopically but scanning electron microscopy of tissues with altered CCRC-M1 localization patterns revealed wrinkled, collapsed cell surfaces. As individual border cells separated from the cap periphery, cell death occurred in correlation with extrusion of cellular contents through breaks in the wall.

  7. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-01-01

    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with {gamma}-({sup 32}P)ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections.

  8. Treatment of pea (Pisum sativum L.) protoplasts with DNA-damaging agents induces a 39-kilodalton chloroplast protein immunologically related to Escherichia coli RecA.

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, H; Ibrahim, H Z; Jagendorf, A T

    1993-01-01

    Organisms must have efficient mechanisms of DNA repair and recombination to prevent alterations in their genetic information due to DNA damage. There is evidence for DNA repair and recombination in plastids of higher plants, although very little is known at the biochemical level. Many chloroplast proteins are of eubacterial ancestry, suggesting that the same could be true for the components of a DNA repair and recombination system. A 39-kD protein, immunologically related to Escherichia coli RecA, is present in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Bandshift gel assays suggest that it binds single-stranded DNA. Its steady-state level is increased by several DNA-damaging agents. These results are consistent with it being a plastid homolog of E. coli RecA protein, presumably involved in DNA repair and recombination, and with the existence of an SOS-like response in pea leaf cells. Experiments with protein synthesis inhibitors suggest that the 39-kD chloroplast protein is encoded in the nucleus. PMID:8108495

  9. Role of cyanide-resistant respiration in the response of two pea hybrids to CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Strain, B.R.; Siedow, J.N.

    1986-04-01

    Two cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum L., cvs. Alaska and Progress No. 9) were reciprocally crossed to yield hybrids differing in the presence or absence of the cyanide-resistant (alternative) pathway of respiration. The growth of this material in greenhouses maintained at either 350 or 650 ppm CO/sub 2/ was compared. The objective was to assess the significance of the alternative pathway to whole plant carbon budgets and further to use CO/sub 2/ enrichment as a means of testing the hypothesis that the alternative pathway might be important in oxidizing excess carbohydrates. More structural and storage carbohydrates were available in the cross lacking the pathway than in the reciprocal cross as shown by greater plant height, leaf area, specific leaf weight, branching, total dry matter and seed production. Specific leaf weight increased strongly under CO/sub 2/ enrichment in the hybrid lacking the pathway while it was the same at 350 and 650 ppm in the reciprocal cross. These results suggest that respiration via the alternative pathway may be energetically wasteful in terms of whole plant carbon budgets.

  10. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Linda S.; Panozzo, Joseph F.; Salisbury, Phillip A.; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective. PMID:27176469

  11. Discriminant Analysis of Defective and Non-Defective Field Pea (Pisum sativum L.) into Broad Market Grades Based on Digital Image Features.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Linda S; Panozzo, Joseph F; Salisbury, Phillip A; Ford, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Field peas (Pisum sativum L.) are generally traded based on seed appearance, which subjectively defines broad market-grades. In this study, we developed an objective Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to classify market grades of field peas based on seed colour, shape and size traits extracted from digital images. Seeds were imaged in a high-throughput system consisting of a camera and laser positioned over a conveyor belt. Six colour intensity digital images were captured (under 405, 470, 530, 590, 660 and 850nm light) for each seed, and surface height was measured at each pixel by laser. Colour, shape and size traits were compiled across all seed in each sample to determine the median trait values. Defective and non-defective seed samples were used to calibrate and validate the model. Colour components were sufficient to correctly classify all non-defective seed samples into correct market grades. Defective samples required a combination of colour, shape and size traits to achieve 87% and 77% accuracy in market grade classification of calibration and validation sample-sets respectively. Following these results, we used the same colour, shape and size traits to develop an LDA model which correctly classified over 97% of all validation samples as defective or non-defective.

  12. Etioplasts with protochlorophyll and protochlorophyllide forms in the under-soil epicotyl segments of pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings grown under natural light conditions.

    PubMed

    Vitányi, Beáta; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2013-06-01

    To study if etiolation symptoms exist in plants grown under natural illumination conditions, under-soil epicotyl segments of light-grown pea (Pisum sativum) plants were examined and compared to those of hydroponically dark-grown plants. Light-, fluorescence- and electron microscopy, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, pigment extraction and pigment content determination methods were used. Etioplasts with prolamellar bodies and/or prothylakoids, protochlorophyll (Pchl) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms (including the flash-photoactive 655 nm emitting form) were found in the (pro)chlorenchyma of epicotyl segments under 3 cm soil depth; their spectral properties were similar to those of hydroponically grown seedlings. However, differences were found in etioplast sizes and Pchlide:Pchl molar ratios, which indicate differences in the developmental rates of the under-soil and of hydroponically developed cells. Tissue regions closer to the soil surface showed gradual accumulation of chlorophyll, and in parallel, decrease of Pchl and Pchlide. These results proved that etioplasts and Pchlide exist in soil-covered parts of seedlings even if they have a 3-4-cm long photosynthetically active shoot above the soil surface. This underlines that etiolation symptoms do develop under natural growing conditions, so they are not merely artificial, laboratory phenomena. Consequently, dark-grown laboratory plants are good models to study the early stages of etioplast differentiation and the Pchlide-chlorophyllide phototransformation. PMID:23067197

  13. The involvement of indole-3-acetic acid in the control of stem elongation in dark- and light-grown pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Carlo; Picciarelli, Piero; Calistri, Gianni; Lercari, Bartolomeo; Ceccarelli, Nello

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of auxin on stem elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) grown for 10d in continuous darkness or under low-irradiance blue, red, far red and white light. The third internode of treated seedlings was peeled and the tissues (epidermis and cortex+central cylinder) were separately analyzed for the concentration of free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Under red, far red and white light internode elongation was linearly related with the free IAA content of all internode tissues, suggesting that phytochrome-dependent inhibition of stem growth may be mediated by a decrease of free IAA levels in pea seedlings. The correlation between IAA and internode elongation, however, did not hold for blue light-grown seedlings. The hypothesis that the growth response under low-irradiance blue light might be correlated with the lack of phytochrome B signalling and changes in gibberellin metabolism is discussed in view of current knowledge on hormonal control of stem growth. PMID:17706834

  14. Etioplasts with protochlorophyll and protochlorophyllide forms in the under-soil epicotyl segments of pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings grown under natural light conditions.

    PubMed

    Vitányi, Beáta; Kósa, Annamária; Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2013-06-01

    To study if etiolation symptoms exist in plants grown under natural illumination conditions, under-soil epicotyl segments of light-grown pea (Pisum sativum) plants were examined and compared to those of hydroponically dark-grown plants. Light-, fluorescence- and electron microscopy, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, pigment extraction and pigment content determination methods were used. Etioplasts with prolamellar bodies and/or prothylakoids, protochlorophyll (Pchl) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) forms (including the flash-photoactive 655 nm emitting form) were found in the (pro)chlorenchyma of epicotyl segments under 3 cm soil depth; their spectral properties were similar to those of hydroponically grown seedlings. However, differences were found in etioplast sizes and Pchlide:Pchl molar ratios, which indicate differences in the developmental rates of the under-soil and of hydroponically developed cells. Tissue regions closer to the soil surface showed gradual accumulation of chlorophyll, and in parallel, decrease of Pchl and Pchlide. These results proved that etioplasts and Pchlide exist in soil-covered parts of seedlings even if they have a 3-4-cm long photosynthetically active shoot above the soil surface. This underlines that etiolation symptoms do develop under natural growing conditions, so they are not merely artificial, laboratory phenomena. Consequently, dark-grown laboratory plants are good models to study the early stages of etioplast differentiation and the Pchlide-chlorophyllide phototransformation.

  15. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (< 24 h) desiccation. However, it declined sharply at c. 0.26 g g¹ dm following slow (c. 5 days) drying. Increasing the rate of dehydration thus lowered the critical water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure among pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars as revealed by simple sequence repeat and novel genic markers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Ajay; Mamidi, Sujan; McPhee, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important cool season legume crop widely grown around the world. This research provides a basis for selection of pea germplasm across geographical regions in current and future breeding and genetic mapping efforts for pea improvement. Eleven novel genic markers were developed from pea expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences having significant similarity with gene calls from Medicago truncatula spanning at least one intron. In this study, 96 cultivars widely grown or used in breeding programs in the USA and Canada were analyzed for genetic diversity using 31 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 11 novel EST-derived genic markers. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.01-0.56 among SSR markers and 0.04-0.43 among genic markers. The results showed that SSR and EST-derived genic markers displayed one or more highly reproducible, multi-allelic, and easy to score loci ranging from 200 to 700 bp in size. Genetic diversity was assessed through unweighted neighbor-joining method, and 96 varieties were grouped into three main clusters based on the dissimilarity matrix. Four subpopulations were determined through STRUCTURE analysis with no significant geographic separation of the subpopulations. The findings of the present study can be used to select diverse genotypes to be used as parents of crosses aimed for breeding improved pea cultivars.

  17. Nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict in pea (Pisum sativum L.) is associated with nuclear and plastidic candidate genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Vera S; Zaytseva, Olga O; Mglinets, Anatoliy V; Shatskaya, Natalia V; Kosterin, Oleg E; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized.

  18. Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong).

    PubMed

    Gundersen, V; Bechmann, I E; Behrens, A; Stürup, S

    2000-12-01

    210 samples of onions (Allium cepa Hysam) from 11 conventionally and 10 organically cultivated sites and 190 samples of peas (Pisum sativum Ping Pong) from 10 conventionally and 9 organically cultivated sites in Denmark were collected and analyzed for 63 and 55 major and trace elements, respectively, by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. Comparative statistical tests of the element concentration mean values for each site show significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of Ca, Mg, B, Bi, Dy, Eu, Gd, Lu, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, U, and Y between the organically and conventionally grown onions and significantly (p < 0.05) different levels of P, Gd, and Ti between the organically and conventionally grown peas. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the 63 elements measured in the individual onion samples from the 21 sites split up the sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the first and third principal components were plotted against each other. Correspondingly, for peas, a PCA applied to the 55 elements measured as mean values for each site split up the 19 sites into two groups according to the cultivation method when the scores of the third and fourth principal component were plotted against each other. The methodology may be used as authenticity control for organic cultivation after further method development. PMID:11312781

  19. Interspecific variation in SO/sub 2/ flux: leaf surface versus internal flux, and components of leaf conductance. [Pisum sativum L. , Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Flacca, Geranium carolinianum L. , Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tingey, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.

  20. Induction of premature mitosis in root meristem cells of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum by various agents is correlated with an increased level of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rybaczek, Dorota; Polit, Justyna; Luchniak, Piotr; Maszewski, Janusz

    2002-01-01

    The intra-S-phase checkpoint response to hydroxyurea (HU)-mediated arrest of DNA replication was analysed in root meristems of two legumes, Pisum sativum and Vicia faba. The obtained results suggest that a molecular signal which invokes mechanisms allowing the cells to override the S-M dependency control system may be generated by caffeine (CF) and a number of alternative, yet related chemical agents, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP), 2-aminopurine (2-AP), and 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP). A variety of aberrant mitotic divisions included chromosomal breaks and gaps, lost and lagging chromatids and chromosomes, acentric fragments, chromosome bridges and micronuclei. Furthermore, similar effects induced by sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, extend the number of inhibitors capable of inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) in root meristem cells, as well as the range of possible regulatory pathways leading to the transition from S-phase arrest towards abnormal mitosis. Until preprophase, FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (alpha-Y(a)b-FITC) that specifically recognize phosphorylated form of threonine indicate no evident cell cycle-dependent changes in an overall phosphorylation status of root meristem cells in the control plants. Irrespective of the stage of interphase, alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC was localized basically in the cytoplasm, whereas nuclear staining was considerably weaker, with a significant fluorescence confined merely to nucleolar regions. The intensity of alpha-Y(p)ab-FITC staining in HU/CF-treated seedlings was found higher than that in the control plants (with the exception of G2 cells), suggesting a general increase in the level of protein phosphorylation, a physiological response mediated probably by an enhanced activity of the cdc-like protein kinase(s).

  1. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. PMID:25528673

  2. Response of Pisum sativum (Fabales: Fabaceae) to Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation: effect of adult weevil density on damage, larval population, and yield loss.

    PubMed

    Vankosky, M A; Cárcamo, H A; Dosdall, L M

    2011-10-01

    Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive pest in North America and its geographical range is currently expanding across the Canadian prairies. Adults and larvae of S. lineatus feed upon the foliage and root nodules, respectively, of field pea, Pisum sativum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and may contribute to economic losses when population densities are high. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that incorporate economic thresholds should be used to manage S. lineatus populations in a sustainable manner. The impact of nitrogen fertilizer on field pea yield and the relationships between adult weevil density and above- and below-ground damage and yield were investigated in southern Alberta, Canada using exclusion cages on field pea plots. In each cage, 32 field pea plants were exposed to weevil densities ranging from zero to one adult weevil per plant. Nitrogen-fertilized plants yielded 16% more than unfertilized plants. Nitrogen-fertilized plants had fewer root nodules than unfertilized plants, but fertilizer had no effect on foliar feeding by S. lineatus. Adult density affected foliar feeding damage, with increases in above-ground damage associated with increases in S. lineatus density. Adult density did not affect root nodule damage, larval density, foliar biomass or seed weight. Overall, these results indicate that terminal leaf damage may be used to estimate adult weevil density but cannot be used to predict larval density or yield loss. Further research is required to better understand the impact of larval damage on yield and determine if economic thresholds can be developed using data from large-scale production systems.

  3. Stomatal response and leaf injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures. I. Influence of pollutant level and leaf maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum L. Alsweet were grown under a controlled environment and exposed to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposure were related to subsequent leaf injury. Stomata consistently closed with injurious levels of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/. Measurements with diffusion porometers demonstrated approx. = 75 and 25% lower conductance with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, compared to the conductance of control plants. Stomata also showed a closing response with noninjurious levels of SO/sub 2/ but an opening response with noninjurious levels of O/sub 3/. Stomata closed to the same degree with combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ as with SO/sub 2/ alone. Stomata of expanding leaves closed more during pollutant exposures than stomata of expanded leaves. The abaxial and adaxial stomata both exhibited closure with SO/sub 2/ and combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/, but abaxial stomata tended to close and adaxial stomata tended to open with exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. The changes in stomatal aperture were not closely correlated with the amount of leaf injury produced by different pollutant levels. Stomata closed, not only with exposure to pollutant levels that caused severe necrosis, but also with levels that caused only a trace of injury. There was no evidence of a reduced amount of closure or even stomatal opening with combinations of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ compared to plants exposed to the pollutants alone to explain the large amount of injury to plants exposed to pollutant combinations.

  4. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  5. Assessment of variation in antioxidative defense system in salt-treated pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars and its putative use as salinity tolerance markers.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Zahra; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    The present work describes whether the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some non-enzymatic antioxidants could be used as markers of salt tolerance in nine genetically diverse pea (Pisum sativum) cultivars. All cultivars were exposed to four levels of NaCl i.e., 0, 40, 80 and 120mM in sand culture. Plant fresh biomass, total phenolics, total soluble proteins, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in leaves while different forms of tocopherols (alpha-, gamma- and Delta-tocopherol) in fresh seed of salt-stressed and non-stressed plants were analyzed. On the basis of percent inhibition in shoot biomass at the highest salt level (120mM) cultivars 2001-35, 2001-55 and Climax were ranked as tolerant (percent inhibition less than 60%), 2001-20, 9800-5 and 9800-10 moderately tolerant (percent inhibition 60-70%), and 2001-40, 9200 and Tere 2 salt sensitive (percent inhibition more than 70%). Salt stress markedly enhanced the activities of SOD and POD, levels of total phenolics and gamma- and Delta-tocopherols, and decreased the total soluble proteins and CAT activity, while the internal levels of H(2)O(2) remained unaffected in all pea cultivars. Although salt-induced oxidative stress occurred in all pea cultivars, the response of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars with respect to the generation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic metabolites measured in the present study was not consistent. Of different antioxidant enzymes and metabolites analyzed, only CAT activity was found to be a reliable marker of salt tolerance in the set of pea cultivars examined.

  6. Changes in the protein patterns in pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots under the influence of long- and short-term chilling stress and post-stress recovery.

    PubMed

    Badowiec, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Weidner, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Amongst many factors restricting geographical distribution of plants and crop productivity, low temperature is one of the most important. To gain better understanding of the molecular response of germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) to low temperature, we investigated the influence of long and short chilling stress as well as post-stress recovery on the alterations in the root proteomes. The impact of long stress was examined on the pea seeds germinating in the continuous chilling conditions of 10 °C for 8 days (LS). To examine the impact of short stress, pea seeds germinating for 72 h in the optimal temperature of 20 °C were subjected to 24-h chilling (SS). Additionally, both stress treatments were followed by 24 h of recovery in the optimal conditions (accordingly LSR and SR). Using the 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS protein identification, it was revealed, that most of the proteins undergoing regulation under the applied conditions were implicated in metabolism, protection against stress, cell cycle regulation, cell structure maintenance and hormone synthesis, which altogether may influence root growth and development in the early stages of plant life. The obtained results have shown that most of detected alterations in the proteome patterns of pea roots are dependent on stress duration. However, there are some analogical response pathways which are triggered regardless of stress length. The functions of proteins which accumulation has been changed by chilling stress and post-stress recovery are discussed here in relation to their impact on pea roots development.

  7. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ismail, I M; Basahi, J M; Hassan, I A

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009-2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O3) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. PN of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O3. The maximum impairment in PN was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O3 levels were recorded (90 nL L(-1)). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between PN and Ci, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The PN vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively.

  8. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl broilers fed micronized-dehulled pea (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Nahashon, S N; Tufarelli, V

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with dehulled-micronized peas (Pisum sativum) in diets of guinea fowl broilers on their growth performance, carcass yields, and fatty acid composition of meat. One hundred forty 1-d-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments, which were fed from hatch to 12 wk. The birds were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets comprising a control diet, which contained SBM (78 g/kg) and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized peas (180 g/kg) as the main protein source. The substitution of SBM with peas had no adverse effect on growth performance, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscle relative weights of the guinea broilers. However, a reduction of abdominal fat content (P < 0.05) was observed in birds fed the pea diet compared with the control. Breast and thigh meat of birds fed the pea diet had higher lightness scores (P < 0.05) and water-holding capacity (P < 0.01) than the control. Meat from guinea fowls fed the pea diet had less cholesterol (P < 0.01) and lipids (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of phospholipids (P < 0.05). Feeding peas increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in breast and thigh muscles, and decreased the saturated fatty acid concentration. Feeding the pea diet also lowered the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of the guinea broiler muscles. Our results suggest that replacing the conventional SBM as the protein source with dehulled-micronized pea meal in diets of guinea fowls broilers can improve carcass quality and favorable lipid profile without adversely affecting growth performance traits.

  9. Transport of Benzyladenine and Gibberellin A1 from Roots in Relation to the Dominance between the Axillary Buds of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Procházka, Stanislav; Jacobs, William P.

    1984-01-01

    In etiolated, 5-day-old pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings a significantly more intensive growth of buds situated in the axil of the excised cotyledons was observed as early as 4 hours after decapitation and excision of one cotyledon of each pair. If [8-14C]benzyladenine ([14C]BA) was applied to roots of intact plants 10 hours prior to such decapitation and excision, significantly higher both total and specific 14C activities were observed in buds situated on the side of the excised cotyledons as early as 4 hours after decapitation and excision. Although the removal of a substantial part of the root system carried out simultaneously with decapitation and excision of one cotyledon resulted in a decrease in total 14C activity of buds, nevertheless a higher accumulation of 14C activity was maintained in buds situated on the side of excised cotyledon. If [14C]BA was applied to roots of seedlings after they were decapitated and deprived of one cotyledon, both total and specific 14C activities of buds situated on the side of excised cotyledons were significantly higher as early as the end of uptake of [14C]BA by roots, i.e. after 10 hours. On the other hand, [1,2-3H]gibberellin A1 applied to roots of intact and/or decapitated and one-cotyledon-deprived seedlings in the same way as [14C]BA did not appear in the buds until very much later and only in negligible amounts (i.e.3H activity). This indicates that the release of buds from apical dominance represents an active and selective process which can result from the ability of buds to utilize and/or synthesize only certain growth substances within a certain time interval. PMID:16663803

  10. Multiple impacts of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 on nutrient and ABA relations of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Ian C.

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the physiological mechanisms by which rhizobacteria enhance plant growth is difficult, since many such bacteria contain multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To understand further how the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (ACCd)-containing rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 affects plant growth, the flows and partitioning of mineral nutrients and abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolism were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) plants following rhizosphere bacterial inoculation. Although root architecture was not affected, inoculation increased root and shoot biomass, and stomatal conductance, by 20, 15, and 24%, respectively, and increased N, P, K, Ca, and Mg uptake by 16, 81, 50, 46, and 58%, respectively. P deposition in inoculated plant roots was 4.9 times higher than that in uninoculated controls. Rhizobacterial inoculation increased root to shoot xylem flows and shoot to root phloem flows of K by 1.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively. In control plants, major sinks for K deposition were the roots and upper shoot (43% and 49% of total uptake, respectively), while rhizobacterial inoculation increased K distribution to the lower shoot at the expense of other compartments (xylem, phloem, and upper shoot). Despite being unable to metabolize ABA in vitro, V. paradoxus 5C-2 decreased root ABA concentrations and accumulation by 40–60%. Although inoculation decreased xylem ABA flows, phloem ABA flows increased. Whether bacterial ACCd attenuates root to shoot ABA signalling requires further investigation, since ABA is critical to maintain growth of droughted plants, and ACCd-containing organisms have been advocated as a means of minimizing growth inhibition of plants in drying soil. PMID:23136167

  11. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area. PMID:27148177

  12. Studies on the Control of Ascochyta Blight in Field Peas (Pisum sativum L.) Caused by Ascochyta pinodes in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xu, Shengchun; Yao, Xiefeng; Zhang, Guwen; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Feng, Zhijuan; Gong, Yaming

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta blight, an infection caused by a complex of Ascochyta pinodes, Ascochyta pinodella, Ascochyta pisi, and/or Phoma koolunga, is a destructive disease in many field peas (Pisum sativum L.)-growing regions, and it causes significant losses in grain yield. To understand the composition of fungi associated with this disease in Zhejiang Province, China, a total of 65 single-pycnidiospore fungal isolates were obtained from diseased pea samples collected from 5 locations in this region. These isolates were identified as Ascochyta pinodes by molecular techniques and their morphological and physiological characteristics. The mycelia of ZJ-1 could penetrate pea leaves across the stomas, and formed specific penetration structures and directly pierced leaves. The resistance level of 23 available pea cultivars was tested against their representative isolate A. pinodes ZJ-1 using the excised leaf-assay technique. The ZJ-1 mycelia could penetrate the leaves of all tested cultivars, and they developed typical symptoms, which suggested that all tested cultivars were susceptible to the fungus. Chemical fungicides and biological control agents were screened for management of this disease, and their efficacies were further determined. Most of the tested fungicides (11 out of 14) showed high activity toward ZJ-1 with EC50 < 5 μg/mL. Moreover, fungicides, including tebuconazole, boscalid, iprodione, carbendazim, and fludioxonil, displayed more than 80% disease control efficacy under the recorded conditions. Three biocontrol strains of Bacillus sp. and one of Pantoea agglomerans were isolated from pea-related niches and significantly reduced the severity of disease under greenhouse and field conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ascochyta blight in field peas, and results presented here will be useful for controlling the disease in this area.

  13. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea.

  14. Pyrabactin, an ABA agonist, induced stomatal closure and changes in signalling components of guard cells in abaxial epidermis of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Puli, Mallikarjuna Rao; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2012-02-01

    Pyrabactin, a synthetic agonist of abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination and hypocotyl growth and stimulates gene expression in a very similar way to ABA, implying the possible modulation of stomatal function by pyrabactin as well. The effect of pyrabactin on stomatal closure and secondary messengers was therefore studied in guard cells of Pisum sativum abaxial epidermis. Pyrabactin caused marked stomatal closure in a pattern similar to ABA. In addition, pyrabactin elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and cytoplasmic pH levels in guard cells, as indicated by the respective fluorophores. However, apyrabactin, an inactive analogue of ABA, did not affect either stomatal closure or the signalling components of guard cells. The effects of pyrabactin-induced changes were reversed by pharmalogical compounds that modulate ROS, NO or cytoplasmic pH levels, quite similar to ABA effects. Fusicoccin, a fungal toxin, could reverse the stomatal closure caused by pyrabactin, as well as that caused by ABA. Experiments on stomatal closure by varying concentrations of ABA, in the presence of fixed concentration of pyrabactin, and vice versa, revealed that the actions of ABA and pyrabactin were additive. Further kinetic analysis of data revealed that the apparent K(D) of ABA was increased almost 4-fold in the presence of ABA, suggesting that pyrabactin and ABA were competing with each other either at the same site or close to the active site. It is proposed that pyrabactin could be used to examine the ABA-related signal-transduction components in stomatal guard cells as well as in other plant tissues. It is also suggested that pyrabactin can be used as an antitranspirant or as a priming agent for improving the drought tolerance of crop plants.

  15. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    The effective use of airborne and satellite-based remote sensor systems in resource management, agriculture, mineral exploration and environmental monitoring requires an understanding of the nature and limitations of the high-resolution remote sensing data and of various strategies for processing and interpreting it. In developing the necessary knowledge base, ground-based measurements are the expedient source of information. In this study, remote sensing techniques were applied in laboratory for detection of the influence of herbicides 2.4-D, glyphosate, fluridone and acifluorfen on the leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). According to the classification of the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee with reference to their mode of action they belong to different groups: synthetic auxins - O (2.4-D), inhibition of EPSP synthase - G (glyphosate), photobleaching - F1 (fluridone), and inhibition of PPO - E (acifluorfen). During the last 40 years, these herbicides are among the ones used most widely in agriculture worldwide. The plants studied were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber in a nutritious medium to which every herbicide was added at two low concentrations (1 µM, 0.1 µM) with respect to the field dose applied in the agricultural practice. High-resolution spectral data for leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence were collected from freshly detached leaves using three multichannel spectrometers. Spectral reflectance characteristics were obtained from the leaf reflectance referenced against a standard (white diffuse screen) in the visible and near infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum (450÷850 nm). Fluorescence spectra were taken in the spectral range 650-850 nm. To assess the changes arising in leaf spectral reflectance under the herbicide action we developed and applied an analytical approach based on discriminant analysis and other statistical methods. The spectral characteristics were analyzed in

  16. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (P<0.05) ratios of amide I to II peak height (1.698 vs. 1.805) and area (1.843 vs. 2.017). A significant correlation was observed between the amide I and II peak height (r=0.48) and peak area (r=-0.42) ratio with protein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (P<0.05) α-helix:β-sheet ratio (1.015 vs. 0.926), indicating varietal difference in protein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (P<0.05) increase being observed with roasting and microwaving. The heat-induced changes in α-helix:β-sheet ratio was strongly correlated to intestinal digestibility of protein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas.

  17. cDNA cloning, primary structure and gene expression for H-protein, a component of the glycine-cleavage system (glycine decarboxylase) of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Macherel, D; Lebrun, M; Gagnon, J; Neuburger, M; Douce, R

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding the H-protein of the glycine-cleavage system of pea (Pisum sativum) leaf mitochondria. The deduced primary structure revealed that the 131-amino-acid polypeptide is cytoplasmically synthesized with a 34-amino-acid mitochondrial targeting peptide. The lipoate-binding site was assigned to be lysine-63, as deduced from a sequence comparison with several lipoate-bearing proteins. The expression of the gene encoding H-protein was shown to occur specifically in the leaf tissue, with light exerting an additional effect by increasing the mRNA levels severalfold. Two polyadenylation sites were found in the mRNA, and a single-copy gene encoding the H-protein was detected in pea genome. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:2363710

  18. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    PubMed

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  19. Accumulation of Phosphorus-Containing Compounds in Developing Seeds of Low-Phytate Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Shunmugam, Arun S.K.; Bock, Cheryl; Arganosa, Gene C.; Georges, Fawzy; Gray, Gordon R.; Warkentin, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Low phytic acid (lpa) crops are low in phytic acid and high in inorganic phosphorus (Pi). In this study, two lpa pea genotypes, 1-150-81, 1-2347-144, and their progenitor CDC Bronco were grown in field trials for two years. The lpa genotypes were lower in IP6 and higher in Pi when compared to CDC Bronco. The total P concentration was similar in lpa genotypes and CDC Bronco throughout the seed development. The action of myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) (EC 5.5.1.4) is the first and rate-limiting step in the phytic acid biosynthesis pathway. Aiming at understanding the genetic basis of the lpa mutation in the pea, a 1530 bp open reading frame of MIPS was amplified from CDC Bronco and the lpa genotypes. Sequencing results showed no difference in coding sequence in MIPS between CDC Bronco and lpa genotypes. Transcription levels of MIPS were relatively lower at 49 days after flowering (DAF) than at 14 DAF for CDC Bronco and lpa lines. This study elucidated the rate and accumulation of phosphorus compounds in lpa genotypes. The data also demonstrated that mutation in MIPS was not responsible for the lpa trait in these pea lines. PMID:27135314

  20. Osmotic adjustment and the growth response of seven vegetable crops following water-deficit stress. [Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Abelmoschus esculentus; Pisum sativum L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Spinacia oleracea L. ; Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, S.D. ); Oosterhuis, D.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops- Blue Lake beam (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Detroit Dark Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Burgundy okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (Moench), Little Marvel pea (Pisum sativum L), California Wonder bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L), New Zealand spinach (Spinacia oleracea L), and Beefsteak tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance among the species studied reductions in lead water potential an stomatal conductance among the species, crop-specific differences were observed in leak and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

  1. Functional expression of a cDNA encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) raffinose synthase, partial purification of the enzyme from maturing seeds, and steady-state kinetic analysis of raffinose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Mach, Lukas; Mucha, Jan; Richter, Andreas

    2002-09-01

    Raffinose (O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl-(1<-->2)- O-beta- D-fructofuranoside) is a widespread oligosaccharide in plant seeds and other tissues. Raffinose synthase (EC 2.4.1.82) is the key enzyme that channels sucrose into the raffinose oligosaccharide pathway. We here report on the isolation of a cDNA encoding for raffinose synthase from maturing pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds. The coding region of the cDNA was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 insect cells. The recombinant enzyme, a protein of glycoside hydrolase family 36, displayed similar kinetic properties to raffinose synthase partially purified from maturing seeds by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Apart from the natural galactosyl donor galactinol ( O-alpha- D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->1)- L- myo-inositol), p-nitrophenyl alpha- D-galactopyranoside, an artificial substrate, was utilized as a galactosyl donor. An equilibrium constant of 4.1 was determined for the galactosyl transfer reaction from galactinol to sucrose. Steady-state kinetic analysis suggested that raffinose synthase is a transglycosidase operating by a ping-pong reaction mechanism and may also act as a glycoside hydrolase. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, a potent inhibitor for alpha-galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22). The physiological implications of these observations are discussed.

  2. Response to water deficit and high temperature of transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) containing a seed-specific alpha-amylase inhibitor and the subsequent effects on pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.) survival.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Majer, Maria José de; Turner, Neil C; Hardie, Darryl C; Morton, Roger L; Lamont, Byron; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2004-02-01

    The effects of water deficit and high temperature on the production of alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 (alpha-AI-1) were studied in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum L.) that were developed to control the seed-feeding pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Transgenic and non-transgenic plants were subjected to water-deficit and high-temperature treatments under controlled conditions in the glasshouse and growth cabinet, beginning 1 week after the first pods were formed. In the water-deficit treatments, the peas were either adequately watered (control) or water was withheld after first pod formation. The high-temperature experiments were performed in two growth cabinets, one maintained at 27/22 degrees C (control) and one at 32/27 degrees C day/night temperatures, with the vapour pressure deficit maintained at 1.3 kPa. The plants exposure to high temperatures and water deficit produced 27% and 79% fewer seeds, respectively, than the controls. In the transgenic peas the level of alpha-AI-1 as a percentage of total protein was not influenced by water stress, but was reduced on average by 36.3% (the range in two experiments was 11-50%) in the high-temperature treatment. Transgenic and non-transgenic pods of plants grown at 27/22 degrees C and 32/27 degrees C were inoculated with pea weevil eggs to evaluate whether the reduction in level of alpha-AI-1 in the transgenic pea seeds affected pea weevil development and survival. At the higher temperatures, 39% of adult pea weevil emerged, compared to 1.2% in the transgenic peas grown at the lower temperatures, indicating that high temperature reduced the protective capacity of the transgenic peas.

  3. [Molecular genetic diversity of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) from the collection of N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry as detected by AFLP analysis].

    PubMed

    D'iachenko, E A; Ryzhova, N N; Vishniakova, M A; Kochieva, E Z

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a pea selection obtained from the Vavilov Research Institute collection comprising 83 P. sativum samples, including representatives of three subspecies, was studied using the ?FL? labeling method. Local cultivars for different uses with maximum ecological and geographical diversity (including those from the centers of origin of the species) were predominantly chosen for the study; a number of their morphological and biological characteristics were evaluated. We obtained 382 polymorphic AFLP fragments; each sample was characterized by a unique set of these fragments. The genetic diversity of the studied material was evaluated, and a wide range of genetic differences in the investigated samples (0.07-0.27) was demonstrated. The affiliation of the samples to the certain subspecies was not confirmed by the obtained data; the ecogeographical differentiation of the samples was not reflected by the data. Factor analysis allowed us to identify the sample groups of European and Asian origin and the intermediate nature of most of the samples from the studied selection. PMID:25735134

  4. Hormone interactions and regulation of Unifoliata, PsPK2, PsPIN1 and LE gene expression in pea (Pisum sativum) shoot tips.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; DeMason, Darleen A

    2006-07-01

    The Unifoliata (Uni) gene plays a major role in development of the compound leaf in pea, but its regulation is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of plant hormones on the expression of Uni, PsPK2 (the gene for a pea homolog of Arabidopsis PID, a regulator of PIN1 targeting), PsPIN1 (the major gene for a putative auxin efflux carrier) and LE (a gibberellin biosynthesis gene, GA3ox), and also examined mutual hormonal regulation of these genes, in pea shoot tips, including a number of mutants. The Uni promoter possessed putative auxin and gibberellin response elements. The PsPIN1 mRNA levels were increased in afila, which replaces leaflets with branched tendrils; and reduced in tendrilless, which replaces tendrils with leaflets, compared with the wild type (WT). In contrast, mRNA levels of LE were increased in uni and tendrilless and decreased in afila compared with the WT. Uni, PsPK2 and PsPIN1 are positively regulated by gibberellin and auxin, and were induced to higher levels by simultaneous application of auxin and gibberellin. Auxin induction of Uni, PsPK2 and PsPIN1 did not require de novo protein synthesis. LE was positively regulated by auxin and cytokinin. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that auxin and gibberellin positively regulate Uni, which controls pea compound leaf development. Also, Uni, PsPIN1, PsPK2 and LE are expressed differentially in the leaf mutants, suggesting that mutual regulation by auxin and gibberellin promotes compound leaf development. PMID:16760220

  5. Biological safety assessment of mutant variant of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a novel antifungal protein for future transgenic application.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwi; Roy, Amit; Chakraborty, Joydeep; Das, Sampa

    2013-12-01

    Genetic engineering has established itself to be an important tool for crop improvement. Despite the success, there is always a risk of food allergy induced by alien gene products. The present study assessed the biosafety of mutant Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (mASAL), a potent antifungal protein generated by site directed mutagenesis of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL). mASAL was cloned in pET28a+ and expressed in E. coli, and the safety assessment was carried out according to the FAO/WHO guideline (2001). Bioinformatics analysis, pepsin digestion, and thermal stability assay showed the protein to be nonallergenic. Targeted sera screening revealed no significant IgE affinity of mASAL. Furthermore, mASAL sensitized Balb/c mice showed normal histopathology of lung and gut tissue. All results indicated the least possibility of mASAL being an allergen. Thus, mASAL appears to be a promising antifungal candidate protein suitable for agronomical biotechnology.

  6. Biochemical responses to Fe deficiency in Pisum sativum L., cv. Sparkle and dgl mutant: Is the PM H+-ATPase the sole activity involved in H+ extrusion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of processes regulating Fe acquisition by plants provides useful knowledge for breeding programs aimed to obtain Fe-efficient and/or biofortified varieties. In fact, total Fe uptake is an important, though not sufficient prerequisite to increase Fe density in plant tissues. Like the majori...

  7. The anti-proliferative effect of TI1B, a major Bowman-Birk isoinhibitor from pea (Pisum sativum L.), on HT29 colon cancer cells is mediated through protease inhibition.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Alfonso; Carmen Marín-Manzano, M; Jiménez, Elisabeth; Carmen Arques, M; Domoney, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) from legumes, such as soyabean, pea, lentil and chickpea, are naturally occurring plant protease inhibitors which have potential health-promoting properties within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. BBI can survive both acidic conditions and the action of proteolytic enzymes within the stomach and small intestine, permitting significant amounts to reach the large intestine in active form to exert their reported anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In a previous study, we reported the ability of a recombinant form of TI1B (rTI1B), representing a major BBI isoinhibitor from pea, to influence negatively the growth of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigate if this effect is related directly to the intrinsic ability of BBI to inhibit serine proteases. rTI1B and a novel engineered mutant, having amino acid substitutions at the P1 positions in the two inhibitory domains, were expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rTI1B proved to be active against trypsin and chymotrypsin, showing K i values at nanomolar concentrations, whereas the related mutant protein was inactive against both serine proteases. The proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells was significantly affected by rTI1B in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 31 (sd 7) μm), whereas the inactive mutant did not show any significant effect on colon cancer cell growth. In addition, neither recombinant protein affected the growth of non-malignant colonic fibroblast CCD-18Co cells. These findings suggest that serine proteases should be considered as important targets in investigating the potential chemopreventive role of BBI during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:22916809

  8. The genetic diversity and evolution of field pea (Pisum) studied by high throughput retrotransposon based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) marker analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    pools into which the genus Pisum is partitioned and their geographical distribution. The data strongly support the model of independent domestications for P. sativum ssp abyssinicum and P. sativum. The relationships between these two cultivated germplasms and the various sub-divisions of wild Pisum have been clarified and the most likely ancestral wild gene pools for domesticated P. sativum identified. Lastly, this study provides a framework for defining global Pisum germplasm which will be useful for designing core collections. PMID:20156342

  9. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  10. Genetic analysis of pod dehiscence in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Weeden, Norman F; Brauner, Soren; Przyborowski, Jerzy A

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the dehiscent pod character was investigated in two recombinant inbred populations using a simplified correlation analysis. The approach identified three regions on the pea genome that affect the expression of pod dehiscence. The region on linkage group III corresponded to the expected position of Dpo, a gene known to influence pod dehiscence. A locus on linkage group V appeared to have a slightly smaller effect on expression of the phenotype. The third region was observed only in one cross, had a greater effect than Dpo, and was postulated to be yellow pod allele at the Gp locus

  11. New lv Mutants of Pea Are Deficient in Phytochrome B.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, J. L.; Nagatani, A.; Kendrick, R. E.; Murfet, I. C.; Reid, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The lv-1 mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is deficient in responses regulated by phytochrome B (phyB) in other species but has normal levels of spectrally active phyB. We have characterized three further lv mutants (lv-2, lv-3, and lv-4), which are all elongated under red (R) and white light but are indistinguishable from wild type under far-red light. The phyB apoprotein present in the lv-1 mutant was undetectable in all three new lv mutants. The identification of allelic mutants with and without phyB apoprotein suggests that Lv may be a structural gene for a B-type phytochrome. Furthermore, it indicates that the lv-1 mutation results specifically in the loss of normal biological activity of this phytochrome. Red-light-pulse and fluence-rate-response experiments suggest that lv plants are deficient in the low-fluence response (LFR) but retain a normal very-low-fluence-rate-dependent response for leaflet expansion and inhibition of stem elongation. Comparison of lv alleles of differing severity indicates that the LFR for stem elongation can be mediated by a lower level of phyB than the LFR for leaflet expansion. The retention of a strong response to continuous low-fluence-rate R in all four lv mutants suggests that there may be an additional phytochrome controlling responses to R in pea. The kinetics of phytochrome destruction and reaccumulation in the lv mutant indicate that phyB may be involved in the light regulation of phyA levels. PMID:12228490

  12. Chromosome aberration assays in Pisum for the study of environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Grant, W F; Owens, E T

    2001-05-01

    From a literature survey, 117 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 179 assays for their clastogenic effects in Pisum. Of the 117 chemicals that have been assayed, 65 are reported at giving a positive reaction (i.e. causing chromosome aberrations), 30 positive with a dose response, five borderline positive. Seventeen chemicals gave a negative response. Eighty-one percent of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. A c-mitotic effect was detected from treatment with 17 chemicals. In addition to the above tabulation of chemicals, 39 chemicals have been reported with an antimitotic effect. Thirteen assays have been recorded for five types of radiation, which with the exception of ultrasound reacted positively. The results of assays with 38 chemicals and/or radiations in combined treatments, as well as 15 chemicals and three types of radiations that induce somatic mutations are tabulated. The Pisum sativum (2n=14) bioassay has been shown to be a very good plant bioassay for assessing chromosome damage both in mitosis and meiosis for somatic mutations induced by chemicals, radiations, and environmental pollutants. For some chemicals, the Pisum assay is not as sensitive in assessing clastogenicity as the Allium assay, although this should be considered in relative terms. Pisum fulvum (2n=14) has been used in clastogenic studies also, but to a much lesser extent.

  13. Chromosome aberration assays in Pisum for the study of environmental mutagens.

    PubMed

    Grant, W F; Owens, E T

    2001-05-01

    From a literature survey, 117 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 179 assays for their clastogenic effects in Pisum. Of the 117 chemicals that have been assayed, 65 are reported at giving a positive reaction (i.e. causing chromosome aberrations), 30 positive with a dose response, five borderline positive. Seventeen chemicals gave a negative response. Eighty-one percent of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. A c-mitotic effect was detected from treatment with 17 chemicals. In addition to the above tabulation of chemicals, 39 chemicals have been reported with an antimitotic effect. Thirteen assays have been recorded for five types of radiation, which with the exception of ultrasound reacted positively. The results of assays with 38 chemicals and/or radiations in combined treatments, as well as 15 chemicals and three types of radiations that induce somatic mutations are tabulated. The Pisum sativum (2n=14) bioassay has been shown to be a very good plant bioassay for assessing chromosome damage both in mitosis and meiosis for somatic mutations induced by chemicals, radiations, and environmental pollutants. For some chemicals, the Pisum assay is not as sensitive in assessing clastogenicity as the Allium assay, although this should be considered in relative terms. Pisum fulvum (2n=14) has been used in clastogenic studies also, but to a much lesser extent. PMID:11344039

  14. The Temperature Response and Aggressiveness of Peyronellaea pinodes Isolates Originating from Wild and Domesticated Pisum sp. in Israel.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Abbo, S; Sherman, A; Frenkel, O; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Domesticated pea fields are grown in relatively close proximity to wild pea species in Israel. Despite the major role attributed to ascochyta blight in causing yield losses in domesticated pea, very limited information is available on the pathogens prevailing in natural ecosystems. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species causing ascochyta blight symptoms on leaves, stems, and petioles of domesticated pea and wild Pisum plants in Israel, and (ii) to quantify the temperature response(s) and aggressiveness of such pathogens originating from Pisum plants growing in sympatric and allopatric contexts. Eighteen fungal isolates were examined and identified; three of them were sampled from Pisum sativum, 11 from Pisum fulvum, and four from Pisum elatius. All isolates were identified as Peyronellaea pinodes. Spore germination and mycelial growth took place over a wide range of temperatures, the lower and upper cardinal temperatures being 2 to 9 and 33 to 38°C, respectively; the optimal temperatures ranged from 22 to 26°C. At an optimal temperature, disease severity was significantly higher for plants maintained under moist conditions for 24 h postinoculation than for those exposed to humidity for 5 or 10 h. Analyses of the data revealed that temperature responses, spore germination rates, and aggressiveness of isolates sampled from domesticated pea plants did not differ from those of isolates sampled from adjacent or distant wild populations. Host specificity was not observed. These observations suggest that Israel may be inhabited by a single metapopulation of P. pinodes. PMID:27050578

  15. The Temperature Response and Aggressiveness of Peyronellaea pinodes Isolates Originating from Wild and Domesticated Pisum sp. in Israel.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Abbo, S; Sherman, A; Frenkel, O; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Domesticated pea fields are grown in relatively close proximity to wild pea species in Israel. Despite the major role attributed to ascochyta blight in causing yield losses in domesticated pea, very limited information is available on the pathogens prevailing in natural ecosystems. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species causing ascochyta blight symptoms on leaves, stems, and petioles of domesticated pea and wild Pisum plants in Israel, and (ii) to quantify the temperature response(s) and aggressiveness of such pathogens originating from Pisum plants growing in sympatric and allopatric contexts. Eighteen fungal isolates were examined and identified; three of them were sampled from Pisum sativum, 11 from Pisum fulvum, and four from Pisum elatius. All isolates were identified as Peyronellaea pinodes. Spore germination and mycelial growth took place over a wide range of temperatures, the lower and upper cardinal temperatures being 2 to 9 and 33 to 38°C, respectively; the optimal temperatures ranged from 22 to 26°C. At an optimal temperature, disease severity was significantly higher for plants maintained under moist conditions for 24 h postinoculation than for those exposed to humidity for 5 or 10 h. Analyses of the data revealed that temperature responses, spore germination rates, and aggressiveness of isolates sampled from domesticated pea plants did not differ from those of isolates sampled from adjacent or distant wild populations. Host specificity was not observed. These observations suggest that Israel may be inhabited by a single metapopulation of P. pinodes.

  16. Conditional Facilitation of an Aphid Vector, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the Plant Pathogen, Pea Enation Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Simon; Powell, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogens can induce symptoms that affect the performance of insect herbivores utilizing the same host plant. Previous studies examining the effects of infection of tic bean, Vicia faba L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), by pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), an important disease of legume crops, indicated there were no changes in the growth and reproductive rate of its primary vector the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments investigating how A. pisum responded to PEMV infection of a different host plant, Pisum sativum L., at different stages of symptom development. Aphid growth rate was negatively related to the age of the host plant, but when they were introduced onto older plants with well-developed PEMV symptoms they exhibited a higher growth rate compared to those developing on uninfected plants of the same age. In choice tests using leaf discs A. pisum showed a strong preference for discs from PEMV-infected peas, probably in response to visual cues from the yellowed and mottled infected leaves. When adults were crowded onto leaves using clip-cages they produced more winged progeny on PEMV-infected plants. The results indicate that PEMV produces symptoms in the host plant that can enhance the performance of A. pisum as a vector, modify the production of winged progeny and affect their spatial distribution. The findings provide further evidence that some insect vector/plant pathogen interactions could be regarded as mutualistic rather than commensal when certain conditions regarding the age, stage of infection and species of host plant are met. PMID:21067425

  17. Brassinosteroid Deficiency Due to Truncated Steroid 5α-Reductase Causes Dwarfism in the lk Mutant of Pea1

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Takahito; Jager, Corinne E.; Kitasaka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Keiichi; Fukami, Motohiro; Yoneyama, Koichi; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi; Takatsuto, Suguru; Fujioka, Shozo; Smith, Jennifer J.; Kerckhoffs, L. Huub J.; Reid, James B.; Yokota, Takao

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous brassinosteroids in the dwarf mutant lk of pea (Pisum sativum) were quantified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. The levels of castasterone, 6-deoxocastasterone, and 6-deoxotyphasterol in lk shoots were reduced 4-, 70-, and 6-fold, respectively, compared with those of the wild type. The fact that the application of brassinolide restored the growth of the mutant indicated that the dwarf mutant lk is brassinosteroid deficient. Gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring analysis of the endogenous sterols in lk shoots revealed that the levels of campestanol and sitostanol were reduced 160- and 10-fold, respectively, compared with those of wild-type plants. These data, along with metabolic studies, showed that the lk mutant has a defect in the conversion of campest-4-en-3-one to 5α-campestan-3-one, which is a key hydrogenation step in the synthesis of campestanol from campesterol. This defect is the same as that found in the Arabidopsis det2 mutant and the Ipomoea nil kbt mutant. The pea gene homologous to the DET2 gene, PsDET2, was cloned, and it was found that the lk mutation would result in a putative truncated PsDET2 protein. Thus it was concluded that the short stature of the lk mutant is due to a defect in the steroidal 5α-reductase gene. This defect was also observed in the callus induced from the lk mutant. Biosynthetic pathways involved in the conversion of campesterol to campestanol are discussed in detail. PMID:15286289

  18. Oxidative stress in pea seedling leaves in response to Acyrthosiphon pisum infestation.

    PubMed

    Mai, Van Chung; Bednarski, Waldemar; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Wilkaniec, Barbara; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examined whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in seedling leaves of Pisum sativum L. cv. Cysterski in response to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) infestation. A. pisum caused oxidative stress conditions in pea leaves through enhanced production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(·-)). Early, strong generation of H2O2 was observed at 24h in aphid-infested leaves. The highest level of H2O2 at this time point may be related to the functioning of H2O2 as a signaling molecule, triggering defense mechanisms in pea leaves against A. pisum. Additionally, the strong generation and continuous increase of O2(·-) production in aphid-infested leaves from 0 to 96 h enhanced the defense potential to protect against aphid herbivory. Also in the study cytochemical localization of H2O2 and O2(·-) in pea leaves after aphid infestation was determined using the confocal microscope. Relative release of H2O2 and O2(·-) was estimated by staining leaves with specific fluorochromes, i.e. dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE), respectively. DCFH-DA and DHE derived fluorescence was observed to cover a much larger tissue area in aphid-infested leaves, whereas little or no fluorescence was observed in the control leaves. Enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, 1.11.1.6) is one of the most essential elements of defense responses in pea seedling leaves to oxidative stress. Additionally, generation of semiquinones, stable free radicals with g-values of 2.0020 and 2.0035, detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), was suggested as a protective action of pea that may contribute to build-up of a defensive barrier or activate other defense mechanisms. Concentrations of semiquinone radicals in aphid-infested seedling leaves not only were generally higher than in the control plants

  19. Characterization of three PDI-like genes in Physcomitrella patens and construction of knock-out mutants.

    PubMed

    Meiri, E; Levitan, A; Guo, F; Christopher, D A; Schaefer, D; Zrÿd, J-P; Danon, A

    2002-04-01

    Plant genomes typically contain several sequences homologous to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDI was first identified as an abundant enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it catalyzes the formation, reduction, and isomerization of disulfide bonds during protein folding. PDI-like proteins have also been implicated in a variety of other functions, such as the regulation of cell adhesion, and may act as elicitors of the autoimmune response in mammals. A PDI-like protein (RB60) was recently shown to be imported into chloroplasts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a higher plant, Pisum sativum, where it associates with thylakoid membranes. This suggests that the different PDI-like proteins in plant and animals may have diverse biological roles. To begin to elucidate the roles of PDI-like proteins, we have cloned, characterized, and generated knock-out mutants for three PDI-like genes that have high, medium, and low levels of expression, respectively, in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the three PDI-like proteins cluster with RB60 and four proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. They are typified by an N-terminal domain rich in negatively charged residues. The knock-out mutants, which are the first knock-outs available for PDI-like proteins in a multicellular organism, were found to be viable, indicating that the function of each single gene is dispensable, and suggesting that they may be functionally complementary.

  20. Symbiotic Activity of Pea (Pisum sativum) after Application of Nod Factors under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10−11 M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions. PMID:24786094

  1. S-Nitrosylated proteins in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf peroxisomes: changes under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Galisteo, Ana P.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Pazmiño, Diana M.; Gupta, Dharmendra K.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes, single-membrane-bounded organelles with essentially oxidative metabolism, are key in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Recently, the presence of nitric oxide (NO) described in peroxisomes opened the possibility of new cellular functions, as NO regulates diverse biological processes by directly modifying proteins. However, this mechanism has not yet been analysed in peroxisomes. This study assessed the presence of S-nitrosylation in pea-leaf peroxisomes, purified S-nitrosylated peroxisome proteins by immunoprecipitation, and identified the purified proteins by two different mass-spectrometry techniques (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight and two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry). Six peroxisomal proteins were identified as putative targets of S-nitrosylation involved in photorespiration, β-oxidation, and reactive oxygen species detoxification. The activity of three of these proteins (catalase, glycolate oxidase, and malate dehydrogenase) is inhibited by NO donors. NO metabolism/S-nitrosylation and peroxisomes were analysed under two different types of abiotic stress, i.e. cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Both types of stress reduced NO production in pea plants, and an increase in S-nitrosylation was observed in pea extracts under 2,4-D treatment while no total changes were observed in peroxisomes. However, the S-nitrosylation levels of catalase and glycolate oxidase changed under cadmium and 2,4-D treatments, suggesting that this post-translational modification could be involved in the regulation of H2O2 level under abiotic stress. PMID:22213812

  2. Effect of exogenous flavonoids on nodulation of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Novák, K; Chovanec, P; Skrdleta, V; Kropácová, Martina; Lisá, Ludmila; Nemcová, Marie

    2002-08-01

    Selected flavonoids that are known as inducers and a suppressor of nodulation (nod) genes of the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae were tested for their effect on symbiosis formation with garden pea as the host. A solid substrate was omitted from the hydroponic growing system in order to prevent losses of flavonoids due to adsorption and degradation. The presumed interaction of the tested flavonoids with nod genes has been verified for the genetic background of strain 128C30. A stimulatory effect of a nod gene inducer naringenin on symbiotic nodule number formed per plant 14 d after inoculation was detected at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 micro g ml(-1) nutrient solution. At 10 micro g ml(-1), the highest concentration tested, naringenin was already inhibitory. By contrast, nodulation was negatively affected by a nod gene suppressor, quercetin, at concentrations above 1 micro g ml(-1), as well as by another tested nod gene inducer, hesperetin. The deleterious effect of hesperetin might be due to its toxicity or to the toxicity of its degradation product(s) as indicated by the inhibition of root growth. Both the stimulatory effect of naringenin and the inhibitory effect of quercetin on nodule number were more pronounced at earlier stages of nodule development as revealed with specific staining of initial nodules. The lessening of the flavonoid impact during nodule development was ascribed to the plant autoregulatory mechanisms. Feedback regulation of nodule metabolism might also be responsible for the fact that the naringenin-conditioned increase in nodule number was not accompanied by any increase in nitrogenase activity. By contrast, the inhibitory action of quercetin and hesperetin on nodule number was associated with decreases in total nitrogenase activity. Naringenin also stimulated root hair curling (RHC) as one of the earliest nodulation responses at concentrations of 1 and 10 microg ml(-1), however, the same effect was exerted by the nod gene suppressor, quercetin, suggesting that feedback regulatory mechanisms control RHC in the range of nodulation-inhibiting high flavonoid concentrations. The comparison of the effect of the tested flavonoids in planta with nod gene activity response showed a two orders of magnitude shift to higher concentrations. This shift is explained by the absorption and degradation of flavonoids by both the symbionts during 3 d intervals between hydroponic solution changes. The losses were 99, 96.4, and 90% of the initial concentration of 10 micro g ml(-1) for naringenin, hesperetin, and quercetin, respectively.

  3. The effect of UV-B radiation on chloroplast translation in Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, M.M.; Jagendorf, A.T. )

    1990-05-01

    UV-B radiation has previously been reported to reduce growth, flowering, and net photosynthesis. The present study examines the effect of UV-B radiation on isolated chloroplast of 7-10 day old pea seedlings. Amount of ({sup 3}H)-Leu incorporated into isolated chloroplasts was measured in the presence or absence of UV-B exposure. Preliminary experiments show a 30% inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts after only 20 mins of UV-B exposure (6.9 J/m{sup 2}/30 min). Percent inhibition of chloroplast translation is directly correlated with UV-B exposure over a 60 min time span. Preliminary studies also show no change in both cold and radiolabeled protein profiles as expressed on 1-D PAGE and autofluorography. Comparative studies on the sensitivity of e{sup {minus}} flow vs protein synthesis following UV-B exposure are underway. Further work on the role of oxygen free radicals and the specific site of action of UV-B damage to the translation machinery of chloroplasts will be discussed.

  4. Root antioxidant responses of two Pisum sativum cultivars to direct and induced Fe deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jelali, N; Donnini, S; Dell'Orto, M; Abdelly, C; Gharsalli, M; Zocchi, G

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of antioxidant defence systems in different tolerance to direct and bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency was evaluated in two pea cultivars (Kelvedon, tolerant and Lincoln, susceptible). Fe deficiency enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 concentration in roots of both cultivars, particularly in the sensitive one grown under bicarbonate supply. The results obtained on antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, POD) suggest that H2 O2 accumulation could be due to an overproduction of this ROS and, at the same time, to a poor capacity to detoxify it. Moreover, under bicarbonate supply the activity of POD isoforms was reduced only in the sensitive cultivar, while in the tolerant one a new isoform was detected, suggesting that POD activity might be an important contributor to pea tolerance to Fe deficiency. The presence of bicarbonate also resulted in stimulation of GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities, part of the ASC-GSH pathway, which was higher in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive one. Overall, while in the absence of Fe only slight differences were reported between the two cultivars, the adaptation of Kelvedon to the presence of bicarbonate seems to be related to its greater ability to enhance the antioxidant response at the root level.

  5. Identification of RAPD markers and their use for molecular mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Cheghamirza, Kianoosh; Koveza, Oksana; Konovalov, Fedor; Gostimsky, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    The RAPD method (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) was used for identifying and mapping new molecular markers in pea. RAPD analysis of various cultivars and lines of pea was carried out using 10-mer random primers. The presence of multiple polymorphism between cultivars and lines was revealed; at least one fragment for any given primer was present in the DNA of one form of pea and absent in the DNA of another line or cultivar. To detect molecular markers linked to the genes of chi-15, xa-18 and also to the 12 morphological markers of the L-1238 line, the F2 populations (Chi-15 ? L-1238), (Vio ? L-1238), (Xa-18 ? L-1238), (L-111 ? Chi-15) and (L-84 ? Xa-18) were studied via bulked segregant analysis. DNA molecular analysis of F1 hybrids revealed the presence of parental polymorphic fragments in all of the populations. The study of the F2 plants showed that the obtained fragments are inherited as Mendelian factors. 13 RAPD-markers linked to genes of A/a (flower color), I/i (seed color), Gp/gp (pod color), R/r (seed form), S/s (seeds linkage), and also to genes of Chi-15/chi-15 (leaf color) and Xa-18/xa-18 (leaf color) were discovered. The study of individual plant DNA from the F2 populations allowed us to determine the genetic distances between genes and the RAPD markers linked to them.

  6. Silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) alleviate chromium (VI) phytotoxicity in Pisum sativum (L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) against Cr (VI) phytotoxicity in pea seedlings. Results show that Cr(VI, 100 μM) significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth of pea which was accompanied by the enhanced level of Cr. Additionally, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters like F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ significantly (P < 0.05) increased under Cr(VI) treatment. Superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA-lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by Cr(VI). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased by Cr (VI) while activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05). Micro and macronutrients also show decreasing trends (except S) under Cr(VI) treatment. However, addition of SiNp together with Cr(VI) protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity hence improved growth was noticed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Cr(VI) causes negative impact on pea seedlings, however; SiNp protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity by reducing Cr accumulation and oxidative stress, and up-regulating antioxidant defense system and nutrient elements. PMID:26298805

  7. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  8. Extrachromosomal DNA and cell differentiation in cultured pea roots (Pisum sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1986-01-01

    Histological, cytological and molecular analyses of DNA replication and differentiation and meristematic precursors of vascular parenchyma in cultured pea roots show that the initial steps in the transition from a dividing to a differentiated cell involve retardation of DNA replication in late S phase and production of extrachromosomal molecules by excision from late replicating chromosomal DNA. Portions of the extrachromosomal DNA are displaced by a strand displacement mechanism thereby producing free single-stranded molecules. That extrachromosomal molecules have rDNA reflects the fact that in pea roots replication of the ribosomal genes is maximal during late S phase (unpublished results). It is likely, therefore, that the excised late replicating DNA contains some rDNA sequences. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  9. A rapid method to increase the number of F₁ plants in pea (Pisum sativum) breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Gatti, I; Cravero, V P; Anido, F S L; Cointry, E L

    2012-08-16

    In breeding programs, a large number of F₂ individuals are required to perform the selection process properly, but often few such plants are available. In order to obtain more F₂ seeds, it is necessary to multiply the F₁ plants. We developed a rapid, efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration and rooting of seeds using 6-benzylaminopurine. To optimize shoot regeneration, basic medium contained Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts with or without B5 Gamborg vitamins and different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (25, 50 and 75 μM) using five genotypes. We found that modified MS (B5 vitamins + 25 μM 6-benzylaminopurine) is suitable for in vitro shoot regeneration of pea. Thirty-eight hybrid combinations were transferred onto selected medium to produce shoots that were used for root induction on MS medium supplemented with α-naphthalene-acetic acid. Elongated shoots were developed from all hybrid genotypes. This procedure can be used in pea breeding programs and will allow working with a large number of plants even when the F₁ plants produce few seeds.

  10. Alterations in antioxidant metabolism and associated enzymes in pea (Pisum sativum) exposed to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Madamanchi, N.R.; Alscher, R.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The response of glutathione and ascorbate and the enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was studied in two cultivars of pea known to be differentially sensitive to SO{sub 2} (0.8 ppm). Total glutathione accumulated more rapidly on exposure to SO{sub 2} in insensitive cultivar Progress compared to the sensitive cultivar Nugget, confirming our previous results. However, corresponding changes in oxidized glutathione were not observed and ascorbate levels did not change over the course of the exposure. Changes in the activity of GR corresponded to the changes in total glutatione levels. Preliminary results indicate that SOD activity increased to a significantly higher extent in Progress than in Nugget. These data suggest a significant role for GR and possibly SOD in resistance to oxidative stress.

  11. Extrachromosomal DNA of pea (Pisum sativum) root-tip cells replicates by strand displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Krimer, D.B.; Van't Hof, J.

    1983-04-01

    In cultured pea roots there is extrachromosomal DNA associated with cells that differentiate from the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle that is absent from those that differentiate from the G/sub 1/ phase. The authors examined this extrachromosomal DNA by electron microscopy and found that it consisted of three types: (i) double-stranded linear molecules with single-stranded branches (74%), (ii) double-stranded molecules without branches (26%), and (iii) free single-stranded molecules. The double-stranded molecules with or without branches were similar in length, having a modal length of 10-15 ..mu..m. The free single-stranded molecules were shorter and had a mean length of 3.8 ..mu..m. The length of the branches attached to the duplex molecules was only slightly less than that of the free form. The duplex molecules with branches were interpreted as configurations reflecting an ongoing strand-displacement process that results in free single-stranded molecules. Finally, measurements on duplex molecules with multiple branches suggested that the extrachromosomal DNA may exist in the form of tandemly repeated sequences. 8 references, 8 figures.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of low-phytate peas (Pisum sativum L.) for young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Petri, Daniel; Warkentin, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This experiment determined the effects of including normal and low-phytate peas in diets fed to young broiler chickens on performance, phosphorus availability and bone strength. A total of 180, day-old, male broilers (Ross-308 line) were assigned to six treatments. The control was based on corn and soybean meal while two additional corn-based diets were formulated containing 30% of either normal or low-phytate pea providing 0.45% available phosphorus. For each of these three diets, a similar diet was formulated by reducing the amount of dicalcium phosphate to produce a diet with 0.3% available phosphorus. The total tract apparent availability (TTAA) of phosphorus was higher (p = 0.02) for broilers fed the low-phytate pea than for birds fed the normal pea diets. Birds fed diets containing the lower level of phosphorus had a higher TTAA of phosphorus (50.64 vs. 46.68%) than broilers fed diets adequate in phosphorus. Protein source had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Broilers fed the low phosphorus diets had lower weight gain (p = 0.04) and feed intake (p < 0.01) than broilers fed the higher phosphorus level. Bone strength was higher (p < 0.01) for broilers fed diets based on low-phytate pea than for those fed diets based on normal pea or soybean meal. Increasing the availability of the phosphorus in peas could mean that less inorganic phosphorus would be required in order to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers. Since inorganic phosphorus sources tend to be expensive, a reduction in their use would lower ration costs. In addition, increased availability of phosphorus would reduce the amount of phosphorus excreted thus reducing the amount of phosphorus that can potentially pollute the environment.

  13. Auxin regulation of a proton translocating ATPase in pea root plasma membrane vesicles. [Pisum sativum. L

    SciTech Connect

    Gabathuler, R.; Cleland, R.E.

    1985-12-01

    Pea root microsomal vesicles have been fractionated on a Dextran step gradient to give three fractions, each of which carries out ATP-dependent proton accumulation as measured by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The fraction at the 4/6% Dextran interface is enriched in plasma membrane, as determined by UDPG sterol glucosyltransferase and vanadate-inhibited ATPase. The vanadate-sensitive phosphohydrolase is not specific for ATP, has a K/sub m/ of about 0.23 millimolar for MgATP, is only slightly affected by K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/ and is insensitive to auxin. Proton transport, on the other hand, is more specific for ATP, enhanced by anions (NO/sub 3//sup -/ > Cl/sup -/) and has a K/sub m/ of about 0.7 millimolar. Auxins decrease the K/sub m/ to about 0.35 millimolar, with no significant effect on the V/sub max/, while antiauxins or weak acids have no such effect. It appears that auxin has the ability to alter the efficiency of the ATP-driven proton transport.

  14. Silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) alleviate chromium (VI) phytotoxicity in Pisum sativum (L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of silicon nanoparticles (SiNp) against Cr (VI) phytotoxicity in pea seedlings. Results show that Cr(VI, 100 μM) significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth of pea which was accompanied by the enhanced level of Cr. Additionally, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters like F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F0 and qP were decreased while NPQ significantly (P < 0.05) increased under Cr(VI) treatment. Superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA-lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by Cr(VI). Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased by Cr (VI) while activities of catalase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were inhibited significantly (P < 0.05). Micro and macronutrients also show decreasing trends (except S) under Cr(VI) treatment. However, addition of SiNp together with Cr(VI) protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity hence improved growth was noticed. In conclusion, the results of this study show that Cr(VI) causes negative impact on pea seedlings, however; SiNp protects pea seedlings against Cr(VI) phytotoxicity by reducing Cr accumulation and oxidative stress, and up-regulating antioxidant defense system and nutrient elements.

  15. Dynamics of strigolactone function and shoot branching responses in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Dun, Elizabeth A; de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs), or their metabolites, were recently identified as endogenous inhibitors of shoot branching. However, certain key features and dynamics of SL action remained to be physiologically characterized. Here we show that successive direct application of SL to axillary buds at every node along the stem can fully inhibit branching. The SL inhibition of early outgrowth did not require inhibitory signals from other growing buds or the shoot tip. In addition to this very early or initial suppression of outgrowth, we also found SL to be effective, up to a point, at moderating the continuing growth of axillary branches. The effectiveness of SL at affecting bud and branch growth correlated with the ability of SL to regulate expression of PsBRC1. PsBRC1 is a transcription factor that is expressed strongly in axillary buds and is required for SL inhibition of shoot branching. Consistent with a dynamic role of the hormone, SL inhibition of bud growth did not prevent buds from later responding to a decapitation treatment, even though SL treatment immediately after decapitation inhibits the outgrowth response. Also, as expected from the hypothesized branching control network in plants, treatment of exogenous SL caused feedback down-regulation of SL biosynthesis genes within 2 h. Altogether, these results reveal new insights into the dynamics of SL function and support the premise that SLs or SL-derived metabolites function dynamically as a shoot branching hormone and that they act directly in axillary buds. PMID:23220942

  16. Mechanisms associated with Fe-deficiency tolerance and signaling in shoots of Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Paltridge, Nicholas G; Roessner, Ute; Stangoulis, James C R

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms of Fe-deficiency tolerance and signaling were investigated in shoots of Santi (deficiency tolerant) and Parafield (deficiency intolerant) pea genotypes using metabolomic and physiological approaches. From metabolomic studies, Fe deficiency induced significant increases in N-, S- and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites in Santi but not in Parafield. Elevated N metabolites reflect an increase in N-recycling processes. Increased glutathione and S-metabolites suggest better protection of pea plants from Fe-deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, Fe-deficiency induced increases in citrate and malate in leaves of Santi suggests long-distance transport of Fe is promoted by better xylem unloading. Supporting a role of citrate in the deficiency tolerance mechanism, physiological experiments showed higher Fe and citrate in the xylem of Santi. Reciprocal-grafting experiments confirm that the Fe-deficiency signal driving root Fe reductase and proton extrusion activity is generated in the shoot. Finally, our studies show that auxin can induce increased Fe-reductase activity and proton extrusion in roots. This article identifies several mechanisms in shoots associated with the differential Fe-deficiency tolerance of genotypes within a species, and provides essential background for future efforts to improve the Fe content and deficiency tolerance in peas. PMID:22913816

  17. Effect of germination on the carbohydrate composition of the dietary fiber of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Ariza, Nuria; Esteban, Rosa; Mollá, Esperanza; Waldron, Keith; López-Andréu, Francisco J

    2003-02-26

    The effect of different conditions of pea germination on dietary fiber (DF) composition was studied. Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) were subjected to acid hydrolysis, and the resultant neutral sugars, uronic acids, and Klason lignin were quantified. Germinated peas exhibited significantly higher contents of total dietary fiber (TDF) than the raw sample, due to the increases of both DF fractions. Under darkness conditions, germination exhibited the highest contents of IDF and SDF. Decreasing IDF/SDF ratios showed that the carbohydrate changes did not take place to the same extent during germination, the SDF fraction being the most affected. The detailed chemical composition of fiber fractions reveals increases of cellulose in the IDF of germinated samples, whereas SDF exhibits a decrease of pectic polysaccharides and also increases of polysaccharides rich in glucose and mannose. The DF results were corroborated by a comparative examination of the cell wall carbohydrate composition.

  18. Purification and characterisation of pyruvate decarboxylase from pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv. Miko).

    PubMed

    Mücke, U; König, S; Hübner, G

    1995-02-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was purified from pea seeds. The catalytically active holoenzyme is an oligomer of two types of subunits with molecular masses of about 65 kDa and 68 kDa, respectively. The active enzyme is a mixture of tetramers, octamers and even higher oligomers. These differences in the quaternary structure compared with PDC from yeast (tetramer) do not result in a different kinetic behaviour. The activity of pea PDC as well as that of yeast PDC is regulated by its substrate pyruvate resulting in a sigmoid shape of the v/S-plot. At the optimum pH of 6.0 a S0.5-value of 1 mM pyruvate is found that increases with rising pH and increasing concentrations of phosphate. The substrate analogue activator pyruvamide activates the enzyme resulting in a hyperbolic v/S-plot. The stability of PDC from pea seeds in solution is about one order of magnitude higher than that of yeast PDC. Despite the described similarities of the two enzymes no significant cross reactivity of the anti-pea PDC antibody with the enzyme from yeast occurs. PMID:7794525

  19. Validation of SSR markers associated with rust (Uromyces fabae) resistance in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Rai, Rashmi; Singh, Brahma Deo; Chand, Ramesh; Srivastava, Chandra Prakash

    2015-04-01

    Pea rust is a devastating disease of peas especially in the sub-tropical regions of the world and greatly influenced by the environmental conditions during disease development. Molecular markers associated with pea rust resistance would be useful in marker assisted selection (MAS). Utility of molecular markers associated with the pea rust resistance were evaluated in 30 diverse pea genotypes using four SSR markers (AA446 and AA505 flanking the major QTL Qruf; AD146 and AA416 flanking the minor QTL, Qruf1). QTL, Qruf flanking markers were able to identify all the resistant genotypes when used together, except Pant P 31. While, SSR markers AD146 and AA416 flanking the minor QTL, Qruf1 were able to identify all the pea resistant genotypes used for validation, except for HUDP-11 by AD146 and Pant P 31 by AA416. Similarly, SSR markers AA446 and AA505 were able to identify all the susceptible pea genotypes, except IPFD 99-13, HFP 9415 and S- 143. SSR markers AD146 and AA416 were together able to identify all the pea susceptible genotypes used for validation, except KPMR 526, KPMR 632 and IPFD 99-13. On the basis of marker allele analysis it may be concluded that SSR markers (AA446, AA505, AD146 and AA416) can be used in MAS of pea rust resistance.

  20. Pea starch (Pisum sativum L.) with slow digestion property produced using β-amylase and transglucosidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhiheng; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Kai; Gilbert, Robert G; Gao, Qunyu

    2014-12-01

    Starches extracted from wrinkled (WP) and smooth (SP) peas were treated using β-amylase (B) alone and also with a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase (BT). After enzymatic treatment, the proportions of slowly digested starch in WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT samples were increased by 6%, 9%, 9% and 12%, respectively. Starches treated by a combination of β-amylase and transglucosidase exhibited a smaller amount of longer amylopectin chains, a larger amount of short amylopectin chains, and higher branching fraction. The branching fraction was significantly increased, with an increase of 8%, 10%, 13% and 14% for WP-B, WP-BT, SP-B and SP-BT, respectively. The maximum absorbance and iodine binding of enzyme-treated starches were reduced compared with their native starch parents. The C-type crystalline structure completely disappeared after enzymatic treatment. The results support previous findings that increases in the amount of shorter amylopectin chains and branch fraction are likely to contribute to the slow digestion of starch.

  1. 1,3-β-d-Glucanases from Pisum sativum Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yuk-Shan; Maclachlan, Gordon A.

    1980-01-01

    Two endo-1,3,-β-d-glucanases (I and II, EC 3.2.1.6) are present in etiolated peas at opposite ends of the stem. Glucanase I from subapical regions degrades substrates to a series of low molecular weight dextrins, and is most readily assayed reductometrically (e.g. as laminarinase). Glucanase II from basal regions preferentially hydrolyzes internal linkages of long chains, and is most sensitively assayed viscometrically (e.g. as carboxymethylpachymanase). The activity of glucanase II but not I increases greatly near the apex in response to treatment of the tissue with auxin, and ethylene gas suppresses endogenous activities and the auxin response, i.e. levels of these enzymes are under developmental controls which can be regulated. Different natural substrates for the two enzymes were identified primarily in tissue fractions soluble in hot water. Substrates for glucanase I are concentrated in apical regions, as is the enzyme itself, and those for glucanase II are in basal regions, implying that enzymes and substrates are normally in separate cellular compartments. Tissue sections stained with aniline blue for β-glucan show enhanced fluorescence in cell walls, and most of this can be removed either by hot water or the appropriate purified β-glucanase. The enzymes are not likely to function directly in promoting nutrition or growth in peas, but they could help, following secretion, to maintain channels for communication and translocation through cell walls. Images PMID:16661164

  2. Dehydration induces expression of GALACTINOL SYNTHASE and RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE in seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Lahuta, Lesław B; Pluskota, Wioletta E; Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Szablińska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    The exposition of 7-day-old pea seedlings to dehydration induced sudden changes in the concentration of monosaccharides and sucrose in epicotyl and roots tissues. During 24h of dehydration, the concentration of glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose in seedling tissues decreased. The accumulation of sucrose was observed in roots after 4h and in epicotyls after 8h of stress. Epicotyls and roots also began to accumulate galactinol and raffinose after 8h of stress, when small changes in the water content of tissues occurred. The accumulation of galactinol and raffinose progressed parallel to water withdrawal from tissues, but after seedling rehydration both galactosides disappeared. The synthesis of galactinol and raffinose by an early induction (during the first hour of treatment) of galactinol synthase (PsGolS) and raffinose synthase (PsRS) gene expression as well as a later increase in the activity of both enzymes was noted. Signals possibly triggering the induction of PsGolS and PsRS gene expression and accumulation of galactinol and raffinose in seedlings are discussed.

  3. Internode length in pisum: do the internode length genes effect growth in dark-grown plants?

    PubMed

    Reid, J B

    1983-07-01

    Internode length in light-grown peas (Pisum sativum L.) is controlled by the interaction of genes occupying at least five major loci, Le, La, Cry, Na, and Lm. The present work shows that the genes at all of the loci examined (Le, Cry, and Na) also exert an effect on internode length in plants grown in complete darkness. Preliminary results using pure lines were verified using either segregating progenies or near isogenic lines. The major cause of the differences was due to a change in the number of cells per internode rather than to an alteration of the cell length. Since the genes occupying at least two of these loci, Le and Na, have been shown to be directly involved with gibberellin metabolism, it appears that gibberellins are not only essential for elongation in the dark but are limiting for elongation in the nana (extremely short, na), dwarf (Na le), and tall (Na Le) phenotypes. These results are supported by the large inhibitory effects of AMO 1618 treatments on stem elongation in dwarf and tall lines grown in the dark and the fact that applied gibberellic acid could overcome this inhibition and greatly promote elongation in a gibberellin-deficient na line. It is clear that the internode length genes, and in particular the alleles at the Le locus, are not acting by simply controlling the sensitivity of the plant to light. PMID:16663081

  4. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Shoot-to-Root Signal Transmission Regulates Root Fe(III) Reductase Activity in the dgl Mutant of Pea.

    PubMed

    Grusak, M. A.; Pezeshgi, S.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the root, shoot, and Fe-nutritional factors that regulate root Fe-acquisition processes in dicotyledonous plants, Fe(III) reduction and net proton efflux were quantified in root systems of an Fe-hyperaccumulating mutant (dgl) and a parental (cv Dippes Gelbe Viktoria [DGV]) genotype of pea (Pisum sativum). Plants were grown with (+Fe treated) or without (-Fe treated) added Fe(III)-N,N'-ethylenebis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-glycine] (2 [mu]M); root Fe(III) reduction was measured in solutions containing growth nutrients, 0.1 mM Fe(III)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 0.1 mM Na2-bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid. Daily measurements of Fe(III) reduction (d 10-20) revealed initially low rates in +Fe-treated and -Fe-treated dgl, followed by a nearly 5-fold stimulation in rates by d 15 for both growth types. In DGV, root Fe(III) reductase activity increased only minimally by d 20 in +Fe-treated plants and about 3-fold in -Fe-treated plants, beginning on d 15. Net proton efflux was enhanced in roots of -Fe-treated DGV and both dgl growth types, relative to +Fe-treated DGV. In dgl, the enhanced proton efflux occurred prior to the increase in root Fe(III) reductase activity. Reductase studies using plants with reciprocal shoot:root grafts demonstrated that shoot expression of the dgl gene leads to the generation of a transmissible signal that enhances Fe(III) reductase activity in roots. The dgl gene product may alter or interfere with a normal component of a signal transduction mechanism regulating Fe homeostasis in plants.

  6. Genome sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International aphid genome consortium, IAGC, herein presents the 464 Mb draft genome assembly sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first published whole genome sequence from the diverse assemblage of hemimetabolous insects, providing an outgroup to the multiple published g...

  7. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  8. Long-term impact of sublethal atrazine perturbs the redox homeostasis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Sergei; Shopova, Elena; Kerchev, Pavel; Sergiev, Iskren; Miteva, Lyuba; Polizoev, Djovani; Alexieva, Vera

    2013-02-01

    Atrazine frequently contaminates soil, groundwater, rivers, and ponds. It is well know that acute doses (1-5 mM) of atrazine induce massive generation of singlet oxygen by blocking photosystem II. The sublethal concentrations of this herbicide, similar to those found in the environment, also reduce growth and disrupt photosynthesis in a long-term aspect, but exact mechanisms remain much uncertain. In this study the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine levels, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM, on pea plants were characterized for up to 20 days. The plants exposed to continuous influence of atrazine exhibited perturbed redox homeostasis with increases of the lipid peroxides, the total and oxidized glutathione pools and elevated guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. In contrast, the long-term atrazine impact did not affect superoxide dismutase activity whereas the catalase was inhibited. The perturbations of the redox status and the recruitment of the antioxidant machinery imply that the sublethal atrazine concentrations alter the poise between production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Taken together these results show that the long-term impact of sublethal atrazine has hallmarks of oxidative stress most probably triggered by generation of singlet oxygen.

  9. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  10. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  11. Response of mitochondrial thioredoxin PsTrxo1, antioxidant enzymes, and respiration to salinity in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Martí, María C; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Camejo, Daymi; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Lázaro, Juan J; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondria play an essential role in reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction in plants. Redox regulation is an essential feature of mitochondrial function, with thioredoxin (Trx), involved in disulphide/dithiol interchange, playing a prominent role. To explore the participation of mitochondrial PsTrxo1, Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), peroxiredoxin (PsPrxII F), and alternative oxidase (AOX) under salt stress, their transcriptional and protein levels were analysed in pea plants growing under 150 mM NaCl for a short and a long period. The activities of mitochondrial Mn-SOD and Trx together with the in vivo activities of the alternative pathway (AP) and the cytochrome pathway (CP) were also determined, combined with the characterization of the plant physiological status as well as the mitochondrial oxidative indicators. The analysis of protein and mRNA levels and activities revealed the importance of the post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of these proteins in the response to salt stress. Increases in AOX protein amount correlated with increases in AP capacity, whereas in vivo AP activity was maintained under salt stress. Similarly, Mn-SOD activity was also maintained. Under all the stress treatments, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and CP activity were decreased although the oxidative stress in leaves was only moderate. However, an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was found in mitochondria isolated from leaves under the short-term salinity conditions. In addition, an increase in mitochondrial Trx activity was produced in response to the long-term NaCl treatment. The results support a role for PsTrxo1 as a component of the defence system induced by NaCl in pea mitochondria, providing the cell with a mechanism by which it can respond to changing environment protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress together with Mn-SOD, AOX, and PrxII F.

  12. [Structural and functional organization of chloroplasts in leaves of Pisum sativum L. under conditions of root hypoxia and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G; Semenova, G A

    2003-01-01

    A combined effect of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the biochemical composition activity and structure of chloroplasts in pea leaves have been studied. Both factors are shown to affect the accumulation of chlorophyll causing leaf chlorosis. At iron deficiency chlorosis occurs from the top of plant leaves. At root hypoxia chlorosis starts from the lower strata. At a combined action of both factors the destructive effects are summarized. It was established that light-harvesting complexes of photosystems were reduced stronger at iron deficiency, while complexes of reaction centers of photosystem I and photosystem II are lessened at root hypoxia. Nevertheless, even at a combined effect of both factors yellow leaves preserved small amounts of any pigment-protein complexes and their functional activities. The ultrastructure of chloroplasts during leaf chlorosis was gradually reduced. At first, intergranal sites of thylakoids and then granal ones were destroyed, that was typical of iron deficiency. However, even yellow and almost white leaves kept small thylakoids, capable of forming stacking and small grana made of 2-3 thylakoids. It has been concluded that the destructive effects are summarized due to different kinds of action of iron deficiency and root hypoxia on the structure and functioning of leaves at their combined action.

  13. Development of SCAR markers linked to sin-2, the stringless pod locus in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing consumer demand for vegetables, edible-podded peas have become more popular. Stringlessness is one of most important traits for snap peas. A single recessive gene, sin-2, controls this trait. Because pollen carrying the stringless gene is less competitive than pollen carrying the str...

  14. Effects of supplemental ultraviolet-B and cadmium on growth, antioxidants and yield of Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Mishra, Shweta

    2009-02-01

    The impact of supplemental UV-B irradiation (sUV-B) and cadmium (Cd, 68 micromol kg(-1) soil) singly and in combination was studied on growth, pigments, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), uptake and translocation of Cd and yield of pea plants under field condition. Compared to the control, both the stresses individually and in combination led to in reductions in growth, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid, catalase (CAT) activity and yield, whereas a reverse trend was observed for flavonoids, thiols and proline contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and LPO. The uptake and translocation of Cd increased in different plant parts with duration of its treatment and also when applied with sUV-B. Combined treatment of sUV-B and Cd inhibited the growth and various metabolic processes antagonistically except the CAT activity which showed additive response. Further, CAT activity may be used as a bioindicator parameter to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of both the stresses.

  15. Diversity of pea (Pisum sativum) accessions based on morphological data for sustainable field pea breeding in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gatti, I; Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Cravero, V P; Cointry, E L

    2011-10-31

    We characterized 13 accessions of dry peas of different origins from various growing regions in Argentina, based on three replications of 20 plants cultivated in 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse, with the objective of selecting those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs. Significant differences were found for length and width of stipule and pod, length of the internodes and leaflets, plant height, total number of nodes, number of nodes at the first pod, number of days to flowering and to harvest, number of pods and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain diameter, demonstrating a high degree of genetic variability. Phenotypic correlation analysis demonstrated that large pods produced more seeds per pod, but the seed weight decreased. Plants with smaller number of nodes in the first pod were more productive. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients indicated a strong inherent association among the different traits. Clustering methods grouped the accessions into five clusters. Cluster 5 included two accessions and showed the highest values for length and width of stipules (4.9 and 4.5 cm, respectively), length of leaflets (7.43 cm) and days to flowering (122.6), while cluster 3, with one accession, and cluster 4, with two accessions, showed the highest values for number of seeds per pod (3.78 and 4.39), number of pods per plant (5.33 and 5.70), length of pods (5.54 and 5.72 cm), and width of pods (1.21 and 1.20 cm, respectively). We conclude that accessions in clusters 3 and 4 would be useful for crosses with other cultivars in pea breeding programs.

  16. Phenotypic variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Pisum sativum L. germplasm obtained from different parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Nisar, M; Ghafoor, A; Khan, M R

    2011-01-01

    A total of 286 genotypes were collected from 39 countries of the world and were evaluated to determine the phenotypic diversity for 17 quantitative traits. Higher degree of coefficient of variation were recorded for grain yield(-5) (52.46%), biomass(-5) (45.73%), fresh pod width(-10) (47.24%), dry pod weight(-1) (40.33%), plant height(-1) (35.25%), harvest index (32.70%) and number of branches(-5). Cluster-II clearly reflected that late genotypes were having lightest pods weight, shortest pod width, and pod length; low grain yield, biomass and harvest index. While genotypes in Cluster-III were in contrast to Cluster-II having heaviest pods weight, longest pods width and length, highest grain yield, biomass and harvest index. Higher PC(-1) values have been determined for days to flower initiation which consequently were contributing weighed positive to days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance, days to plant harvesting while negatively contributed to yield producing traits, indicating that late flowering pea germplasm emphasizes more on the vegetative growth and was low yielding. However, higher PC(-2) values have been obtained for number of branches(-5), grain yield and biomass while lower values for days to flowering, days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance and days to plant harvesting confirming the fact that early genotypes were high yielding.

  17. Isolation of high salinity stress tolerant genes from Pisum sativum by random overexpression in Escherichia coli and their functional validation

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amita; Dang, Hung Quang; Vaid, Neha

    2009-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major factors which reduce crop plants growth and productivity resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Therefore, it would be fruitful to isolate and functionally identify new salinity stress-induced genes for understanding the mechanism and developing salinity stress tolerant plants. Based on functional gene screening assay, we have isolated few salinity tolerant genes out of one million Escherichia coli (SOLR) transformants containing pea cDNAs. Sequence analysis of three of these genes revealed homology to Ribosomal-L30E (RPL30E), Chlorophyll-a/b-binding protein (Chla/bBP) and FIDDLEHEAD (FDH). The salinity tolerance of these genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5α) transformants. The homology based computational modeling of these proteins suggested the high degree of conservation with the conserved domains of their homologous partners. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of these cDNAs (except the FDH) was upregulated in pea plants in response to NaCl stress. We observed that there was no significant effect of Li+ ion on the expression level of these genes, while an increase in response to K+ ion was observed. Overall, this study provides an evidence for a novel function of these genes in high salinity stress tolerance. The PsFDH showed constitutive expression in planta suggesting that it can be used as constitutively expressed marker gene for salinity stress tolerance in plants. This study brings new direction in identifying novel function of unidentified genes in abiotic stress tolerance without previous knowledge of the genome sequence. PMID:19816097

  18. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  19. Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

    2014-02-01

    Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 μg ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 μg ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation.

  20. Effect of high CO/sub 2/ on growth and carbohydrate partitioning in pea (Pisum sativum L. ) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    Beginning at 10 days of age, pea plants were exposed to air with normal (350 ppm) or high (1200 ppm) CO/sub 2/ levels until the plants were 20 days old. Growth was exponential between 10 and 20 days regardless of CO/sub 2/ treatment, and relative growth rates (RGR) under normal and high CO/sub 2/ were 0.20 and 0.24 g x g/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/ respectively. Also high CO/sub 2/ stimulated net assimilation rates (NAR) about 34%. While high CO/sub 2/ did not affect partitioning of dry matter into root, stem, or leaf mass, it decreased the partitioning of new dry matter into new leaf area by 12%, hence the failure of high CO/sub 2/ to stimulate RGR as much as it stimulated NAR. This decrease in partitioning into new leaf area elicited by high CO/sub 2/ was due mainly to the continuous accumulation of leaf starch which reached nearly 3.0 mg x cm/sup -2/. However, this accumulation of starch was not associated with a decline in NAR or photosynthesis. Even for high CO/sub 2/ treatments, transport of photosynthate during photoperiods greatly exceeded the rate necessary to deplete leaf starch during the dark period, indicating that there is unused transport capacity.

  1. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    PubMed

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  2. The vicilin gene family of pea (Pisum sativum L.): a complete cDNA coding sequence for preprovicilin.

    PubMed Central

    Lycett, G W; Delauney, A J; Gatehouse, J A; Gilroy, J; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1983-01-01

    A cDNA plasmid bank has been constructed using mRNA from developing pea seeds and three cDNAs coding for vicilin polypeptides have been selected. These cDNAs have been sequenced and between them cover the whole of the coding sequence plus part of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Comparison with amino acid sequence data from the protein indicates that vicilin is synthesised as preprovicilin with subsequent removal of a signal peptide and a C-terminal peptide as well as post translational endo-proteolytic cleavage. The cDNAs represent two different classes of vicilin genes whilst amino acid data show that there are at least three major classes of vicilin polypeptide. The vicilin sequences show extensive homology with conglycinin and phaseolin except in the regions of the internal proteolytic cleavages. The evolutionary significance of this relationship is discussed. Images PMID:6687941

  3. Involvement of auxin and CKs in boron deficiency induced changes in apical dominance of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoying; Römheld, Volker; Li, Chunjian; Bangerth, Fritz

    2006-04-01

    It has previously been shown that boron (B) deficiency inhibits growth of the plant apex, which consequently results in a relatively weak apical dominance, and a subsequent sprouting of lateral buds. Auxin and cytokinins (CKs) are the two most important phytohormones involved in the regulation of apical dominance. In this study, the possible involvement of these two hormones in B-deficiency-induced changes in apical dominance was investigated by applying B or the synthetic CK CPPU to the shoot apex of pea plants grown in nutrient solution without B supply. Export of IAA out of the shoot apex, as well as the level of IAA, Z/ZR and isopentenyl-adenine/isopentenyl-adenosine (i-Ade/i-Ado) in the shoot apex were assayed. In addition, polar IAA transport capacity was measured in two internodes of different ages using 3H-IAA. In B-deficient plants, both the level of auxin and CKs were reduced, and the export of auxin from the shoot apex was considerably decreased relative to plants well supplied with B. Application of B to the shoot apex restored the endogenous Z/ZR and IAA level to control levels and increased the export of IAA from the shoot apex, as well as the 3H-IAA transport capacity in the newly developed internodes. Further, B application to the shoot apex inhibited lateral bud growth and stimulated lateral root formation, presumably by stimulated polar IAA transport. Applying CPPU to the shoot apex, a treatment that stimulates IAA export under adequate B supply, considerably reduced the endogenous Z/ZR concentration in the shoot apex, but had no stimulatory effect on IAA concentration and transport in B-deficient plants. A similar situation appeared to exist in lateral buds of B-deficient plants as, in contrast to plants well supplied with B, application of CKs to these plants did not stimulate lateral bud growth. In contrast to the changes of Z/ZR levels in the shoot apex, which occurred after application of B or CPPU, the levels of i-Ade/i-Ado stayed more or less constant. These results suggest that there is a complex interaction between B supply and plant hormones, with a B-deficiency-induced inhibition of IAA export from the shoot apex as one of the earliest measurable events. PMID:16330125

  4. Effects of cadmium and copper on antioxidant capacities, lignification and auxin degradation in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Twelve-day-old seedlings of pea were treated for four days by 20 and 100 microM of Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4. In leaves, all treatments caused an increase in the lipoperoxidation product rate. However, 20 microM of Cu did not affect the growth. Moreover, except for 20 microM of Cu, the activity of unspecific peroxidases, used as stress marker, was enhanced in cell walls of metal-stressed plants. No change in the antioxidant capacities was observed in plants treated with 20 microM of metal. At this dose, the Cd-reduced growth could be associated to an elevation in the activities of IAA oxidase and of lignifying peroxidases. Increase of these latter, in concert with loss in antioxidant capacities, would be responsible for the growth diminution after exposure to 100 microM of metal. However, the activity of lignifying enzymes was not affected by 100 microM of Cu. The contribution of cell fractions to enzymatic responses to stress is emphasized. PMID:15714877

  5. Molecular characterization and identification of plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria isolated from the root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Mohsin; Hameed, Sohail; Yasmeen, Tahira; Zahid, Mehwish; Zafar, Marriam

    2014-02-01

    Root nodule accommodates various non-nodulating bacteria at varying densities. Present study was planned to identify and characterize the non-nodulating bacteria from the pea plant. Ten fast growing bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of cultivated pea plants. These bacterial isolates were unable to nodulate pea plants in nodulation assay, which indicate the non-rhizobial nature of these bacteria. Bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for plant growth promoting properties including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, root colonization and biofilm formation. Six isolates were able to produce IAA at varying level from 0.86 to 16.16 μg ml(-1), with the isolate MSP9 being most efficient. Only two isolates, MSP2 and MSP10, were able to fix nitrogen. All isolates were able to solubilize inorganic phosphorus ranging from 5.57 to 11.73 μg ml(-1), except MSP4. Bacterial isolates showed considerably better potential for colonization on pea roots. Isolates MSP9 and MSP10 were most efficient in biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride, which indicated their potential to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas the remaining isolates showed a very poor biofilm formation ability. The most efficient plant growth promoting agents, MSP9 and MSP10, were phylogenetically identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum and Enterobacter, respectively, with 99% similarity. It is suggested the potential endophytic bacterial strains, Ochrobactrum sp. MSP9 and Enterobacter sp. MSP10, can be used as biofertilizers for various legume and non-legume crops after studying their interaction with the host crop and field evaluation. PMID:24072498

  6. Mid-Infrared and Near Infrared Calibrations for Nutritional Parameters of Triticale (Triticosecale) and Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data is lacking about the relative effectiveness of diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared (MidIR) versus near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for calibration development of forage constituents. The objective of this study was to develop MidIR and NIR calibrations for acid detergent fiber ...

  7. Sensory and nutritional quality of split peas (Pisum sativum) stored up to 34 y in residential storage.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Jefferies, L K; Pike, O A

    2010-04-01

    The sensory and nutritional quality of split peas stored up to 34 y was determined. Nine samples of split peas representing 5 retail brands packaged in Nr 10 cans and stored at room temperature were obtained from donors. Duplicate cans of a fresh sample of split peas were purchased as controls. Can head space oxygen ranged from 0.255% to 20.1%. Water activity of the raw split peas ranged from 0.41 to 0.56. The green color of the raw split peas decreased over time as shown by increasing CIE a* values. Flavor, appearance, texture, and overall liking hedonic scores (9-point scale) of split-pea soup made from each sample ranged from 3.7 to 6.7 and decreased over time. Hedonic scores for appearance were correlated with the decrease in raw product green color (r(2)= 0.65). Hedonic scores for soup texture declined over time, which corresponded with increasing hardness of the cooked peas as measured by a TA.XT2 texture analyzer. All samples were judged to be acceptable in an emergency situation by over 75% of sensory panelists. Available thiamin was significantly lower in older samples while riboflavin remained unchanged. The results indicate that split pea quality declines over time, but the product maintains sufficient sensory acceptance to be considered for potential use in emergency storage and other applications where minimal stock rotation is a common practice. PMID:20492313

  8. Comparison of the morphogenesis of three genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum) grown in pure stands and wheat-based intercrops

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Combes, Didier; Pineau, Sylvain; Huynh, Pierre; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2014-01-01

    Cereal–legume intercrops represent a promising way of combining high productivity and agriculture sustainability. The benefits of cereal–legume mixtures are highly affected by species morphology and functioning, which determine the balance between competition and complementarity for resource acquisition. Studying species morphogenesis, which controls plant architecture, is therefore of major interest. The morphogenesis of cultivated species has been mainly described in mono-specific growing conditions, although morphogenetic plasticity can occur in multi-specific stands. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize the variability of the morphogenesis of pea plants grown either in pure stands or mixed with wheat. This was achieved through a field experiment that included three pea cultivars with contrasting earliness (hr and HR type) and branching patterns. Results show that most of the assessed parameters of pea morphogenesis (phenology, branching, final number of vegetative organs and their kinetics of appearance) were mainly dependent on the considered genotype, which highlights the importance of the choice of cultivars in intercropping systems. There was however a low variability of pea morphogenesis between sole and mixed stands except for plant height and branching of the long-cycle cultivar. The information provided in the present study at stand and plant scale can be used to build up structural–functional models. These models can contribute to improving the understanding of the functioning of cereal–legume intercrops and also to the definition of plant ideotypes adapted to the growth in intercrops. PMID:24790127

  9. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate induced physio-hormonal changes in Pisum sativum under diverse temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-11-01

    Global climate change brings with it unwarranted shifts in both abiotic (heat stress, cold stress, wind, precipitation) and biotic (pathogens, pests) environmental factors, thus posing a threat to agricultural productivity across the world. In plants, lodging due to storms or herbivory causes wounding stress and consequently enhances endogenous jasmonates. In response, the plant growth is arrested as plant defense is prioritized. We pre-treated pea plants with elevated methyl jasmonate (MeJA) levels i.e. 50 μM, 100 μM and 200 μM under controlled growth chamber conditions. The pre-treated plants were then kept at 40 °C (heat stress--HS), 4 °C (cold stress--CS) and 20 °C (optimum/control temperature--OT) for 72 h. The effect of such treatments on plant growth attributes, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, cell death rate, and regulation of endogenous hormones were observed. Elevated MeJA application hindered plant growth attributes under HS, CS and OT conditions. Moreover, elevated MeJA levels lowered the rate of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, induced stomatal closure, caused higher cells mortality in leaves under HS, CS, and OT conditions. Endogenous ABA contents significantly declined in all MeJA treatments under HS and OT, but increased under CS conditions. Exogenous MeJA enhanced endogenous jasmonic acid contents of pea plants, but altered endogenous salicylic acid contents under varying temperatures. Current study shows that higher concentrations of exogenous MeJA strengthen plant defense mechanism by hindering plant growth under stress conditions.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the genetic diversity of Pisum sativum USDA core seed collection for seed sugar composition and concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is interest in enhancing the nutrient content (nutritional quality) of our food supply in order to help people attain the recommended daily allowances of various nutrients. Pea seeds are a good source of the sugars, starches and amino acids needed for energy and protein synthesis requirements...

  11. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  12. Effect of CO sub 2 enriched air on the kinetics of leaf expansion. [Pisum sativa; Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Vegetative plants of Pisum sativum (pea) and Glycine max (soybean) were transferred from 350 to 1,200 ppm CO{sub 2} when they had one (pea) or two (soybean) mature leaves and several developing leaves. Controls were kept at 350 ppm. For pea, high CO{sub 2} for 8 days increased dry mass of root, stem, and leaf fractions by 30-50%. Leaf dry mass increase was due primarily to carbohydrate, particularly starch. Dawn levels of starch increased 10-fold within 1 day at high CO{sub 2} and 20-fold at 2 days. At 2 days after transfer leaf starch levels were 1.0 mg cm{sup {minus}2} of leaf area or nearly 30% of leaf dry weight. Soybean data are less complete, but 10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased leaf + stem dry mass by 50% and leaf weight per unit area increased by 14 and 48% at dawn within 1 and 2 days, respectively, at high CO{sub 2}. However 8-10 days at high CO{sub 2} increased total leaf area only slightly (about 15%) for both species, with all the leaf area increase occurring at nodes that were nearly microscopic at the time of transfer. For soybean, most of the increased leaf area due to high CO{sub 2} was from lateral bud break despite a high CO{sub 2} did not stimulated more leaves per plant. Apparently, extra photosynthate had a delayed effect on leaf expansion and did not increase nodes along the main axis. Leaf expansion under high CO{sub 2} was not limited by photosynthate.

  13. Immunoaffinity chromatography as a means of purifying legumin from Pisum (pea) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, R

    1979-01-01

    The potential of immunoaffinity chromatography as a means of purifying legumin from a wide range of Pisum (pea) types was assessed. The method required small amounts of highly purified legumin from a single Pisum type, and this was obtained by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by zonal isoelectric precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Some physiocochemical properties of purified legumin were determined, a number of which (Strokes radius, subunit molecular weights, subunit N-terminal residues and subunit molar ratios) have not previously been reported for Pisum legumin. Examination of Pisum legumin by two-dimensional gel isoelectric focusing/electrophoresis indicated the existence of extensive subunit heterogeneity, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate showed apparent variation in the nature of this heterogeneity from one Pisum variety to another. Despite this variation, immunoaffinity chromatography on immobilized anti-legumin (which was prepared by affinity chromatography on the immubolized purified legumin from the single Pisum type) was shown to be a generally applicable method for the purification of undegraded legumin from a range of pisum types, including two primate lines. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:435248

  14. Inhibition and stimulation of root respiration in pisum and plantago by hydroxamate : its consequences for the assessment of alternative path activity.

    PubMed

    de Visser, R; Blacquière, T

    1984-07-01

    The contribution of the alternative pathway in root respiration of Pisum sativum L. cv Rondo, Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. ssp major was determined by titration with salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) in the absence and presence of cyanide. SHAM completely inhibited the cyanide-resistant component of root respiration at 5 to 10 millimolar with an apparent K(i) of 600 micromolar. In contrast, SHAM enhanced pea root respiration by 30% at most, at concentrations below 15 millimolar. An unknown oxidase appeared to be responsible for this stimulation. Its maximum activity in the presence of low SHAM concentrations (1-5 millimolar) was 40% of control respiration rate in pea roots, since 25 millimolar SHAM resulted in 10% inhibition. In plantain roots, the maximum activity was found to be 15%. This hydroxamate-activated oxidase was distinct from the cytochrome path by its resistance to antimycin. The results of titrations with cyanide and antimycin indicated that high SHAM concentrations (up to 25 millimolar) block the hydroxamate-activated oxidase, but do not affect the cytochrome path and, therefore, are a reliable tool for estimating the activity of the alternative path in vivo. A considerable fraction of root respiration was mediated by the alternative path in plantain (45%) and pea (15%), in the latter because of the saturation of the cytochrome path.

  15. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, F I; Al-Suwayeh, S A; Muzaffar, Iqbal; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Al-Kharfy, Khalid M; Korashy, Hesham M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; Raish, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rabbits. Two groups of animals were treated separately with Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg p.o.) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg p.o.) for eight consecutive days. On the 8th day, cyclosporine (30 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to each group one hour after herbal treatment. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, and 24 hrs) from marginal ear vein. Cyclosporine was analyzed using UPLC/MS method. The coadministration of Nigella sativa significantly decreased the C(max) and AUC(0-∞) of cyclosporine; the change was observed by 35.5% and 55.9%, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Lepidium sativum did not produce any significant change in C(max) of cyclosporine, although its absorption was significantly delayed compared with control group. A remarkable change was observed in T(max) and AUC(0-t) of Lepidium sativum treated group. Our findings suggest that concurrent consumption of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum could alter the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine at various levels.

  16. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Tian, Hong-Gang; Fan, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can ingest and store plant-synthesized toxic compounds in their bodies, and sequester those compounds for their own benefits. The broad bean, Vicia faba L., contains a high quantity of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is toxic to many insects. However, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can feed on V. faba normally, whereas many other aphid species could not. In this study, we investigated how A. pisum utilizes plant-derived L-DOPA for their own benefit. L-DOPA concentrations in V. faba and A. pisum were analyzed to prove L-DOPA sequestration. L-DOPA toxicity was bioassayed using an artificial diet containing high concentrations of L-DOPA. We found that A. pisum could effectively adapt and store L-DOPA, transmit it from one generation to the next. We also found that L-DOPA sequestration verity differed in different morphs of A. pisum. After analyzing the melanization efficiency in wounds, mortality and deformity of the aphids at different concentrations of L-DOPA under ultraviolet radiation (UVA 365.0 nm for 30 min), we found that A. pisum could enhance L-DOPA assimilation for wound healing and UVA-radiation protection. Therefore, we conclude that A. pisum could acquire L-DOPA and use it to prevent UVA damage. This study reveals a successful co-evolution between A. pisum and V. faba. PMID:27006098

  17. Pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum sequesters plant-derived secondary metabolite L-DOPA for wound healing and UVA resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Tian, Hong-Gang; Fan, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Herbivores can ingest and store plant-synthesized toxic compounds in their bodies, and sequester those compounds for their own benefits. The broad bean, Vicia faba L., contains a high quantity of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), which is toxic to many insects. However, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, can feed on V. faba normally, whereas many other aphid species could not. In this study, we investigated how A. pisum utilizes plant-derived L-DOPA for their own benefit. L-DOPA concentrations in V. faba and A. pisum were analyzed to prove L-DOPA sequestration. L-DOPA toxicity was bioassayed using an artificial diet containing high concentrations of L-DOPA. We found that A. pisum could effectively adapt and store L-DOPA, transmit it from one generation to the next. We also found that L-DOPA sequestration verity differed in different morphs of A. pisum. After analyzing the melanization efficiency in wounds, mortality and deformity of the aphids at different concentrations of L-DOPA under ultraviolet radiation (UVA 365.0 nm for 30 min), we found that A. pisum could enhance L-DOPA assimilation for wound healing and UVA-radiation protection. Therefore, we conclude that A. pisum could acquire L-DOPA and use it to prevent UVA damage. This study reveals a successful co-evolution between A. pisum and V. faba. PMID:27006098

  18. Escherichia coli K-12 pathogenicity in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, reveals reduced antibacterial defense in aphids.

    PubMed

    Altincicek, Boran; Ter Braak, Bas; Laughton, Alice M; Udekwu, Klas I; Gerardo, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    To better understand the molecular basis underlying aphid immune tolerance to beneficial bacteria and immune defense to pathogenic bacteria, we characterized how the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum responds to Escherichia coli K-12 infections. E. coli bacteria, usually cleared in the hemolymph of other insect species, were capable of growing exponentially and killing aphids within a few days. Red fluorescence protein expressing E. coli K-12 laboratory strain multiplied in the aphid hemolymph as well as in the digestive tract, resulting in death of infected aphids. Selected gene deletion mutants of the E. coli K-12 predicted to have reduced virulence during systemic infections showed no difference in either replication or killing rate when compared to the wild type E. coli strain. Of note, however, the XL1-Blue E. coli K-12 strain exhibited a significant lag phase before multiplying and killing aphids. This bacterial strain has recently been shown to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than other E. coli K-12 strains, revealing a potential role for reactive oxygen species-mediated defenses in the otherwise reduced aphid immune system.

  19. Antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months) produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE) containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic. PMID:23292331

  20. Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Costechareyre, Denis; Balmand, Séverine; Condemine, Guy; Rahbé, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii (syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi) is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Hemiptera). The infection route of the pathogen, and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host. We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. D. dadantii was found to form dense clusters in many luminal parts of the aphid intestinal tract, including the stomach, from which it invaded internal tissues as early as day 1 post-infection. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10(8) cfu. Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel. Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria.

  1. High irradiance increases NH(4)(+) tolerance in Pisum sativum: Higher carbon and energy availability improve ion balance but not N assimilation.

    PubMed

    Ariz, Idoia; Artola, Ekhiñe; Asensio, Aaron Cabrera; Cruchaga, Saioa; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro María; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The widespread use of NO(3)(-) fertilization has had a major ecological impact. NH(4)(+) nutrition may help to reduce this impact, although high NH(4)(+) concentrations are toxic for most plants. The underlying tolerance mechanisms are not yet fully understood, although they are thought to include the limitation of C, the disruption of ion homeostasis, and a wasteful NH(4)(+) influx/efflux cycle that carries an extra energetic cost for root cells. In this study, high irradiance (HI) was found to induce a notable tolerance to NH(4)(+) in the range 2.5-10mM in pea plants by inducing higher C availability, as shown by carbohydrate content. This capacity was accompanied by a general lower relative N content, indicating that tolerance is not achieved through higher net N assimilation on C-skeletons, and it was also not attributable to increased GS content or activity in roots or leaves. Moreover, HI plants showed higher ATP content and respiration rates. This extra energy availability is related to the internal NH(4)(+) content regulation (probably NH(4)(+) influx/efflux) and to an improvement of the cell ionic balance. The limited C availability at lower irradiance (LI) and high NH(4)(+) resulted in a series of metabolic imbalances, as reflected in a much higher organic acid content, thereby suggesting that the origin of the toxicity in plants cultured at high NH(4)(+) and LI is related to their inability to avoid large-scale accumulation of the NH(4)(+) ion.

  2. Phenotypic effect of substitution of allelic variants for a histone H1 subtype specific for growing tissues in the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Vera S; Kosterin, Oleg E; Berdnikov, Vladimir A

    2007-05-01

    In pea, subtype H1-7 of histone H1 is specific for young actively growing tissues and disappears from chromatin of mature tissues. We sequenced the alleles coding for three main variants, numbered according to the increase of the electrophoretic mobility. Allele 1 differs from the most common allele 2 by eight nucleotide substitutions, two of them associated with amino acid replacements, His->Tyr in the globular domain and Ala->Val in the C-terminal domain. Allele 3 differs from alleles 1 and 2 by a 24-bp deletion in the part coding for the C-terminal domain. In three greenhouse experiments, we compared quantitative traits in nearly isogenic lines differing by these H1-7 variants. In experiment 1, three lines bearing either of the three allelic variants were compared, the other experiments involved pairs of lines bearing variants 1 and 3. In all experiments, statistically significant differences between the lines were registered, mostly related to the plant size. The most prominent effect was associated with plant growth dynamics. Plants of line 3, carrying the 8-amino acid deletion in histone H1-7, on average grew slower. In two experiments, the differences of the mean stem length persisted throughout plant growth while in experiment 2 differences disappeared upon maturity. The H1-7 subtype is supposed to be related to maintenance of chromatin state characteristic for cell growth and division. PMID:16900316

  3. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research.

  4. Identification of Diaporthe longicolla on dry edible peas (Pisum sativum), dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybeans (Glycine max) in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaporthe longicolla is a fungal pathogen that causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem disease of soybean, economically important diseases in some U.S. states. Dry edible bean, dry edible pea and soybean stems with unidentified lesions were collected from fields in North Dakota. Diaporthe longicolla ...

  5. Photoperiod-induced changes in gibberellin metabolism in relation to apical growth and senescence in genetic lines of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Proebsting, W M; Davies, P J; Marx, G A

    1978-01-01

    In an early-flowering line of pea (G2) apical senescence occurs only in long days (LD), while growth in short days (SD) is indeterminate. In SD, G2 plants are known to produce a graft-transmissible substance which delays apical senescence in related lines that are photoperiod-insensitive with regard to apical senescence. Gibberellic acid (GA3) applied to the apical bud of G2 plants in LD delayed apical senescence indefinitely, while N(6)-benzyladenine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid were ineffective. Of the gibberellins native to pea, GA9 had no effect whereas GA20 had a moderate senescence-delaying effect. [(3)H]GA9 metabolism in intact leaves of G2 plants was inhibited by LD and was restored by placing the plants back in SD. Leaves of photoperiod-insensitive lines (I-types) metabolized GA9 readily regardless of photoperiod, but the metabolites differed qualitatively from those in G2 leaves. A polar GA9 metabolite, GAE, was found only in G2 plants in SD. The level of GA-like substances in methanol extracts from G2 plants dropped about 10-fold after the plants were moved from SD to LD; it was restored by transferring the plants back to SD. A polar zone of these GA-like materials co-chromatographed with GAE. It is suggested that a polar gibberellin is synthesized by G2 plants in SD; this gibberellin promotes shoot growth and meristematic activity in the shoot apex, preventing senescence. PMID:24414866

  6. Cloning of genes whose expression is correlated with mitosis and localized in dividing cells in root caps of Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Woo, H H; Hawes, M C

    1997-12-01

    Removal of border cells from pea roots synchronizes and induces root cap cell division, wall biogenesis and differentiation. Three messages which are expressed differentially in such induced root caps have been cloned. Sequence analyses showed that the PsHRGP1-encoded protein has high homology with a homology with a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein. The PsCaP23-encoded protein has high homology with an alfalfa callus protein or translationally controlled human or mouse tumor protein P23. The PsRbL41-encoded protein has high homology with a highly basic 60S ribosomal protein L41. In situ hybridization showed that PsHRGP1. PsCaP23 and PsRbL41 messages are localized within dividing cells of the root cap. PsHRGP1 is highly expressed in uninduced root caps, but its message is repressed by 10-11 times as soon as cell division and differentiation begin. Expression of PsHRGP1 recovers to higher than (180%) its initial level in 30 min. PsHRGP1 is root-specific. PsCaP23 and PsRbL41 messages increase ca. 3-fold within 15 min after root cap induction. All three genes represent small families of 3-5 closely related genes in the pea genome.

  7. Can sucrose content in the phloem sap reaching field pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) be an accurate indicator of seed growth potential?

    PubMed

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Salon, Christophe

    2003-11-01

    The composition of the translocates reaching the seeds of pea plants having various nitrogen (N) nutrition regimes was investigated under field situations. Sucrose flow in the phloem sap increased with the node number, but was not significantly different between N nutrition levels. Because N deficiency reduced the number of flowering nodes and the number of seeds per pod, the sucrose flow bleeding from cut peduncles was divided by the number of seeds to give the amount of assimilates available per seed. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap supplied to seeds at the upper nodes was higher than that at the lower nodes. The flow of sucrose delivered to the seeds during the cell division period was correlated with seed growth potential. Seeds from the more N-stressed plants had both the highest seed growth rate and received a higher sucrose flux per seed during the cell division period. As seed growth rate is highly correlated with the number of cotyledonary cells produced during the cell division period, sucrose flow in phloem sap is proposed to be an important determinant of mitotic activity in seed embryos. The carbon (C)/N ratio of the flow of translocates towards seeds was higher under conditions of N-deficiency than with optimal N nutrition, indicating that N flux towards seeds, in itself, is not the main determinant of seed growth potential.

  8. Analysis of the accumulation of Pea enation mosaic virus genomes in seed tissues and lack of evidence for seed transmission in pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail; Larsen, Richard; Murray, Sarah; McPhee, Kevin; Coyne, Clarice

    2009-11-01

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is an important virus disease of pea. International movement of commercial pea cultivars and germplasm can be problematic due to uncertainty about seed transmission of the viruses responsible for the disease. Whether PEMV is seedborne was assessed by collecting developing seed from infected plants and determining the relative concentrations of the PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 viral genomes using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relative accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 was approximately 1,240 and 13,000 times higher, respectively, in leaf than in embryo tissues. Accumulation of PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 RNA was also significantly higher in pod walls and seed coats than in cotyledons or embryo axes. No evidence was obtained for seed transmission of PEMV in pea. Although PEMV-1 and PEMV-2 genomic RNAs were found in developing seed, no PEMV symptoms were observed in the field on more than 50,000 plants from seed derived from PEMV-infected source plants. These data demonstrate that PEMV is seedborne in pea but do not support a previous report that PEMV is seed transmitted. Absence of seed transmission may result from the low abundance of PEMV viral genomes in embryo tissue.

  9. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests. PMID:26364294

  10. Expression of the chloroplast thioredoxins f and m is linked to short-term changes in the sugar and thiol status in leaves of Pisum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Sahrawy, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxins (TRXs) f and m are key components in the light regulation of photosynthetic metabolism via thiol–dithiol modulation in chloroplasts of leaves; however, little is known about the factors modulating the expression of these proteins. To investigate the effect of sugars as photosynthetic products on the expression of PsTRX f and m1 genes, sucrose and glucose were externally supplied to pea plants during the day. There was an increase in the mRNA levels of PsTRX f and m1 genes in response mainly to glucose. When leaf discs were incubated for up to 4h in the dark, glucose also led to an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of TRXs f and m, while sucrose had no substantial effect. Expression of PsDOF7, a carbon metabolism-related transcription factor gene, was also induced by glucose. Protein–DNA interaction showed that PsDOF7 binds specifically to the DOF core located in PsTRX f and m1 gene promoters. Transient expression in agroinfiltrated pea leaves demonstrated that PsDOF7 activated transcription of both promoters. The incubation of leaf discs in dithiotreitol (DTT) to increase the redox status led to a marked increase in the mRNA and protein levels of both TRXs within 4h. The increase in TRX protein levels occurred after 1h DTT feeding, implying a rapid effect of the thiol status on TRX f and m1 protein turnover rates, while transcriptional regulation took 3h to proceed. These results show that the protein levels of both TRXs are under short-term control of the sugar and thiol status in plants. PMID:22791824

  11. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was <5% after 8 days at 0.63 μl/ml furfural. The same furfural concentrations after 12 h caused 57.25% loss of viability in J2. Moreover, the penetration rate of juveniles to pea roots was suppressed when furfural was even applied at low rates. In pot experiments, furfural was applied as liquid (direct) or vapor (indirect) treatments at rates of 0-1.5 ml/kg soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides.

  12. Translational Genomics in Legumes Allowed Placing In Silico 5460 Unigenes on the Pea Functional Map and Identified Candidate Genes in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    Bordat, Amandine; Savois, Vincent; Nicolas, Marie; Salse, Jérome; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bourgeois, Michael; Potier, Jean; Houtin, Hervé; Rond, Céline; Murat, Florent; Marget, Pascal; Aubert, Grégoire; Burstin, Judith

    2011-01-01

    To identify genes involved in phenotypic traits, translational genomics from highly characterized model plants to poorly characterized crop plants provides a valuable source of markers to saturate a zone of interest as well as functionally characterized candidate genes. In this paper, an integrated view of the pea genetic map was developed. A series of gene markers were mapped and their best reciprocal homologs were identified on M. truncatula, L. japonicus, soybean, and poplar pseudomolecules. Based on the syntenic relationships uncovered between pea and M. truncatula, 5460 pea Unigenes were tentatively placed on the consensus map. A new bioinformatics tool, http://www.thelegumeportal.net/pea_mtr_translational_toolkit, was developed that allows, for any gene sequence, to search its putative position on the pea consensus map and hence to search for candidate genes among neighboring Unigenes. As an example, a promising candidate gene for the hypernodulation mutation nod3 in pea was proposed based on the map position of the likely homolog of Pub1, a M. truncatula gene involved in nodulation regulation. A broader view of pea genome evolution was obtained by revealing syntenic relationships between pea and sequenced genomes. Blocks of synteny were identified which gave new insights into the evolution of chromosome structure in Papillionoids and Eudicots. The power of the translational genomics approach was underlined. PMID:22384322

  13. Effect of ensiling moist field bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum) and lupine (Lupinus spp.) grains on the contents of alkaloids, oligosaccharides and tannins.

    PubMed

    Gefrom, A; Ott, E M; Hoedtke, S; Zeyner, A

    2013-12-01

    Ensiling legume grain may be an inexpensive and ecologically interesting method to produce a high-protein feed of local origin. The typically patchy maturation recommends harvesting and ensiling the seeds in moist condition. Developing a method for preserving legume grains harvested before maturation by lactic acid fermentation would have several advantages. Under laboratory conditions, crushed legume seeds of beans, peas and lupines with high moisture content of 35 % were ensiled with different additives (molasses and lactic acid bacteria). To characterize the final silages, contents of proximate nutrients and antinutritional factors (alkaloids, oligosaccharides, tannins) were analysed. The addition of lactic acid bacteria ensured a fast and pronounced lactic acid production and decreased contents of undesired fermentation products like ethanol. An additional use of molasses for ensilage did not provide a remarkable additional benefit. Excluding sugar and starch, the contents of proximate nutrients were not remarkably altered after ensiling. As an overall effect, lactic acid fermentation reduced tannins and oligosaccharides. It can be supposed that the oligosaccharides after breakdown of the complex molecules acted as a source of fermentable carbohydrates. A relevant reduction of alkaloids did not occur. The lactic acid fermentation of legume grains can be recommended as an appropriate method for conservation. With respect to the economic advantages and compared with methods of chemical preservation, the lactic acid fermentation of legume grains under anaerobic conditions is an environmentally compliant procedure and therefore also an option for organic farming.

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis of BTH and BABA-induced resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) toward infection with pea rust (Uromyces pisi).

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Rubiales, Diego; Castillejo, Ma Ángeles

    2012-09-18

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to Uromyces pisi in pea was studied by using a proteomic approach. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used in order to compare the leaf proteome of two pea genotypes displaying different phenotypes (susceptible and partial resistance to the fungus), and in response to parasite infection under the effect of two inducers of SAR, BTH and BABA. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 126 differential protein spots under the experimental conditions (genotypes/treatments). All of these 126 protein spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry to deduce their possible functions. A total of 50 proteins were identified using a combination of peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MSMS fragmentation. Most of the identified proteins corresponded to enzymes belonging to photosynthesis, metabolism, biosynthesis, binding and defense response, whose behavior pattern was different in relation to susceptibility/resistance of the genotypes studied and to the BTH/BABA induction to pathogen response. Results obtained in this work suggested that plants could reduce their photosynthesis and other energy metabolism and enhance the production of defense-related proteins to cope the stress. On the other side, we postulated that resistance induced by the chemicals operates via different mechanisms: BABA inducer could act via phenolic biosynthesis pathway, whereas resistance provided by BTH inducer seems to be mediated by defense and stress-related proteins. The results are discussed in terms of response to rust under the effect of inducers.

  15. Effects of temperature and sink activity on the transport of (14)C-labelled indol-3yl-acetic acid in the intact pea plant (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Eliezer, J; Morris, D A

    1979-12-01

    The velocity and intensity of basipetal transport of (14)C-labelled indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) applied to the apical bud of the intact pea plant were influenced by the temperature to which the stem was exposed and were not influenced by changes in the temperature of the root system when this was controlled independently between 5°C and 35°C. The velocity of transport increased steadily with temperature to a maximum in excess of 35°C and then fell sharply with further increase in temperature. The Q10 for velocity, determined from Arrhenius plots, was low (ca. 1.3). Transport intensity increased to a maximum at about 25°C (Q10=2.2) and then declined gradually with further increase in temperature. It is suggested that transport velocity and transport intensity are controlled independently.The characteristics of auxin transport through the stem were not affected by removal of the root system, or by the withdrawl of root aeration. Labelled IAA did not pass a region of the stem cooled to about 1.0°C, or through a narrow zone of stem tissue killed by heat treatment. In the latter case the heat treatment was shown not to interfere with the upward transport of water in the xylem. Labelled IAA continued to move into, and to accumulate in, the tissues immediately above a cooled or heat-killed region of the stem. It was concluded that the long-distance basipetal transport of auxin through the stem of the intact plant is driven by the transporting cells themselves and is independent of the activity of sinks for the transported auxin.The fronts of the observed tracer profiles in the stem were closely fitted by error function diffusion analogue curves. However, diffusion of IAA alone could not account for the observed characteristics of the transport and it is suggested that the curvilinear fronts of the profiles resulted from a diffusive mixing of exogenous IAA (or IAA-carrier complexes) with endogenous IAA already in the transport pathway. PMID:24311035

  16. Highly Potent Extracts from Pea (Pisum sativum) and Maize (Zea mays) Roots Can Be Used to Induce Quiescence in Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Hiltpold, Ivan; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-09-01

    Root exudates can play an important role in plant-nematode interactions. Recent studies have shown that the root cap exudates obtained from several plant species trigger a state of dormancy or quiescence in various genera of nematodes. This phenomenon is not only of fundamental ecological interest, but also has application potential if the plant-produced compound(s) could be used to control harmful nematodes or help to prolong the shelf-life of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The identification of the compound(s) involved in quiescence induction has proven to be a major challenge and requires large amounts of active material. Here, we present a high-throughput method to obtain bioactive root extracts from flash-frozen root caps of green pea and maize. The root cap extract obtained via this method was considerably more potent in inducing quiescence than exudate obtained by a previously used method, and consistently induced quiescence in the EPN Heterorhabditis megidis, even after a 30-fold dilution. Extracts obtained from the rest of the root were equally effective in inducing quiescence. Infective juveniles (IJs) of H. megidis exposed to these extracts readily recovered from their quiescent state as soon as they were placed in moist soil, and they were at least as infectious as the IJs that had been stored in water. Excessive exposure of IJs to air interfered with the triggering of quiescence. The implications of these results and the next steps towards identification of the quiescence-inducing compound(s) are discussed from the perspective of applying EPN against soil-dwelling insect pests.

  17. The power of EST sequence data: Relation to Acyrthosiphon pisum genome annotation and functional genomics initiatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes important to aphid biology, survival and reproduction were successfully identified by use of a genomics approach. We created and described the Sequencing, compilation, and annotation of the approxiamtely 525Mb nuclear genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which represents an important ...

  18. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the genetic diversity of the USDA pisum diversity collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA expanded Pisum Single Plant (PSP) core collection is a unique resource that represents the breadth of the genetic diversity of the genus in an inbred format that facilitates genetic study. The collection includes inbred accessions from the refined pea core collection, parent lines of USDA r...

  19. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:25252813

  20. Genome sequence of vanilla distortion mosaic virus infecting Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Adams, I P; Rai, S; Deka, M; Harju, V; Hodges, T; Hayward, G; Skelton, A; Fox, A; Boonham, N

    2014-12-01

    The 9573-nucleotide genome of a potyvirus was sequenced from a Coriandrum sativum plant from India with viral symptoms. On analysis, this virus was shown to have greater than 85 % nucleotide sequence identity to vanilla distortion mosaic virus (VDMV). Analysis of the putative coat protein sequence confirmed that this virus was in fact VDMV, with greater than 91 % amino acid sequence identity. The genome appears to encode a 3083-amino-acid polyprotein potentially cleaved into the 10 mature proteins expected in potyviruses. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that VDMV is a distinct but ungrouped member of the genus Potyvirus.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-01

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (p<0.05) and albendazole (p<0.001). On days 7 and 14 post treatment, significant FECR was not detected for both doses of Coriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (p<0.05) TWCR was detected only for higher dose of Coriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  2. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of water extract of Coriander sativum leaves.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Mariana Ramírez; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Angeles, Oscar Torres; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Coriander has been used as a spice and medicinal plant for centuries. Several studies have described its biological properties and some reports have indicated its pharmacological actions in some human pathology. However, data on its toxicity and metabolism are limited or null, and no research has been conducted with mammalian cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity and safety of Coriandrum sativum extract. The mutagenic effects of C. sativum extract were evaluated by Ames test. Mutagenicity was present when the C. sativum extract was used in high concentrations in both tested strains (Salmonella typhimurium TA97 and TA102). Our research showed that C. sativum extract reduced the cell survival of human cell lines (WRL-68 and 293Q cells) by inducing apoptosis and necrosis in the cases where extract concentration was the highest. The C. sativum extract altered the cell cycle; it increased the G1 phase of hepatic cells and reduced the G2+M phase in both cell lines in a dose-response manner. These results showed correlation with a reduction in the mitotic index. The extract also induced severe malformations during embryonic development. Exposure of chicken embryos to the C. sativum extract resulted in a dose-dependent increase of anomalies. Present results show that C. sativum extract reduced the axial skeleton and affected the neural tube, the somites, the cardiovascular structures, and the eye. According to the present results, the C. sativum aqueous extract cannot be considered safe. These results indicate that some significant adverse effects of C. sativum extract could be observed in vivo.

  3. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  4. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  5. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26036599

  6. Assessing phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular diversity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to elucidate phenotypic and biochemical diversity in 60 coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) accessions maintained at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station and examine relationships between amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and patterns of phenot...

  7. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-09-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the "mind" is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum.

  8. The Analgesic Effects of Different Extracts of Aerial Parts of Coriandrum Sativum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh Kazempor, Seyedeh; Vafadar langehbiz, Shabnam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Naser Shafei, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourganji, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) on central nervous system, in the present study analgesic properties of different extracts of C. sativum aerial partswere investigated. The mice were treated by saline, morphine, three doses (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous, ethanolic, choloroformic extracts of C. sativum and one dose (100 mg/kg) of aqueous, two doses of ethanolic (100 and 500 mg/kg) and one dose of choloroformic (20 mg/kg) extracts of C. sativum pretreated by naloxone. Recording of the hot plate test was performed 10 min before injection of the drugs as a base and it was consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the extracts injection. The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the groups treated by three doses of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts were significantly higher than saline group which were comparable to the effect of morphine. The effects of most effective doses of extracts were reversed by naloxone. The results of present study showed analgesic effect of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of C. sativum extract. These effects of the extracts may be mediated by opioid system. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact responsible mechanism(s) and the effective compound(s).

  9. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3.

  10. Allium sativum-induced death of African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Nok, A J; Williams, S; Onyenekwe, P C

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Allium sativum (Liliacea) on trypanosome-infected mice was examined. At a dose of 5.0 mg/ml, the oily extract from the pulp completely suppressed the ability of the parasites to be infective in the host. Column chromatography of the extract gave four fractions: ethylacetate/methanol, ethylacetate/ethanol, benzene/methanol, and acetic acid/methanol. Among these fractions, the acetic acid/methanol fraction retained the trypanocidal features of the crude extract. It cured experimentally infected mice of trypanosomiasis in 4 days when given at a dose of 120 mg/kg per day. The extract also manifested inhibition of procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and phospholipases from T. congolense, T. b. brucei, T. vivax. The extract appears to be diallyl-disulfide (DAD) and may interfere with the parasites' synthesis of membrane lipids. PMID:8875572

  11. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  12. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer.

  13. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer. PMID:25776008

  14. Ethylene interacts with abscisic acid to regulate endosperm rupture during germination: a comparative approach using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Linkies, Ada; Müller, Kerstin; Morris, Karl; Turecková, Veronika; Wenk, Meike; Cadman, Cassandra S C; Corbineau, Françoise; Strnad, Miroslav; Lynn, James R; Finch-Savage, William E; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The micropylar endosperm cap covering the radicle in the mature seeds of most angiosperms acts as a constraint that regulates seed germination. Here, we report on a comparative seed biology study with the close Brassicaceae relatives Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana showing that ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulate seed germination by a mechanism that requires the coordinated action of the radicle and the endosperm cap. The larger seed size of Lepidium allows direct tissue-specific biomechanical, biochemical, and transcriptome analyses. We show that ethylene promotes endosperm cap weakening of Lepidium and endosperm rupture of both species and that it counteracts the inhibitory action of abscisic acid (ABA) on these two processes. Cross-species microarrays of the Lepidium micropylar endosperm cap and the radicle show that the ethylene-ABA antagonism involves both tissues and has the micropylar endosperm cap as a major target. Ethylene counteracts the ABA-induced inhibition without affecting seed ABA levels. The Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants ACC oxidase2 (aco2; ethylene biosynthesis) and constitutive triple response1 (ethylene signaling) are impaired in the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-mediated reversion of the ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination. Ethylene production by the ACC oxidase orthologs Lepidium ACO2 and Arabidopsis ACO2 appears to be a key regulatory step. Endosperm cap weakening and rupture are promoted by ethylene and inhibited by ABA to regulate germination in a process conserved across the Brassicaceae.

  15. Antileishmanial activity of a mixture of Tridax procumbens and Allium sativum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Leon, Rubi; Vera-Ku, Marina; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R.; Ku-Chulim, Carlos; Horta-Baas, Aurelio; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We tested a mixture of Tridax procumbens, known for its direct action against Leishmania mexicana, and Allium sativum, known for its immunomodulatory effect, as an alternative to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acute oral toxicity was tested with the Up-and-Down Procedure (UDP) using a group of healthy mice administered with either T. procumbens or A. sativum extracts and compared with a control group. Liver injury and other parameters of toxicity were determined in mice at day 14. The in vivo assay was performed with mice infected with L. mexicana promastigotes and treated with either a mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum or each extract separately. The thickness of the mice’s footpads was measured weekly. After the 12-week period of infection, blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture to determine the total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a immunoglobulins by a noncommercial indirect ELISA. We showed that the mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts was better at controlling L. mexicana infection while not being toxic when tested in the acute oral toxicity assay in mice. An increase in the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 indicated a tendency to raise a Th1-type immune response in mice treated with the mixture. The mixture of T. procumbens and A. sativum extracts is a promising natural treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis and its healing effects make it a good candidate for a possible new phytomedicine. PMID:24717526

  16. Lesion mimic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a substantial number of lesion mimic mutants (LMM) have been isolated and a growing number of the genes have been cloned. It is now becoming clear that these mutants are valuable tools to dissect various aspects of programmed cell death (PCD) and pathogen resistance pathways in plants. Together with other forward genetics approaches LMMs shed light on the PCD machinery in plant cells and revealed important roles for sphingolipids, Ca2+ and chloroplast-derived porphyrin-metabolites during cell death development. PMID:19513227

  17. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. New report of Phoma glomerata on Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Rodeva, R; Carrieri, R; Stoyanova, Z; Dacheva, S; Lahoz, E; Fanigliulo, A; Crescenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, coriander plants (Coriandrum sativum L.), showing symptoms of greyish to hell brown lesions with dark brown border between discoloured and asymptomatic tissues, were observed in Bulgaria. Pycnidia with small unicellular conidia appeared in the pale centre of the lesions. In this work, the identification of the causal agent of this disease was made applying Koch's postulates. Moreover, for a rapid and unambiguous identification of the fungal species, the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8 rDNA gene (ITS1-5.8-ITS2) were amplified by PCR from DNA extracted from the isolated colonies. The amplicon was sequenced and analyzed using BLASTn, and showed a homology of 100% with a corresponding sequence of Phoma glomerata (accession number DQ093699). The fungus isolated, after the morphological and molecular characterization, was ascribed to the species Phoma glomerata (Corda) Wollenweber and Hochapfel. This is the first report of P. glomerata as agent of stem rot of coriander in Bulgaria and elsewhere.

  19. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  20. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  1. Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide Mutants Elicit Feedback Regulation of Nodule Formation in Alfalfa 1

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Lagares, Antonio; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1990-01-01

    Nodule formation by wild-type Rhizobium meliloti is strongly suppressed in younger parts of alfalfa (Medicago sativum L.) root systems as a feedback response to development of the first nodules (G Caetano-Anollés, WD Bauer [1988] Planta 175: 546-557). Mutants of R. meliloti deficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis can induce the formation of organized nodular structures (pseudonodules) on alfalfa roots but are defective in their ability to invade and multiply within host tissues. The formation of empty pseudonodules by exo mutants was found to elicit a feedback suppression of nodule formation similar to that elicited by the wild-type bacteria. Inoculation of an exo mutant onto one side of a split-root system 24 hours before inoculation of the second side with wild-type cells suppressed wild-type nodule formation on the second side in proportion to the extent of pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants. The formation of pseudonodules is thus sufficient to elicit systemic feedback control of nodulation in the host root system: infection thread development and internal proliferation of the bacteria are not required for elicitation of feedback. Pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants was found to be strongly suppressed in split-root systems by prior inoculation on the opposite side with the wild type. Thus, feedback control elicited by the wild-type inhibits Rhizobium-induced redifferentiation of host root cells. PMID:16667284

  2. Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants elicit feedback regulation of nodule formation in alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Caetano-Anolles, G.; Lagares, A.; Bauer, W.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Nodule formation by wild-type Rhizobium meliloti is strongly suppressed in younger parts of alfalfa (Medicago sativum L.) root systems as a feedback response to development of the first nodules. Mutants of R. meliloti deficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis can induce the formation of organized nodular structures (pseudonodules) on alfalfa roots but are defective in their ability to invade and multiply within host tissues. The formation of empty pseudonodules by exo mutants was found to elicit a feedback suppression of nodule formation similar to that elicited by the wild-type bacteria. Inoculation of an exo mutant onto one side of a split-root system 24 hours before inoculation of the second side with wild-type cells suppressed wild-type nodule formation on the second side in proportion to the extent of pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants. The formation of pseudonodules is thus sufficient to elicit systemic feedback control of nodulation in the host root system: infection thread development and internal proliferation of the bacteria are not required for elicitation of feedback. Pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants was found to be strongly suppressed in split-root systems by prior inoculation on the opposite side with the wild type. Thus, feedback control elicited by the wild-type inhibits Rhizobium-induced redifferentiation of host root cells.

  3. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet t...

  4. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-06-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components.

  5. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-06-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components. PMID:27486367

  6. Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lakhera, Abhijeet; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2015-01-01

    Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies. Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components. PMID:27486367

  7. Uptake of arsenic by New Zealand watercress (Lepidium sativum).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brett; Duwig, Céline; Bolan, Nanthi; Kannathasan, M; Saravanan, A

    2003-01-01

    Watercress (Lepidium sativum) is consumed as a vegetable, especially by the indigenous community in New Zealand. An investigation was carried out on the accumulation of arsenic by watercress, following earlier reports of inordinate arsenic concentrations in some aquatic macrophytes collected from the Waikato River, North Island, New Zealand. The Waikato River and some other aquatic systems in Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand have elevated arsenic concentrations due to geothermal activity. Watercress, river water and sediment samples were collected from 27 sites along the Waikato river and analysed for arsenic. Greenhouse trials with watercress grown in beakers containing added arsenic were conducted to confirm the ability of this species to accumulate arsenic. At a number of sites, the concentration of arsenic in both the water and the watercress samples exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) limit for drinking water (0.01 mg l(-1)) and foodstuffs (2 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis). The average leaf and stem arsenic concentrations were, respectively, 29.0 and 15.9 mg kg(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Plants grown in solutions of >0.4 mg l(-1) arsenic concentration had fresh weight arsenic concentrations above the WHO limit. Despite these higher concentrations, arsenic levels in plants grown under greenhouse conditions were approximately fivefold lower than in plants growing in the Waikato River, possibly because under natural conditions, the watercress is rooted in sediment containing on average approximately 35 mg kg(-1) arsenic. It is recommended that watercress from the Waikato River, or other areas with elevated water arsenic concentrations, should not be consumed.

  8. Allium sativum: facts and myths regarding human health.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the most researched and best-selling herbal products on the market. For centuries it was used as a traditional remedy for most health-related disorders. Also, it is widely used as a food ingredient--spice and aphrodisiac. Garlic's properties result from a combination of variety biologically active substances which all together are responsible for its curative effect. The compounds contained in garlic synergistically influence each other so that they can have different effects. The active ingredients of garlic include enzymes (e.g. alliinase), sulfur-containing compounds such as alliin and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (e.g. allicin). There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The concentration of Allicin (main active ingredient) and the source of garlic's distinctive odor depend on processing method. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemicals rather quickly. It's documented that products obtained even without allicin such as aged garlic extract (AGE), have a clear and significant biological effect in immune system improvement, treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, liver and other areas. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of purposes, including treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, cold or the prevention of atherosclerosis and the development of tumors. Many available publications indicates possible antibacterial, anti-hypertensive and anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Due to the chemical complexity of garlic and the use of different processing methods we obtain formulations with varying degrees of efficacy and safety. PMID:24964572

  9. Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

  10. Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suppress induced plant volatiles in broad bean, Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Böröczky, Katalin; Tumlinson, James H

    2011-10-01

    Plants defend themselves against herbivory through several means, including the production of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOCs benefit plants by attracting natural enemies of their herbivores. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is able to feed on its host plant, Vicia faba, without inducing detectable changes in plant VOC emission. Levels of VOCs emission are not significantly different between control plants and those fed upon by aphids for up to 5 days. Using a second herbivore, the beet armyworm caterpillar, Spodoptera exigua, we demonstrate that several expected caterpillar-induced VOCs are reduced when co-infested with pea aphids, thus demonstrating that pea aphids have the ability to inhibit the release of certain VOCs. This study shows, for the first time, that aphids not only avoid triggering plant volatile emission, but also can actively inhibit herbivore-induced volatiles.

  11. Influence of combined use of iodide and compost on Hg accumulation by Lepidium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Beata; Leszczynska, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the influence of adding iodide (KI) and compost in different soil/compost ratios on the efficiency of Hg phytoextraction by Lepidium sativum L. Plant growth and non-enzymatic antioxidants are studied to understand metabolic plant adaptations to Hg stress during soil reclamation and their relations to Hg accumulation. Due to the use of relatively high chelant dosages in current plant-based soil remediation techniques and associated environmental risks, it is necessary to explore alternative approaches to the phytoextraction of Hg from contaminated soils. The results show a coordinated increase in non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants cultivated in growing media containing polluted soil, compost and KI. This indicates that the non-enzymatic antioxidative defence system of L. sativum L. is involved in its strategy to survive conditions of mercury-induced stress. Adding compost and iodide to Hg polluted soil also increases the total accumulation of Hg by L. sativum L. and the translocation of pollutants to aerial plant tissues. Simultaneous application of compost and KI promoted the Hg accumulation by L. sativum L. in a pot experiment.

  12. Effects of steam distillation on extraction, composition, and functional properties of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual plant commonly used as fresh green herb, spice, or for its essential oil. A newly-developed process combined steam distillation and mechanical pressing to recover the essential oil and edible oil, respectively, from dehulled coriander seeds. The c...

  13. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. PMID:27379342

  14. Allium sativum L.: the anti-immature leech (Limnatis nilotica) activity compared to Niclosomide.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Javad; Mohsenzadegan, Ava; Sadeghian, Sirous; Ahangaran, Majid Gholami

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Allium sativum L. on Limnatis nilotica compared with Niclosomide. In this experimental study in September 2010, a number of leeches (70 in total) from the southern area of Ilam province were prepared, and the effects of methanolic extract of A. sativum L. with Niclosomide as the control drug were compared and distilled water was evaluated as the placebo group which investigated L. nilotica using anti-leech assay. The average time of paralysis and death of L. nilotica for Niclosomide (1,250 mg/kg) and the methanol extract of A. sativum L. (600 μg/ml) were 6.22 ± 2.94 and 68.44 ± 28.39 min, respectively. Distilled water and garlic tablets at a dose of 400 mg were determined as the inert group. In this research, the attraction time of the leeches' death among different treatments is significant. In this study, it was determined that Niclosomide, with an intensity of 4+, and methanolic extracts of A. sativum L., with an intensity of 3+, have a good anti-leech effect and can be shown to be effective in cases of leech biting, while distilled water was negative. PMID:23483830

  15. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  16. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  17. Two developmental switch points for the wing polymorphisms in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs. Results The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the embryonic stages the primordia are degenerated or not developed. In contrast, in viviparous females and males, the differentiation points to winged or wingless morphs occurred at the early postembryonic instars (first or second instar). Conclusions Based on the above observations together with previous studies, we propose that there are two developmental switch points (embryonic and postembryonic) for the flight-apparatus development in A. pisum. Since there are multiple developmental trajectories for four wingless phenotypes (wingless viviparous females, oviparous females, fandatrices, wingless males), it is suggested that the developmental pathways leading to various morphs were evolutionarily acquired independently under selective pressures specific to each morph. Especially in viviparous females, the delay of determination is thought to contribute to the condition-dependent expressions of alternative phenotypes, that is, phenotypic plasticity. PMID:24175956

  18. Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum and protection against DNA damage and cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coriandrum sativum is a popular culinary and medicinal herb of the Apiaceae family. Health promoting properties of this herb have been reported in pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. However, studies on C. sativum have always focused on the aerial parts of the herb and scientific investigation on the root is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum root, leaf and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against DNA damage, with special focus on the roots. Methods Powdered roots, leaves and stems of C. sativum were extracted through sequential extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured. Anti-proliferative activitiy on the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was assayed using the MTT assay. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and of the caspases-3, -8 and -9 were assayed on treatment with the extract. Cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry. The scratch motility assay was used to assess inhibition of MCF-7 cell migration. DNA damage in 3 T3-L1 fibroblasts was evaluated by the comet assay. The components in the extract were identified by HPLC and GC-MS. Results The ethyl acetate extract of C. sativum roots showed the highest antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 200.0 ± 2.6 μg/mL) and had the highest phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. C. sativum root inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration induced by H2O2, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention and inhibition of metastasis. The extract exhibited anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells by affecting antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by

  19. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes. PMID:9007229

  20. The Effects of Allium sativum Extracts on Biofilm Formation and Activities of Six Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenipour, Zeinab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Garlic is considered a rich source of many compounds, which shows antimicrobial effects. The ability of microorganisms to adhere to both biotic and abiotic surfaces and to form biofilm is responsible for a number of diseases of chronic nature, demonstrating extremely high resistance to antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of sessile microorganisms, embedded in an extracellular matrix and irreversibly attached to various surfaces. Objectives: The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Allium sativum extract against the biofilms of six pathogenic bacteria and their free-living forms. The clinical isolates in this study had not been studied in any other studies, especially in regard to biofilm disruption and inhibition of biofilm cell metabolic activity. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activities of A. sativum L. extracts (methanol and ethanol extracts) against planktonic forms of bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were evaluated by a macrobroth dilution technique. The anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method. Results: The results showed that the A. sativum L. extract discs did not have any zone of inhibition for the tested bacteria. However, The MIC values of A. sativum L. extracts (0.078 - 2.5 mg/mL) confirmed the high ability of these extracts for inhibition of planktonic bacteria. A. sativum L. extracts were efficient to inhibit biofilm structures and the concentration of each extract had a direct relation with the inhibitory effect. Conclusions: Finally, it can be suggested that the extracts of this plant be applied as antimicrobial agents against these pathogens, particularly in biofilm forms. PMID:26464762

  1. Impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles on cilantro ( Coriandrum sativum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Maria Isabel

    Studies have shown that plants exposed to ENPs suffer different types of stress. Other studies have revealed that plants can take up and accumulate CeO2 NPs without modification. Thus, these NPs could enter the food chain through edible plants, posing a threat for human health. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) is a worldwide culinary and medicinal plant consumed either as a fresh herb or a spice. In this research, cilantro plants were germinated and cultivated for 30 days in organic soil treated with CeO2 NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 500 mg kg -1. Subsequently, plant organs were analyzed by using spectroscopic techniques and biochemical assays. Results indicate that at 125 mg kg -1, the CeO2 NPs significantly increased the root size compared with the other treatments. The ICP-OES results showed that plants exposed to 500 mg kg-1 had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more Ce in shoots and roots compared to the other treatments. Results from the biochemical assays showed that at 125 mg kg-1, catalese activity significantly increased in shoots and ascorbate peroxidase in roots (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the FTIR analyses revealed that at 125 mg kg-1, the CeO2 NPs changed the chemical environment of the carbohydrates within the cilantro shoots, for which changes in the area of the stretching frequencies were observed. Moreover, analyses of antioxidant compounds showed a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction on total phenolic content in shoots of cilantro plants treated with 500 mg CeO2 NPs kg-1 . This suggests that the CeO2 NPs have the potential to diminish the ability of cilantro plants to scavenge reactive oxygen species. The multi-elemental analysis showed that plants treated with CeO2 at the 500 mg kg-1 treatment had a significant ( p ≤ 0.05) reduction in shoots' sulfur, silicon, and zinc accumulation. The results of this research indicate that the CeO2 NPs at 500 mg CeO2 kg-1 concentration cause a reduction in the antioxidant ability and nutritional properties

  2. Comparative analysis of the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome and expressed sequence tag-based gene sets from other aphid species.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, M; Legeai, F; Rispe, C

    2010-03-01

    To study gene repertoires and their evolution within aphids, we compared the complete genome sequence of Acyrthosiphon pisum (reference gene set) and expressed sequence tag (EST) data from three other species: Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii and Toxoptera citricida. We assembled ESTs, predicted coding sequences, and identified potential pairs of orthologues (reciprocical best hits) with A. pisum. Pairwise comparisons show that a fraction of the genes evolve fast (high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous rates), including many genes shared by aphids but with no hit in Uniprot. A detailed phylogenetic study for four fast-evolving genes (C002, JHAMT, Apo and GH) shows that rate accelerations are often associated with duplication events. We also compare compositional patterns between the two tribes of aphids, Aphidini and Macrosiphini.

  3. Parasites and pathogens of the endosymbiotic pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum) from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in England.

    PubMed

    Longshaw, Matt; Feist, Stephen W; Bateman, Kelly S

    2012-02-01

    A histopathological survey of the commensal pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum) from the mantle cavities of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) has been conducted. A total of 266 pea crabs from eight sites around the English coastline were examined. Of these, 82 were negative for any visible infections by histology. The remaining pea crabs were infected with an intranuclear bacilliform virus designated as P. pisum bacilliform virus (PpBV) in the hepatopancreatic epithelial cells, peritrichous ciliates on the gills, an intracytoplasmic microsporidian infection of the hepatopancreatocytes, a myophilic microsporidian infection, the gregarine Cephaloidophora fossor in the hepatopancreas, the entoniscid isopod Pinnotherion vermiforme, a low level nematode infection and an acanthocephalan cystacanth. Host reactions to infections were generally subdued. Results are discussed in relation to the endocommensal habitat of the pea crabs.

  4. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding.

  5. Prevalence, Development, and Significance of Ascochyta Blight Caused by Peyronellaea pinodes in Pisum elatius Populations Growing in Natural Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Golani, M; Frenkel, O; Bornstein, M; Shulhani, R; Abbo, S; Shtienberg, D

    2016-08-01

    Wild Pisum populations prevail in Israel in regions with diverse climatic conditions. A comprehensive survey was conducted in the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at two sites in northern Israel, aiming to (i) document the density of Pisum elatius plants in natural ecosystems and elucidate factors related to their initial infection by Ascochyta blight and (ii) determine the factors governing disease development over time on individual plants. The surveyors identified P. elatius plants growing in designated quadrats, inspected each plant visually, and recorded the incidence and severity of its Ascochyta blight symptoms. Ascochyta blight, caused by Peyronellaea pinodes, was ubiquitous in Pisum elatius populations at both survey sites in both seasons. However, the total leaf area exhibiting disease symptoms of individual plants was very low, and stem and pod infections were rarely observed. Based on analyses of the survey data, it was suggested that, in natural ecosystems, the teleomorph stage of Peyronellaea pinodes serves as the main source of the primary and the secondary inoculum of the disease. In addition, it was found that infected leaves dropped off soon after infection, thereby precluding development of stem lesions. The plants continued growing and did not die; thus, they overcame the disease and could be considered "cured". This phenomenon was examined and confirmed in artificially inoculated, potted-plant experiments. It would be worthwhile to exploit the potential of this unique resistance mechanism as a tool for Ascochyta blight management in pea breeding. PMID:27050576

  6. Identification of Arabidopsis rat Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Nam, Jaesung; Humara, Jaime M.; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Lee, Lan-Ying; Cao, Hongbin; Valentine, Lisa; Li, Jingling; Kaiser, Anthony D.; Kopecky, Andrea L.; Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Rao, Praveen K.; Tzfira, Tzvi; Rajagopal, Jyothi; Yi, HoChul; Veena; Yadav, Badam S.; Crane, Yan M.; Lin, Kui; Larcher, Yves; Gelvin, Matthew J.K.; Knue, Marnie; Ramos, Cynthia; Zhao, Xiaowen; Davis, Susan J.; Kim, Sang-Ic; Ranjith-Kumar, C.T.; Choi, Yoo-Jin; Hallan, Vipin K.; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Sui, Xiangzhen; Ziemienowicz, Alicja; Matthysse, Ann G.; Citovsky, Vitaly; Hohn, Barbara; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2003-01-01

    Limited knowledge currently exists regarding the roles of plant genes and proteins in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation process. To understand the host contribution to transformation, we carried out root-based transformation assays to identify Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation (rat mutants). To date, we have identified 126 rat mutants by screening libraries of T-DNA insertion mutants and by using various “reverse genetic” approaches. These mutants disrupt expression of genes of numerous categories, including chromatin structural and remodeling genes, and genes encoding proteins implicated in nuclear targeting, cell wall structure and metabolism, cytoskeleton structure and function, and signal transduction. Here, we present an update on the identification and characterization of these rat mutants. PMID:12805582

  7. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  8. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity.

  10. Effects of Coriandrum sativum Syrup on Migraine: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Zayeri, Farid; Minaei, Bagher; Kamali, Seyed Hamid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Amin, Gholamreza; Ghobadi, Ali; Mirzaei, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migraine is one of the most common and debilitating neurological problems. Although numerous preventive drugs are used to treat migraine, their complications are unavoidable. Application of herbal medicine, especially well-known medicinal plants, to treatment of chronic diseases, like migraine, could be effective. Coriandrum sativum L. (C. sativum) fruit is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs in Persian medicine, which has been used to treat headache. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of C. sativum syrup on duration, severity and frequency of migraine. Patients and Methods: A total of 68 migraineurs, who had the eligibility criteria, according to international headache society diagnostic criteria, were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 34) or control group (n = 34). In addition to 500 mg of sodium valproate per day, in intervention group, they received 15 mL of Coriander fruit syrup and 15 mL of placebo syrup, in control group, three times a day, during a month. The subjects were followed for clinical efficacy at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. The number of migraine attacks per week, as well as the duration and severity of attacks, were evaluated. Results: Of 68 patients randomized, 66 were included in analysis. The generalized estimating equations analysis showed that the Coriander fruit syrup decreased duration, severity and frequency of migraine, in the intervention group (P < 0.001). To be more precise, the mean migraine duration, severity and frequency, in the intervention group, were 5.7 hours, 3.65 units and about 50% less than control group, respectively. Conclusions: Results of this study showed that C. sativum fruit is efficient in reduction of the duration and frequency of migraine attacks and in diminishing pain degree. PMID:26889386

  11. Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 μg/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 μg/ml and above of PSA and 100 μg/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells.

  12. Strategies used by two apterous strains of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum for passive dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Tian, Hong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wingless forms of aphids are relatively sedentary, and have a limited ability to migrate or disperse. However, they can drop off hosts or walk away if disturbed, or their food quality or quantity become deteriorated. Earlier, we found that the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776), could use differed strategies to escape danger and locate new host plants. To determine the mechanisms behind the different strategies, we undertook a series of studies including the aphids' host location, energy reserves under starvation, glycogenesis, sugar assimilation, olfactory and probing behaviors. We found that in our controlled laboratory conditions, one strain (local laboratory strain) moved longer distances and dispersed wider ranges, and correspondingly these aphids assimilated more sugars, synthesized more glycogen, and moved faster than another strain (collected from Gansu Province, northwestern China). However, the latter strain could locate the host faster, probed leaves more frequently, and identified plant leaves more accurately than the former strain after they were starved. Our results explained how flightless or wingless insects adapt to fit biotic and abiotic challenges in the complex processes of natural selection. PMID:27628035

  13. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration.

  14. Expression pattern analysis of odorant-binding proteins in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    De Biasio, Filomena; Riviello, Lea; Bruno, Daniele; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Congiu, Terenzio; Sun, Yu Feng; Falabella, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are soluble proteins mediating chemoreception in insects. In previous research, we investigated the molecular mechanisms adopted by aphids to detect the alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene and we found that the recognition of this and structurally related molecules is mediated by OBP3 and OBP7. Here, we show the differential expression patterns of 5 selected OBPs (OBP1, OBP3, OBP6, OBP7, OBP8) obtained performing quantitative RT-PCR and immunolocalization experiments in different body parts of adults and in the 5 developmental instars, including winged and unwinged morphs, of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. The results provide an overall picture that allows us to speculate on the relationship between the differential expression of OBPs and their putative function. The expression of OBP3, OBP6, and OBP7 in the antennal sensilla suggests a chemosensory function for these proteins, whereas the constant expression level of OBP8 in all instars could suggest a conserved role. Moreover, OBP1 and OBP3 are also expressed in nonsensory organs. A light and scanning electron microscopy study of sensilla on different body parts of aphid, in particular antennae, legs, mouthparts, and cornicles-cauda, completes this research providing a guide to facilitate the mapping of OBP expression profiles.

  15. Determination of melatonin in Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escrivá, Laura; Manyes, Lara; Barberà, Miquel; Martínez-Torres, David; Meca, Guiseppe

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is a hormone mainly involved in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite the identification of melatonin in many insects, its involvement in the insect seasonal response remains unclear. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for melatonin analysis in aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for the first time. After comparing two different procedures and five extraction solvents, a sample preparation procedure with a mixture of methanol/water (50:50) was selected for melatonin extraction. The method was validated by analyzing melatonin recovery at three spiked concentrations (5, 50 and 100 pg/mg) and showed satisfactory recoveries (75-110%), and good repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (<10%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1 pg/mg and 5 pg/mg, respectively. Eight concentration levels were used for constructing the calibration curves which showed good linearity between LOQ and 200 times LOQ. The validated method was successfully applied to 26 aphid samples demonstrating its usefulness for melatonin determination in insects. This is -to our knowledge- the first identification of melatonin in aphids by LC-MS/MS.

  16. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  17. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments. PMID:26043852

  18. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB; and also significantly (P < 0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group. Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (i.e. SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  19. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant.

  20. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  1. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P < 0.05); however, better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals. PMID:25992338

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB; and also significantly (P < 0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group. Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (i.e. SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26040026

  3. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant. PMID:19902160

  4. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  5. Ethylene Interacts with Abscisic Acid to Regulate Endosperm Rupture during Germination: A Comparative Approach Using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Linkies, Ada; Müller, Kerstin; Morris, Karl; Turečková, Veronika; Wenk, Meike; Cadman, Cassandra S.C.; Corbineau, Françoise; Strnad, Miroslav; Lynn, James R.; Finch-Savage, William E.; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The micropylar endosperm cap covering the radicle in the mature seeds of most angiosperms acts as a constraint that regulates seed germination. Here, we report on a comparative seed biology study with the close Brassicaceae relatives Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana showing that ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulate seed germination by a mechanism that requires the coordinated action of the radicle and the endosperm cap. The larger seed size of Lepidium allows direct tissue-specific biomechanical, biochemical, and transcriptome analyses. We show that ethylene promotes endosperm cap weakening of Lepidium and endosperm rupture of both species and that it counteracts the inhibitory action of abscisic acid (ABA) on these two processes. Cross-species microarrays of the Lepidium micropylar endosperm cap and the radicle show that the ethylene-ABA antagonism involves both tissues and has the micropylar endosperm cap as a major target. Ethylene counteracts the ABA-induced inhibition without affecting seed ABA levels. The Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutants ACC oxidase2 (aco2; ethylene biosynthesis) and constitutive triple response1 (ethylene signaling) are impaired in the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-mediated reversion of the ABA-induced inhibition of seed germination. Ethylene production by the ACC oxidase orthologs Lepidium ACO2 and Arabidopsis ACO2 appears to be a key regulatory step. Endosperm cap weakening and rupture are promoted by ethylene and inhibited by ABA to regulate germination in a process conserved across the Brassicaceae. PMID:20023197

  6. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. Results: A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. Conclusion: A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars. PMID:26312232

  7. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management. PMID:27425674

  8. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  9. Members of the gibberellin receptor gene family GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1) play distinct roles during Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination

    PubMed Central

    Voegele, Antje; Linkies, Ada; Müller, Kerstin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Germination of endospermic seeds is partly regulated by the micropylar endosperm, which acts as constraint to radicle protrusion. Gibberellin (GA) signalling pathways control coat-dormancy release, endosperm weakening, and organ expansion during seed germination. Three GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptors are known in Arabidopsis thaliana: GID1a, GID1b, and GID1c. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of angiosperm GID1s reveals that they cluster into two eudicot (GID1ac, GID1b) groups and one monocot group. Eudicots have at least one gene from each of the two groups, indicating that the different GID1 receptors fulfil distinct roles during plant development. A comparative Brassicaceae approach was used, in which gid1 mutant and whole-seed transcript analyses in Arabidopsis were combined with seed-tissue-specific analyses of its close relative Lepidium sativum (garden cress), for which three GID1 orthologues were cloned. GA signalling via the GID1ac receptors is required for Arabidopsis seed germination, GID1b cannot compensate for the impaired germination of the gid1agid1c mutant. Transcript expression patterns differed temporarily, spatially, and hormonally, with GID1b being distinct from GID1ac in both species. Endosperm weakening is mediated, at least in part, through GA-induced genes encoding cell-wall-modifying proteins. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library enriched for sequences that are highly expressed during early germination in the micropylar endosperm contained expansins and xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases/hydrolases (XTHs). Their transcript expression patterns in both species strongly suggest that they are regulated by distinct GID1-mediated GA signalling pathways. The GID1ac and GID1b pathways seem to fulfil distinct regulatory roles during Brassicaceae seed germination and seem to control their downstream targets distinctly. PMID:21778177

  10. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome encodes two divergent early developmental programs.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elizabeth J; Leask, Megan P; Dearden, Peter K

    2013-05-01

    The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can reproduce either sexually or asexually (parthenogenetically), giving rise, in each case, to almost identical adults. These two modes of reproduction are accompanied by differences in ovarian morphology and the developmental environment of the offspring, with sexual forms producing eggs that are laid, whereas asexual development occurs within the mother. Here we examine the effect each mode of reproduction has on the expression of key maternal and axis patterning genes; orthodenticle (otd), hunchback (hb), caudal (cad) and nanos (nos). We show that three of these genes (Ap-hb, Ap-otd and Ap-cad) are expressed differently between the sexually and asexually produced oocytes and embryos of the pea aphid. We also show, using immunohistochemistry and cytoskeletal inhibitors, that Ap-hb RNA is localized differently between sexually and asexually produced oocytes, and that this is likely due to differences in the 3' untranslated regions of the RNA. Furthermore, Ap-hb and Ap-otd have extensive expression domains in early sexually produced embryos, but are not expressed at equivalent stages in asexually produced embryos. These differences in expression likely correspond with substantial changes in the gene regulatory networks controlling early development in the pea aphid. These data imply that in the evolution of parthenogenesis a new program has evolved to control the development of asexually produced embryos, whilst retaining the existing, sexual, developmental program. The patterns of modification of these developmental processes mirror the changes that we see in developmental processes between species, in that early acting pathways in development are less constrained, and evolve faster, than later ones. We suggest that the evolution of the novel asexual development pathway in aphids is not a simple modification of an ancestral system, but the evolution of two very different developmental mechanisms occurring within a single

  11. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue: evaluation by in vivo stress relaxation. [Pisum sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1985-06-01

    Growing pea stem tissue, when isolated from an external supply of water, undergoes stress relaxation because of continued loosening of the cell wall. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that such stress relaxation should result in an exponential decrease in turgor pressure down to the yield threshold (Y), with a rate constant given by phi epsilon where phi is the metabolically maintained irreversible extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T/sub 1/2/ of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T/sub 1/2/ of 2.0 minutes, corresponding to a relative hydraulic conductance of about 2.0 per megapascal per hour. This value is at least 8 times larger than phi. From these data and from computer modeling, it appears that the radial gradient in water potential which sustains water uptake in growing pea segments is small (0.04 megapascal). This means that hydraulic conductance does not substantially restrict growth. The results also demonstrate that the stimulation of growth by auxin can be entirely accounted for by the change in phi.

  12. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration. PMID:22878342

  13. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    PubMed

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea. PMID:26296678

  14. Characterization of DNA sequences that mediate nuclear protein binding to the regulatory region of the Pisum sativum (pea) chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80: identification of a repeated heptamer motif.

    PubMed

    Argüello, G; García-Hernández, E; Sánchez, M; Gariglio, P; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-05-01

    Two protein factors binding to the regulatory region of the pea chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80 have been identified. One of these factors is found only in green tissue but not in etiolated or root tissue. The second factor (denominated ABF-2) binds to a DNA sequence element that contains a direct heptamer repeat TCTCAAA. It was found that presence of both of the repeats is essential for binding. ABF-2 is present in both green and etiolated tissue and in roots and factors analogous to ABF-2 are present in several plant species. Computer analysis showed that the TCTCAAA motif is present in the regulatory region of several plant genes. PMID:1303797

  15. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Roughan, G.; Nishida, I. )

    1990-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis from (1-14C)acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns.

  16. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    PubMed

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea.

  17. The effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Karami, Reza; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg). Results: The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusion: The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects. PMID:27222836

  18. Revisiting the anatomy of the central nervous system of a hemimetabolous model insect species: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Martin; Minoli, Sebastian; Bonhomme, Joël; Homberg, Uwe; Schachtner, Joachim; Tagu, Denis; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    Aphids show a marked phenotypic plasticity, producing asexual or sexual and winged or wingless morphs depending on environmental conditions and season. We describe here the general structure of the brain of various morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first detailed anatomical study of the central nervous system of an aphid by immunocytochemistry (synapsin, serotonin, and several neuropeptides), ethyl-gallate staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The study has revealed well-developed optic lobes composed of lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. Ocelli are only present in males and winged parthenogenetic females. The central complex is well-defined, with a central body divided into two parts, a protocerebral bridge, and affiliated lateral accessory lobes. The mushroom bodies are ill-defined, lacking calyces, and only being visualized by using an antiserum against the neuropeptide orcokinin. The antennal lobes contain poorly delineated glomeruli but can be clearly visualized by performing antennal backfills. On the basis of our detailed description of the brain of winged and wingless parthenogenetic A. pisum females, an anatomical map is now available that should improve our knowledge of the way that these structures are involved in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity.

  19. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum) in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Guo, Su-Min; Gao, Ling-Ling; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum) biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance), is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM) distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR) locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi). The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs) and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA. PMID:27483247

  20. Efficacy of Vermicompost against fertilizers on Cicer and Pisum and on population diversity of N2 fixing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Biswas, Chanchal Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Saha, Amit

    2010-05-01

    Vermicompost is a very important biofertilizer produced through the artificial cultivation of worms i.e. Vermiculture. Vermicompost is enriched with all beneficial soil bacteria and also contain many of the essential plant nutrients like N, P, K and micronutrients. It increases soil aeration, texture and jilt. In this work, study is being carried out to find out the effect of different fertilizers such as DAF, FYM and Vermicompost on various morphological parameters and on the in vitro growth of bacterial colonies and its diversity in relation to two important leguminous plants such as Pisum sp. and Cicer sp. Results showed that plant grown in Vermicompost pretreated soil exhibited maximum increase in all morphological parameters such as root length, shoot length, number of root branches, number of stem branches, number of leaves, number of flowers, number of pods and number of root nodules in four months sampling in comparison to untreated, FYM treated and DAP treated soils. Further in Vermicompost pretreated soil, number of N2 fixing bacterial colony was maximum and showed highest diversity indices (1.6 and 0.99 and 2.0 and 0.99 for Cicer sp. and Pisum sp. respectively) than FYM, DAP and untreated control. Thus not only does the Vermicompost stimulate plant growth but also it increases the N2 fixing bacterial population in soil and also its diversity.

  1. Genetic Mapping of a Major Resistance Gene to Pea Aphid (Acyrthosipon pisum) in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Guo, Su-Min; Gao, Ling-Ling; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to the Australian pea aphid (PA; Acyrthosiphon pisum) biotype in cultivar Jester of the model legume Medicago truncatula is mediated by a single dominant gene and is phloem-mediated. The genetic map position for this resistance gene, APR (Acyrthosiphon pisum resistance), is provided and shows that APR maps 39 centiMorgans (cM) distal of the A. kondoi resistance (AKR) locus, which mediates resistance to a closely related species of the same genus bluegreen aphid (A. kondoi). The APR region on chromosome 3 is dense in classical nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NLRs) and overlaps with the region harbouring the RAP1 gene which confers resistance to a European PA biotype in the accession Jemalong A17. Further screening of a core collection of M. truncatula accessions identified seven lines with strong resistance to PA. Allelism experiments showed that the single dominant resistance to PA in M. truncatula accessions SA10481 and SA1516 are allelic to SA10733, the donor of the APR locus in cultivar Jester. While it remains unclear whether there are multiple PA resistance genes in an R-gene cluster or the resistance loci identified in the other M. truncatula accessions are allelic to APR, the introgression of APR into current M. truncatula cultivars will provide more durable resistance to PA. PMID:27483247

  2. Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electron microscopy (EM) techniques enable identification of the main accumulations of lead (Pb) in cells and cellular organelles and observations of changes in cell ultrastructure. Although there is extensive literature relating to studies on the influence of heavy metals on plants, Pb tolerance strategies of plants have not yet been fully explained. Allium sativum L. is a potential plant for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals. In previous investigations the effects of different concentrations (10-5 to 10-3 M) of Pb were investigated in A. sativum, indicating a significant inhibitory effect on shoot and root growth at 10-3 to 10-4 M Pb. In the present study, we used EM and cytochemistry to investigate ultrastructural alterations, identify the synthesis and distribution of cysteine-rich proteins induced by Pb and explain the possible mechanisms of the Pb-induced cellular defense system in A. sativum. Results After 1 h of Pb treatment, dictyosomes were accompanied by numerous vesicles within cytoplasm. The endoplasm reticulum (ER) with swollen cisternae was arranged along the cell wall after 2 h. Some flattened cisternae were broken up into small closed vesicles and the nuclear envelope was generally more dilated after 4 h. During 24-36 h, phenomena appeared such as high vacuolization of cytoplasm and electron-dense granules in cell walls, vacuoles, cytoplasm and mitochondrial membranes. Other changes included mitochondrial swelling and loss of cristae, and vacuolization of ER and dictyosomes during 48-72 h. In the Pb-treatment groups, silver grains were observed in cell walls and in cytoplasm, suggesting the Gomori-Swift reaction can indirectly evaluate the Pb effects on plant cells. Conclusions Cell walls can immobilize some Pb ions. Cysteine-rich proteins in cell walls were confirmed by the Gomori-Swift reaction. The morphological alterations in plasma membrane, dictyosomes and ER reflect the features of detoxification and tolerance under Pb

  3. Biostable multi-Aib analogs of tachykinin-related peptides demonstrate potent oral aphicidal activity in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). Two novel biostable TRP analogs containing multiple, sterically-hindered Aib residues were synthesized and found to exhi...

  4. Biostable and PEG polymer-conjugated insect pyrokinin analogs demonstrate antifeedant activity and induce high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyrokinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable pyrokinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the ...

  5. Neonicotinoid Binding, Toxicity and Expression of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits in the Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Taillebois, Emiliane; Beloula, Abdelhamid; Quinchard, Sophie; Jaubert-Possamai, Stéphanie; Daguin, Antoine; Servent, Denis; Tagu, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and are particularly effective against sucking pests. They are widely used in crops protection to fight against aphids, which cause severe damage. In the present study we evaluated the susceptibility of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to the commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid (IMI), thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLT). Binding studies on aphid membrane preparations revealed the existence of high and low-affinity binding sites for [3H]-IMI (Kd of 0.16±0.04 nM and 41.7±5.9 nM) and for the nicotinic antagonist [125I]-α-bungarotoxin (Kd of 0.008±0.002 nM and 1.135±0.213 nM). Competitive binding experiments demonstrated that TMX displayed a higher affinity than IMI for [125I]-α-bungarotoxin binding sites while CLT affinity was similar for both [125I]-α-bungarotoxin and [3H]-IMI binding sites. Interestingly, toxicological studies revealed that at 48 h, IMI (LC50 = 0.038 µg/ml) and TMX (LC50 = 0.034 µg/ml) were more toxic than CLT (LC50 = 0.118 µg/ml). The effect of TMX could be associated to its metabolite CLT as demonstrated by HPLC/MS analysis. In addition, we found that aphid larvae treated either with IMI, TMX or CLT showed a strong variation of nAChR subunit expression. Using semi-quantitative PCR experiments, we detected for all insecticides an increase of Apisumα10 and Apisumβ1 expressions levels, whereas Apisumβ2 expression decreased. Moreover, some other receptor subunits seemed to be differently regulated according to the insecticide used. Finally, we also demonstrated that nAChR subunit expression differed during pea aphid development. Altogether these results highlight species specificity that should be taken into account in pest management strategies. PMID:24801634

  6. An Inhibitive Enzyme Assay to Detect Mercury and Zinc Using Protease from Coriandrum sativum

    PubMed Central

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Zn2+, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg2+ and Zn2+ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC50 values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg2+ and Zn2+ in the aquatic environments. PMID:24194687

  7. Allium sativum Compared to Cilostazol as an Inhibitor of Myointimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Paulo Roberto da Silva; Bandeira, Francisco Chavier Vieira; Rolim, Janio Cipriano; Nogueira, Manuel Ricardo Sena; Pordeus, Mizael Armando Abrantes; de Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76–39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36–19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26–25.01%); P<0.0001. Conclusion We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.

  8. An inhibitive enzyme assay to detect mercury and zinc using protease from Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Gunasekaran; Masdor, Noor Azlina; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC₅₀ values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in the aquatic environments.

  9. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC₅₀ value of 23 μg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 μg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 μg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  10. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  11. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. Results: A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. Conclusion: A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. PMID:25628480

  12. The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen R; Perrie, Rosemary; Apitz-Castro, Rafael

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 20 medical isolates of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and raw garlic extract derived from cloves of garlic (Allium sativum) was tested using the NCCLS reference method (with minor modifications) for broth microdilution. The results demonstrate that both garlic derivatives and raw garlic extract appear to have in vitro activity against S. prolificans.

  13. In vitro effects of Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta, Alpinia zerumbet and Lantana camara essential oils on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; de Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; dos Santos, Jessica Maria Leite; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-01-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. This study evaluated the efficacy of Alpinia zerumbet, Coriandrum sativum, Tagetes minuta and Lantana camara essential oils by two in vitro assays on Haemonchus contortus, an egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT). No effect was observed for L. camara in the EHT. A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the EHT, inhibiting 81.2, 99 and 98.1% of H. contortus larvae hatching, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg mL-1. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching was 0.94, 0.63 and 0.53 mg mL-1 for A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta essential oils, respectively. In LDT, L. camara, A. zerumbet, C. sativum and T. minuta at concentration of 10 mg mL-1 inhibited 54.9, 94.2, 97.8 and 99.5% of H. contortus larval development, presenting EC50 values of 6.32, 3.88, 2.89 and 1.67 mg mL-1, respectively. Based on the promising results presented in this in vitro model, it may be possible use of these essential oils to control gastrointestinal nematodes. However, their anthelmintic activity should be confirmed in vivo.

  14. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead.

  15. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. Objective: To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Materials and Methods: Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. Results: A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. SUMMARY The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three

  16. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system. PMID:25114344

  17. In vitro free radical scavenging and DNA damage protective property of Coriandrum sativum L. leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Harsha, S N; Anilakumar, K R

    2014-08-01

    Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), an everyday spice in the Indian kitchen is known to add flavor to the cuisine. It is an annual herb belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbellifera) family. The hydro-alcohol extract of Coriandrum sativum L. at the dose of 1 mg/ml was subjected to a series of in vitro assays viz. 2, 2'- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid, reducing power and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging in order to study its antioxidant efficacy in detail. The amount of flavonoids in 70% ethanol extract was found to be 44.5 μg and that of the total phenols was 133.74 μg gallic acid equivalents per mg extract. The extracts of the leaves showed metal chelating power, with IC50 values, 368.12 μg/ml where as that of standard EDTA was 26.7 μg/ml. The IC50 values for 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging was 222 μg/ml where as that of standard ascorbic acid was 22.6 μg/ml. The NO scavenging activity of the extract of the leaves showed IC50 value of 815.6 μg/ml; at the same time the standard BHA had 49.1 μg/ml. All the plant extracts provided DNA damage protection; however, the protection provided at the dose of 8 μg/ml was comparable to that of standard gallic acid. The Coriandrum sativum leaf extract was able to prevent in vitro lipid peroxidation with IC50 values; 589.6 μg/ml where as that of standard BHA was 16.3 μg/ml. Our results also showed significant ferric reducing power indicating the hydrogen donating ability of the extract. This study indicated the potential of the leaf extract as a source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals that could be of use in food industry with potential application to reduce oxidative stress in living system.

  18. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  19. Larvicidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits against the filariasis vector Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  20. Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and regeneration of garlic (Allium sativum) immature leaf tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenel, Fernand; Eady, Colin; Brinch, Sheree

    2010-03-01

    Transgenic garlic (Allium sativum) plants have been recovered directly from immature leaf material by selective culture following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This method involved the use of a binary vector containing the mgfp-ER reporter gene and hpt selectable marker, and followed a similar protocol developed previously for the transformation of immature onion embryos. The choice of tissue and post-transformation selection procedure resulted in a large increase in recovery of transgenic plants compared with previously confirmed allium transformation protocols. The presence of transgenes in the genome of the plants was confirmed using Southern analysis. This improvement in frequency and the use of clonal commercial "Printanor" germplasm now makes possible the integration of useful agronomic and quality traits into this crop. PMID:20099065

  1. Essential oil compositions of different accessions of Coriandrum sativum L. from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad Ebrahimi, Samad; Hadian, Javad; Ranjbar, Hamid

    2010-09-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) has been cultivated for a many years in different parts of Iran. The chemical profiles of different accessions were analysed by means of GC-MS. The essential oil content of the dried seeds varied from 0.1% to 0.36%. Thirty-four different compounds were identified in the essential oil of all accessions. Linalool (40.9-79.9%), neryl acetate (2.3-14.2%), gamma-terpinene (0.1-13.6%) and alpha-pinene (1.2-7.1%) were identified as main components in the oil of the coriander accessions. Almost all of the studied accessions contained more that 60% linalool, showing the high quality of coriander seeds produced in Iran and the suitability of the accessions as initial genetic materials for the breeding of homogenous and talented Coriander cultivars.

  2. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  3. Picosecond nonlinear optical studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal Rao, S.

    2011-07-01

    The results are presented from the experimental picosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) studies of gold nanoparticles synthesised using coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum) extract. Nanoparticles with an average size of ∼30 nm (distribution of 5-70 nm) were synthesised according to the procedure reported by Narayanan et al. [Mater. Lett. 2008, 62, 4588-4591]. NLO studies were carried out using the Z-scan technique using 2 ps pulses near 800 nm. Open-aperture data suggested saturation absorption as the nonlinear absorption mechanism, whereas closed-aperture data suggested a positive nonlinearity. The magnitude of third-order nonlinearity was estimated to be (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10-13 esu. A solvent contribution to the nonlinearity was also identified and estimated. A comparison is attempted with some recently reported NLO studies of similar gold nanostructures.

  4. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size. PMID:23909291

  5. Larval performance and kill rate of convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens, on black bean aphids, Aphis fabae, and pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Hinkelman, Travis M; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predator guilds play a prominent role in structuring insect communities and can contribute to limiting population sizes of insect pest species. A consequence of dietary breadth, particularly in predatory insects, is the inclusion of low-quality, or even toxic, prey items in the predator's diet. Consumption of low-quality prey items reduces growth, development, and survival of predator larvae, thereby reducing the population sizes of generalist predators. The objective of this paper was to examine the effect of a suspected low-quality aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on the larval performance of an abundant North American predator, Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). For comparison, H. convergens larvae were also reared on a known high-quality aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on a 50:50 mix of both aphid species. The proportion of H. convergens larvae surviving to the adult stage was dramatically lower (0.13) on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet (0.70); survival on the mixed diet was intermediate (0.45) to survival on the single-species diets. Similarly, surviving H. convergens larvae also developed more slowly and weighed less as adults on the A. fabae diet than on the A. pisum diet. Despite the relatively poor performance on the A. fabae diet, H. convergens larvae killed large numbers of A. fabae. Furthermore, H. convergens displayed a preference for A. fabae in the mixed diet treatment, most likely because A. fabae was easier to catch than A. pisum. The results suggest that increases in the distribution and abundance of A. fabae in North America may have negative effects on H. convergens population size.

  6. The potential role of garlic (Allium sativum) against the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis pandemic: a review.

    PubMed

    Dini, Catia; Fabbri, Alessia; Geraci, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Worldly data show the increasing incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and particularly of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In developing countries, TB control programmes are overwhelmed by the complexity of treating MDR-TB infected people, as current tools and therapies are inadequate. MDR-TB could become the main form of TB. Risk factors that make South Africa into one of the main epicentres are analysed. A review of the studies carried out about antitubercular properties of Allium sativum both in vitro and in vivo is provided. The researches about the garlic extracts effectiveness against clinical isolates of MDR-TB are of scientific importance. Allium sativum offers a hope for developing alternative drugs. The involvement of traditional healers (TH) in the TB health management could facilitate the administration of garlic extracts to the infected patients.

  7. Paranodal permeability in `myelin mutants'

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, S.; Mierzwa, A.; Scherer, S.S.; Peles, E.; Arevalo, J.C.; Chao, M.V.; Rosenbluth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three `myelin mutant' mice, Caspr-null, cst-null and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3kDa, 10kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40kDa, 70kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of transverse bands in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of transverse bands. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of transverse bands but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of `pathway 3', the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  8. Paranodal permeability in "myelin mutants".

    PubMed

    Shroff, Seema; Mierzwa, Amanda; Scherer, Steven S; Peles, Elior; Arevalo, Juan C; Chao, Moses V; Rosenbluth, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three "myelin mutant" mice, Caspr-null, cst-null, and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3 kDa and 10 kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40 kDa and 70 kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands (TBs) in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of TBs in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of TBs. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of TBs but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of "pathway 3," the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  9. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum on oxidative damage in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Reza; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadpour, Toktam; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important role for oxidative stress, as a consequence of epileptic seizures, has been suggested. Coriandrum sativum has been shown that have antioxidant effects. Central nervous system depressant effects of C. sativum have also been reported. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of the plants on brain tissues oxidative damages following seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was investigated in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups and treated: (1) Control (saline), (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p.), (3-5) three doses (100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum extract (CSE) before PTZ. Latencies to the first minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) were recorded. The cortical and hippocampal tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Results: The extract significantly increased the MCS and GTCS latencies (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) following PTZ-induced seizures. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of the control animals (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the extract prevented elevation of the MDA levels (P < 0.010–P < 0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in both cortical and hippocampal tissues (P < 0.050). Pre-treatment with the 500 mg/kg of the extract caused a significant prevention of decreased in total thiol concentration in the cortical tissues (P < 0.010). Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of C. sativum possess significant antioxidant and anticonvulsant activities. PMID:26056549

  10. Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ahad, Abdul; El-Maghraby, Gamal M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; AlKharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-∞, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.

  11. Medicago truncatula Mutants Demonstrate the Role of Plant Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Effective Defense against Chewing Insects1

    PubMed Central

    Korth, Kenneth L.; Doege, Sarah J.; Park, Sang-Hyuck; Goggin, Fiona L.; Wang, Qin; Gomez, S. Karen; Liu, Guangjie; Jia, Lingling; Nakata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate is the most abundant insoluble mineral found in plants and its crystals have been reported in more than 200 plant families. In the barrel medic Medicago truncatula Gaertn., these crystals accumulate predominantly in a sheath surrounding secondary veins of leaves. Mutants of M. truncatula with decreased levels of calcium oxalate crystals were used to assess the defensive role of this mineral against insects. Caterpillar larvae of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner show a clear feeding preference for tissue from calcium oxalate-defective (cod) mutant lines cod5 and cod6 in choice test comparisons with wild-type M. truncatula. Compared to their performance on mutant lines, larvae feeding on wild-type plants with abundant calcium oxalate crystals suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Induction of wound-responsive genes appears to be normal in cod5 and cod6, indicating that these lines are not deficient in induced insect defenses. Electron micrographs of insect mouthparts indicate that the prismatic crystals in M. truncatula leaves act as physical abrasives during feeding. Food utilization measurements show that, after consumption, calcium oxalate also interferes with the conversion of plant material into insect biomass during digestion. In contrast to their detrimental effects on a chewing insect, calcium oxalate crystals do not negatively affect the performance of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, a sap-feeding insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts. The results confirm a long-held hypothesis for the defensive function of these crystals and point to the potential value of genes controlling crystal formation and localization in crop plants. PMID:16514014

  12. Construction of mouse adenovirus type 1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Cauthen, Angela N; Welton, Amanda R; Spindler, Katherine R

    2007-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus provides a model for studying adenovirus pathogenesis in the natural host. The ability to make viral mutants allows the investigation of specific mouse adenoviral gene contributions to virus-host interactions. Methods for propagation and titration of wild-type mouse adenovirus, production of viral DNA and viral DNA-protein complex, and transfection of mouse cells to obtain mouse adenovirus mutants are described in this chapter. Plaque purification, propagation, and titration of the mutant viruses are also presented.

  13. Preventing neurodegeneration in the Drosophila mutant bubblegum.

    PubMed

    Min, K T; Benzer, S

    1999-06-18

    The Drosophila melanogaster recessive mutant bubblegum (bgm) exhibits adult neurodegeneration, with marked dilation of photoreceptor axons. The bubblegum mutant shows elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), as seen in the human disease adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In ALD, the excess can be lowered by dietary treatment with "Lorenzo's oil," a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids. Feeding the fly mutant one of the components, glyceryl trioleate oil, blocked the accumulation of excess VLCFAs as well as development of the pathology. Mutant flies thus provide a potential model system for studying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and screening drugs for treatment.

  14. Melanin-deficient mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Torres-Guererro, H; Edman, J C

    1994-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin has been correlated with virulence. The role of melanin in promoting virulence is unclear, although an anti-oxidant function has been suggested. To begin to define the genetic mechanisms responsible for melanin production in C. neoformans, we describe the isolation of seven melanin-deficient mutant classes. Some of the mutants can be suppressed by addition of Cu2+ to media, suggesting that the phenoloxidase of C. neoformans, like other fungal phenoloxidases, contains copper. Other mutants display a recessive sterile phenotype. A genetic and phenotypic characterisation of these mutants is presented. PMID:7983575

  15. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Michael A.; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Deist, Benjamin R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  16. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Louis, Joe; Pappan, Loretta K; Pappan, Kirk; Begum, Khurshida; Chen, Ming-Shun; Park, Yoonseong; Dittmer, Neal; Marshall, Jeremy; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R

    2008-07-22

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Here, we focus on a salivary protein we have arbitrarily designated Protein C002. We have shown, by using RNAi-based transcript knockdown, that this protein is important in the survival of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on fava bean, a host plant. Here, we further characterize the protein, its transcript, and its gene, and we study the feeding process of knockdown aphids. The encoded protein fails to match any protein outside of the family Aphididae. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the transcript and the protein were localized to a subset of secretory cells in principal salivary glands. Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. By using the electrical penetration graph method on c002-knockdown aphids, we find that the knockdown affects several aspects of foraging and feeding, with the result that the c002-knockdown aphids spend very little time in contact with phloem sap in sieve elements. Thus, we infer that Protein C002 is crucial in the feeding of the pea aphid on fava bean.

  17. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  18. Life-history trade-offs mediate 'personality' variation in two colour morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Wiebke; Dall, Sasha R X; Kloesener, Michaela H; Baeumer, Jana; Beinlich, Felix; Eggers, Till

    2015-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are considered a major driving force in the emergence of consistent behavioural differences (personality variation); but empirical tests are scarce. We investigated links between a personality trait (escape response), life-history and state variables (growth rate, size and age at first reproduction, age-dependent reproductive rates, lifetime reproductive success, life span) in red and green colour morphs of clonal pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Escape response (dropping/non-dropping off a plant upon a predatory attack) was measured repeatedly to classify individuals as consistent droppers, consistent nondroppers or inconsistents. Red morphs experienced stronger trade-offs between early reproduction and life span than green morphs; and red consistent (non)droppers had highest lifetime reproductive success. Red droppers followed a risk-averse life-history strategy (high late reproduction), red nondroppers a risk-prone strategy (high early reproduction), while reproductive rates were equivalent for all green behavioural types and red inconsistents. This suggests that red morphs suffer the highest costs of dropping (they are most conspicuous to predators), which 'equivalates' fitness payoffs to both risk-takers (red non-droppers) and risk-averse red droppers. The strong trade-off also means that committing to a particular lifestyle (being consistent) maximises fitness. Our study suggests that life-history trade-offs likely mediate personality variation but effects might depend on interactions with other organismal characteristics (here: colour morph).

  19. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Deist, Benjamin R; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  20. The Combined Effects of Bacterial Symbionts and Aging on Life History Traits in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Maretta H.; Gerardo, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    While many endosymbionts have beneficial effects on hosts under specific ecological conditions, there can also be associated costs. In order to maximize their own fitness, hosts must facilitate symbiont persistence while preventing symbiont exploitation of resources, which may require tight regulation of symbiont populations. As a host ages, the ability to invest in such mechanisms may lessen or be traded off with demands of other life history traits, such as survival and reproduction. Using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, we measured survival, lifetime fecundity, and immune cell counts (hemocytes, a measure of immune capacity) in the presence of facultative secondary symbionts. Additionally, we quantified the densities of the obligate primary bacterial symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, and secondary symbionts across the host's lifetime. We found life history costs to harboring some secondary symbiont species. Secondary symbiont populations were found to increase with host age, while Buchnera populations exhibited a more complicated pattern. Immune cell counts peaked at the midreproductive stage before declining in the oldest aphids. The combined effects of immunosenescence and symbiont population growth may have important consequences for symbiont transmission and maintenance within a host population. PMID:24185857

  1. A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant.

    PubMed

    Mutti, Navdeep S; Louis, Joe; Pappan, Loretta K; Pappan, Kirk; Begum, Khurshida; Chen, Ming-Shun; Park, Yoonseong; Dittmer, Neal; Marshall, Jeremy; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R

    2008-07-22

    In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. We are examining the involvement, in this aphid-plant interaction, of individual aphid proteins and enzymes, as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Here, we focus on a salivary protein we have arbitrarily designated Protein C002. We have shown, by using RNAi-based transcript knockdown, that this protein is important in the survival of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) on fava bean, a host plant. Here, we further characterize the protein, its transcript, and its gene, and we study the feeding process of knockdown aphids. The encoded protein fails to match any protein outside of the family Aphididae. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the transcript and the protein were localized to a subset of secretory cells in principal salivary glands. Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. By using the electrical penetration graph method on c002-knockdown aphids, we find that the knockdown affects several aspects of foraging and feeding, with the result that the c002-knockdown aphids spend very little time in contact with phloem sap in sieve elements. Thus, we infer that Protein C002 is crucial in the feeding of the pea aphid on fava bean. PMID:18621720

  2. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities. PMID:23983369

  3. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  5. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2009-01-01

    Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.

  6. Immunotoxicity activity from the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Nayeem, Abdul; Nagella, Praveen

    2012-06-01

    The seeds of the Coriandrum sativum were extracted and the essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analysis of the essential oil was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which revealed 33 components, representing 99.99% of the total oil from the seeds of coriander. The major components are linalool (55.09%), α-pinene (7.49%), 2,6-Octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate, (E)- (5.70%), geraniol (4.83%), 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, α,α,4-trimethyl- (4.72%), hexadecanoic acid (2.65%), tetradecanoic acid (2.49%), 2-α-pinene (2.39%), citronellyl acetate (1.77%), and undecanal (1.29%). The seed oil had significant toxic effects against the larvae of Aedes aegypti with an LC(50) value of 21.55 ppm and LC(90) value of 38.79 ppm. The above data indicate that the major components in the essential oil of coriander play an important role as immunotoxicity on the A. aegypti.

  7. Toxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants grown in organic soil.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria Isabel; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose Angel; Nunez, Jose E; Barrios, Ana Cecilia; Tafoya, Alejandro; Flores-Marges, Juan Pedro; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2013-07-01

    Studies have shown that CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) can be accumulated in plants without modification, which could pose a threat for human health. In this research, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants were germinated and grown for 30 days in soil amended with 0 to 500 mg kg⁻¹ CeO₂ NPs and analyzed by spectroscopic techniques and biochemical assays. At 125 mg kg⁻¹, plants produced longer roots (p ≤ 0.05), and at 500 mg kg⁻¹, there was higher Ce accumulation in tissues (p ≤ 0.05). At 125 mg, catalase activity significantly increased in shoots and ascorbate peroxidase in roots (p ≤ 0.05). The FTIR analyses revealed that at 125 mg kg⁻¹ the CeO₂ NPs changed the chemical environment of carbohydrates in cilantro shoots, for which changes in the area of the stretching frequencies were observed. This suggests that the CeO₂ NPs could change the nutritional properties of cilantro.

  8. Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

    2012-07-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance.

  9. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  10. Chemical and Genetic Evaluation of Somaclonal Variants of Egyptian Garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Badria, F A; Ali, A A

    1999-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is used in the household and as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture technique provides an excellent source for induction of both chemical and genetic variation in garlic. A callus was induced on root meristem cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in the presence of kinetin, indole acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoots with a small bulb were produced on medium containing MS salts, B vitamins, and naphthalene acetic acid. Regenerated plants were transplanted into soil, and a nondivided bulb was formed in the first somaclonal generation (SCI). Plants were normal in their phenotypes in SC2. After four cycles of field cultivation, the selected somaclones (variants) in the fourth generation showed significant differences in bulb character compared with the original plants. Mitotic division and chromosomal abnormalities were investigated in meristimic root tip cells of regenerated plants for the first and fourth regeneration and for control plants. Somaclonal variant metaphase cells had the same chromosome number (2n = 16) as those of the controls. Allicin was measured quantitatively in the regenerated clones by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that some clones contained as much as 14.50 mg/g allicin, compared with 3.80 mg/g in the control plant. This finding suggests that this technique may be useful to improve the allicin content of Egyptian garlic, which could be utilized as a good source for garlic-containing pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:19281347

  11. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md Sazzadul; Hossain, Md Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS.

  12. Mining, characterization and validation of EST derived microsatellites from the transcriptome database of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Rout, Ellojita; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) with comprehensive transcript information are valuable resources for development of molecular markers as they are derived from conserved genic regions. The present study highlights the mining of EST database to deduce the class I hyper variable SSRs in A. sativum. From 21694 garlic EST sequences, 642 non-redundant SSRs were identified with an average frequency of 1 per 14.9 kb of garlic transcriptome. The most abundant SSR motifs were the mononucleotides (32.86%) followed by trinucleotides (28.50%) and dinucleotides (13.39%). Among the individual SSRs, (A/T)n accounted for the highest number (137; 21.33%) followed by (G/C)n (74; 11.52%) and (AAG)n (63;9.81%). Primers designed from a robust set of 7 AsESTSSRs resulted in the amplification of 63 polymorphic alleles in 14 accessions of garlic. The resolving power of the markers varied from 4.286 (AsSSR7) to 18.143 (AsSSR13) while the average marker index (MI) was 5.087. These EST-SSRs markers for garlic could be useful for the improvement of garlic linkage map and could be used for evaluating genetic variation and comparative genomics studies in Allium species.

  13. Study of toxicity of imidazolium ionic liquids to watercress (Lepidium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Studzińska, Sylwia; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-02-01

    The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum L. germination to three imidazolium ionic liquids was investigated in solutions and soils artificially contaminated with mixtures of those compounds. In case of aquatic solutions, the toxic character of analyzed compounds is connected with their hydrophobicity. The seedling growth is increasing with the decrease in ionic liquid hydrophobicity. The novelty of those studies is the application of high-performance liquid chromatography, which was used for the determination of ionic liquid quantity absorbed by cress. There was almost linear relationship between decrease in root germination and amount of ionic liquid uptaken by cress. Furthermore, the systematic studies on the influence of total organic carbon content in soil on the toxicity of ionic liquids to cress were performed for the first time. Hazardous effects appeared to be closely connected with organic matter: with the decrease of total organic carbon quantity, the inhibition of plant growth was more significant. Visual effects of ionic liquid toxic activity to garden cress are similar as in the case of nutrient deficit in plants.

  14. Allium sativum L. Improves Visual Memory and Attention in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tasnim, Sara; Haque, Parsa Sanjana; Bari, Md. Sazzadul; Hossain, Md. Monir; Islam, Sardar Mohd. Ashraful; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that Allium sativum L. (AS) protects amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis, prevents oxidative insults to neurons and synapses, and thus prevent Alzheimer's disease progression in experimental animals. However, there is no experimental evidence in human regarding its putative role in memory and cognition. We have studied the effect of AS consumption by healthy human volunteers on visual memory, verbal memory, attention, and executive function in comparison to control subjects taking placebo. The study was conducted over five weeks and twenty volunteers of both genders were recruited and divided randomly into two groups: A (AS) and B (placebo). Both groups participated in the 6 computerized neuropsychological tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) twice: at the beginning and after five weeks of the study. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in several parameters of visual memory and attention due to AS ingestion. We also found statistically nonsignificant (p > 0.05) beneficial effects on verbal memory and executive function within a short period of time among the volunteers. Study for a longer period of time with patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases might yield more relevant results regarding the potential therapeutic role of AS. PMID:26351508

  15. Receptors of garlic (Allium sativum) lectins and their role in insecticidal action.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Santosh K; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2012-08-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) lectins are promising candidate molecules for the protection against chewing (lepidopteran) as well as sap sucking (homopteran) insect pests. Molecular mechanism of toxicity and interaction of lectins with midgut receptor proteins has been described in many reports. Lectins show its effect right from sensory receptors of mouth parts by disrupting the membrane integrity and food detection ability. Subsequently, enter into the gut lumen and interact with midgut glycosylated proteins like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase-N (APN), cadherin-like proteins, polycalins, sucrase, symbionin and others. These proteins play critical role in life cycle of insect directly or indirectly. Lectins interfere with the activity of these proteins and causes physiological disorders leading to the death of insects. Lectins further transported across the insect gut, accumulated in various body parts (like haemolymph and ovary) and interact with intracellular proteins like symbionin and cytochrome p450. Binding with cytochrome p450 (which involve in ecdysone synthesis) might interfere in the development of insects, which results in growth retardation and pre-mature death.

  16. In vitro efficacy of Coriandrum sativum, Lippia sidoides and Copaifera reticulata against Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Accioly, Marina Parissi; de Morais, Selene Maia; de Andrade-Júnior, Heitor Franco; de Carvalho, Camila Aparecida; Lima, Josemar Coelho; Magalhães, Hilton César Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.

  17. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells. PMID:27176674

  18. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  19. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes. PMID:25398898

  20. Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

  1. Synthesis of new dicinnamoyl 4-deoxy quinic acid and methyl ester derivatives and evaluation of the toxicity against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiubin; Grand, Lucie; Pouleriguen, Thomas; Queneau, Yves; da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Poëssel, Jean-Luc; Moebs-Sanchez, Sylvie

    2016-02-28

    New dicinnamoyl (caffeoyl, feruloyl, ortho and para-coumaroyl) 4-deoxyquinic acid and esters were synthesized by using a new 4-deoxy quinic acid triol intermediate. The optimisation of both coupling and deprotection steps allowed the preparation in good yields of the target products either as the carboxylic acid or the methyl ester form. Eight new compounds were evaluated for their ability to influence the feeding behaviour of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Artificial diet bioassays showed that two compounds are toxic (mortality and growth inhibition) at lower concentrations than the reference 3,5-dicaffeoyl quinic acid.

  2. Post-reproductive parthenogenetic pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are visually identifiable and disproportionately positioned distally to clonal colonies

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Julia Daisy; Henneman, Nathaniel Fath; Levitis, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce. Pea aphids, (Acyrthosiphon pisum), common, tractable organisms, frequently outlive their reproductive ages in laboratories, live in tight interacting groups that are often clonal, and therefore should be evaluated as potential model organisms for the study of adaptive post-reproductive life. The first major step in this process is to identify an optimal method for assessing if a parthenogenetic adult is post-reproductive. We evaluated three methods, relying respectively on isolation in clip cages, visual examination for embryonic eyespots, and dissection. In every case each method identified the same individuals as reproductive versus post-reproductive. While the clip-cage method requires a multi-day wait to produce data, and dissection is inevitably fatal, the eyespot method is quick (under one minute per individual) easy, and non-invasive. This method makes it possible to accurately assess the post-reproductive status of a large number of parthenogenetic pea aphids. We demonstrate the usefulness of the eyespot method in showing that while reproductively valuable adults tend to place themselves near the centers of clonal colonies, less valuable post-reproductive adults are more often at or beyond the edges of colonies. These encouraging early results provide both

  3. Stable isotope studies reveal pathways for the incorporation of non-essential amino acids in Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphids).

    PubMed

    Haribal, Meena; Jander, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Plant roots incorporate inorganic nitrogen into the amino acids glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine and aspartic acid, which together serve as the primary metabolites of nitrogen transport to other tissues. Given the preponderance of these four amino acids, phloem sap is a nutritionally unbalanced diet for phloem-feeding insects. Therefore, aphids and other phloem feeders typically rely on microbial symbionts for the synthesis of essential amino acids. To investigate the metabolism of the four main transport amino acids by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), and its Buchnera aphidicola endosymbionts, aphids were fed defined diets with stable isotope-labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid (U-(13)C, U-(15)N; U-(15)N; α-(15)N; or γ-(15)N). The metabolic fate of the dietary (15)N and (13)C was traced using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrogen was the major contributor to the observed amino acid isotopomers with one additional unit mass (M+1). However, there was differential incorporation, with the amine nitrogen of asparagine being incorporated into other amino acids more efficiently than the amide nitrogen. Higher isotopomers (M+2, M+3 and M+4) indicated the incorporation of varying numbers of (13)C atoms into essential amino acids. GC-MS assays also showed that, even with an excess of dietary labeled glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine or aspartic acid, the overall content of these amino acids in aphid bodies was mostly the product of catabolism of dietary amino acids and subsequent re-synthesis within the aphids. Thus, these predominant dietary amino acids are not passed directly to Buchnera endosymbionts for synthesis of essential amino acids, but are rather are produced de novo, most likely by endogenous aphid enzymes.

  4. Synergistic antiosteoporotic effect of Lepidium sativum and alendronate in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Elshal, Mohamed F; Almalki, Abdulrahman L; Hussein, Hussein K; Khan, Jalal A

    2013-01-01

    Alendronate belongs to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates (BP) therapy is a vital option to reduce the risk of bone fracture in people who suffer from osteoporosis. Yet, bisphosphonate have displayed several side effects. Lepidium sativum (LS) seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine to heal fractured bones. However, there is a dearth of information on the impact of LS on bone metabolism especially in cases of glucocorticoids induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare the biochemical bone markers and histological responses of LS alone (6 g of LS seeds in diet daily, n=8), ALD (alendronate, 70 mg/kg s.c.; n=8) alone, or LS and ALD combined in a rat model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) by injecting rats with methylprednisolone 3.5 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks. Serum calcium (Ca), albumin, phosphorus (P), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were measured 4 weeks after induction of GIO. GIO-group showed significantly increased serum TRAP and decreased b-ALP. GIO-group also showed significantly decreased serum P and unaltered Ca concentrations. Histological examination of GIO-group tibia bones indicated an osteoporotic change and a concomitant decrease in percentage of trabecular area or bone marrow area (PTB) in the proximal femoral epiphysis. Treatment with either LS and/or ALD ameliorated the above mentioned changes with variable degrees, with a net results of enhanced serum calcium, bone architecture, PTB, b-ALP and decreased TRAP in LS and LS+ALD groups compared to that of animals treated with alendronate alone. In conclusion, our findings present evidence supporting the potential benefits of LS in reducing the burden of GCs on bone health.

  5. Enhancement of folate content and its stability using food grade elicitors in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Folate (vitamin B₉) content was evaluated in 10 varieties of coriander with the aim of enhancing its concentration and stability, because of three reasons: 1) coriander is among a few widely used greens in the world and suits many cuisines, 2) folate deficiency is prevalent in developing countries causing anaemia, infant mortality and neural tube closure defects, and 3) natural folate is preferred due to doubts about health risks associated with the synthetic form. In C. sativum, the highest folate content of 1,577 μg/100 g DW was found in var. GS4 Multicut foliage of mature plants (marketable stage) with an insignificantly higher content (1,599.74 μg/100 g DW) at flowering, which is a stage not preferred in markets. In callus cultures treated with plant growth regulators (GRs) (6-benzylaminopurine, kinetin and abscisic acid) substantial increase in folate occurred after 6 h, whereas elicitors (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) caused rapid 2-fold increase of folate, particularly in response to salicylic acid. Based on these observations, foliar applications were done for in vivo plants, where salicylic acid (250 μM, 24 h) also enhanced folate level by 2-folds (3,112.33 μg/100 g DW), although the content varied with diurnal rhythms. Stability of folates in treated coriander foliage was 10 % higher than in untreated foliage when stored at 25 °C and 4 °C. This study has established for the first time that coriander foliage is rich in folates, which can be doubled by elicitation and impart 10 % more stability than control during processing and storage.

  6. Transcriptome profiling, and cloning and characterization of the main monoterpene synthases of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Galata, Mariana; Sarker, Lukman S; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2014-06-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of specialized metabolites that are essential for the growth and development of plants, and have tremendous industrial applications. The mericarps of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) produce an essential oil (EO) rich in monoterpenes, volatile C10 terpenoids. To investigate EO metabolism, the transcriptome of coriander mericarps, at three developmental stages (early, mid, late) was sequenced via Illumina technology and a transcript library was produced. To validate the usability of the transcriptome sequences, two terpene synthase candidate genes, CsγTRPS and CsLINS, encoding 558 and 562 amino acid proteins were expressed in bacteria, and the recombinant proteins purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The 65.16 (CsγTRPS) and 65.91 (CsLINS)kDa recombinant proteins catalyzed the conversion of geranyl diphosphate, the precursor to monoterpenes, to γ-terpinene and (S)-linalool, respectively, with apparent Vmax and Km values of 2.24±0.16 (CsγTRPS); 19.63±1.05 (CsLINS)pkat/mg and 66.25±13 (CsγTRPS); 2.5±0.6 (CsLINS)μM, respectively. Together, CsγTRPS and CsLINS account for the majority of EO constituents in coriander mericarps. Investigation of the coriander transcriptome, and knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies concerning essential and fatty acid oil production in coriander. They also enable efforts to improve the coriander oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding.

  7. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2004-11-01

    Aromatic amines are metabolically activated into mutagenic compounds by both animal and plant systems. The 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOP) is a well-known direct-acting mutagen whose mutagenic potential can be enhanced by plant metabolism; m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) is converted to mutagenic products detected by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain, and 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) is the plant-activated promutagen most extensively studied. Plant cells activate both 2-AF and m-PDA into potent mutagens producing DNA frameshift mutations. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a common plant included in the Mexican diet, usually consumed uncooked. The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay (his- to his+) with the S. typhimurium TA98 strain as indicator organism. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay was used as the activating system for aromatic transformation and plant extract interaction. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines (AA) in the following order: 2-AF (92.43%) > m-PDA (87.14%) > NOP (83.21%). The chlorophyll content in vegetable juice was monitored and its concentration showed a positive correlation with the detected antimutagenic effect. Protein content and peroxidase activity were also determined. The concentration of coriander juice (50-1000 microl/coincubation flask) was neither toxic nor mutagenic. The similar shape of the antimutagenic response curves obtained with coriander juice and chlorophyllin (used as a subrogate molecule of chlorophyll) indicated that comparable mechanisms of mutagenic inhibition could be involved. The negative correlation between chlorophyll content and mutagenic response of the promutagenic and direct-acting used amines allows us to deduce that a chemical interaction takes place between the two molecules

  8. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition.

  9. Copper nanoparticles/compounds impact agronomic and physiological parameters in cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

    PubMed

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Medina-Velo, Illya A; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-10-01

    The environmental impacts of Cu-based nanoparticles (NPs) are not well understood. In this study, cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) was germinated and grown in commercial potting mix soil amended with Cu(OH)2 (Kocide and CuPRO), nano-copper (nCu), micro-copper (μCu), nano-copper oxide (nCuO), micro-copper oxide (μCuO) and ionic Cu (CuCl2) at either 20 or 80 mg Cu per kg. In addition to seed germination and plant elongation, relative chlorophyll content and micro and macroelement concentrations were determined. At both concentrations, only nCuO, μCuO, and ionic Cu, showed statistically significant reductions in germination. Although compared with control, the relative germination was reduced by ∼50% with nCuO at both concentrations, and by ∼40% with μCuO, also at both concentrations, the difference among compounds was not statistically significant. Exposure to μCuO at both concentrations and nCu at 80 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (p≤ 0.05) shoot elongation by 11% and 12.4%, respectively, compared with control. Only μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1) significantly reduced (26%) the relative chlorophyll content, compared with control. None of the treatments increased root Cu, but all of them, except μCuO at 20 mg kg(-1), significantly increased shoot Cu (p≤ 0.05). Micro and macro elements B, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, P, and S were significantly reduced in shoots (p≤ 0.05). Similar results were observed in roots. These results showed that Cu-based NPs/compounds depress nutrient element accumulation in cilantro, which could impact human nutrition. PMID:26311125

  10. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  11. Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds.

    PubMed

    Williams, David J; Critchley, Christa; Pun, Sharon; Chaliha, Mridusmita; O'Hare, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress. In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold.

  12. Mutants of yeast sensitive to ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Snow, R

    1967-09-01

    Six uvr mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light were isolated after mutagen treatment with ethylmethanesulfonate. UV sensitivity ranges from moderate to extreme, and four of the mutants are also sensitive to nitrous acid. Ranking in terms of UV sensitivity does not parallel ranking in terms of nitrous acid sensitivity. Homozygous diploid mutant strains are somewhat less sensitive than the corresponding haploids. All mutations are recessive. None of the mutants is sensitive to gamma rays, and each shows photoreactivation after UV radiation. Complementation tests and tetrad analysis indicate that each strain represents mutation in a different gene. Two of the uvr genes are linked, and two others are centromere-linked.

  13. Prodigiosin synthesis in mutants of Serratia marcesens.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A

    1966-04-01

    Morrison, D. A. (Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.). Prodigiosin synthesis in mutants of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 91:1509-1604. 1966.-Exchange of biosynthetic intermediates through the culture medium was used to characterize several hundred new color mutants of Serratia marcescens. The general scheme of prodigiosin synthesis as a bifurcated pathway, in which monopyrrole and bipyrrole precursors are synthesized separately and then coupled to form pigment, was confirmed and extended. Mutants of one new class excreted a product likely to be a new intermediate in monopyrrole synthesis, those of a second excreted a new product in the bipyrrole pathway, and those of a third were blocked at early steps in both pathways. Two novel classes of mutants were isolated, in each of which a lack of some product present in Serratia and Escherichia cultures resulted in loss of all steps in prodigiosin biosynthesis.

  14. Cooperative Interaction Within RNA Virus Mutant Spectra.

    PubMed

    Shirogane, Yuta; Watanabe, Shumpei; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses usually consist of mutant spectra because of high error rates of viral RNA polymerases. Growth competition occurs among different viral variants, and the fittest clones predominate under given conditions. Individual variants, however, may not be entirely independent of each other, and internal interactions within mutant spectra can occur. Examples of cooperative and interfering interactions that exert enhancing and suppressing effects on replication of the wild-type virus, respectively, have been described, but their underlying mechanisms have not been well defined. It was recently found that the cooperation between wild-type and variant measles virus genomes produces a new phenotype through the heterooligomer formation of a viral protein. This observation provides a molecular mechanism underlying cooperative interactions within mutant spectra. Careful attention to individual sequences, in addition to consensus sequences, may disclose further examples of internal interactions within mutant spectra. PMID:26162566

  15. Arabidopsis mutants with increased sensitivity to aluminum.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, P B; Tai, C Y; Kochian, L V; Howell, S H

    1996-01-01

    Al-sensitive (als) mutants of Arabidopsis were isolated and characterized with the aim of defining mechanisms of Al toxicity and resistance. Most als mutants selected on the basis of root growth sensitivity to Al were recessive, and together the mutants constituted eight complementation groups. Also, in most als mutants, Al sensitivity appeared to be specific for Al relative to La (another trivalent cation), except als2, which was more sensitive to La than wild type. The tendency of roots on mutant seedlings to accumulate Al was examined by staining with morin and hematoxylin, dyes used to indicate the presence of Al. A significant increase in morin staining was observed in als5, consistent with its increased sensitivity to Al. Unexpectedly, als7 and als4 showed less morin staining, suggesting that the roots on these mutants accumulate less Al than wild type seedlings after exposure to Al-containing solutions. Roots of wild-type seedlings produce callose in response to AlCl3 concentrations that inhibit root growth. Only als5 accumulated more callose than wild type in response to low levels (25 mu M) of AICI3 However, als4 and als7 did not accumulate callose at this AlCl3 concentration even though root growth was significantly inhibited. The lack of callose accumulation in als4 and als7 suggests that there is not an obligatory relationship between callose deposition and Al-induced inhibition of root growth. PMID:8819866

  16. Infection Dynamic of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Gut and Host Immune Response at the Early Steps in the Infection Process

    PubMed Central

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid. PMID:25811863

  17. Infection dynamic of symbiotic bacteria in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum gut and host immune response at the early steps in the infection process.

    PubMed

    Renoz, François; Noël, Christine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Foray, Vincent; Hance, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its obligatory symbiont Buchnera aphidicola, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum can harbor several facultative bacterial symbionts which can be mutualistic in the context of various ecological interactions. Belonging to a genus where many members have been described as pathogen in invertebrates, Serratia symbiotica is one of the most common facultative partners found in aphids. The recent discovery of strains able to grow outside their host allowed us to simulate environmental acquisition of symbiotic bacteria by aphids. Here, we performed an experiment to characterize the A. pisum response to the ingestion of the free-living S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T in comparison to the ingestion of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens Db11 at the early steps in the infection process. We found that, while S. marcescens Db11 killed the aphids within a few days, S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not affect host survival and colonized the whole digestive tract within a few days. Gene expression analysis of immune genes suggests that S. symbiotica CWBI-2.3T did not trigger an immune reaction, while S. marcescens Db11 did, and supports the hypothesis of a fine-tuning of the host immune response set-up for fighting pathogens while maintaining mutualistic partners. Our results also suggest that the lysosomal system and the JNK pathway are possibly involved in the regulation of invasive bacteria in aphids and that the activation of the JNK pathway is IMD-independent in the pea aphid.

  18. Acaricidal activities of apiol and its derivatives from Petroselinum sativum seeds against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yun; Yang, Ji Yeon; Suh, Joo Won; Lee, Hoi Seon

    2011-07-27

    The acaricidal effects of an active constituent derived from Petroselinum sativum seeds and its derivatives were determined using impregnated fabric disk bioassay against Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , and Tyrophagus putrescentiae and compared with that of synthetic acaricide. The acaricidal constituent of P. sativum was isolated by various chromatographic techniques and identified as apiol. On the basis of LD(50) values against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, apiol (0.81 and 0.94 μg/cm(2)) was 12.4 and 10.2 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0 and 9.58 μg/cm(2)), respectively. In acaricidal studies of apiol derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzonitrile (0.04, 0.03, and 0.59 μg/cm(2)) was 250, 319, and 20.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.0, 9.58, and 12.2 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and T. putrescentiae. In structure-activity relationships, the acaricidal activities of apiol derivatives could be related to allyl (-C(3)H(5)) and methoxy (-OCH(3)) functional groups. Furthermore, apiol and its derivatives could be useful for natural acaricides against these three mite species.

  19. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Coriandrum sativum Seeds against Tribolium confusum and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Rahdari, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    The biological activity of essential oil extracted from coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae), seeds against adults of Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Fumigant toxicity was assessed at 27 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% R.H., in dark condition. Dry seeds of the plant were subject to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The predominant components in the oil were linalool (57.57%) and geranyl acetate (15.09%). The mortality of 1–7-day-old adults of the insect pests increased with concentration from 43 to 357 μL/L air and with exposure time from 3 to 24 h. In the probit analysis, LC50 values (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) showed that C. maculatus (LC50 = 1.34 μL/L air) was more susceptible than T. confusum (LC50 = 318.02 μL/L air) to seed essential oil of this plant. The essential oil of C. sativum can play an important role in stored grain protection and reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic insecticides. PMID:23227365

  20. Apoptosis and necrosis of human breast cancer cells by an aqueous extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mahassni, Sawsan Hassan; Al-Reemi, Roaa Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Conventional treatments for breast cancer are costly and have serious side effects. Non-conventional natural treatments have gained wide acceptance due to their promise of a cure with minimal or no side effects, but little scientific evidence exists. One such common remedy is the seed of the Lepidium sativum plant. Presented here is the first reported use of the aqueous extract of Lepidium sativum seeds on breast cancer cells. The ability of the extract to induce apoptosis and necrosis in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, compared to normal human skin fibroblasts (HFS), was determined by morphological changes in the cells using light microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and florescent stains (Annexin V and propidium iodide) using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in both cells, and more in MCF-7, when they were treated with 25% and 50% extract, while necrosis was observed mainly after exposure to elevated extract concentrations (75%). DNA fragmentation resulted for both cells, in a time and dose-dependent manner. Both cells, at all extract concentrations, showed no significant differences in the number of living, dead, apoptotic, and necrotic cells. Finally, the results may indicate that apoptotic changes in MCF-7 may be independent of caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis and is lacking in MCF-7 cells. PMID:23961228

  1. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol < n- > (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al < 2E > (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol < 2E- > (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %).

  2. Flavour characterisation and free radical scavenging activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) foliage.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, Siddharth; Khanum, Hafeeza; Ravi, Ramasamy; Borse, Babasaheb Baskarrao; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2016-03-01

    The primary objective was to characterize Indian Coriandrum sativum L. foliage (Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC varieties) and its radical scavenging activity. Foliage of Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC contained ascorbic acid (1.16 ± 0.35 and 1.22 ± 0.54 mg/g), total carotenoids (1.49 ± 0.38 and 3.08 ± 1.2 mg/g), chlorophyll 'a' (8.23 ± 2.4 and 12.18 ± 2.9 mg/g), chlorophyll 'b' (2.74 ± 0.8 and 4.39 ± 1.3 mg/g) and total chlorophyll (10.97 ± 2.6 and 16.57 ± 3.2 mg/g). The polyphenol content was 26.75 ± 1.85 and 30.00 ± 2.64 mg/g in Vulgare alef and Microcarpum DC, respectively. Ethanol extracts (200 ppm) of alef and Microcarpum DC showed higher radical scavenging activity of 42.05 ± 2.42 % and 62.79 ± 1.36 % when compared with 95 % butylated hydroxyanisole. The principal component analysis results indicated that e-nose can distinguish the volatiles effectively. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis showed that Microcarpum DC variety is superior to Vulgare alef variety. Nearly 90 % of the flavour compounds present were identified by GC-MS in both varieties. The principal component identified in both the varieties were decanal (7.645 and 7.74 %), decanol < n- > (25.12 and 39.35 %), undecanal (1.20 and 1.75 %), dodecanal (7.07 and 2.61 %), tridecen-1-al < 2E > (6.67 and 1.21 %), dodecen-1-ol < 2E- > (16.68 and 8.05 %), 13-tetradecenal (9.53 and 8.60 %), tetradecanal (5.61 and 4.35 %) and 1-octadecanol (1.25 and 3.67 %). PMID:27570292

  3. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  4. Accelerated bang recovery in Drosophila genderblind mutants.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, David E; Yanoga, Fatoumata; Grosjean, Yael

    2008-07-01

    Cystine-glutamate transporters import cystine into cells for glutathione synthesis and protection from oxidative stress, but also export significant amounts of glutamate. Increasing evidence suggests that 'ambient extracellular glutamate' secreted by cystine-glutamate transporters in the nervous system modulates glutamatergic synapse strength and behavior. To date, the only cystine-glutamate transporter mutants examined behaviorally are Drosophila genderblind mutants. These animals contain loss-of-function mutations in the 'genderblind' gene, which encodes an xCT subunit essential for cystine-glutamate transporter function. Genderblind was named based on a mutant courtship phenotype: male genderblind mutants are attracted to normally aversive male pheromones and thus court and attempt to copulate with both male and female partners equally. However, genderblind protein is expressed in many parts of the fly brain and thus might be expected to also regulate other behaviors, including behaviors not related to male courtship or chemosensation. Here, we show that genderblind mutants display faster recovery and increased negative geotaxis after strong mechanical stimuli (e.g., they climb faster and farther after vial banging). This phenotype is displayed by both males and females, consistent with strong genderblind expression in both sexes. PMID:19430543

  5. To be or noot to be: evolutionary tinkering for symbiotic organ identity.

    PubMed

    Couzigou, Jean-Malo; Mondy, Samuel; Sahl, Lucien; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    Legume plants develop symbiosis specific organs on their roots as a result of their interaction with rhizobia. These organs, called nodules, house the nitrogen fixing bacteria. The molecular mechanisms governing the identity and maintenance of this organ are still poorly understood, but it is supposed that root and nodule development share common features. We have identified the Medicago truncatula nodule root (NOOT) and Pisum sativum cochleata (COCH) orthologous genes as necessary for the robust maintenance of nodule identity throughout the nodule developmental program. NOOT and COCH are Arabidopsis blade-on-petiole (BOP) orthologs and NOOT and COCH show functions in leaf and flower development in M. truncatula and P. sativum respectively that are conserved with the functions of BOP in Arabidopsis. The characterization of the noot and coch mutants highlights the root evolutionary origin of nodule vascular strands and suggests that the NOOT and COCH genes were recruited to repress root identity in the legume symbiotic organ. PMID:23733067

  6. Enhanced cellulase production in mutants of Thermomonospora

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Lupo, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic actinomycete, secretes multiple forms of endo-beta, 1-4-glucanase (EG) when grown on cellulose-mineral salts liquid medium. The EG activity (measured as carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis) was separated by ion exchange chromatography into three distinct components which differed in their kinetic properties. Exposure of T. curvata to ultraviolet light, N-nitrosoguanidine, or ethane methyl sulfonate produced mutants with enhanced EG production. Selection of colonies which cleared cellulose agar plants containing 2-deoxyglucose or glycerol yielded mutants having 1.5 to 2.6 times the extracellular EG and saccharifying activity (measured by filter-paper and cotton-fiber hydrolysis). The secretion of extracellular protein was increased proportionally in mutant cultures. (Refs. 40).

  7. [Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53].

    PubMed

    Tongyang, Liu; Haiqiang, Guo; Meiyan, Zhu; Yingze, Huang; Shuting, Jia; Ying, Luo; Jihong, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Targeted therapy has become a powerful approach for cancer treatment. Better understanding of oncogenes as well as synthetic lethal interactions with oncogenes will lead to new strategies for tumor-specific treatment. It is well known that mutant p53 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Thus, understanding the synthetic lethal relationship between p53 mutations and interacting genes in tumor is critical for the personalized treatments of p53 mutant tumors. Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53 can be divided into cell cycle regulators and non-cell cycle regulators. This paper review show these two types of target genes contribute to synthetic lethal interactions with p53 mutations and potential applications of these interactions in anticancer therapy.

  8. High Persister Mutants in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, Heather L.; Keren, Iris; Via, Laura E.; Lee, Jong Seok; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip) mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection. PMID:27176494

  9. Structure of mutant human oncogene protein determined

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.

    1989-01-16

    The protein encoded by a mutant human oncogene differs only slightly in structure from the native protein that initiates normal cell division, a finding that may complicate efforts to develop inhibitors of the mutant protein. Previously, the x-ray structure of the protein encoded by the normal c-Ha-ras gene, a protein believed to signal cells to start or stop dividing through its interaction with guanosine triphosphate (GTP), was reported. The structure of the protein encoded by a transforming c-Ha-ras oncogene, in which a valine codon replaces the normal glycine codon at position 12 in the gene, has now been determined. The differences in the structures of the mutant and normal proteins are located primarily in a loop that interacts with the /beta/-phosphate of a bound guanosine diphosphate (GDP) molecule.

  10. TOMATOMA: A Novel Tomato Mutant Database Distributing Micro-Tom Mutant Collections

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M2 mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and γ-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M2 plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M2 families comprising 91,830 M2 plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC1F2 populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M2 plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

  11. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as